University of Southern Mississippi - Southerner Yearbook (Hattiesburg, MS)
- Class of 1915
Page 1 of 70
Pages 6 - 7
Pages 10 - 11
Pages 14 - 15
Pages 8 - 9
Pages 12 - 13
Pages 16 - 17
Text from Pages 1 - 70 of the 1915 volume:
HIS little volume has been prepared by
the Class of 1915 with the hope that
it will be of interest to every one and
especially to those who stand for better rural
schools. The Class has tried to avoid send-
ing out anything that cannot be appreciated
except by those Who have attended this in-
stitution. Each article is a voluntary con-
tribution and pertains to some phase of the
work of the Normal College. The topic of
every article is believed to be of interest to
all the people of the state, and the purpose
of them all is to further the cause for Which
the Normal College exists-a fuller and more
efficient rural life in Mississippi.
We return thanks to the faculty and
student body of the Normal College for
sympathetic criticism, encouragement, and
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- 5111212111 Self Cfnurrnmrnt
... c. H. BISHOP
HEN school first opened at the Mississippi Normal College in 1912-the first
year the doors of the institution were opened for students-just how to
govern the student body, was a question in the minds of the president and
faculty. President Cook said, it was the aim and desire of the faculty and President
of the institution, to furnish the students with every opportunity of becoming
broader, and more efficient in their chosen profession. He also said that he believed
that students who expected to be teachers were capable and should govern them-
Such an idea was new to the majority of the students. It was discussed
privately by the students for several days before they decided to take it up publicly.
Mr. A. A. Burns called a meeting of the student body for the purpose of discussing
publicly the question of Student Self Government. A motion was made and carried,
that the students organize themselves into a "Student Self Government Association."
The Association was organized October 8th, 1912. Candidates for the
various offices were nominated at the same meeting.
The officers of the Association are a president, a vice-president, a secretary-
treasurer, and a council composed of seven women, and eight men, all members of
the student body. The officers are elected by a vote of the student bodyg both men
and women voting by the Australian ballot system.
It is the duty of the council to try any student for alleged misconduct and
recommend his punishment to the faculty.
Every student of the institution is a member of the Association. He is
placed on his honor. Misconduct is not suggested to him by a countless number of
To observe the motto of the Associationg "Every Man aGentleman and
every Woman a Ladyg" is all that is expected of any student. If every student ob-
serves the motto, peace and harmony will always prevail between the students, and
between the students and faculty.
The Association offers an excellent opportunity for the development in each
member the characteristics of true manhood and womanhood. It gives a most ex-
cellent opportunity for the development of personal responsibility and self-control-
two requisite features for success in the teaching profession. From a teacher's point
of view there is nothing truer than the saying, "Before you are capable of controlling
others you must first be able to controll yourself." Learn to do by doing.
C. H. BISHOP.
- 31112 "Nnrmal Spirit"
, ALLENE CATHEY
HE word "Normal" as here used has not its usual meaning, it is not the spirit
that is commonly found in Normals, not the customary thing, but rather the
unusual spirit of this particular Normal school.
New students feel it in the democratic atmosphere, and drop in line. Visi-
tors comment upon it and ask, "I-low?" Yet if they remain here long it is easy to
understand. The attitude of the faculty towards the students is one to inspire con-
fidence, self-reliance, and respect. They are not cultured, learned gods, that hold
themselves apart, but are comrades, friends, and advisorsg they do not exist for the
recitation rooms alone, but are with us in our societies, religious organizations,
games, and every phase of daily life.
The President of the institution, Joe Cook, places all confidence in the
students. No iron-clad rules are enforcedg only a very few necessary regulations
and "Self-Control" are insisted upon. His confident, frank treatment of the students
demands the same from them in return.
Another reason for the Normal spirit is unity of purpose. The student body
is not a heterogenous collection of future doctors, merchants, lawyers, business men,
society girls, etc., but is made up of men and women who have determined upon the
same life purpose. Every student has at heart, and is to be a helper in solving the
one great problemg the development of the country child.
The moving student body helps to maintain democracy. The same students
are seldom here a second or third year, and more often they come for a part of the
session, go away to teach and return after their schools are out. This constant
changing of students, though lasting friendships are made, prevents social circles
and squads from being formed. There is no Freshman or Senior here, no distinctions
are made. The entire student body is one big social circle, every one having equal
Democracy is encouraged, not for democracy in itself, but for its helpfulness.
And we hope to carry this Normal spirit back with us into every rural school and
community throughout the state, socializing and unifying the many factors of rural
life now dormant.
Srhunl Qlrehit fur 55111112 mark
AIDA T. CLOWER
NE of the lpresent problems of the school is how it can be of real help to the
home. One way in which to solve this problem is for the school to take into
account home industrial work and regard it as of equal importance with the
school work. By making it a subject of consideration at school the child's interest
in his home tasks and in the school itself will be greatly increased.
While this plan of giving school credit for industrial work, satisfactorily done
at home IS comparatively new, it is one that will cost no money, will require little
school time, and can and should be put into practice in every part of the State. The
school must recognize the fact that the work done at home, if it is thoroughtfully,
intelligently and carefully done is of equal value with that done in the various school
subjects and must give the child just compensation for his time and effort used in
performing home duties. If the child is given credit for his work at home it will
stimulate his desire to help his parents do the tasks that need to be done and to do
them in the most efhcient way.
. The purpose of giving school credit for home work is to bring about more
interest, better co-operation, and a closer relationship between the school and the
home. The parents should be considered as teachers, and the school teachers will be
given a better opportunity to study the habits and tastes of each child, which will re-
sult in the development of the child's entire nature. It will give the child an in-
centive to do, at home, some of the things that he has learned at school. In this way
new ideas of working may be introduced into the home and perhaps adopted. Thus
by coming into direct touch with the home and social life of the pupils the school will
be in a better position to know the needs of the child and will therefore be able to
plan the school work so that it may best meet these needs.
The home also offers the best possible equipment for industrial work and the
problems and situations to be met there are real. They provide for the child's
initiative and individuality.
But how can the school give credit for industrial work done at home? This
may be accomplished by printed slips asking the parents to keep a record of the work
the child does at home, and explaining that credit will be given for this work on the
school register. In preparing these slips the child's age must be considered so that
he will not be asked to do too much. The required tasks must not be too difficult, yet
they must be real tasks. To add interest to the work, exhibitions are sometimes
made at school or county fairs.
U Wherever school credit for home work has been given it has proven to be
practicable and successful.
AIDA T. CLOWER.
Cflramping an at lgrufemiinn
L HARRIS COOK
F it is true that travel broadens the mind, the teachers of Mississispi should be
very broad-minded, for seventy-six per cent. of them move every year. If we
believe in Formal Discipline, we should say that this travel would develop the
child's ability to adapt himself to new situations, because each new teacher brings a
In a certain community, the teacher has lived for ten years and has done a
great work for that community. He has lived with the people, helped them to solve
their problems, and has taken an active part in the community life. He is teaching
now in a new building with modern equipment. He has formed his boys into corn
clubs, his girls into canning clubs, has vitalized the curriculum, and started a move-
ment, not "back to the farm" but "stay on the farm." Through his efforts in the
Farmers' Union, the people of his community are having their children study farming
and are studying it indirectly, themselves. His people back him up, for they believe
in him. He did not accomplish this workin one year or two yearsg it took time to
enlist their support and co-operation.
In another community, there have been new teachers almost every year,
just as good men, no doubt, as the one mentioned above, but too much interested in
travel to stay long enough in the community to learn its problems or assist in their
solution. These teachers apparently have no aim. The work of the present year
seemingly bears no relation to that of the past year. There is no club work, no school
library, no Farmers' Union. The building is still standing as it stood six or seven
years ago, poorly equipped and badly in need of repairs. Every spring, the teacher
is attracted by wander-lusty so he closes the door, forgets the community and its
problems, and starts out to find another school.
It is doubtful whether "long tenure of office" would have made the second
school an asset rather tnan a liability. But "long tenure of' oflice" would have help-
ed. It is not wise for all teachers to stay in the same community all the time. One
of the best things some teachers can do for their community is to leave it.
The teachers, themselves, are largely responsible for the attitude of the com-
munity toward the school, because many use the teaching proffession as a makeshift.
In a certain community, for the past seven years, the teachers have been young girls,
who were teaching only for the purpose of making enough money to buy their
trousseaus. In another community, a man took the examination and, when asked
why he was just beginning to teach, said, "Times are so hard I could not get a job
'hustlin' lumber,' so I thought I would try school teaching."
Thus the story goes: the traveling teacher is first here and then there, like
some will-o'-the-wisp, never staying in a community long enough to be of real service.
'ft " V - Rerrwtinn in 1112 illural Glnmmunitg
MONRO E COUNTY
0 ECREATION has to do with that part of exercise which we generally call amuse-
ment, entertainment, pastime, etc. We are prone to pass the idea of recre-
ation by without very much consideration. There are two reasons why a
person in the average rural community is prone to do this. One is the time element
the other the attitude. He is very busy at his toil providing for his family never
thinking that he is not exercising all of his being, and thinking he has not the time
to spend in a few moments recreation. He notices that in many cases the people who
enjoy hours of recreation neglect their duties. To guard against this he will not
participate much in such deeds, and objects to his family's taking too big a hand.
These reasons seem superficially sound but will not bear analysis. In the first place
one wants to be broad-minded and not forget all the world While hewing to his own
line. In the second place one must not put aside a good thing because some people
misuse it and get evil results therefrom.
Man is not measured altogether by his work at an occupation. Since the
country is getting more densely populated, a man's occasional occupations are as much
a matter of social concern as his special trade. It is almost, if not quite, as high an
art to use one's leisure time well in his avocations as to use his time well in his vo-
cation. To prove the truth of this statement, one has but to witness the large number
of people to whom freedom from toil means liberty for the indulgence of low tastes
and bestial impulses in some drunken revelry. Such a use of leisure as this is a
menace to society, for it breeds corruption and crime: it is a menace to the individual,
for instead of recuperating his strength and renewing his courage, it saps his energy,
lowers his tastes, and sends him back to his work depleted physically and depressed
mentally. We must learn to see ourselves as other people see us if we would ever be
traveling the road to WELLVILLE.
Rightly directed recreation will not lead one astray but will tend to make
his career one of success and full of pleasure. Recreation is a necessity for the youth
in order to develop his brain, promote his bodily growth and vigor, and secure muscu-
lar control and co-ordination. His only way of gaining energy is through spending
it. The adult needs the change and rest that is brought about by recreation, hardly
less than the child. It is not a good idea for a person to play too steadily on one
string. It is not work but continued work that kills. What a relaxation it would be
for both old and young to spend the Saturday afternoon or evening, as the case would
demand, in social intercourse at a good ball game, literary society, or exhibition of
some kind. Besides fostering the enterprises and promoting the undertakings of
individuals, it would create a co-operative spirit and make the community one great
unit moving for the good of the whole as well as any part.
R O B A B L Y there is no one thing.that contributes more to the prosperity and
happiness of a community than good roads do. From a commercial stand-
point good roads give a means by which all farm products can be marketed
more quickly and in greater amounts. The problem of hauling is also made less. In
saving the farm wagons, buggies and horses from Wear, financially much would be
saved which placed in good roads would be of lasting value, Whereas otherwise it
would be lost Without any return. Here might be mentioned the saving of the man
himself in contrast with the hardship and Worryings on a journey over rough roads.
Good roads also contribute to social life. Surely no man can live the broad-
est, best life who does not have an interest in his neighbors and the community at
large. By meeting together in the capacity of Sunday School, School meetings and
Church services the people learn each other better. They begin to see the good in
their neighbors and have a more mutual love. But before. these conditions can in-
fluentially exist the people must have good roads. How many people, especially in
Winter, had rather stay at home than to attempt to drive over the bad, muddy roads?
Educationally, the rural school children can not be given the advantages of
the more fortunate children Who are nearer high schools until better rural schools are
established. Consolidation is fast solving this question. But in many places until
there are better roads over which to transport the children consolidation will not be
These are only some of the many general advantages of having good roads.
No doubt, each community can think of more specific advantages good roads would
bring to them individually.
Naturally the question arises, "How are We to get these good roads?" The
first and most essential thing is co-operation on the part of the individuals of the
community. In fact, Without co-operation no community can ever reach its highest
and best development. When the individuals of the community have decided to co-
operate in this Work and have set good roads as one of their ideals, much of the battle
is fought. Government bulletins will give many practical ideas in this Work. Then,
too, those who have had experience along these lines will no doubt be glad to offer
suggestions. It Will indeed be a step in the history of the country when all the com-
munities realize their needs and determine to make their roads second to none.
Uhr Glrarhrr. Uhr main Tlhing
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OT the school building, not the equipment, not the curriculum or the method but
the teacher, the man himself is the main thing in a-school. The teacher who
meets with greatest success is born and trained but not made. And the teacher
who is educated in mind and not in heart meets with little success. No matter how
Well a school is provided with material things such as building equipment, and cur-
riculum it will not be a good school unless the teacher of that school puts his heart
and soul into the work. A teacher can help his pupils but little unless he puts his
soul in touch with their souls. This is expressed by Browning as the "What Is" of
man, that spiritual inner consciousness of the mind which is the highest and most
important feature of man. By knowing and doing noble and beautiful things the
teacher must appeal to the "What Isi' in his pupils, and the appeal is made and
answered more easily because of the development of the spiritual inner consciousness
of the teacher. Christ the greatest of all teachers made his appeal to men in this
A study of human nature teaches us that children learn largely by imitation.
It then behooves the teacher to be all he teaches for by so doing he reaches the deeper
consciousness of his pupils and they follow in his footsteps. Especially is this true
of young children who are just forming habits and of high school pupils who are at
the age of forming ideals. The teacher who does not "practice what he preaches,"
as the old proverb says, makes no lasting impression of the thing he "preaches"
The right teacher has such moral fitness that he sees teaching as a spiritual
process, and feels it both a joy and a duty to win children's hearts and control their
minds, building them up and establishing in them sound characters. He must be able
to arouse the strongest enthusiasm and engage the noblest power. With these two
things secured on the part of the pupils the surroundings and material things of a
school will soon be converted into the best possible. But the teacher who lacks the
qualities which call forth strong enthusiasm and noble power does little to improve
either the minds of the pupils of the material surroundings. The teacher then is the
main thing in a school because it is through him that the greatest changes take place,
and the right teacher will not teach long in surroundings unfit for children to live in
The school is a success that has a teacher who sees teaching to be the build-
ing of human minds up into, their divine possibilities with the consequent reach of
beauty and blessing to the world: who sees teaching as the highest and noblest
and most delicate and beautiful and grand of arts.
iixvrrinr ani! llvrrwiinn in this
' Glnuntg Svrhnnl
HE country affords the natural playground for the child. There is plenty of
room, air and freedom. But play, like other school work, needs to be learned.
Rural children do not know how to play and they should be directed and guid-
ed by the teacher.
' The use of play and exercise in the rural schools is vastly more important
than the majority of the people realize. This phase of training is often-times neg-
lected, because we assume that the desired exercise and play is taken without being
planned and provided for on the school-grounds. This supposition is a great mistake,
since the town and city children as a general rule take more exercise than the rural
children, during the scholastic months. The former children are taught how to play,
and playing apparatus is provided for them. They are also required to take a certain
amount of exercise every day.
Urge the students to design and make articles that can be used in the home,
and you will find that once you get them started, it will serve a threefold purpose
namelyg recreation, exercise, and service. The fact that hand work of students can
be of some service, is a great incentive in favor of this form of training. Simple
pieces of furniture, rugs, baskets, embroidery, etc., are some of the many articles
that rural teachers can have made. These afford an effective means of exercise and
recreation, since they are a diversion from the regular routine of work. Lectures,
concerts, and libraries can also be used for their recreative value.
The apparatus is a thing that should be taken into consideration. The
swing is a common piece of apparatus for the play of younger children. If carefully
managed, it will be of little danger. Although the see-saw does not secure much
physical exercise for the child it will give him great pleasure and should not be con-
demned. The horizontal bars should have a place in the equipment. Even the
grown boys have a desire to show their muscular strength. A base-ball diamond
should be permanently laid out on the school-ground. Basket-ball is a favorite game
with both girls and boys, and the basket-ball court may well form a part of the equip-
ment of the school-ground. Volley ball is another game that should have a place on
the play-ground. It demands constant activity and accuracy of judgment. There
are many other games that could be used in the rural schools. Such as: "Have You
Seen my Sheep?" "Drop the Handkerchief, " "Hide and Seek, " "Hawk and Chickens, "
gSheperdess and Wolf," "Tag," "Stealing Sticks," "Dare Base," and "Rolling the
Let us URGE you to investigate the matter of exercise and recreation at
once, and be prepared to supervise some form of exercise, which is so essential to the
welfare of the students that have been intrusted to your care.
. llgrnprr Nnuriahmrni fur Svrhnnl
NE of the foremost questions which confront the parents and teachers of
school children is that of proper nourishment. It is a serious mistake to send
a child to school whose body is not properly nourished. Education from the
physical standpoint should be considered bofore the intellectual side is even thought
of. The child should be in the best physical condition possible in order to receive any
intellectual instruction given him. A poorly nourished child is stupid and irritable.
As a result of such a condition the child either has to remain in school from two to
four years longer than he should or else he falls by the wayside and takes his place
with those who never finish. '
It is often the case that the child is given enough to satisfy his appetite or
perhaps he is given too much to eat, but the food he gets may not be what the grow-
ing body demands. The body needs food to build muscles and tissues and give heat
and energy. In order to perform these functions, the meal should be balanced-it
should contain the right percentage of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Proteins,
or tissue-building foods, are such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, butter, cheese, etc.
Carbohydrates, which give heat and energy, are starches and sugars. Fats, which
also give heat and energy, are animal fats, and vegetable fats, as olive oil and
cotton seed oil. From this one may readily see that the growing body needs all three
constituents. If the child gets only carbohydrates and fats how are the muscles
to be developed? If he gets only proteins how will the tissues be built up?
In the struggle for existence it is the same with the human family as the
animal-only the fittest survive. In the present generation, the demand is greater
than ever before that the child have a fair start in life. Parents and teachers, this
responsibility lies in our hands-it is wholly within our power to see that the young
growing body has the proper nourishment so that the child will be physically able to
compete and win the battles of life.
Below is given a suggestive balanced diet that it will be well for us to study.
It is not intended that this diet should be followed strictly, but something like it will
afford a splendid nourishment for school children. And all of these things can be
grown at home on the farm and in the garden.
Fruit lfigs or peachesl Cream Cream of Tomato Soup
Eggs or Meat Peas or Beans Rice Mashed Potatoes
Biscuit Grits and Gravy Toast Bread Butter Milk
Milk Turnips, Cabbage or Spinach
Soft Eggs Bread or Toast
- El1nprnurn1ent nf Uhr Glnnntrg Bums
A N Y different factors are at Work for the betterment of the rural school and
the church, but the rural home seems to some extent to have been neglect-
ed. Movements for the improvement of rural conditions must start with
the home. It is the center of influenceg the basic unit of all government. The for-
mative period of the child's existence is in the home, hence its importance in shaping
his ideals for life.
As a healthy body is necessory to a healthy mind, the child's environment
must be such as to insure this result. The home should be hygienic, sanitary and
attractive. The house is not the home until it is clean and beautiful, it is simply a
shelter. How many of our so called homes are mere shelters? unattractive, dirty,
unsanitary places when a little time and labor would change all.
The sanitary home Will not permit the entrance of flies and mosquitos. The
house must be screened, and the farmer in a little time can do his own screening at a
very small expense. Another necessity is a good system of Water-Works and sewer-
age, vvhich will solve many questions of sanitation. These may be had in every rural
home at moderate expense, and Will mean a saving in loss of time due to sickness.
If a farmer can afford money for farm machinery and like improvements, he certainly
ought to be Willing to provide these things to keep his family and himself in good
health. Hookworm, typhoid, malaria, and like diseases, which keep people from
regular Work for months, would hardly be heard of, if all the farms had perfect sani-
Added to these should be a conveniently arranged interior equipped with
labor-saving devices for the elimination of drudgery of the farm Woman, thereby
leaving her leisure time for increasing the attractiveness of the home.
Now, if We place in this home a Woman educated for home-making with
training in household management, care and feeding of children, a knowledge of food
values and scientific preparation, and an appreciation of the beautiful, we have in-
deed advanced the humble farmhouse from a mere shelter to the dignity of a home.
Pm Zlnrvntiuv in the Ninn Glurrirulnm
S Jack Reed walked up to Miss Wellington, the new teacher in the little village
of Deerfield, to give her his name, something in his face attracted her at-
tention. Although his appearance showed indifference and carelessness,
which gave her an insight into his home conditions, there was in his expression a
suggestion of 'hidden genius.
But when the usual work was begun, Jack showed no interest whatever.
Miss Wellington became somewhat discouraged at this, but her first impression of
him remained and she was determined to find and develop that faculty which she
felt he possessed.
A few days later when the work in manual training was begun, Jack at once
refused to enter the class, saying that his former teacher had not given him work like
that to do and he didn't see what good it would do him "anyhow," But Miss Welling-
ton in a tactful way told him of several men who owed their success to the fact that
they had been required to do manual work in their youth, and at last persuaded him
to join the class.
At the end of the first manual training lesson Miss Wellington knew wherein
Jack's talent lay. Day after day as his work improved his interest also grew and
almost before he knew it he became the "star" of the class. Jack began to realize
that he had a talent and soon became so much interested that not only in school did
he engage in his beloved work, but at home he found delight in constructing useful
articles for father, mother and sister.
This work wrought a great change in J ack's life. Heretofore, he had never
had any definite aim, he had worked because he was forced to do sog now work be-
came a pleasure instead of drudgery as it had been in the beginning. He knew him-
self and realized that his ability lay in manual instead of professional work. So he
began to specialize in this line. As he worked he thought of the future, and one day,
suddenly and unforewarned, the thought came to him that he would be a great archi-
tect. This idea gave him a new incentive for future study, so he at once began to
work as a carpenter in order to make enough money to continue his training. By
careful planning and economizing and by overcoming many difficulties he at last suc-
ceeded in entering one of the large universities where he began to specialize in
After finishing his rigid course, Jack devoted his entire time to his chosen
work and in time became a noted architect. His first work after graduation was to
beautify his old home, remodeling the house and exchanging for the old worn and
broken furniture, new pieces which he himself had made from the ideas first given
him by the little teacher of the village school, and broadened by his college training.
The value of Miss Wellington's manual training work did not end here, but
was evident through the entire village, as shown by the newly painted houses, well
laid walks and neatly built fences.
Uhr iKural Efrarhvr sinh 1611111 hr Ming
3521111 in at iliural Glnmmunitg
A. E. JONES
HE supreme need in Rural Mississippi is the rural leadership. The rural teach-
ers of the past have not been equal to the task of efficient rural teaching.
The course of study also does not suit the needs of a rural child. The teachers
seem not to know how to handle the course of study we have.
A teacher when beginning a school should look about him and see the real
needs of that community. He will easily see that the farms, the churches, and the
social phases of the community can be helpedg standards of living should be raised,
ignorance should be stamped down, father and mother as well as sons and daughters
should be given instruction that would make life easier and happier. The teacher
should have an eye single to the help of that community in which he goes. Well trained
teachers are needed. Teachers who propose to make teaching a life work and have
the welfare of the community at heart, are the kind of teachers the world is looking
We cannot drop any subject in our present free school course but the subjects
that We have can be vitalized, made broader and some emphasized more than others.
Latin, algebra and geometry should be taught after the eighth grade is finish-
ed. Non-essential subjects should not be taught in the grammar grades, but subjects
that deal directly with the child's experience and will give him most benefit in the
occupation which he intends to follow. The curriculum is made for the child, not
the child for the curriculum. The curriculum should be psychologized as well as
The boy and girl are looking for vital things that appeal to them not mere
rloutiaie and formal methods. The students often ask the question, what good will
t is ome.
Our present schools educate the boy and girl away from the farm. The rural
community is all the while being drained of its best talent. The boy and girl will
stay on the farm if the farm communities are raised to a worthy istandard.
It is not money so much that the rural people need, butfhigher ideals. A
rural community can be built up to a first-class standard without much money. Farms
can be made more fertile by nitrogenous plants and yard fertilizer: homes can be
beautified by flowers, shubbery, paints and cleanliness: by improved farms, food will
be more abundant, the standard of living will be raised in many respects. With a
small cost to each farmer, good school houses, churches, and roads can be built.
The teacher can help in different phases of rural life mentioned above, but
the word TEACHER implies accomplishment. A poorly prepared teacher will not
get the respect and confidence of the people.
A. E. JONES.
Uhr '-Eftirivnt Elearhrr nf 1112 'Rural
Smnhag Svrhnnl i
MARTHA E. JONES
U I LD in the souls of your pupils a wholesome and abiding love for the
Bible." We are face to face with the great fact that our day schools
cannot give the religious training which the child needs and that this is
the sacred and consecrated Work of the Sunday School. We must develop means of
making the Sunday School worth while to the children, the future men and women
of our communities, so that its influences over them may be retained until they reach
maturity. The heart of this reform is the teacher. The vital need of the Sunday
School today is not so much a change from the uniform to the graded lessons, but
Let us now consider briefly the necessary characteristics of an efficient
teacher. First, he must be in sympathy with each child. Did not Christ sympathize
with every condition of human life? He seemed to love them that needed it most, to
help those who were most helpless. It is easy for us to be interested in the bright,
well dressed child, but, if we are to follow the example of Christ as a teacher, we
must not let our personal feelings carry us away from the obligation we owe to the
more unfortunate little child, to Whom the kind word and sympathetic touch of the
teacher is perhaps the only bright spot in his life. Second, when the child is putting
forth his best effort, no matter how poor, we should patiently and kindly help him to
do his best. Third, we must love our pupils for what we want them to become: if
there is no love, there is no teaching. No matter what equipment we have, what
wealth of material, we cannot touch the life of the child until we have united all that
we have and all that we are with the love in our souls for Chirst, and for His little
The recitation period each Sunday is the teacher's opportunity to guide the
child's thinking, to lead him out of doubt and instill in him principles that cannot be
erased. This hour is the opportunity of our lives to do something, and to do it well.
To do this we must make a thorough preparation of the lesson. We must not stop
the study of it when we know it but consider it learned, only when We know it well
enough to present it in a clear and concrete way to the child. We must make each
lesson we teach become a distinct advance to some goal.
7511 Some one has said "Upon the laws of the soul rest the laws of teaching."
What is good teaching? Good teaching is generous giving. A good teacher must be
willing to devote his best energies to the work. Christ stands out as the great
teacher of the World who set aside every other purpose and devoted his efforts to the
production of Christian character. Let us strive to teach as Christ taught.
MARTHA E. JONES.
Ellie Glnuntrg Glhurrh anh the
I Rural Svrhnnl
H. B. LONGEST
HE country church and rural school are the important factors in the develop-
ment of a good community. Then to have the best rural community there
must not be a broad gulf between the church and school. They should work
hand in hand. When convenience will admit they should be located close together.
This will stimulate a mutual interest.
For the greatest success in church and school work it is necessary for the
pastor of the church and the teacher of the school to live in the community. This
makes their work convenient for them and closely associates them with the people.
The teacher and the pupils constitute a large per cent of the regular attend-
ants at Sunday School and church services. The school can help the church by pre-
paring to take care of the singing and music. This preparation can be made by de-
voting only a few minutes to it during the opening exercises each morning. Also the
opening exercises conducted in the right way give the pupils a knowledge of the
scripture, which will serve as a basis for a more careful study of the Bible. It will
prepare them to receive the greatest benefit from the church services.
The teacher will very likely be expected to be superintendent of the Sunday
School and to take an active part in the mid-week prayer meeting services. In doing
this he becomes better acquainted with the needs of the people. Efficient service can
not be rendered without the problems of the community are thoroughly understood.
Interest is stimulated through service. The preacher will be better acquaint-
ed and feel closer to the school if he has opportunity to conduct their opening exer-
cises occasionally. The pastor who comes out from town, once each month, to preach
does not do the community very much good. He should be personally acquainted
with every person near the church.
No wide awake man cares to be in a community where there is no church and
school interest. The proper co-operation of the church and school will tend to make
the country more attractive than the town or village. So long as the people of the
country feel that they have to move to town for their children to have social and
educational advantages the church and the school are not doing their duty.
H. B. LONGEST.
Uhr Qlhaprl iixvrriaw
VERY school morning from 10:45 to 11:15 we spend the most enjoyable half
hour in the day. We meet at this time in the chapel for the chapel exer-
The meeting is presided over by the president, or in his absence, the 'vice-
president. The devotional exercises, consisting of a song, a Bible lesson with com-
ments, and prayer, are conducted by the gentlemen of the faculty, beginning with
the President and Vice-President, then the head of each department.
The remainder of the period is given over to business. First the faculty an-
nouncements are called for, then the student announcements. In noother institution
of the College is the "College spirit" made more manifest than in the chapel exer-
cises. There is amutual understanding among the Normal College students, that
every one has a right to his opinion and to the expression of such. Every student
feels free to express his opinion, and is always sure of an appreciative hearing from
the president. If any one feels in a humor for it, he tells a joke, if one loses a book
or pencil, or any other valuable he announces it in chapelg if any one takes an inter-
esting trip the students hear about it in chapelg if there is any general advice or re-
proof to be given, the chapel is the place for itg if there is any business relating to
student government, such as nominating for offices and vacancies, appointing election
commissioners, reading and expounding the constitution, it is transacted in chapel.
Occasionally, we have visiting ministers, politicians and educators in chapel.
These visitors are made to feel at home. They are usually called on for a talk or
lecture. These speeches are very interesting and instructive.
On one day in the week a County Club is responsible for the program.
These programs are rendered on Thursday morning of each week. They give the
historical, geographical, and industrial features of the county they represent together
with a discussion of the educational feature in which the county either leads or is
lacking in. A map of the county is placed on the board upon which are located the
principle towns, streams, and railroads. The remarkable thing about the ,fchapel
exercises is that although no one is forced to attend, there is an average attendance
of 9570 of the student body. We have excellent order, as a rule. These two facts are
but manifestations of two of the College slogans, "Co-operation," and "Self-control."
The student body has a strong regard for the Chapel period, and co-operate
to make it both interesting and instructive.
- EITP5 fur Uhr TQHIUP :mb Svrhnnl
A S we go out into the rural communities to teach we are going to find that our
school yards are bare and that many of the homes have no trees. By study
and thought with co-operation on the part of the teacher and the people these
may be remedied. We are familiar with the old adage "that the people may be reach-
ed through their childrenf' I-1ere's one place to try if there are those in the com-
munity which cannot be reached in any other way. In our agriculture classes the
trees indigenous to the farms and school yard may be studied. The pupils must be led
to see the beauty and pleasure of having trees. They must be taught how to select
the trees and transplant them. After the trees have been planted on the school
yard and the result seen the pupils will take these to heart and begin practicing it in
their own homes.
In selecting these trees great care must be used. For the home as well as
the school trees are Wanted Wl1iCl1 will give the most beauty and pleasure to the
grounds and to the occupants. We do not want a tree whose branches are short and
whose foliage does not stay on very long. On the other hand we want trees which
have long spreading branches and thick foliage which stays on the tree a long time,
if not all the time. And of course we want those trees which are long lived. Some
of the trees which may be profitably used are maple, oak, mulberry, cedar, china and
various others. Perhaps the china tree is of the quickest growth, and will be of
service quicker than any of the others. There are quite a number of oaks which may
be used successfully as well as the cedar and maple.
These trees may be gotten mostly from the woods surrounding the home and
the school. Of course the soil and conditions favorable to the growth of these must
Elnfluvnrr nf Zlmprnurh Srhnnl
Mrnnnha Hpnn Ihr ignmv
MAJOR C. MCDANIEL
O EOPLE are beginning to think of the school today not as being one set, definite-
ly-planned agency that Works alone for the betterment of the child but as
working With other agencies to accomplish the desired result. 'i he home and
the school are the most influential agencies in educating the child. Then the Work of
one must be so administered that it will re-enforce the Work of the other. This Work-
Lng together will cause the home to stimulate the school and the school to improve the
This is the case in improving the school-grounds because through their
improvements the home surroundings will be made more beautiful. Such improve-
ments as grading the yard, sodding it, arranging and setting trees and shrubs, plant-
ing flowers, arranging and constructing of out buildings, Walks, and fences can be
and need to be carried into the home in order to make it more inviting.
Here is the place for the training of the sense of beauty. When the child
enters school he seems to be fully alive to his environment. His senses are at their
best, his mind inquisitive, and his interest keen in all things that surround him. He
Wants to explore things and can grasp readily the ideas about the World of nature.
He learns to appreciate the life of the open country, which is very necessary because
those vvho follow agriculture must live in direct Contact With the great out-of-doors.
One cause of pupils dropping out of school is that the Work is not connected with the
life that they are to live. The Work 'fails in interest because it is not connected with
home activities and does not serve to make home a better place to live in. One of the
causes of desertion on the farm is the monotony or sameness of Work which leads to
over-Worry. This could be greatly relieved if every boy and girl Would become inter-
ested in the changing of nature, if he Would cultivate his taste for it, learn to enjoy
its companionship, and through this be led to build a home in keeping With nature's
The cost of such improvement is but little. This is the greatest cost and this
is Well spent because there are so many lessons taught in doing the Work. Teams can
be secured in the community to do the Work that require teams. Trees, shrubs, and
flower seeds are plentiful and can easily be obtained in almost any district. It is best
to take time to have a good plan and arrangement for the trees, and When one tree
dies it should be removed, for if left standing the children will not be encouraged in
setting out and caring for trees at home.
Finally We have come to see that the teacher should be responsible for the
material as Well as for the mental interests of the school. If the Walks are cared for
in the school-yard, the child Will care for the Walks in their homes. If the schcol-
yard is movvn when necessary, is kept free from ashes, Waste paper and other rubbish,
the yard at home will be kept in the same condition. If the fences and gates, the
trees and shrubs, and the school-garden be cared for in school, the ideas Will be
carried into the home surroundings. This Work at school is "Learning by Doing,"
which is the only sure Way to learn.
E112 HEIIIIP nf Srhnnl Munir
gh., k '-
USIC is the fairest gift of God, It is the universal language of the whole world,
Every one, every where sings some song, It is the language of feeling and
The purpose of music in the schools is to give the child a working knowledge
of the rudiments of music an 1 culture, training that will lead to comprehension and
enjoyment. Singing is closely related to health: to choices in lifeg to intellectual
activities, consequently, it is vital to character. A man's success in business life de-
pends largely upon his courage, peace of mind, and hopefulnessg singing is helpful in
all of these.-"To make a man is more important than to make a mechanic, to make a
good man is more important than to make a great man: to make a joyful man is still
more important than to make a brilliant man." Longfellow has said, "Show me the
home where music dwells and I will show you a happy, peaceful and contented home."
We no more expect the child to become a famous musician from his study of school
music, than we expect the child who studies science to become a scientist. We do
expect their appreciation of music to be developed and a love for the beautiful to be
developed. Someone has said, "We educate too much for getting a living and not
enough for living. Too much time is spent on how to earn a dollar and not enough on
how best to use it when earned".
In learning to read music, the child receives a training in soeedy, accurate
rythmic thinking that no other study furnishes. In all others he may take his time
to think. In this the time is set for him and he must compel his mind to keep up.
The habit of mental control which this work imparts, is sufhcient reason in itself for
the subject to be taught. The motive of impulse in artistic education lies in the de-
sire of the individual to express himself. If we would have this expression what it
should be, we must begin the training in the early years of school life.
Music is of practical value. If education is preparation for life, then why
should we not prepare to live so as to get the most out of life. We do not think of
the Church without the music. The hurt and the wounded soldier is soothed by it,
and it isa necessary part ofa regiment. The child's physical life is aiected by
school music. The first essential in learning to sing is deep breathing exercises and
Music is needed to make study more interesting, attendance more regular,
recitations easier. Music is needed for patriotism, for morality and healthy then let
us train the children so that they can take their places as citizens in the great chorus
of our country, equipped with pure hearts, willing hands, eager mindsg with a love
for the right, the good, and the beautiful.
Uhr iliural Svrhnul Qlurrirnlum
SALLIE STEVENS MCLEMORE '
HE purpose of the rural school curriculum is not to give the child just practical,
helpful, necessary knowledge, but to give him this first to awaken in him an
intelligent interest in the various forms of art, which in turn will add a new
meaning to the common things of life.
What should the elementary school do for the child?
The boy finishing the eighth grade should know first of all, how to get from
the printed page an understanding of its contents. He should have cultivated a taste
for reading and literature, and should have the power to express his ideas, whether
original or acquired, in a clear, intelligible manner. He should be familiar with the
history of life about him and the progress of civilization, should know the elements
of his government, national, state and country, his relation to his fellowman and con-
sequent responsibility to society, and his obligations as a citizen.
He should know the geography of his home region, including surface, climate,
industries, products, and their relation to one another and to adjoining regions: the
physical geography of the United States, the industrial and commercial life of its
people in relation to climate, surface and coastline, the location of important cities
and the cause for their location, the interdependence of our people and other people
and countries, and a more general knowledge of other countries.
He should know something of the mechanism of his body and the proper care
of it, the cause and prevention of the ordinary illnesses and precautions against the
spread of contagious diseases, some of the more important facts about bacteria, bear-
ing on their relation to food and diseases, the proper sanitary arrangement and care
of the home, and should have such mathematics as will serve his practical needs.
He should know the science underlying agricultural work and the application
of these principles of science, should have a knowledge of nature sufficient to give
him a deep appreciation of the pleasures and possibilities of rural life, should know
enough music to be able to enjoy it, and should be familiar with some great pictures,
so as to have an appreciation of art.
SALLIE STEVENS MCLEMORE
lqigli Zlhrala Ihr Qlhirf iliartnr in
'ii ' illural Brurlnplnrnt
J. J. MELVIN
V, FORREST COUNTY
HE people of Mississippi are a free, liberty-loving people. It is difficult to give
us anything We do not Want, and when a majority of us decide that we WANT
a thing it is hard to keep us from having it. But we all know that as a rural
people We do not have all the conveniences of life that We need. Our past experience
is sufficient to prove that all that is necessary for us to secure a thing is the desire
for it--the determination to have or to attain to that thing. This is what makes us a
FREE people. If We deny this We assert that we are bound-bound by tradition, igno-
rance, indolence or selfishness. This zeal to possess or to attain to a thing, through
individual effort, then, We may say is the result of an ideal. The trouble with us as
a rural people is that our ideal stops short of what We really need-We are satisfied
With less than the best.
Now, since We have all that We desire, and have only to desire to obtain, but
do not have what We need, and WILL NOT have What We do not desire, it is only for
us to realize our needs and desire them in order to obtain them. And it is plain that
We will never secure them until We do desire them.
The ideal of more home comforts, happiness and contentment, and more com-
munity conveniences and blessings is, and, from the nature of the situation, must be
the forerunner of everything else that leads to better rural conditions. The material
prosperity, the next thing in line needed to bring about these desirable domestic and
social changes, will come as the result, and only as the result, of a spirit of dissatis-
faction with conditions as they now exist, and a zeal for better thingsfinitheir places.
Many rural families begin their careers with no money, but with high domestic
ideals, and soon secure ample means, comforts, and advantages, and this is evidence
that a great many more could do so if the ideal were present, and it is in communities
Where such families as these are found that the highest social, .civic and religious
attainments are found. As are the ideals of a majority of the individuals so is the
J. J. MELVIN.
i, - A Safe ani! Swann Fliirat nf April
R. Joe Cook, the President of the Mississippi Normal College, knowing the
nature of boys and girls, suggested that we change our way of observing
April Fool's day and do something original.
So after discussing the matter in chapel, we decided to have the usual lessons
until chapel, have a rousing time in chapel, then have a general Field Day on the
athletic field and a base ball game in the afternoon between the students and the
faculty. The plan met with the approval of all and every one was satisfied.
"April Fool's Day" dawned bright and clear. All holidays do, don't they-
or do they? This one did anyway.
After a glorious time in chapel everybody rushed out to the athletic field.
Here the various contests were held: Mr. Cook, fat and short as he is, ran a race
with a student and won! We had an egg race, a potato race, a fifty yard dash for the
boys and one for girls, a shoe race, a blind hurdle race, and adoughnut contest. The
latter caused, perhaps, the most fun. A long string was stretched across the field.
From it hung other strings with doughnuts tied to them. The object was to eat the
doughnut without touching it with the hands. He who ate his doughnut first won.
To see the girls try to eat the doughnuts was worth the price of any first class rnin-
strel. As sure as the doughnut was Within reach, somebody jerked the string, and
away it went, swinging back and forth in a most tantalizing matter.
There were about fifty contestants in every event and the winner was awarded
a green ribbon.
After dinner everybody went over to the base ball diamond and watched the
faculty beat the student bachelors "all to pieces." Mr. Cook could steal bases like a
veteran-he made the first score. Sheriff Harbison, who umpired the game, said
that Mr. Cook ran bases with more determination and less speed than any man he
ever saw. Mr. Scott asked the spectators which was "left field." Mr. Boland went
back to the days of town ball and crossed out his man. O, that game was great.
The day was a success in every way. If you don't believe it, try it next year
in your school and see what will happen. Your students will scoff at the idea of
hiding the bell-and call that baby's play. And you wont be given bites of marsh-
mallows covered with quinine-if you will only help your students to be original in
what they do.
1 A .
Eurail Qiztnrg in thr Chrahrz
f COPIAH COUNTY
HE first and foremost aim of historical study is to make the world about us more
intelligible. To realize this aim local history is invaluable as a starting point.
Instruction in history should begin at home, broaden into wider fields and
then come back home.
The fundamental requisite of history teaching, making REAL the past, is
best obtained through reality itself, or through material things, a wealth of which
exists everywhere for the resourceful teacher. He should study the community,
county and state in which he teaches and turn to account the material he finds there-
people, schools, churches, industries, Indian remains, old swords, battlefields, and
bones of noted persons, which are invaluable in making vivid impressions on the
By having his attention called to these things the child will, at an early age,
realize the idea of CHANGE in the world. Ask him if white people have always lived
here with homes, schools and churches. Other questions finally lead him back to the
idea that no white man lived here at one time. "Then, who did live here?" "How
do you know?" There are Indian mounds, arrowheads, bones, streams with names
of Indian chiefs or tribes all around him to suggest the answer. "What were the
Indians like?" Have simple descriptions from pictures, etc.
Much construction work can be done in teaching the primitive life of the
Indians. Have the child construct wigwams, bows and arrows, build indian villages,
etc. Their simple industries such as modeling clay vessels, weaving mats, are both
interesting and instructive.
Tell stories Indians told about themselves, the many beautiful myths and
legends. With primitive life as a back ground, teach the child the pioneer life of his
own people. This he can comprehend easily. Few books are as yet accessible: but
the teacher should give these pioneer stories in the lower grades if possible. From
the beginning this work can be correlated with geography.
Industrial history is a new field and one that bids fair to revolutionize our
methods of teaching. Have the child make illustrative booklets showing the de-
velopment of industries of his community and use them for exhibition in Field Day
ggntests. Constructive work can be done in this study as in that of primitive Indian
After this preparatory work, the child easily comprehends the course in
State History in higher grammar grades. He studies the development of every phase
of the State's history, sees the problems that comfront the people at the present time.
and realizes that he, as a citizen of to-morrow, must help to solve these problems.
I Having learned to live the local past vividly, the child can carry his 'lex-
perience over and live the larger past vividly. Community history therefore is ,the
key to the larger past for the child, and a realization of the larger past makesiithe
world around him more intelligible.
Uhr iKPle11inn nf fhv Svrhnnl in thv
Zliartnrz Arnunh 111
U R purpose in studying the country school should be twofold. Realizing that
a school which is quite up-to-date at first, unless there is a continual recon-
struction, will soon become inadequate, we must study ways to avoid this.
Then we should study how to make the school a real social efficiency.
Since the school is only a supplementary agency, its success will depend on
its ability to join with other educational forces of the community and work with them.
There is a close relation existing between the school and home, and unless the two
co-operate much progress cannot be expected. Their common aim is the efficient
training of the child, for both have an important part in the process. The school
represents the development of the community.
The New Englanders started the school in order that their children might
learn to read the Scriptures and thus get right ideas of their religious duty. Even
after this idea gave way, the schools for years did little more than teach the use of
the mere tools of knowledge. Then came the idea that the school should train children
for citizenship. , The purpose of each study added to the course was to make better
citizens. At last the idea is that the schools must train the child to fill its place in
the world of men, to see all the relations of lifeg to be fitted to live in human society.
Hence the idea is to train the child, not for himself alone, but for the good of society
as a whole, not only this, but to train society itself as a whole.
The first means of making the school a social center is through the course of
study-not the introduction of new studies, but the teaching of the old studies in such
a way as to make them seem vital and human.
Another means of making the rural school a social center is through the social
activities of the pupils. After the school building and grounds have been made
beautiful and attractive this will become a social meeting place. There must be
organized play. If this is lacking the young people will be found at the cheap amuse-
ments in the town and city.
Lastly, as a method for making the school a social center, is the suggestion
that the teacher himself shall become a leader of club work, organization etc., in the
farm community. He should lead in inspiring every one to read better books, buy
better pictures, and take more interest in the things that make for culture and pro-
"The problem of the rural school teacher, therefore, is the problem of accept-
ing conditions as they now exist-and of converting the rural school from decay and
inactivity into a living, vital force for rural progress".
Tlhr iiarvnt-Elearheru' Aaanriaiinn in
the illural Glummunitg
H E N we consider the aims, and the purpose it accomplishes, there can be no
doubt but that a Parent-Teachers' Association is a good thing in the Rural
Community. Such clubs have received the endorsement of prominent edu-
cators all over the country. Charles A. McMurry says: "The purpose of the National
Congress of Mothers to bring parents and school into closer relations is so important
and so essential to our social well-being at the present time that we cannot overesti-
mate it. The schools are suffering from lack of strong moral support from the homes. "
Success in club work is like success in any other line. It should have its
plans made out before beginning the work. The reason clubs or associations do not
accomplish as much as they should is because they have no definite purpose. The
purposes of the Association are: to study the childg to bring into closer relation the
home, the school and the community so that parents and teachers may co-operate
intelligently in the education of the child: to raise the standard of home life, and to
arouse the whole community to a sense of its duty and responsibility to the child.
Among other values to be derived from the association are the following:
gives chance for co-operation by means of exchanging information, thoughts, and
carrying out of plan suggested, encourages group spirit, works for good of communityg
gives opportunity for teacher and parent to know each other better: and gives the
teacher a knowledge of the child's home environment, which enables her to help him
The best place to meet is in the school building. Notice of the meeting may
be sent the parents, and announced from the pulpit. If local talent of a musical or
literary order may be secured and announced in connection with the opening meeting,
it adds to the probability of a large attendance. When meeting is called to order a
temporary chairman is appointed, officers are elected, and committees are appointed.
The duty of one committee being to prepare a constitution and by-laws, to report
at next meeting. Phe association should meet not less than once a month. At the
meetings topics of vital importance pertaining to children and child life should be dis-
cussed. In these discussions the parents and health officer should be called upon to
take an active part. Clf further information is desired, it may be had by writing to
the State President, Mrs. J. B. Lawrence, Jackson, Miss.J
A report, however small, should be sent to the county paper, so the public
will know what the association is doing. The size of club is not always measured by
the number of people in it. A few of the right kind may be a great dynamic force.
- Qurnl Eggivnr
T has been said that, "cleanliness is next to Godlinessf' But judging from the
hygienic and sanitary conditions of many of our schools, an outsider might say
that this is not true of Mississippi. This is because hygiene has not been proper-
ly taught. It has not been made practical. Very little constructive work along this
line has been done.
We all know the devitalizing effect of hookworm on childreng how it prevents
children from maturing, and deprives them of the energy, enthusiasm, and joys of
life to which they are justly entitled. Hookworm has been tolerated in our State
chiefly because of ignorance and prejudice. Therefore, the problem is, how to get
people that have hookworm, to take the treatment. This necessitates knowledge on
the parent's part plus his co-operation with the teacher and the health authorities.
In dealing with parents the teacher will find that there are three general classes:
those who know every thing and can be told nothing: those who do not know but
are willing to learn, and those who do know but don't care. Happily, the first and
third classes are greatly in the minority and the best way to deal with them is to let
them alone. It is with the second class with whom we have principally to deal.
The solution of this problem means skilled and sympathetic work on the
part of the teacher. It is done by patient and persistent showing. Tactfully com-
pare people who have hookworm and those who have never had hookworm, those who
formerly had hookworm, but have been treated. Compare the doctor's bills, the farm
work done, and the health and disposition of the children. Finally show that the
cure is free and has very little trouble and pain attached to it. Do not theorize and
Of course there are many abstacles to be overcome. One is that two classes
of parents mentioned above will try to hinder and annoy you. Another is that some
of the second class are prejudiced against hookworm treatment for some reason,
probably because owing to some external circumstances the treatment did not pro-
duce the expected effect. Finally, there is a feeling of false modesty which prevents
a sensible view of the question. The iirst two require a great deal of individual
judgment and plain, every day common sense. The last requires the same thing and
more of it.
It is not a disgrace to have hookworm, but it is a disgraceful sin to continue
a victim and carrier of it. This is not a laughable matter, but a serious, practical
question. It has affected the past, is affecting the present, and will affect the future.
Therefore, let every teacher plan and organize his work toward ridding Mississippi of
this pest. Our future citizenship demands it.
ll - y An iilrmrnt nf Surrraz
HE yellow spotted cat thought that she was the only inhabitant of those hills
as she noiselessly leapped the water from the stream that flowed among the
straggling pines. A great big brown dog suddenly made his appearance.
The little cat felt her insignificance as she stood before the rough creature that had
dominated for years. Her first impulse was to flee and the dog was ready to pursue
her, when all at once she assumed confidence and looked at him squarely. The dog
recognized and admired her pluckg the little cat stood her ground.
Faith in one's self, like faith in one's God, faith in one's friend, faith in
one's purpose, grows by exercise. It is obtained by assuming it and it strengthens
every time it is put into practice. Whether this self reliance is to grow from the tiny
mustard seed to the large tree depends upon theindividual. The rural school teacher
that does efficient work must use much self confidence for it is the thing that makes
affective his scholarship and professional training.
What is the ambitious young Normal student going to do when he goes into
the country school? He is very well versed on the theory of education and his mind
is filled with ideals of what the school should do for the child. The first thing to
confront him is a school room poorly ventilated and lighted and an inadequate equip-
ment, and unorganized course of study. He at once recognizes his opportunities and
starts to execute a half dozen plans. In talking to the patrons about his plan he
finds that some of them are indifferent to progress while others deliberately oppose
it, at the end of two weeks the school room has not changed its appearance very
much and the course of study, if changed, does not seem well adapted to the pupils
because they do not take a great interest in it. It is the neighborhood gossip that
the new teaceer is not satisfied with the school and is trying to make it over. No
encouragement comes to the teacher from any source. He thinks about the lack of
appreciation and the opposition he is experiencing. If he were to do the Way his
unprogressive predecessors did it would mean less toil on his part and it would please
the patrons. What is this young teacher going to do? Shall he be overpowered by
the old dog of custom and yield to fright or shall he in reassurance stand firm by
his purpose and plans for better rural life?
EVE LYN SCOTT.
Athlrtira in Uhr illural Svrhnnlz
P. C. SCOTT
HE average rural school of today, does not have athletics as a part of its pro-
gramme, Whereas athletics, if properly managed, will do as much towards
making a good citizen of the child as will the regular text-book Work. I say
properly managed, properly advisadly, because not all athletics is desirable as ameans
of education. To begin with, this branch of school Work should be a means and not
an end. If baseball is started in a rural consolidated school for the purpose of making
good baseball players only, then it has no right to the time of any of the teachers of
that school. If you have organized a boys basketball team for the sole purpose of
beating some rival team, cut it out! because you may be beaten, and then you will
have failed in your purpose. But a defeat is not a failure when your purpose in
having a team is, first of all, to make fine, manly boys. Mr. Cook of the Normal
College, says: "The kind of a report I like to hear from a team is not whether they
Won or lost, but whether they played hard at the start, hard to the end, and played
Probably the best effect that athletic games will produce is the habits that
are formed. By the use of suitable games the schoolboy will be trained in self con-
trol, co-operation, initiative, respect for the rights of others, leadership, and indi-
viduality. Such games are, baseball, basketball, football, tennis, and track events.
It will be noticed that all of these games appeal to the group instinct that is present
in boys during their latter grammar school years. Other games and various forms of
play can be found that will suit children of younger age. But this, of course, will be
left to the teacher 5 Who is, or should be, capable of teaching athletics in his or her
school. Even though We decide to put athletics in the rural schools it Will never do
much good unless We have teachers competent to direct the games.
That athletics is desirable as a means of educating the child is recognized
in all the city schools of today. But Why should not it receive just as important a
place in rural consolidated schools or the district school Where the attendance is large
enough to have any sort of games. The country boys and girls have a right to have
as good an education as those in the city. Their play instinct is just as keen and
they Will benefit as much from athletics as will anyone.
I might end by saying that the Normal College is training teachers, not only
for classroom management, but also for playground management.
P. C. SCOTT.
Bum tn Prepare fur an illielh Bag
E. E. SMITH
OUNTY Field Day, when all the schools of the country come together for the
purpose of exhibiting their work and competing in all events connected with
the school, requires thought and hard work on the part of the President and
Committee of the County Teacher's Association. It is necessary for this Committee
to have the program which they map out published in the county papers, at least two
months before the event. This gives each school time to make proper arrangements
to enter the various contests.
Definite arrangements in regard to literary contests must be made, Speci-
fications governing the Spelling, Composition, Grammar, Mathematics, and History
contests in regard to number and character of questions to be given, should be publish-
ed with the list of prizes. The Committee should have judges selected who are dis-
interested and can be counted on to give these questions and grade the contestants.
The Expression and Declamation contestants should know how much time will be al-
lowed them and the hour and place should be arranged for, so that the several literary
contests may be in progress at the same time.
Both for artistic and practical considerations much care should te taken in
placing school exhibits. Sometimes the various drawing, manual training, needle
work and industrial booklets are tacked up or tumbled together without any regard
for law or order much less art. Besides showing these specimens of school work at a
great disadvantage, this heterogeneous collection gives endless trouble and causes
much waste of time for the judges.
The following suggestion may be of practical value. Now, in regard to the
athletic events that are to be pulled off, such as the races, pole vault, jump, shot put,
hammer throw, etc., sufficient material should be on hand to conduct these events
without delay. The distances, 100 yards, 75 yards,t250 yards, 35 mile, Z mile, and
mile should be accurately measured oi for the races. The semicircle C7ft. radiusj
for shot put should be prepared. The pole vault outfit should be on the ground and
at some place where the earth has been dug up and softened in order that none of the
contestants will be injured in falling. High jump stand should be ready with suflicient
holes in the stand to allow one half inch raise at a time. The sacks for sack race
should be on the ground and the distance already measured off.
In fact, the amount of detail work that is done in organization and prepa-
ration determines largely the zest in which things go off. Nothing kills enthusiasm
like FATIGUE. And waiting and wandering about between events take away the
pleasure of the occasion. Therefore, the same foresight that is exercised by the
teacher in his regular school duties should also be carried into this phase of his work.
E. E. SMITH.
M ETA SMITH
HERE are many reasons why the people in the rural community have not worked
together before now. The first is that they have an aversion to co-operative
effort. The South is not very thickly inhabited and the farmers have become
very independent. The farmer being "jack-at-all trade" everything that he needs is
made on his own land, in his shops or in his mills. Now what does it matter if he
never sees onyone or sells to a market for he has everything to eat that he and his
family wish and plenty to wear? Agriculture has been a solitary work, therefore, a
monotonous social life is lead by these people. As long as this system of work lasts
there will still be much misunderstanding and rivalry between the farmers. Until
the condition of lonliness are done way with the country people cannot co-operate.
Until the parents go together and work for the welfare of the community,
the children cannot, because they will not be permitted to associate with the other
children. They have heretofore had to work at home and in the fields and been de-
nied the comradeship which is necessary for a normal child.
There are many ways by which these conditions may be remedied. The first
means is to have in the community school a teacher who is a real "live wire." One
who teaches practical knowledge instead of theoretical. The home and all of its
surroundings are reached indirectly by the school. Government lectures and demon-
strators may be secured to give advice and show the people what they can do with
the common things that each farmer has on his farm.
After the independent spirit is broken down and each one in the district
lends a helping hand to the other the many things that are essential to good farming
are secured. Some of these are good roads, better live stock, better farming imple-
ments, better seed and a ready market. It also brings about better social conditions,
such as, the church, the school, libraries and social gatherings. ,
This movement has already proven itself over and over. It puts life, joy and
enthusiasm into the work that before was pure drudgery and unprofitable. It is one
way of keeping the young people in the rural community and making life attractive
Uhr Glnuntg Snqavrintrnhrnt ann the
T. H. STANLEY
HE need today is for men as superintendents of the rural schools who can
organize the county's educational forces into a unit working toward one great
aim. The efficiency of the superintendent lies in doing this, not in the
authority given him, nor in his well planned system, yet these are essentialg but in
his conception of the function of the rural school, in his ideal set for accomplishment,
in his value of efficient aid in his work, in his knowledge not only of the county at
large, but also of the problems and needs of each distinct community. He should
have practical ability necessary to solve these problems and supply these needs.
ln many counties the superintendent is inconsistent and will not enforce the
law of which he is the executive. By so doing, men and women who have not good
character, or proper interest in the destiny of the rural boys and girls, are given
license as teachers, while the superintendent draws his salary and studies the po-
litical situation. But this kind of work is fast passing out, and the need, which is
the demand of today, is men as superintendents who have not selfish motives, but
who desire to enforce the law and to establish a new status for the rural school.
The efficient superintendent will not only have experience, but will be a
student of the intellectual and industrial affairs in his county, that he may formulate
a course of study to meet the needs of the pupils, that they in their study may get
the modern ideas that would have to do with bettering rural schools especially. He
will organize clubs and other organizations that are beneficial in teaching the coming
generations to use scientific principles in the different phases of agriculture. From
this he will publish the course of study showing how and what parts should be
taught, always keeping in mind what will do the boys and girls most good in a practi-
cal way, thereby preparing them to meet modern problems.
When the superintendent has visited the schools he knows wherein his teach-
ing force is lacking. Then at the County Teacher's Association which should be held
at least once per month these problems should be discussed and suggestions offered.
In the discussion of the plans offered many of the teachers will catch a new spirit
and renew their enthusiasm towards their work.
Before any board of trustees elect their teachers the superintendent should
be consulted, for many teachers are fiying their banner under a disguised color. This
the superintendent is more apt to know than the trustees.
Lastly, the superintendent can have rally days, where the people are shown
the needs of better schoolhouses, equipments, and other conveniences that go to
make school life ideal. In one county, slides ,were prepared that showed the average
schoolhouse and the ones they hoped to have in that county. These slides were
carried to each rural school, and there before the patrons and pupils of that school
these were shown. When the people saw this they began to co-operate and make
T. H. STANLEY.
ff ' -N
Q, X ,X
f g it fr - Uhr Svtnrg Glvllrifz Tllvaguv
- J. w. TAYLOR
HERE are at least two distinct fields for story telling-the home and the school.
When the child is no longer contented at his games, and toys do not satisfy,
he seeks the mother, and seated in her lap begs for a story. Can he be re-
fused? Such an opportunity! Plant the right ideal in childhood and later reap faith,
obedience, strength of character, and purity of life. The rightly chosen and Well
told story is the means.
The accepted statement that a beautiful story is a source of the purest joy
may not be sufficient to convince the doubtful teacher that story-telling has a place in
the school. To give pleasure is not the only purpose of the school, which can also be
said of story-telling. Children may differ from other children in some things but in
listening to a story they all have a common meeting ground. They all feel the same
emotion, and laugh or weep together. The emotional element lies close to the springs
of conduct. The closed hand, the sigh, the tear that the story brings forth is felt by
all alike and is due to the same emotion that prompts generous action. How else can
group action be obtained so easily? This will also bring a close and happy relation
between the teacher and pupils. The first "point of contact" to some subject or a
childis life may be a story. The timid self-conscious child may be aroused to forget-
fulness of self by a story. Part of a story told by a teacher may lead the child to
devour volumes. Biographies of men are read because some child has heard only one
story of a man's life. A story is the flesh for the dry bones of history and the back-
ground for language work, composition, and literature. It is the first step to child
study, the channel throught which you reach child life, and the tool with which you
shape character. In fact when the school goes wrong, the pupils are cross, the
teacher blue, the lessons not studied and nothing seems to dog lay down trouble, take
up good humor, tell a story, and watch the change.
Feeling that the above is true and realizing that stories were not being told
as suceessfully in the home and school as they might be, the first students of the
Normal College organized themselves into a Story Teller's League that they might
learn the art of story-telling and thus be able to carry the work to the homes and
sehools. Almost every student of the college has been or is now an active member of
the league snd the interest is growing.
J. W. TAYLOR.
- Uhr Glnmmunitg liihrarg
TH EODOCIA WHITEHURST
UCH is now being done for the promotion of rural life. The extension of li-
braries to rural communities is but one phase of the movement for the better-
ment of rural life, but this phase has not been emphasized in proportion to its
An essential condition for effective work in rural improvement is cooperation
of all its agencies. The library must cooperate with these agencies to work suc-
In our State the community library is almost a thing unknown only in so far
as there are libraries in some rural schools. It is estimated that in New York there
are about a million and a half people who have not access to books. If that is the case
where active agencies for library extension have long been operating, what is it in
Mississippi? How many homes have no books aside from the Bible? Many of our
people take no periodicals not even a local newspaper?
It seems to be a general idea that rural people do not care to read. The fact
is that many of them do care but have not had access to reading matter. The rural
reading habit must be established if we expect to bring the country to a realization of
its social possibilities. One of the greatest problems of securing social progress is
that of putting scientific knowledge into use. The library offers available means of
putting facts and ideas about agricultural conditions into the minds who can use them.
Not only can information be gained along agricultural lines but also on house-
hold economy, country life problems, sanitation and health. The question of how to
get the people to read will be solved when they have been thus shown that books con-
tain something that can be taken home with them. '
Besides being a source of information the rural library can be made a source
of pleasure. Imagine in every community a library connected with the school, per-
haps, where the adults meet once a week and spend a few hours reading together.
The library can be made the place of meeting for various clubs. Having the parents
meet at the school house every few weeks would be one of the best means of securing
cooperation of the community in school work.
The matter of establishing a community library is one of the greatest problems
to solve. The immediate thing to do is to use the means directly at disposal. We must
bear in mind that the successful man is he who induces others to do. Even in the
most sluggish community there are some who will become enthusiastic workers if only
they are awakened to the good they can do. The leader should seek to enlist these
workers. There are other agencies that may be enlisted after a community has been
aroused. We need a good working library plan and more enthusiastic leaders.
' Bum A illural Svrhnnl man Zlmprnurh
s. E. I.. WEATHERFORD .
BOUT the year 1898, there was established in one of the South Mississippi coun-
ties a rural school, a little different from the schools of the surrounding
neighborhoods. This particular school is used as an example on account of
the experiences gotten in building it up. And these experiences are such as may be
found in any problem of this kind.
When this school was begun there were not more than forty pupils and one
teacher. Two men.citizens of the community who were interested in improvind edu-
cational facilities there, set about getting help from their neighbors to build a house
and to secure equipments for the new school. The results were discouraging. A few
subscribed some moneyg a few others were opposed to the movement-because of
prejudice-and a majority of the people were willing to help do the work but could
not give money.
Soon the two men decided not to be overcome and agreed to furnish the money
themselves. Plans were laid for a building, ten acres were secured for a site, a
teacher was employed, and a rude teacher's home was erected on the campus. The
building consisted of three school rooms on the ground floor: a dormitory on the second
floorg and additional rooms in the attic. The school was supposed to keep boarding
pupils. This plan for a school preceded the present idea of consolidation. It was an
effort to bring a greater number of pupils together.
But this plan failed. Dissensions aroseg the attendance diminishedg and
another school sprang up near this one. Soon there was only one teacher where three
had taught a year or two before.
Then there came a better and brighter day. The people were enlightened on
the new plan of consolidation. Enthusiastic educators came and helped make a con-
solidation. Several small schools were transported to this central one. Five comfort-
able wagons brought over one hundred additional pupils A new life seemed to ex-
ist in the whole community. Many new subjects were added to the curriculum. Ex-
penses grew higher, but a special levy was placed on the property and local taxation
solved the problem.
A new building is now needed. The special levy is inadequate. A bond
issue is being discussed and will probably be passed. If this brings the desired funds,
an ideal school with accessories such as water-works and a teacher's home can be
built. The school can then reach the people in a social, industrial and economical Way.
From this we learn several lessons. The consolidated school is a success.
Local taxation is a better way of financing than is the subscription plan. Bond issues
are better for buildings and equipments. Strong schools are more vital and service-
able than the weaker ones.
S. E. L. WEATHERFORD.
B. F. VALENTINE
mm' Bran' QDIII HH. N. 01.
We love our dear old College
We love her very name
And We will Work with gladness
To Win for her the fame
That she so justly merits
For all the changes wrought
In boys and girls who daily
Have, through her, knowledge sought.
As flowers love the sunshine
Which comes in early spring
And makes the world in gladness
To its Creator sing,
As children love their mother
Wherever they may be
So we will love forever
Our dear old M. N. C.
M. D. DUNLAP.
M. N. C. CERTIFICATE CLASS
Uhr Glrrtitimtr Gllawa nf 1915
N the Certificate Class of 1915 we have about 107 from thirty-eight Counties of the
State. We can give no definite figures as to our number for already some have
received Certificates and returned home, and others will come later in the session
and get Certificates. We have come and caught the vision. Many of us will be
numbered in the graduating class of 1916, more of us will return to the rural districts
and there set to work to make concrete our vision. Among our number are found
some of the leaders in all the phases of college activity. In fact we have representa-
tives on the different athletic teams, in the inter-collegiate debates, and on the anni-
versary programs, and we have contributed our number to the Honor Council, and to
the Cabinets of the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A. So you see we have had an important
share in all the activities of college life.
CLASS OFFICERS OF THE CERTIFICATE
President-R. M. Nicholson. Vice President-Miss Ada Price.
Secretary-Miss Oline Coffee. Treasurer-Miss Mattie Lee Peeler.
Historian-F. H. Bass. Poet-M. D. Dunlap.
Musician-Miss Lou Brannon. Artist-Miss Myrtle Larsen.
Prophetess-Miss Georgette Brandao. Athletic Manager Cboysb R. L. Thompson.
Athletic Manager fgirlsj Miss Velma Arledge.
Adams, H. F.
Hilbun, Bennie B.
Hughes, J. T.
Lee, B. F.
Lowe, C. A.
Miller, Jennie Lee
Williams, W. B.
Valentine, Mrs. B.
Bingham, T. F.
Curry, R. M.
Felder, J. W.
Haden, E. S.
McLendon, G. M.
Sewell, T. A.
Smith, J. J.
Walters, H. K.
Wooley, C. J.
Bishop, J. A.
Booth, E. L.
Cooley, D. P
Ferguson, VV. K.
Hutchins-on, Jas. XV.
Long, E. E.
McLeod, C. R.
Nettles, Marion Ellis
Uhr Huang mnmrnra' Glhriatian Aaanriatiun HH. N. QI.
HE Y. W. C. A. is the strongest organization for girls in the college. Its pur-
pose is to lead students to Jesus Christy to enlist them in actual service for His
cause here in the college and elsewhereg to promote growth in Christian
character by influencing the girls to devote themselves in united effort with all
Christians in making the will of God effective in human society throughout the worldg
and to make leaders for christianity in the rural communities.
The girls are indebted to Mrs. Brim, whom we like to think of as the
"Mother of the Association", for its easliest organization and earnest promotion.
Each year the Association grows stronger and stronger. Girls are sent annually to
the Y. M. C. A. Conference, where they get knowledge and inspiration for the Asso-
The Association is greatly strengthened by our "Blue Ridge", and by the
visits by the different ones of the National Y. W. C. A. officers. While Miss Sherre-
beck, Sec. for the colleges in the South-central Held, was with us, she talked to the
girls each evening on some phase of practical living and service. She also met the
Y. W. C. A. and Y. M. C. A. cabinets each evening to offer helps in the Association
Work. She helped us to secure a place in the "Blue Ridge" conference, for one of
our girls to remain there this summer, where she will make a thorough study of the
Y. W. C. A. We will also send our regular delegate this year. We also had a
pleasant visit from Miss McFarland, Executive Officer of the South-central field.
Our membership this year has increased to 163 girls, while practically every
girl in the college attends the religious meetings. In no other place can the girls
come together on such a common ground, where there is no formality, and worship
and serve God in so simple and practical a way as they can in the Association.
Under the auspices of the Y. W. and Y. M. C. A., Mission and Bible classes
are conducted, and not only members of the Association, but others also study God's
word and the missionary problems, both Home and Foreign. Already we see the
fruit of this good work in the leadership of the students that we turn out each year,
and we look to the future with hope and great expectations.
Under the auspices of the Y. W. C. A. there has also been a small Sunday
School conducted by two of our Association girls for the benefit of the children on the
campus, who do not attend Sunday School in town.
We trust that the small beginnings of each of our girls in the service of our
Master here in college, may yield abundant harvest in whatsoever field she may
ig. im. oi. A.
HE Normal College Young Men's Christian Association was organized three
years ago. Though the Association is still young, even in an experimental
stage, the effectiveness of the work is second to no student Association in the
Whatever may have been the success of the efforts in the work this year it is
not due to the efficiency of the ofiicials, but to the cooperation and support of the
members of the Association, other students and the faculty. The Association has
never attempted anything that the students and faculty have not given cheerful sup-
port. Our Association is extremely fortunate in having, at all times, the sympathy,
interest, best wishes, and support of the faculty.
Our men are always found lined up for the best things on the campus. They
take a firm stand for the right. They have the best interest of the students at heart:
work for the good of othersg stand for the preservation of the reputation of the in-
The work done in the Bible Study Department of the Association has not
been entirely satisfactory, but it has been a decided improvement on that done the
other two years. About ninety per cent. of the young men in the college have been
enrolled in some .Bible Study or Mission Class this year.
The Mission work has been a study of the needy iieldsg how the Mission cause
is being projectedg and by what institutions it is being supported. Mississippi, our
own state, has been one of the fields for particular investigation. The conditions and
needs of the country church having received the greatest consideration. The Associ-
ation is at work on a plan by which the cause of Christ may be strengthened and
vitalized in the rural districts by our men when they assume the intellectual leader-
ship of such communities.
We believe in the development of the individual. Therefore, every man is
given a chance to serve on the programs of the weekly religious meetings which are
attended by about fifty per cent. of the students, including almost every member of
The Association has contributed in the way of labor, food, and clothing to the
needy of a near-by community. Our men are untireing in their efforts to aid the un-
fortunate on the campus. In fact, the spirit of service that prevails here distinguishes
our institution from any other that I know.
The Association contributes freely to the social satisfaction of the students in
the way of receptions and entertainments. These occasions are attended by all, thus
giving every member of the Association an opportunity to meet every student at a
place of common enjoyment.
The Students' Conference of Mississippi convenes at the Normal College in
November, next. We are looking forward to that occasion, and planning the Associ-
ation's part in making this the best Conference that Mississippi students have ever
known in the State.
I. A. W.
- , Qu, yu
v ' '
SHERWOOD BONNER LITERARY SOCIETY
ALEIOOS A!:IVH3.LI'l NVlNO.LS3Hd
MISSISSIPPIAN LITERARY SOCIETY
f ' , A A "1.gfs1 'fc:
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