University of Santa Clara - Redwood Yearbook (Santa Clara, CA)

 - Class of 1914

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University of Santa Clara - Redwood Yearbook (Santa Clara, CA) online yearbook collection, 1914 Edition, Cover
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Text from Pages 1 - 700 of the 1914 volume:

THP RCDWOOD library of iversity of Santa Clara October, 1914 Digitized by tiie Internet Archive in 2013 http: arcliive.org details redwoodunse_12 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of B achelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE., A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. For United States Senator JAMES D. PHELAN (Three Times Mayor of San Francisco; Elect the Man who can Help California in Washington THE REDWOOD. Jh SENATOR JOHN B. CURTIN Democratic Candidate for GOVERNOR He has Served the People of California Sixteen Consecutive Years in the State Senate. His Able Record Makes Him the Logical Man for Governor. ELECTION TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3rd, » THE REDWOOD. : : Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Don ' t Wear Glasses Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery. Inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at Druggists SOc; by mail 65c 960 Market Street, San Francisco Established 20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Wm. McCarthy Sons Coffee TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA •K THE REDWOOD. : . FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Cun ' iers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara California Vargas Bros. C " - LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies Main Line, Santa Clara 120 Telephone your orders — you can get them whenever you want them : r ;: THE REDWOOD. A. G. COL WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treaa. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougli, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lllienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CaL Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. K : Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA AMERICAN FISH MARKET Rresldence Phils ' j ' z ? Wholasale and Retail Dealers m FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. lociceru. Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co. WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. : : THE REDWOOD. : - ' ii MANUEL MELLO Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE EiiterprisdaiiiKlryCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Nex? to Postoffice SANTA CLARA Globe Barber Shop Franklin St. Santa Clara Three Barbers No Waiting : Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. M. M, Billiard Parlor GEO. E. MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2j4 Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara THE REDWOOD. Get Your Next Suit AT The White House m Sole Agents for Agents for Knapp Felt Hats Gotham Shirts : CONTENTS SANTA CLARA UNIVERSITY THE FATHER OF THE AEROPLANE COLUMBUS - - - THE AERONAUT ' S CRIME - ODE TO VULCAN A DAY ' S WORK - A MOTHER ' S VOICE FROM BEYOND THE SEA GOLDEN JUBILEE OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF FATHER ALEXANDER MAZZETTl. S. J. REFUGEE PRIESTS FROM MEXICO EDITORIAL - - - • EXCHANGES - - - - SEDES SAPIENTIAE UNIVERSITY NOTES SUNSET _ - - - ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ALUMNI - - - - SAN FRANCISCO - - - ATHLETICS _ - - - L. P. D. 1 Chas. D. Suuth, Sr . 2 D. 12 F. Buckley McGuirin l.i Delta P. Llaiiibda 17 F. Buckley AAcGurrin 19 L. P. D. 11 L P. D. E. R, Harter. ' 18 28 30 .Cs ,i7 38 42 43 45 46 47 Mortuus, Adhuc Loquitur " THE PEOPLES ' POPE IS DEAD, BUT WHY THIS WEEPING? HAS NOT THE MASTER SAID: " HE IS BUT SLEEPING? " Entered Dec. 18. 1902. at Santa Clara. Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3. 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., OCTOBER, 1914 NO. 1 Santa Clara University ACROSTIC Sage nurse of religion sKe ; Kerald of trutK. A patron of learning, a guardian of youtn. Mo tKougKt ever sways Ker, save one—to impart Trie noblest incentives to mind ana to Heart. Assiduous ever to work for our weal. Contented, if onl}? Ker boys, Kappy, feel. Laborious to lead tnem to virtue and rignt. Aye, urging tkem bravely to " fignt tne good fight. " Restraining tKeir footsteps wnen e ' er tney would stray, And leading tbem back to tne safe " narrow way. " Unfolding tKe pages of science and art. Meglecting no effort, tneir worth, to impart. Instilling, of culture tke principles true. Virility teaching and gentleness too. Encouraging love for our dear native land. Respect for authority ' s every command. Securing for country, Ker safeguard and pride: Inviolate citizens, none may o ' erride. Transporting men ' s tKougKts to tKeir Keavenly goal; Yes, gently, but ably, sKe fasKions tKe soul. L. p. D. THE FATHER OF THE AEROPLANE " " Truth is Mighty and Will Prevail " ISTORY teems with instances of discov- erers and inventors who have been de- prived of the credit and the fruits of long and patient labors by the machin- ations of influential pretenders who have made fraudulent claim to the hon- ors and emoluments of the achieve- ments of others. The word " America " is in itself an instance of the successful pretensions of the monumental impost- orj because the appellation was first given in the marvellous tale of the un- scrupulous Americus Vespucius, who was first in the field with a book on the Fifteenth Century ocean-navigat- ors, and who absolutely ignored Colum- bus and deceived nations and peoples into accepting and approving a false title to the glory of the name of the new world. The Vespucian spirit is distinguisha- ble in all lands and times. It is found today in the realm of aeronautics, where volumes have been written for the purpose of advertising and aggran- dizing commercially successful aviators and for the further purpose of con- structing an apparent foundation to baseless claims of originality of inven- tion by systematically ignoring the dis- coveries and inventions of the late Pro- fessor John J. Montgomery. That ' ' a prophet is not without honor save in his own country " is once more exemplified by the fact that the Royal Aero Club of Vienna, Austria, in its of- ficial publication, after a critical dis- cussion of authentic records, three years ago declared that Professor Montgomery and not Otto Lilienthal, was entitled to be called the " Father of the Aeroplane " . The story of Montgomery, however, is like that of many another genius who, in spite of obstacles that would have driven ordinary mortals to de- spair, labored on with determined will, through long years of adversity, to see at last his nearly-perfected invention practically appropriated by men who refused to be deterred in a big game of chance by a mere breach of the legal rights of an unfinanced patentee. Witnesses of any of the wonderful aeronautical flights of the past few years, whether of the Wright or the Curtiss biplane or of the Bleriot or the Antoinette monoplane, have probably observed, if sufficiently close to the soaring vehicle, that it was provided with curved wings and that its wing- surface was manipulated by means of twisting. These combined and essen- THE REDWOOD. tial elements of safe and prolonged mechanical flight, used in public aero- nautical performances in Europe and America during the last seven years, comprehend the great problem which, I contend, was originally solved by Montgomery ; and to this western phy- sicist and mathematician, I believe, the impartial viewer will find, is primarily due the honor, not only of discovering, but of first practically demonstrating by physical experiments, the basic prin- ciples of aerial navigation. Born in California in 1858, the son of Hon. Zachary Montgomery, Assistant Attorney-General of the United States under Grover Cleveland ' s first admin- istration, this aeronautical scientist was in 1879 graduated from St. Ignatius College, San Francisco, thoroughly equipped for his chosen career. His early studies of bird-flight and wing- formation, and his numerous experi- ments with original soaring devices, earned the enthusiastic admiration of the brilliant Octave Chanute, who in later years expressed an ardent desire to experiment conjointly with Mont- gomery on the latter ' s farm at San Diego. At the International Conference of Aeronautical Scientists in Chicago dur- ing the world ' s Columbian Exposition in 1893, the Californian pi " oclaimed new principles of human flight, to the utter amazement of the older scientists whose theories he assailed. Montgomery was a man of striking personality. His massive head, bald to the ears, sat firmly on immense broad shoulders, while his strong face, with its square jaw, resolute mouth, com- bative nose, and deep-set, penetrating black eyes, suggested an intellect and character of extraordinary grasp and power. His work in the sphere of aero- dynamics attracted widespread atten- tion. For a score of years he had la- bored incessantly in quest of the secret of aerial flight, and he felt that the secret was his at last, but failing to enlist capital in what the complacent earth-Avorms deemed an attempt to ac- complish the impossible, this humble Newton Avas forced by necessity to dis- continue for a time the work that most appealed to him and to avail himself opportunely of the proffered chair of Physics at Santa Clara University. A number of publications to which Professor Montgomery sent descriptive papers on aeronautics returned the ar- ticles with thanks, and one magazine offered the generous explanation that the matter was " incomprehensible to most men and therefore not desirable for a periodical of general circulation. ' ' At Santa Clara, Montgomery utilized his spare hours in the construction of a flying-machine that should conform in every respect to the principles for- mulated by him; but, again, hampered by lack of means, and frequently criti- cized as a man who had turned great talents to little use, " on account of an airship mania " , he worked on silently and alone, but unceasingly, until, in 1905, he announced that he had built and tested in every conceivable way an aeroplane which possessed the essential THE REDWOOD. elements of controlled flight and main- tained equilibrium. On April 29th, 1905, the quaint old Mission town of Santa Clara played host to thousands of people come to witness the long heralded ascent of the Montgomery airship. Correspondents and artists from many newspapers and mag azines were in the gathering on the college campus when the anxiously- awaited hour of exhilntion came. The confident Montgomery then introduced a startling innovation. Other experi- menters with aeroplanes had flound- ered around on the earth with their gliders, but this man daringly used a heated-air balloon to carry his glider and its pilot, Daniel Maloney, up to a height of 4,000 feet. Then the glider Vv is cut loose, and there ensued a spec- tacle, or series of spectacles, that kept the vast crowd either gaping in sheer wonderment or cheering in a frenzy of delight. Aviator Maloney glided eight miles in twenty minutes and safely alighted at a previously designated spot. Dur- ing that record-breaking flight, he ex- ecuted spiral and circling turns with ease and grace, described figure-eight evolutions, traveled in a horizontal course with the wind and against it, and indulged in thrilling dives, the hair-raising movement being checked by simply changing the angles of the wing surfaces. That flight, it has been said, inaugurated the era of flying-ma- chines that fly. The Scientific American of May 20th, 1905, referring to the Montgomery ma- chine, says: " An aeroplane has been constructed that in all circumstances will retain its equilibrium and is sub- ject in its gliding flight to the control and guidance of an operator. " Alexander? Graham Bell, in the same connection, declared that " all subse- quent attempts at aviation must begin with the Montgomery machine " . Prior to April 29th, 1905, the longest flights of man-carrying machines were the maximums of 1,000 feet by Lilien- thal and Ader, the 852-feet flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, and the 1377-feet flight of the Wrights in 1904 in the presence of Octave Chanute. All of these flights ended in damage to the apparatus ; but on the day of the eight- mile flight from the balloon in Santa Clara, aerial navigation began its new career on scientifically-determined principles. Detailed descriptions and numerous illustrations of the Montgomery aero- plane appeared in the aeronautical and scientific press, and there was ample incentive for such publicity, for the rec- ords of aeronautics show that failure was written over every attempt at aerial navigation prior to 1905. Be- fore that date, according to Victor Longhead, late secretary of the Ameri- can Aeronautical Association, and a well-known authority, " all attempts at flight, without a solitary exception that is authenticated, had been marked by ever-present uncertainty as to equilib- rium, constant hazard to the operator and frequent accidents, ranging from mishaps to fearful fatalities. " THE REDWOOD. In America and in France — and America and France led the world in the new science — successful gliding flights were numerous in the year 1905, but the dates of those successful flights run from June to the end of the year. Bleriot, Archdeacon and the Voisius glided over the Seine in June and July, 1905, and the remarkable sustained flights of the Wright brothers over Huffman Prairie took place between September 26th and October 5th, 1905. I mention the Wright brothers par- ticularly in this connection, for the reason that in the Federal Courts, some years ago, they sought to enjoin every skillful aviator using other than a Wright aeroplane from making public flights in this country on the general ground of infi ' ingement of the Wright patent. Let me put this statement clearly: The Wright Company in all its flying-machines is using curved sur- faces in combination with wing-warp- ing. The Wright brothers invented this combination or they did not invent it. If they did invent it, they omitted all mention of it in their letters patent. The Wright brothers ' patent is is- sued for a combination of " a normally- flat aeroplane " with a type of wing- warping which had figured previously in numerous French tests ; but as an in- controvertible fact all of the Wright flying-machines, as well as the Cur- tiss, Bleriot, and many other aero- planes, use today, and have been using since the Spring of 1905, " curved sur- faces combined with wing- warping " , and that combination was introduced to the world on April 29th, 1905, and is described in the minutest detail in the Montgomery patents, and the com- bination was described in the press im- mediately following the epochal eight- mile flight at Santa Clara. Montgomery was a profound student of aeronautics, and he reasoned out his theory of the curved surface thus : The plane surface and the curved surface are distinctive, just as the flat surface and the vessel are distinctive, and, as a flat surface has its application in re- lation to solids while a vessel is suited to matter in its fluid form, so, there- fore, surfaces which are designed to operate upon the air, which is a fluid, must be constructed in a manner to suit the fluid condition rather than upon the lines of a plane suited to sol- ids only. A simple, though homely, il- lustration of this principle is the fact that any one may throw a pile of books upon a table and the table will hold the books, but if a quantity of water be thrown upon the surface of the ta- ble, the water will not remain there. In a nutshell, Montgomery contended that the fundamental principles for success in aerial flight lie in the warp- ing of the wing-surfaces as a balancing and controlling element. When his original theories were op- posed by men who, like Professor Langley, held decided opinions with reference to the art of flying, Mont- gomery freely admitted that his crit- ics were able and praiseworthy experi- menters, but he cabnly observed that Aristotle was one of the greatest of THE REDWOOD. the world ' s philosophers, and that Aristotle ' s assertion that falling bodies would descend with a velocity propor- tionate to their weight (a stone weigh- ing ten pounds falling ten times as fast as a stone weighing one pound) had been proven false by Galileo ' s actual experiment of dropping a heavy weight and a light weight at the same instant, side by side, from the tower of Pisa. Even when the weights were heard to strike the gromid together there were some who, in spite of the evidence of their senses, still clung to the doctrine of Aristotle. Montgomery declared that, given the time and the means, he would prove his theories by experi- ments. It was not until 1904 that his matured studies were applied to ma- chines in a conclusive demonstration of l)otli equilibrium and control under the guidance of a rider, and those machines were constructed under patent office protection, so far as that goes, and in- volved, among other tlnngs, the warp- ing of wing surfaces. Through years of struggle Montgom- ery had reached the threshold of suc- cess, and it was the irony of fate that the merited reward should be literally snatched from his hands. He had once experimented with a soaring apparatus Avhicli consisted of true (flat) planes, and failure in the use of the planes had led him to the adoption of curved surfaces. His experiences in the eigh- ties convinced him that the laws of aerodynamics and the formation and adjustment of the proper wing surfaces for flight were not understood, and that it was foolhardy for anyone to at- tempt the navigation of the air while uncertain as to whether or not his ma- chine contained in itself the property of inherent equilibrium. To be ex- plicit, there are two classes of ma- chines, one in which the equilibrium depends ui on the skill of the rider, as in the ease of the bicycle, and one in which the machine has in itself the ele- ments of equilibrium, as in the auto- mobile, the operator of which has merely to use his judgment in directing its course. The materialization of his master-study in 1904 was the prelude to the triumph of April 29th, 1905, and the year 1905, I venture to predict, will be known to the future as something akin to the " annus mirabilis " of the aeroplane. In his examination of the wings of hawks, buzzards, eagles, seagulls, peli- cans, wild geese and other birds. Profes- sor Montgomery found the under-sur- faee of the wing from the front to the rear edge a true parabola, varying in its curviture, both according to the re- lation between the weight of the bird and its wing surface, and the propor- tion of length and breadth of the wing ; but, although his minute observations and mathematical deductions would fill volumes, suffice it to say that from such observations he reached the con- elusion that the surface best suited to receiving and utilizing the aerial movements and forces " is one having a gradually increasing curviture from the rear to the front edge, and that the curviture of this is dependent on the THE REDWOOD. relation of weight to the surface and the length of the surface to its breadth " . To be still more explicit, Montgom- ery ' s study of bird-flight showed him a reciprocal action between bird and air, and the idea of reciprocal action informed him that the problem of aer- ial flight would be solved through the principle that " the bird and the sur- rounding air form a system " . After approximating the surface-shape of the wing, he obtained an intimate acquaint- ance with the action and re-action of the air, and from his experiments in fluid movements he drew these conclu- sions : 1st, That a surface to act upon the air and to be acted upon by the air, in such a manner as to sustain a human body, must be so formed and adjusted that it will produce certain rotary movements in the air. 2nd, That the parts of the surface must be co-ordinate, so that a change in one part will produce a corresponding change in other parts, and consequent- ly act upon the air so as to induce va- rious modifications of the air move- ment. On these principles, then, Mont- gomery built his aeroplane — two wing- surfaces so placed as to form a para- bolic surface from the front to the rear edge ; the tail-piece consisting of a vertical and horizontal plane. The wings were divided so as to produce a general rotation in the air, the rear portion being so arranged as to be free to change position, either automatical- ly, when under excessive atmospheric pressure, or devisedly when the aero- naut was directing its course. When on one side the wing was tilted, on the other it would take an opposite posi- tion, so that in consequence there would be on either side an opposite but reciprocal change. As to the tail- piece, which had an influence on the entire mechanism, the vertical portion served to secure side equilibrium and to meet antagonistic pressures from above and below the surfaces ; while the hori- zontal was used to assure fore and aft equilibrium and as a necessary element for downward or upward or horizontal motion. This mechanism was briefly described, with illustrations in " Le Magasin Pittoresque " (Paris), as early as March, 1905, the correspondent, Henry Coupin, eagerly directing the attention of his progressive country- men to Montgomery ' s successful exper- iments in flying-craft. In a recent issue of an aeronautical magazine appeared an advertisement with the boldface topline suggestion: ' ' Build your own aeroplane ! ' ' and thereunder was the statement: " We supply blue prints with exact and de- tailed measurements of nearly all fly- ing-machines ; plain and easy to build from! " And the public was further advised in the same advertisement: " Anyone can build an aeroplane from our blue prints ! ' ' Nobody will doubt that, legally or otherwise, " Blue prints and exact detailed measurements " of " nearly all flying-machines " can be supplied, as the advertisement indi- cates, and nobody will doubt that aero- planes can be readily built from the THE REDWOOD. plans furnished. Since a piratical " play-bnreau " flourished for years by acting as an independent agency in supplying copyrighted dramas to the- atrical companies at a rate which amounted to one-third of the royalty demanded by the author, it is not un- reasonable to suppose that somewhat similar liberties might be taken under the patent laws. Moreover, it may be remarked that thousands operate Edi- son ' s electrical inventions as well, if not better, than Edison himself could do ; and not only that, but there are thousands who can make the machines that make the inventions ; but the brain of an Edison was required to conceive and plan and build in order to prepare the way for the procession of imitators. And likewise, the brain of a Montgom- ery was necessary to direct lesser minds to the heights of success in the progress of flying-machines. Prior to the 29th of April, 1905, the successful flying-machine was un- known. The aeroplane which recorded the eight-mile flight at Santa Clara on that day had in it less than twenty dollars ' worth of material. Its weight was just forty-eight pounds, and it con- sisted of nothing more than a wooden frame, two sets of wings and a peculi- arly-shaped rudder or tail. Certainly, the machine was " easy to build " . Far from being a complex affair, it was simplicity itself, and, with the aid of " blue prints and exact and detailed measurements " , might have been con- structed in a single day. But that suc- cessful aeroplane was the fruit of twenty-five years of scientific endeav- or, and it cost tens of thousands of dollars, perhaps, in experimentation and study. Nevertheless, when the Montgomery airship was described in the press of the country, even to " the exact measurements " , it was not diffi- cult for a man to " build his own aero- plane " . It was an easy matter for the formerly unsuccessful aviator to dis- card his flat planes for curved surfaces and to equal and even surpass Mont- gomery with Montgomery ' s own aero- plane. The California physicist and invent- or was one of the few great minds de- voted to the development of the science of aeronautics. The bird-men are, as a rule, mere jockeys of the airship ; but the skilful jockey is necessary in the progress of flying, and we appreciate the risks he takes, admire his daring spirit, and applaud his nerve and endur- ance. To the discovei ' ers and formulat- ors of principles of aerial navigation, or to the mere inventor of a successful aeroplane, however, comparatively lit- tle attention has been paid ; there being little of a spectacular nature in the pa- tient brainwork of years in studio and laboratory, and the crowds that cheer the sensational feats of the aviator are quite uneoneeimed as to whether the Wrights obtained their " normally-flat aeroplane " idea from Octave Chanute, as the German patent office infers, or whether the Wright company is using the Montogomery curved surfaces, as the evidence seems to indicate ; and the public may be less concerned to know THE REDWOOD. that the clever machinist and aviator, Glenn H. Curtiss, personally sought to have Professor Montgomery intervene in the " Wright-Curtiss injunction suit, because it was a conceded fact that the Curtiss aeroplane was the offspring of Montgomery ' s patent. The Santa Clara professor classed Curtiss in the same category with the enjoining aeronauts, for he had reliable information to the effect that Curtiss had been assisted in the construction of his aeroplane by Captain Thomas Bald- win, the balloonist, who became a full- fledged aviator soon after cultivating Montgomery ' s friendship and spending hours daily with the scientist during the latter ' s experiments at Santa Clara in 1904. In an article in the New York " World " magazine of November 27th, 1904, Captain Baldwin claimed to have received a four-months ' course in phy- sics from Rev. Richard H. Bell, the Jesuit physicist and electrician, and in- timated that Father Bell had assisted him in the building of the Arrow, the airship exhibited by Baldwin at the St. Louis Exposition. In a letter to a San Jose paper, December 6th, 1904, Father Bell disclaimed any credit, if such there were, in the premises, and declar- ed that he had " never in his life had five minutes ' talk with Baldwin con- cerning airships " . The learned Jesuit then put the question: " Why does not the Captain tell the public what he ac- knowledged in a New York paper, and what he acknowledged but a short time ago to the man who really did give him confidentially much new scientific data with reference to the proper use of propellers, and v hich data the Cap- tain boldly made use of in the construc- tion of his machine? " Father Bell, moreover, emphatically denied any con- nection with Baldwin, and plainly stated that " it was to Professor Mont- gomery alone that Baldwin was indebt- ed for the success attained with the air- ship. Arrow, at the St. Louis Exposi- tion " . In a number of so-called histories of aeronautics recently issued from the press the name of Professor Montgom- ery has been omitted. Of his thousand gliding flights, duly authenticated, not a solitary mention is made ; of the fact that Aviator Maloney, one of Mont- gomery ' s operators, was the victim of an aeroplane accident due to the break- ing of a rod in the frame of his ma- chine, there is said never a word, as if an allusion to Maloney ' s death would be a confession of the knowledge of Montgomery ' s existence; and the man to whom, more than to any one else, liv- ing or dead, is to be attributed the suc- cess which the aeroplane has attained in the hands of others, is thus deliber- ately deprived of recognition in aei ' o- nautieal books controlled, it would seem, by influences which undoubtedly feared Montgomery ' s patent rights while he was in the flesh, a nd are evi- dently jealous of the place Montgom- ery should occupy in the aeronautical firmament now that the brainy physi- cist is beyond the cavil of envious minds that withhold justice from the dead. 10 THE REDWOOD. The ambition to enter the field of commerce with the most perfect of aer- oplanes perished with the tragic death of Professor Montgomery. Cap- ital for his enterprise was at hand, and he had gone into the foothills near Evergreen, California, accompanied by a mechanician and an operator, to make final tests of a machine embody- , ing his ideas of aeroplane construction. Having absolute confidence in the in- herent equilibrium of his model, he scouted the thought of accident; but he had been advised by friends and rel- atives, and by his mechanician, Corne- lius Rhinehart, and his operator, John Vierra, against making flights, not be- cause of his age or weight, but because vertigo had seized him on occasions during glides into the air. Argument was useless against his iron will, and on the morning of October 81st, 1911, he mounted the machine and, speeding along the starting track down the side- hill, began his ascent. He had risen less than thirty feet into the air when his assistants, with affright, saw his hands drop to his side and his body fall backward. The unpiloted machine slowly descended to earth, but the great weight of Montgomery ' s body rolling to one side threw the aeroplane out of balance when hardly a dozen feet from the ground. One wing struck and broke, and the unconscious Mont- gomery, falling through the guy-wires, his head hit a projecting bolt which pierced his brain. The fatal accident occurred immediately following a series of fifty-four flights, in all of which. according to the copious notes taken by Mrs. Montgomery (who acted as her husband ' s amanuensis), and ac- cording to the testimony of Rhinehart and Vierra, the light machine had in- variably maintained perfect equilibri- um in the air both in wind and calm. Without seeking in the least to min- imize the just fame of the Wright brothers, one of whom, like Montgom- ery, has joined the innumerable cara- van, — without seeking in the least to minimize the just fame of any of the brilliant navigators of the air, — I claim that Professor John J. Montgomery, an American and a Californian, is clearly entitled to be called " the Father of the Aeroplane " , and that all present-day aviators who really ply the heavens are indebted for their success to those long years of scientific experi- ment which had for their climax (on the memorable April 29th, 1905), that eight-mile glide which Octave Chanute, in a congratulatory letter to Professor Montgomery, called " the greatest and most daring feat ever attempted in gliding flight " . The marvellous development of the heavier-than-air machine, crowned with the thousand-year dream of aerial navigation, has roused universal inter- est in aeronautical science and its seem- ingly illimitable possibilities and led to a world-wide discussion of the genesis of siiccessful aviation ; but since many conflicting though insistent, claims of discovery, invention and patent-rights unmannerly jostle one another along the broadway of publicity, I may be THE REDWOOD. 11 pardoned for suggesting the idea of a commission of reputable, competent and impartial men who, undismayed by the confusion of clamoring tongues, would judiciously examine the authen- tic records which begin with the Inter- national Aeronautical Conference in 1893, and then positively confirm or re- fute (and no one, with facts for a basis, can refute) Professor John J. Mont- gomery ' s posthumous claim to priority of discovery and application of princi- ples which have enabled man, like fabled Mercury, to mount the clouds and terrorize the eagles in the sky. CHARLES D. SOUTH, SR. COLUMBUS The rising sun dispels tKe mists of night, And Palos ' port witn bunting is beaignt ; For Castille ' s queen, tKougK pressed witn other care, Has heard, at last, Columous ' earnest prayer. And now, Ke nails tKe long, long-wisKed-for Kour, WKen Ke, tKe seas, for unknown lands can scour. He Kids Kis motel}? crew witK Kim repair To Palos ' CKurcK, wKere, rapt in fervent prayer. He Kumbly Kegs tKe Virgin Queen to Ke, His guide, upon tKe vast uncKarted sea. TKen, rising up, Ke seeks tKe bark so frail. In wKicK, so large a freigKt of Kope, must sail. A migKty tKrong Kas come to bid adieu. And wisK Godspeed to Kim, and to Kis crew. And, as tKe Kour of starting drawetK near. From many an e-pe tKere wells a bitter tear. For some brave Kearts tKere are, wKo never more, Will look, witK love, upon tKeir native sKore; Tet in tKe eyes of all tKere glistens Kope, And grim resolve, witK dangers fell to cope. TKe ancKor ' s weigKed ; tKe sails unfurled Columbus sails to find anotKer world. D. 12 THE AERONAUT ' S CRIME s 1 wf XEt EFORE a desk, strewn with papers and oth- er odds and ends, sat Thomas Brooks, NeAV York ' s famous pri- vate detective. He was a middle aged man with dark brown hair and a pair of keen, piercing eyes. His features lent a pleasing ap- pearance to a well-proportioned phy- sique. He had been in the detective business for many years, and had won a world-wide reputation by his ability in unravelling the most baffling myste- ries of crime. He had just finished the sensational Terhune case, in which James Ter- hune, a wealthy banker, had been mur- dered in his home for no apparent rea- son. The police had been appealed to, but, after weeks of labor, had effected nothing. The stricken family had then come to Brooks who solved the mystery with surprising skill. As he sat in his comfortable chair he was contemplating a trip to California, in order to get away from business worries and take a much-needed rest. But these pleasing thoughts were quickly put to flight. For, as he was about to touch the bell to call the office boy, that worthy personage ap- peared at the door, ushered in a short, stockily-built man and announced him as Mr. Rudolph Allyu. " Mr. Brooks, " said the man, with a raise of his heavy eyebrows. " The same, Mr. Allyn. Did you wish to see me on business? " " Yes, " replied Allyn. " I am from Aurora and am president of the First National Bank in that city. " " Very well, Mr. Allyn. Have a seat. Do you smoke? " " No, thank you, I don ' t. Now, Mr. Brooks, as my time is limited, I wish to state the caiise of my visit at once. Up to about a week ago our bank em- ployed, as a clerk, a young man known as Harold Delmar. He had come to Aurora some months ago, from a little toAvn in Vermont, where he had been employed as a cashier. He applied to us for a position and after giving him a trial we decided to keep him on. He gained our good will by his integrity and ability, and soon rose to the posi- tion of cashier. " Now, to get down to the matter in hand. Last Tuesday he did not ap- pear at the bank. The matter was re- ported to me, and I, thinking he might have been taken ill, phoned his apart- ments. I was told that Mr. Delmar had not been to his rooms since five o ' clock on the jDrevious evening, at which time he had come in, packed his suitcase, paid his bill and left without announcing his destination. It struck me as being strange that Delmar should 13 14 THE REDWOOD. walk off like that without saying a word to anyone ; so I questioned one of the clerks to find out if anything un- usual had happened that might possi- bly throw some light on Delmar ' s dis- appearance. The employee replied that nothing in particular had taken place except that he had handed the cashier a telegram, the day before he left, which stated that a large amount of money, two hundred thousand dol- lars, to be specific, would arrive on the following Saturday. ' ' I attached no imjDortance to this in- formation, at the time, so I thought I would let the matter rest. Now, last night the main vault was blown open and everything of value in it was taken. I did not report the matter to the police, because I knew that they would make a fizzle of it, as they usual- ly do, but came directly to you. I have been authorized by the Board of Direc- tors to lay the case before you. For my part I think that Delmar ' s disa D- pearance and the robbery is a coinci- dence not to be despised. " During the recitation of the story, Brooks sat still and listened. Once in a while he uttered short ejaculations, which were passed, unheeded, by the speaker. After a lapse of a few mo- ments, which were spent in thought, the detective spoke : " You say this man ' s name was Del- mar? Have you any photograph or other mark by which I could identify him? " " Yes, " replied Allyn, " I have a pho- tograph of him which was found in his rooms after he left. " " Very good. Now, has anything l:)een disturbed at the bank since the robbery took place? " " No. I gave strict orders that every- thing be left as it was until you ar- rived. ' ' " Very well, Mr. Allyn, we will start as soon as I can get ready. " Brooks touched the bell for the office boy who appeared almos t immediately. " James, " said the detective, " tell my chauffeur to hurry with the ma- chine and also to bring my suitcase along. ' ' " Yes sir. " In ten minutes the door opened and James entered. " The machine is waiting, sir. " " Very well, " replied Brooks. Five minutes brought them to the station. They were comfortably seated in the train speeding to Aurora. About a mile outside of the little town of Sacksville, New York, stood a low, barn-like structure with tAvo mass- ive doors in front. Inside of this build- ing, on the evening prior to the inci- dent just narrated, a little group of men were working feverishly. In the center of the group stood a young man of about twenty-five. To the casual observer he was nothing more than the ordinary well-built youth ; but on clos- er inspection one would be able to perceive a furtive expression in his light, blue eyes. He seemed to be su- perintending the men who were putting THE REDWOOD. 15 into shape a huge bird-like construc- tion. Standing apart from the workers were two rough-looking men, earnestly conversing together. One of them walked over to the young man, who was urging his mechanics to complete the aeroplane, for such it was. ' ' Say, when are you going to get this contraption finished? " asked the man. " ' Twill be daybreak before we get started. " ' ' We ' 11 be finished in a few minutes. Are you sure everything is all ready? " " Yes. Everything is 0. K. " A quarter of an hour after the aero- plane rolled out into the open. " All right, now, get in, " said the young man to the two who were not working. The aviator jerked the lever, the motor started, and the plane began to rise slowly; it continued to soar until it was but a mere speck against the clouds ; then it rode on a straight line towards the city of Auroi ' a. " When you sight the First Na- tional, " the youth yelled, " tell me. " It was not long before one of the men shouted to the aviator that they were nearing the bank building. The aeroplane began to descend until it rested on the gravelled roof of the First National Bank building. The three men alighted, one carrying a kit of burglar ' s tools. Doors opened before them like magic, for they were experts in the art of burglary. To drill a hole in the main vault preparatory to blowing off the lock was the work of a few minutes. The explosive used was absolutely noiseless. Finally they emerged from the skylight with satc hels full of cur- rency and bonds. The machine speeded back to Sacksville freighted with its plunder. When Brooks and Allyn reached Au- rora they went directly to the bank. The president showed Brooks into the vault. The detective minutely inspect- ed everything. He asked to see the night watchman and when the latter appeared Brooks cross-examined him. " Did you leave your post at any time during the night? " " No sir, " replied the watchman. " Did you see or hear anything un- usual while making your rounds? " " No sir. Except once, about two o ' clock in the morning, I noticed a queer sight hovering above the build- ing, it looked to me like a huge bird ; but I attributed this to my imagination and gave it no further thought. " The detective ' s eyebrows raised a trifle at this piece of information; but he said nothing. He asked to be con- ducted to the roof of the building. After examining the gravel closely Brooks uttered an exclamation: " Just as I thought. " Some time after the detective was seated in the office of the bank presi- dent. " Have you found any clues? " asked Allyn. " Some very good ones. I think I will go to my hotel now, and study them out. " In the lobby of the Hotel Fuuston 16 THE REDWOOD. Brooks sat with the morning paper in his hand and the inevitable cigar be- tween his teeth. An item in the paper attracted his attention. It stated that an aviation meet was to be held at Los Angeles in a few days. " By George! " exclaimed the detec- tive, " I think I will take a run over to Los Angeles. He might possibly be there. " Not many hours after Brooks was seated in the luxurious parlor car of the Western Limited, on his way to the land of the Golden West. The sun had risen over the hills and had driven away the fleecy clouds that lurked in the western horizon, leaving a clear, blue sky overhead. The peo- ple were coming to the grounds in a continuous stream ; the massive grand- stands were packed, a long string of automobiles formed a ring around the large aerodrome. In one corner of the field stood a row of hangars in which the machines of the different contest- ants were stored. Seated among the crowds in the grandstand was a man who now and then cast eager glances towards the hangars. As each contestant issued from his hangar, he was seen to give a start of expectancy. But, after a close scrutiny of the machine and its occu- pant, he would settle back in his seat with a look of disappointment. This was repeated many times until there was but one more entry. Looking at his program, he saw that the last con- testant was an unknown aviator from New York. " Ah! " muttered the man to him- self. " This must be he. " The flaps of Hangar No. 6 were thrown open and the last machine was wheeled out upon the field. What the man saw was an apparently middle aged man with jet black hair and a heavy mustache. The watcher did not evince any disappointment, but merely smiled and left the grandstand. The aeroplane from No. 6 was now up in the air circling around and per- forming various tricks. Evei ' y eye in the vast assembly was upon the daring aeronaut. Suddenly a loud cry came from the spectators ; No. 6 was hurtling to the ground. The driver was now lying on the ground, dead. Something had gone wrong with his engine. Be- fore any other person had time to reach him, the watcher of the grand- stand was on the spot. Brooks, for he it was, tore off the black wig and mustache and there was revealed to him the light hair and blue eyes of Har- old Delmar. " Just as I thought, " murmured the detective, " a disguise. " Soon a crowd gathered around and Brooks covered up the body with a tar- paulin. The ambulance bore the corpse to an undertaker ' s. That night the detective sent a tele- gram to the president of the First Na- tional Bank of Aurora, stating that he had witnessed the death of Harold Del- mar and that he would reach Aurora as soon as possible. Before he had left for Los Angeles, THE REDWOOD. 17 Brooks had detailed two of his assist- ants to trail Delmar ' s accomplice or accomplices. When he returned he found that his assistants had been busy during his absence and had caught the two men who had helloed Delmar. The detective, after promises of leniency in court, had wormed a confession out of the accomplices. He learned where the money, taken from the bank, was hidden, and recovered it. We find Brooks again sitting in his office thinking over his recent case. " By George! " he exclaimed, " that ' s some climate out there in California. I am going out there for my vacation right now and nobody is going to stop me this time. " F. Buckley McGurrin, 18. ODE TO VULCAN ANACREON— METRICAL TRANSLATION As spring, a goblet new, O, skillful artist mould, Ana on it, well in view, Tne springtime ' s cnarms unfold. And also cKase tKe rose, TKe fairest of our flowers ; But pray do not disclose TKe end of mortals ' nours. But grave, of Jove, tKe son, And Venus KlitKe and fair, TKe Graces smiling on TKe vine leaf ' s beauty rare. DELTA P. LLAMBDA. THE DEATH OF LITTLE LEO The pall of night o ' er earth was spread, The busy city slept, Save where beside her darling ' s bed A mother, vigil kept. She wept, as on her boy she cast, A look of blank despair, For his young life was ebbing fast Despite her loving care. And there she watched, a prey to grief, ' Till morning brought the day. But, with it came, of sweet relief. No hope-inspiring ray. How wasted now that dear young form ! Once fraught with childish grace How faintly throbs that heart so warm ! How pale that cherished face ! death, the mother cried, forbear; Withhold the cruel dart. And spare my boy, so young, so fair, Break not a mother ' s heart. He will not hear her anguished prayer. His cruel heart is steeled. Her darling child he will not spare. His prey to none he ' ll yield. — Hush! Little Leo sleeps at last, And lo, he ' s seen to smile, A beam of heavenly light is cast On his sweet face the while. How swift her grief would turn to joy, How fast her tears she ' d dry Could she but see above her boy God ' s Angel from on high. For, from the land where dwell the blest. He, to this earth had sped, And to her child with pain, oppressed These cheering words he said: " Of what avail to here remain, " " Where evils, life molest. " " Where keenest joys give place to pain, " " And hearts are grief oppressed. " " But come with me to that bright land " " From sorrow ever free. " " Come sing in our angelic band " " God ' s praise eternally. " — His sleep is brief, he starts, and now. With happy face he wakes. But death is written on his brow. His mother ' s hand he takes. " 0 mother, I had such a dream, " " An angel, to me came, " " And 0, how happy did he seem, " " He called me by my name — " " How cold it grows, mother dear! How dark it has become. " — mother leave me not, stay here. My limbs are growing numb. It colder grows, ' tis dark as night ! O mother, where art thou — See mother ! see that lovely light — 0, I am dying now. Then on his mother Leo cast A look of tender love, A moment more and he had passed To God ' s bright home above. T? ' K- W mother, weep not for thy son, God ' s holy will adore. For him, again, when life is done. You ' ll meet to part no more. L. P. D. 18 A DAY ' S WORK EALLY, Lucille, " ex- claimed young Rob- ert Deerhurst, striv- ing unsuccessfully to banish the note of ir- ritation from his voice, " this is quite absurd! " The fair-haired vision in the depths of the big chair extended a white arm, and drew aside the curtain from the window. " Really? " she murmured, allowing her gaze to wander casually over the sun-lit city, glistening with melting snow, " I fail to note any absurdity whatever in my attitude. I am per- fectly independent, as you are — ought to be — aware, and — " " Yes, you are independ ent, unfor- tunately, " interrupted Deerhurst. " Lord knows I ' ve had sufficient proof of that during our engagement. But when your independence reaches such a point that you must crown everything with this Quixotic idea, jeopardizing your social standing — not to mention the reflection cast on me — it ' s time to stop! " Robert thrust his hands viciously into his trousers pockets and strode the length of the room. Returning, he halted beside the chair, and stood look- ing doAvn at its fair occupant. " Well? " said she, for the first time allowing her gaze to rest directly upon him. " It ' s simply got to stop here ! " he burst out. " The working girls can get along without my fiancee lowering her- self to their plane. " Then more calm- ly, " for Heaven ' s sake, Lucille, why can ' t you be content with your settle- ment work, and those other fancies of youi ' s, without this? " " The point is, that I am not, and if I choose to meet the poor, over-worked, ill-treated shop-girls in their environ- ment, who is to hinder me? " " I must beg to remind you, " re- I lied Robert, struggling to retain his temper, " that you are to be my wife, and consequently I have something to say regarding your actions. I ' ll sim- ply not permit it; that ' s final! " Lucille rose, the depths of her blue eyes smoldering ominously. " Mr. Deerhurst, " she said, her voice choking with anger, " you have com- pletely overstepped this vaunted au- thority of yours. I have not yet mar- ried you, and I am free to do as I wish. " Her hand fumbled for a mo- ment at her finger. Then it was ex- tended, and in the dainty palm lay a gleaming solitaire. " You will please consider our engagement at an end! " With fingers that trembled slightly, Deerhurst took the ring and thrust it into a waist-coat pocket. " Very well, if you wish it. " With this he turned and strode from the room. 19 20 THE REDWOOD. The girl, a white hand clasping her bare throat, stood leaning against the casement until his foot-steps had died away, and the subdued clang of the heavy bronze doors reached her ears. Then she glided to the ' phone on a side-table, hesitated a moment, and then called for a number. Outside, Deerhurst descended the broad stone steps, and filled his lungs with the crisp winter air. Awakening his drowsing chauffeur he threw him- self into the tonneau. Soon the big car moved off. To the inquiring glance of the driver he replied with but a com- prehensive gesture. He sank back wearily, and strove to quell the demons of anger that filled his mind. His thoughts gradually became more or- derly, and after lighting a cigarette, he drew on his gloves with a semblance of his customary ease. Along Broadway the shop-lights blossomed cheerily through the gather- ing dusk. A moment later the grim, high-walled canyon was ablaze with myriad electric lights, whose rays lent a magical glamour to the hurrying throngs. Robert Deerhurst presented a good example of the idle young man we often encounter among the wealthier classes of our large cities. While his natural endowments were by no means scanty, he lacked the ambition to hew for himself a place in the world; de- pending rather on his income to supply the commendation ordinarily resultant of personal accomplishments. A natural fault, and in a man of his type, one scarce deserving of censure. From infancy his had been the silver spoon ; luxuries came to him as a mat- ter of course. Later, his expensive tastes, always gratified, had become Epicurean, and his love for the good things of life effectively counter-acted any mental scruples. It was but natural that the thought of a work-a-day existence should be distasteful to him ; how much more so, then, when his fiancee proposed to act- ually engage in one. His mind reverted to his call on Miss Livingston and their heated discussion. Unwilling longer to entertain it, Robert found the speaking tube and murmured a direction to the driver. Quickly the car swung around. Elderly and genial Mr. Livingston entered his expensively furnished liv- ing-room, threw a base-ball edition of an evening paper on the table, and sa- luted his daughter. Then, seating him- self in his arm chair, he drew her to his knee, and fondled her as he had done since she was a child. For Henry Livingston ' s affection for his daughter was proverbial, and his associates on " the street " were wont to assert that as far as he was concerned, the market could go to smash had Lucille ex- pressed the desire to witness such a calamity. " Where ' s mother? " he asked, after a time. " She hasn ' t returned from Mrs. Worthington ' s reception, " answered his daughter. " The poor dear is prob- THE REDWOOD. 21 ably mired somewhere in the traffic. She insists on having William drive her, and you know how clever he is at getting stalled down-town. " " Yes — poor William ' s only salvation lies in his zeal in applying body-polish. That and your mother ' s unswerving loyalty are all that save him from the discard. ' ' ' ' You didn ' t forget the errand I gave you? " asked Lucille anxiously, voicing the thought upper-most in her mind. " Then you are still determined to carry out this new philanthropic idea of yours? " " Yes, daddy. " " It seems to me — " ventured her father, fearful of arousing the ii ' e of his off-spring. " Now I know that you are going to say that the poor, tired, over-worked shop-girl — this in a sarcastic tone — can subsist without my personal super- vision, just as Bob — " ' ' Then you and Robert have thrashed this out before now? " Lucille colored slightly, and con- cealed her left hand in the folds of her gown. " We did have a few words over it. " " Nothing serious — in the nature of a quarrel — I trust? " " Well — " she began slowly, and then exclaimed, " but did you ask Mr. Ham- mersmith ? ' ' Henry Livingston sighed. " Yes, less to my credit. " " And everything is arranged? " queried Lucille eagerly. " Everything. I know that I shouldn ' t allow it for an instant, but — at any rate, don ' t breathe a word to your mother. You will probably tire of it soon enough, and then I ' ll have my sweet, sensible little girl again. " Lucille laughed musically, and stoop- ed to kiss him. Mrs. Livingston entered at this junc- ture, and shortly after the family sat down at dinner. On reaching his club Robert dis- missed the car, and slowly approached the entrance. Inside, he sank into a chair, seized a paper, and beckoned a waiter. For several minutes he strove to fasten his mind on the vivid contents of the sheet. He had nearly succeeded when a diminutive page approached him, saying, " Beg pardon, Mr. Deer- hurst, there ' s a gentleman wishing to speak with you on the ' phone. " " Tell him I ' m not in, " answered Deerhurst shortly. " Beg pardon, sir — he said his busi- ness was particularly urgent. " " Find out who it is and tell him I ' ll call later. " " Yes sir. " The page sped away. A moment later he returned. " Beg pardon, he says he must speak with you. It ' s Mr. Hall, the attorney. ' ' " Very well, " said Deerhurst weari- ly, " I ' ll come. " He crossed the broad, comfortable smoking-room and entered the booth. " Hello, Mr. Hall— what ' s the trou- ble? " " I fear I must impart some very painful news to you, Robert, ' ' came the 22 THE REDWOOD. voice of the old attorney, with, his cus- tomary business-like directness, " I ' ve just received intelligence from Paris, to the effect that your uncle, Alfred Deerhurst — I ' m awfully sorry, my boy— " " Go on, " requested Robert, " is he — ill? " " Much worse. He is dead! " said Hall softly. A pause, and then, ' ' that ' s what I wish to see you about. Will you be at the Club for half an hour ? ' ' " Yes, " replied Deerhurst, " shall I wait? " " If you will — I ' ll be right over. " " Very well. Goodbye. " Deerhurst resumed his seat. So at last Alfred was dead. The intelligence failed to awaken any poignant grief in Robert ' s mind. No great affection had at any time existed between his uncle — who, upon the death of his father, some years previously, had been named as his guardian — and himself. When Alfred Deerhurst had seen his nephew established in a brokerage busi- ness, he considered his duties fulfilled, and after that had confined himself to a bi-monthly letter. Immensely wealthy, he had spent his latter years in travel o n the continent, making arrangements for the remittance of Robert ' s allow- ance through his attorney, Mr. Hall. Now this last family tie had been severed, and Deerhurst was completely his own master. He was aware that his uncle, having no other heirs, would doubtless bestow his millions upon him. The thought filled him with elation. Never had the Grim Reaper appeared at a more opportune moment, for Deer- hurst ' s debts had piled up to a stag- gering total. These reflections were interrupted by the entrance of Attorney Hall, a rather corpulent, elderly man, with gold-rimmed eye-glasses and well sil- vered hair. His manner was cordial — almost fatherly. " Well, Robert, " he said, seating himself, " this misfortune is indeed la- mentable. Still, it ' s but one of the crosses we all must encounter on our journey, and I ' m sure you regard it in that light. " " Thank you, Mr. Hall, " returned Deerhurst, " I realize it fully. But there was some business — ? " " Yes, indeed, " replied the lawyer, relieved that his role of condoler was of so short duration. ' ' Your uncle, on his departure for Europe, left certain pa- pers with me. Among these was one which I was instructed to open in the event of his demise. As it probably pertains to your future, I lost no time in bringing it to you. " The lawyer paused, and at an en- couraging nod from Robert took a long manilla envelope from his pocket and opened it. ' ' You see, ' ' he resumed, " it is equiv- alent to his will. By its terms practi- cally all his i roperty devolves upon you. It is an immense fortune, Rob- ert, " he added, " an immense fortune! " Deerhurst strove to repress his sat- isfaction at this. " But there is a condition attached, " resumed the lawyer, " and one truly in THE REDWOOD. 23 keeping with your uncle ' s eccentric character. To a young man of your sort, I realize, too, that it is rather a painful one. " " Please go on, " asked Robert, his curiosity aroused. " Well, it is briefly this: Your uncle, as you know, held rather an unflatter- ing estimate of your worth — you will pardon my frankness, I trust? " " In view of the fact that he himself had often so informed me, it ' s really no trouble, " assured Deerhurst. " To be sure. The condition, then, is that you secure a position in some mer- cantile establishment — ' ' " What was that? " queried Robert, starting. " You must secure a position in some department store, " repeated the attor- ney, " and this position, I must add, is to consist of a common clerkship. " " Well, I ' m — dumbfounded! " gasp- ed Robert. " That certainly is eccen- tric ! And for how long is this ' clerk- ship ' to last? " " Only for one day, " laughed Mr. Hall. " That ' s fortunate. Who would think that my lamented uncle would have relished seeing his heir behind a ribbon-counter? " " Still, it ' s only a day ' s work, and it gives you an opportunity of belying your uncle ' s statement that to per- form such was beyond you. At its conclusion I am authorized to turn over to you all the property. " Deerhurst was plunged into uncer- tainty. " You will do this? " asked the law- yer. " It ' s such a beastly idea, " reflected Robert. " I really — still, there is the fortune to be taken into considera- tion. " " Surely you are willing to put aside your rather patrician views under such circumstances? " With no more ado, Deerhurs t ex- tended his hand. " I ' ll do it, " he said. " Good; it ' s the only sensible course. " At Deerhurst ' s invitation the lawyer dined with him that evening. During the course of their dinner they en- gaged in a conversation bearing on the subject. Robert eventually succeeded in banishing much of his aversion to the idea, and gradually came to welcome it, as offering a distraction from the gloom which the event of the afternoon had east over him. " You see, Mr. Hall, " he explained, a trifle apologetically, " I really can ' t afford to delay in this matter, as I un- derstand that I do not receive a cent until the condition has been fulfilled. The fact is, I have exceeded my allow- ance of late, and while my credit is good for an indefinite period, I find it advisable to meet my obligations as soon as possible. " " I understand perfectly, " respond- ed the other, " and, on the face of it, I would advise you to get this affairs over with all despatch. Suppose you start tomorrow? " Deerhurst groaned. " I suppose it 24 THE REDWOOD. will be best. Have you any idea where I could secure one of these situations? " " Hammersmith is one of my personal friends. He could in all probability find you a place, but— " " Oh Lord — more conditions? " " Just one — it is that you secui e your position by yourself — incognito, as it were. Still, I would advise you to try Hammersmith ' s anyway. ' ' " Well, I might as well play the whole game. I ' ll start job-hunting in the morning. But in the meantime, would you like to join me at the thea- tre? I need company. " The invitation was accepted, and the two men left the Club. At seven the next morning Deer- hurst drove to one of the large down- town department stores. He left his car in front, directing his driver to re- turn for him. " What time did you say, Mr. Deer- hurst? " " Why — I ' m sure I don ' t know. Say Jenkins, do you know at what time these beastly affairs close? " " Five-thirty, I believe, sir. " ' ' Very well — five-thirty it is. Wait ! Better make it fifteen minutes later. " With this he turned and strode off in search of the employees ' entrance. After traversing a number of back- streets, Deerhurst arrived at the rear entrance. He presented himself at the desk of the superintendent, and made known his wants. Fortunately his ap- plication came at a time when an extra force of clerks was being taken on in anticipation of the rush of Christmas shopping, and the ordeal of question- ing was considerably shorter than usual. To this fact Deerhurst proba- bly owed his salvation, as the extrava- gance of his answers grew with his ir- ritation at the superintendent ' s over- bearing manner. Eventually he found himself installed in the Shoe Department, this branch of commercial activity being, according to his statement, his favorite. As far as familiarity with styles extended, his knowledge was confined to the brief orders which he was accustomed to is- sue to his own dealer. To familiarize himself with his tem- porary calling, he began questioning one of his fellow clerks, a lanky young fellow whose straw-colored hair and ill- fitting, i-eady-made suit told of stuffy hall-bedrooms. To accompany Robert through the trials and vexations of that morning would be altogether heartless. He was embarassed alike by the candid stares of young ladies, and the curt commands of their mammas. During his ordeal he prayed fervently and perseveringly to be spared an encounter with any of his acquaintances. That would be the last straw. Once he narrowly escaped such a meeting by concealing himself be- hind the elevators. At last his lunch hour arrived, and with a heart-felt thanksgiving he took his departure. On reaching the street he drew a deep, full breath, and invol- untarily raised his hand to signal a passing taxi. But with a start he reeol- THE REDWOOD. 25 leeted that some of his fellow clerks were approaching. " Might as well play the game square, " he reflected. " Wonder where these chaps generally lunch? " He followed a short distance behind them in order to find out. The clerks turned in at a large, white-tiled restau- rant, depressing in its fragrant asser- tion of sanitation. On its windows was the legend: " Baltimore Lunch. " " What a shockingly plebian place! " exclaimed Deerhurst. " It really ap- pears as though one were eating on ex- hibition. This is an adventure — with a vengeance — and I might as well see it through. " With this he entered, and for the first time in his life, had the doubtful pleasure of waiting upon himself. Dur- ing the operation he received a sudden shock. His glance fell upon the figure of a young woman who, after tendering her cheek at the cashier ' s desk was taking her departure. " Gad! " he exclaimed inwardly. " That can ' t be Lucille! " He dis- missed the thought as being absurd, and seated himself at a table. Luncheon over, he lighted a cigar- ette, and strolled about until the ex- piration of his recess. With a sigh he then returned to the store and his du- ties. The afternoon seemed interminable. It was not long until the bustling activ- ity about him lost its novelty, and then the monotony became at times almost unsupportable. The snubs of patrons, the loose conversation of his fellow clerks, the ceaseless hum of voices, the jangling of a piano in the near-by mu- sical department, the thin, tired voice of a girl who rendered in endless suc- cession the popular airs, — all filled him with aversion, and tortured his weary mind to the point of rebellion. His distinguished bearing and unusually well-groomed appearance, too, served to make him the recipient of numerous significant remarks from giggling shop-girls. " And it is for these that Lucille wished to give herself ! " he reflected. The idea sickened him. He wondered what Lucille was doing then, and whether she had repented of her hasty words. The disquieting thought still re- curred that perhaps she had perse- vered in her intention. He was well ac- quainted with her independent natui ' e, — in fact it was this very independence that had first attracted him to her. Moreover he inwardly feared that his very opposition might have sei ' ved to strengthen her determination. His mind was far from tranquil. His re- flections were interrupted for the pres- ent by a call from a customer. Business for the remainder of the day was brisk, and Deerhurst found himself too busy for further thought on the subject. At last the big store was free from customers. The army of employees left their posts and with drawn faces and weai " y bodies passed into the cloak- rooms. From Deerhurst ' s shoulders dropped 26 THE REDWOOD. a great burden. With a sigh of relief he pushed his way through the throng, entered the long cloak-room, donned his hat and over-coat, and hurried into the street. A light, damp snow slanted through the gloom. From off the ice-bound harbor swept a chilling breeze. He turned up his collar. Truly, he reflect- ed, the lot of workers was far from being an enviable one. What a heart- breaking existence ! The same daily routine; the same depressing atmos- phere ; and at the conclusion of the day ' s toil, the same heartless struggle of tired body against winter wind. His mind sought more cheei ful channels, and dwelt on his own good fortune, made the more attractive by virtue of the dark contrast. He was rich. For eight hours of what was to him the deepest humilia- tion, he was to receive an equivalent of nearly a million dollars an hour. Yes, he was rich. From now on he would have to concern himself even less than formerly with pecuniary matters. He strove to feel elated, but was strangely unsuccessful. Like a damper on his spirit lay a sense of loss. If he but had Lucille to rejoice with him ! By this time he had reached the corner at which his car was to meet him. He halted, and waited impa- tiently. Past him swept the hurrying throng of workers, heads bowed against the biting cold. A huge wave of sympathy — entirely foreign to his egotistical na- ture — swept over him. He could at least sympathize with them now. Sure- ly, one must love much to be willing to share such an existence merely to bet- ter it for less fortunate humanity. Lu- cille had wished to do this ; whether or not her attitude was correct mattered little. He realized, for perhaps the first time, how narrow had been his previ- ous perspective. With chastened mind he inwardly acknowledged his fault, and resolved to inform Lucille of the change. Suddenly he was startled at the sound of his name, uttered in a voice strangely familiar to him. He turned. From the dark stream of workers his eyes singled out one dear figure. At the same time his car drew up at the curb. Inside, a tearful, repentant Lucille clung to Deerhurst ' s manly shoulders. With sobs and smiles intermingled she told of her experiences of the day ; how, through the instrumentality of Mr. Hammersmith, she had obtained a situation in the music department of his store — how, during the long, long day she had played popular songs in unending succession until she thought her fingers paralyzed; how, when she had recognized him in the restaurant at noon, she had nearly surrendered ; and how — but the rest concerns only these two. F. Buckley McGurrin. A MOTHER ' S VOICE FROM BEYOND THE SEA On the Occasion of Her Son ' s Ordination to the Priesthood It has dawned, my darling — the long- wished for day, And the honor, so prayed for, is thine : For the angels behold thee anointed for aye, A Priest of the Master Divine. In this valley of strife from thine ear- liest hour Thou wert menaced by perils untold ; And Satan, to lure thee, had vaunted the power Of earth ' s freedom and pleasures and gold. But the Master was watching, with all- loving care, And, unmasking the Tempter ' s deceit, He whispered, " My child, of his promptings beware. To the ranks of my priesthood re- treat. " For it was not for thee that this earth was decreed. Nor its pastimes of fleeting delight ; Thy soul was created, and its pinions were freed. For a higher, a heavenlier flighl From earth ' s sordid riches, from the pleasures of sense. From thine own will ' s tyrannical sway, To the altar of God where a rich re- compense Will thy sacrifice amply repay. And full well hast thou heeded the promptings of grace. And full bravely God ' s summons obey- ed; And today He beholds thee installed in His place In power sacerdotal arrayed. Ah for me, my Sogarth avic, it were bliss, A blessing beyond any price, Thy dear unctioned-hands with heart- rapture to kiss And kneel at thy first sacrifice. Ah, the chalice is bitter! but God ' s will be done ! What matters, one sacrifice more? ' Tis the price we must pay if the goal would be won. If we ' d meet on the heavenly shore. L. P. D. 27 GOLDEN JUBILEE OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF FATHER ALEXANDER MAZZETTI, S. J. T is rare indeed, that it is given to a mem- ber of the Society of Jesus to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of his jDriesthood. The long years of preparatory training which every Jesuit must undergo ad- vances him far on the road of life be- fore ordination. Father Alexander Mazzetti is one of the few who have reached the fiftieth milestone. He cel- ebrated the ausi icious day by singing Solemn High Mass, assisted by Fathei ' S Sasia, Madden and Collins. Within the sanctuary were a large number of prominent priests of the State, including very Rev. R. A. Glea- son, S. J., provincial of the California Jesuit province ; the Rev. Albert Tri- velli, S. J., president of the St. Igna- tius University, San Francisco ; Rev. W. H. Culligan, S. J., pastor of St. Joseph ' s Church ; Rev. Fr. Reardon of Providence Hospital, Oakland; Rev. " Walter Thornton, S. J., president of Santa Clara University; Rev. John Lally of St. Patrick ' s, and other noted clergymen. Rev. Father John Lally delivered an eloquent eulogy, and beautiful music was rendered by the young ladies of the St. Joseph ' s St. Cecilia Choir, un- der the direction of Miss Clarisse Be- noit, Carl Fitzgerald presiding at the organ. Father Mazzetti was born on the Isle of Liri, near Naples, May 17, 1834, and entered the Society of Jesus in his na- tive town July 1, 1853. Having fin- ished the usual two years of novitiate and devoted two more to the study of rhetoric, he was sent by his superiors to Spain, where he spent eight years in the study of philosophy, theology and mathematics, and the sciences. After his ordination, Avhich took place on July 26, 1864, he served his Order in various capacities and in vario is parts of the world, coming to California in October of 1882. With the exception of the past five years, as assistant pas- tor of St. Joseph ' s, San Jose, Father Mazzetti since his advent in this State has resided at Santa Clara College. Although advanced in years, now an octogenarian, he is still hale and hearty and an active, useful member of his Order. As a confessor, Father Mazzetti is much sought on account of his fatherly ways and knowledge of languages. He speaks fluently Italian, English, Span- ish, Portuguese and German. Father Mazzetti has always been noted as a fine musician and it speaks volumes for the great vitality and beauty of his mind, that even today, as an octogen- 28 REV. ALEXANDER MA2ZETTI. S. J. FIFTY YEARS A PRIEST 29 THE REDWOOD. arian, he is an excellent performer on the piano. The following touching tribute was sent to him as a poetic bouquet from Notre Dame College, San Jose : JUBILEE GREETING To Rev. Alexander Mazzetti, S. J. While many a grateful spirit, O ' er all this world of ours, In heartfelt prayers and wishes, In tokens and in flowers. Is voicing thanks and wreathing Some offering for the shrine Of gratitude, dear Father, For boons of grace divine. We, to, with hearts uplifted In gratitude and prayer. Speed thanks to you, dear Father, For all your soulful care, Through years of patient labor, And tender, tireless love. With zeal unwearying leading God ' s deathless souls above. And thankful for the present, And for the past, we pray That our dear Lord may bless you Upon your Jubilee day. With golden gifts and graces From His great Heart of Love, And pour His consolations Upon you from above. How many a heavy burden Your kind hand lifted up. How many a portion sweetened In sorrow ' s bitter cup; How many a soul sin-blinded, That blest you for the light. How many a hardened wanderer. Led back to paths of right, — Has gladdened God ' s dear Angels Through all these fifty years, With songs celestial sweeter Than music of the spheres. Such selfless life and labor God only can repay, Be His sweet love, the crowning Of your blest Jubilee Day. And when, to-day, uplifting The Chalice and the Host, True Son of Saint Ignatius, Pray for our Sunset Coast: And may our dear Lord spare you. Beloved of God, to see Beyond this Golden Milestone, Your Diamond Jubilee. Notre Dame, San Jose, July 26, 1914. The Redwood extends to the vener- able Jubilarian its heartiest congratu- lations and wishes him many more years of apostolic usefulness in the vineyard of the Lord. MEXICAN REFUGEES FTER enduring im- prisonment, the loss of all their property and innumerable hardships at the hands of the Mexican Constitutionalists under General Man- uel Dieguez, one hundred Catholic Priests and Nuns from Guadalajara, in the State of Jalisco, reached San Fran- cisco on the steamer City of Mexico. The refugee priests declare that their ill-treatment and expulsion are part of a general plan among the Constitution- alists to break down the Catholic Church in Mexico. They say they were selected as victims because they were foreigners, and as such could be driven out without arousing popular sympa- thy. The party included forty-eight Sis- ters of the Sacred Heart, in charge of Mme. Superior Rosa Bolivar; eighteen Fathers of the Society of Jesus, under the Director, Rev. Gerardo Decorme and his assistant, Father Ernesto Rizzi ; two Marist priests and fifteen Marist Brothers, including the Superior, Louis Gosberts ; three Fathers of the Order of St. John of God and five Salesian Fathers. All of these were engaged in religi- ous and educational work at Guadala- jara. General Manuel Dieguez, with 30,000 men, took Guadalajara on July 8, and after executing as many of the Federals as he could find in the city, turned his attention to the church. He first demanded $1,000,000, Mexican, from the dignitaries of the church, lat- er, increasing his demand to $5,000,000. Wealthy citizens paid a portion of the sum. Then eighty priests were thrown into jail and held, incommunicado, for ten days. At the expiration of this time they were released and ordered to leave. Under an armed escort of soldiers, the party was put on a train and taken to Colima, where it was held for three weeks in terror and uncertainty while the authorities promised to bring a steamer to Manzanillo to deport them. Insult, said Father Rizzi, was their daily portion from the soldiers, but, still worse, he declared, awaited them when the British steamer Mexico City reached Manzanillo and agreed to take them on board. " We were compelled to pay first- class fares. A sum of $6500 all told, and then, priests and nuns all together, we were herded into a dark corner of the hold beside the coal bunkers. " We had no accommodation and very little to eat. We were almost starved when we reached San Fran- cisco. " The Fathers told on arrival of the destruction of the church property in Guadalajara. Their college, which had 400 pupils. 30 = 1 o c is.- C Q. s o- =r V =r •V in a. s = S. O Oo S 2 ■ ! H 1 H 1 ' : il ■Fa .t mm V ■■■ . ■ 4-r : f Kll i9 oil ■■By 1 - •♦ • ©:•:■; .V t- P3 ' » " -v« :.;:.;; ' . A, jm t ' FilB :| m 3 HiT H 1 k3 1 - " THE EEDWOOD. 31 was turned into a barracks, and horses were stabled in the parlors. All the churches were sacked, and the vest- ments and valuable movables were dis- tributed among the soldiers and the peons. Even the eyeglasses and watches of the prisoners became loot of the captors. All the private schools in the city- were closed, said one of the Fathers. The Guadalajara Cathedral, one of the most beautiful in Mexico, was sacked, and its famous chime of bells taken away. The Catholic churches remain- ing are now allowed to open only from 6 to 9 o ' clock in the morning. All church prope rty in the city was confiscated. That belonging to the re- ligious orders was seized first, because it was held in the name of strangers. Father Angelo Maldotti, Superior of the Salesian Fathers, said General Die- guez made the pretense that the Church was conniving with the Feder- al party. " We were treated shameful- ly, " he said, " given dirty food and compelled to sleep on the bare ground. The forty-eight Sisters, Ladies of the Sacred Heart, were crowded into a sin- gle room of a private residence. " Each of the priests spoke bitterly of their treatment on the steamer Mexico City. The Marists criticized Lyman Mow- ry, local agent of the steamship, who was a passenger on board. They say that he contracted to give them first-class accommodations, and then gave them almost nothing. Ac- cording to Father Maldotti and Father Rizzi, the boat was fitted for the trans- portation of Chinese coolies. The refugees were taken in charge by representatives of their Orders. The Sisters were taken to Menlo Park to the Academy of the Sacred Heart. The Jesuit Fathers and the Fathers of St. John were made at home at St. Ignatius College, whence they came later to Santa Clara University. The Salesians were taken to the home of the Salesian Fathers, at 1600 Grant Avenue. The Marists were cared for l)y their brethren of Notre Dame des Victoires. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF DIRECTOR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS - - - ALUMNI - - - UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ASSOCIATE EDITORS DIRECTOR, Chairman EXECUTIVE BOARD EDITOR BUSINESS MANAGER REV. D. P. LAWTON, S. J. ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' IS EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' IS JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 HOWARD E. CRANE, IS F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' IS EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, $1.00 a year; single copies 15 cents EDITORIAL With the publication Foreword of this issue, " The Redwood " is entering upon the fourteenth year of its career. Its firm determination is to equal, if not surpass, its record of the past. Since the printing of the first issue in October, 1901, it has been recog- nized as one of the best college journals in the country. It has enjoyed an ex- tended circulation covering all the states in the Union, and has evoked praise from the most competent and critical magazines. It is not surprising, therefore, that we consider ourselves the guardians of its reputation, and are resolved to leave no effort untried in maintaining the high standard it has so far enjoyed. Our prospect for the coming year is bright indeed. As director we have been exceedingly favored in securing 32 " REDWOOD " STAFF EDWIN S. BOOTH ADOLPH B. CANELO. JR.. EDITOR LOUIS THOMAS MILBURN EDWARD UORIGAN NICHOLSON REV. D. P. LAWTON, S. J ., DIRECTOR FRANCIS BUCKLEY McGURRIN WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA HOWARD E. CRANE THE REDWOOD. 33 Rev. Fr. D. P. Lawton, S. J., from Lo- yola University, New Orleans. He has the honorable record of having served during the Spanish-American War as chaplain. He is a most apt man for his present position and we can safely say that the success of any paper under his charge would, Ipso facto, be as- sured. The staff, likewise, has been careful- ly chosen, and each man is fully quali- fied for the department to which he has been assigned. Now comes the all-important ques- tion of material. The careful selection of officers would prove useless, with- out the substantial aid of the student- body, upon whose loyalty we must de- pend. The University of Santa Clara has made remarkable strides. Her colleges of Law, -Engineering and Med- icine, as well as her other branches, are abreast of other universities in purely educational work. Her athletic activ- ities are on a par with the best. Now, " The Redwood " , as the vehicle of ex- pression of this University, and as the mirror of the literary talent hidden within these walls, must keep pace with the marked progress of the Uni- versity. Had we only to maintain the stand- ard set before us, it would be suffici- ently difficult, but, even with this we cannot be content, we must strive after achievements of a still higlier and nobler character, setting a record even greater and grander than ever before. To accomplish this, we find it neces- sary to appeal to the individual mem- bers of the student-body to do their small share in the interest of the paper that represents them. We call on them to show an enthusiasm in this work, in keeping with the spirit evinced in oth- er activities. This is best shown in contributing poems, short stories, and other articles. The campus is full of latent ability which needs only an out- let. This the columns of the " Red- wood " will furnish. We trust that this will suffice to im- press upon the minds of the students, the importance of performing their part in patronizing the paper. In conclusion, we say that we hope in full justice to those who toiled before us, and in honor to those to whom we owe allegiance, to execute faithfully the trust confided to our keeping. ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., Editor-in-chief. SALVETE. It is meet that, in this, our initial number, under new management, we extend to the old boys and the new, a most hearty welcome ; we welcome, the former to their old haunts around which cluster so many pleasant memo- ries ; we welcome the latter, who will not be slow to form tender ties, which are to be their solace in after years. The Redwood is assured of the loyal sympathy and support of the old fel- lows. It takes this occasion to make a bid for similar treatment at the hands of the new comei ' s. The columns of the Redwood are al- 34 THE REDWOOD. ways open to receive the literary, sci- entific and artistic contributions of the students. They will find that we will not ' ' View them with a critic ' s eye But pass their imperfections by. " We wish each and every one a year replete with all the advantages which are in the gift of Alma Mater. And these gifts, be it said, are neither few nor far between. AS TO ADVERTISING. ' ' Go forth in haste, no moment waste, Proclaim to all creation That men are wise who advertise In every generation. ' ' Advertisements are the back-bone of every paper, and consequently it is the aim of our business managers to secure as many as possible. It is often an ungrateful occupation to canvass for ads, especially when one is asked to state the circulation of the paper. Those who judge a college journal by the number of its circulation, have a very false standard of values. A col- lege paper is not of transient interest. It finds its way to the waiting rooms of lawyers, doctors and dentists, and is there a permanent fixture month in and month out. It becomes a factor in the homes of the parents of the students. It circulates from house to house, and thus acquires a commercial value which many of the ads in the daily pa- pers do not possess. " We bespeak the patronage of the student body and their parents for our advertisers. They are showing a pub- lic spirit in encouraging our paper and deserve, for this, recognition and appre- ciation. In patronizing them, please mention the Redwood. It helps. This is an off season for the Ex- change man. The majority of college scribes are but now resuming their journalistic duties, and in consequence we have at hand but a few " early birds " . Perhaps this is just as well, for it en- ables us to employ the space usually devoted to a review of our contempora- ries to a brief statement of what we may term policy. In the past we have given and taken numerous bouquets, and not a few brick-bats. Neither have been regret- ted — the encouragement given was given gladly and where in our opinion it was merited; the encouragement re- ceived was accepted gratefully. The same applies to the brick-bats. This department was instituted in all magazines of the nature of the Red- wood for this express purpose, and we hold that to see ourselves through the eyes of others is an invaluable aid to the perfecting of our book. Now we are launched upon another year of journalistic endeavor. Doubt- less it will bring more bouquets and brick-bats. Let us hope, how- ever, that the former will substantially exceed the latter, and thus bring home to us the gratifying realization that our labors have not been altogether in vain. Let us hope, too, that whatever may be said in this column will be taken in the spirit in which it is proferred; namely, a spirit of sincere apprecia- tion, or one of frank, friendly criti- cism, as the case may be. We have at hand one of our contem- poraries which merits favorable com- ment. This is " The Gonzaga " , from Gonzaga University, Seattle, Washing- ton. First of all, its appearance is pre- possessing in the extreme, due to its convenient size, clean-cut blue and white cover, good quality of paper, clear, readable type, and generally " snappy " make-up. The contents are in keeping with the appearance of the book itself. There is, among others, one rather clever story, which, however, lost much of the effectiveness to which it was entitled through poor development. We refer to " Tabby on Deck " , a little tale in 35 36 THE REDWOOD. which three of a gang of burglars are frustrated in their operations through the medium of a guileless feline. The articles and verses are also of a high order. Most of these bear feel- ingly on the great loss recently sus- tained by Holy Mother Church — the death of the universally loved and re- vered Pope Pius X. The numerous breezy, clean-cut ads serve to further enhance the attract- iveness of the volume. Altogether, this maiden effort of the year argues well for the ability of the new staff. The " Gonzaga " has the best wishes of The Redwood for a most successful and prosperous year. We gratefully acknowledge the com- pliment paid us by the Building In- dustrial News, of San Francisco and Oakland, which, in its issue for Septem- ber 16th, reprinted an article on Mis- sion architecture which aj peared in the Engineering number of The Red- wood (May, 1914). We were also the grateful recipient of The Notre Dame Scholastic, The Ave Maria, the Notre Dame Quarterly, The Young Eagle, and others. Notre Dame Quarterly The final number of the sixth volume of this estimable journal deserves a special word of praise. It comes to us decked out in a cover of white and gold, which is both artistic in conception and masterful in execu- tion. In the escutcheon with its wreath of lilies and roses, we find what is very rare in the coats of arms and seals of universities and colleges : heraldic correctness. The legend found on the scroll: " Ah, Qu ' il Est Bon Le Bon Dieu ! " is one of those expressions that are too sublime to be trammelled by mere grammarians ' rules. The contents the book are in keeping with its cover. They display careful composition, painstaking revision and efficient edit- ing. In presence of so mixch excellence it would be invidious to particularize. We congratulate both the management and the publisher on this, their Julnlee number, and we, on the auspicious oc- casion, thus formulate our good Avishes : TO " NOTRE DAME QUARTERLY " On the occa sion of the Jubilee. Thy festal day of Jubilee we hail, O thou, whose classic page, poetic lyre, Our hearts, did ever charm, and never tire No, naught have we to fear, that e ' er shall pale The light that beamed from thee, and did regale The heart of youth; or that thy one de- sire: Their plastic minds, with love of God, to fire, Shall e ' er, in future years, grow cold or fail. Our muse admiring, formulates this lay. The nonage of thy life, now left be- hind, — " To thee, may Heaven grant, a wider sway, " And may, admiring readers ever find, " Upon thy page as we have found alway; A banquet choice for fancy, heart and mind. " L. P. D. THE REDWOOD. 37 The Borromean From far off Louisi- ana the second number of this young joui ' nal came to our sanctum. Its pages are re- plete with articles of real merit. The " reminicenees " of the old boys must have furnished very pleasant reading for the former students. The poem " What Is Life " is extremely rich in similies. Its exchange column contains some strictures on us. If our criticism of its first number was a little severe we certainly " got it back " with inter- est. There is no rancor, however, in these little passages of arms. Literary polemics of that kind add spice to a paper. We anticipate both pleasure and profit from the perusal of its next issue. § 0 B g apt ntta Quando divinis agimus de rebus, et Ilium, Qui vel principio caruit vel fine carebit, Quique cKao anterior fuit, mumaumque creavit, Conjectare animis contenaimus, exigua est vis Humani ingenii tantoque angusta labori. Quid faciet dubius, si non, O Candida Virgo ! Ad te confugiens confidens numina poscet ? Nam potes, expulsis tenebris, infundere lumen. L. p. D. f IninFrsitg Nnt a Faculty Changes Our return to the Uni- versity this year was saddened by the ab- sence of many whose faces had become familiar to us and who had impressed their personality deep into our hearts. Father Deignan, whose sojourn amongst us was marked by the most pleasant relations has gone to Tacoma, where he will have an ample field for his diversified talents. Father Eline, who so ably guided the destinies of our Athletic Department, has gone to St. Louis to pursue his theological studies. He will have as companion, Fr. McCummiskey, whose popularity was proverbial. Fr. McNamara will pursue a similar course at Wo.odstock, Md. St. Ignatius University, San Fran- cisco, and Seattle College have been gainers by our loss of Fathers Coghlan and Egan. Their location is changed, their duties remain the same. We cherish their memory with affec- tion and our good wishes go with them for continued success in their new field of labor. To fill the positions made vacant by these departures several ad- ditions have been made to the profes- sorial staff. Father Fox, so well and so favorably known to Santa Clara comes back to fill the chair of Freshman. He is also director of dramatics to which position he brings a wealth of experience. Father Lawton comes from Louisi- ana to take the chair of Rhetoric. He is also President of the Senate and Fac- ulty Director of the Redwood. Fr. White returns after completing his course of Philosophy. To the gratification of the old boys he resumes the Moderatorship of the Athletics. Spokane has sent us a professor of chemistry in the person of Fr. McGar- rigle. Fr. Gianera, a former student of the college, comes back in the capacity of professor. The High School receives many new professors. Fr. Rieden comes from Gonzaga, Fr. Regan from Tacoma, Fr. Ward from Los Gatos. The many friends of Father Cun- ningham are glad to have him with them again. He has taken up his old duties as pastor and director of the Young Men ' s Sodality and Sodality Club. Father Wall is the new librarian of the University. 38 THE REDWOOD. 39 Orchestra and Band It is a great consola- tion to Rev. E. J. Cun- ningham, S. J., Direct- or of Music, to learn that among the many new arrivals this year at the University, are to be found a number of able and excellent musicians. Not- withstanding the fact that they are quite young, yet they have had a great deal of experience, and therefore will prove a valuable addition to the older members, who, by the way, have all re- turned. Rehearsals are conducted every morning under the leadership of Mr. S. J. Mustol, a former member of Sousa ' s Band, and all indications point to a very bright and successful year. Already the band has given proof of its abilities at a concert performed in the gymnasium on Saturday evening, Oc- tober 3. The program consisted of se- lections from the standard composers, solos and instrumental quartets were rendered. The young musicians drew upon themselves the praises of both students and faculty. House of Philhistorians _ ,. , The Reading and Bil- Reading and i t « xu r..M. 1 w hard Rooms of the Billiard Room j t - •• i. Second Division have undergone a change for the better. Mr. Watson, S. J., put forth his best en- deavors to make the haunts of his young proteges as home-like as possi- ble. His efforts have been highly suc- cessful as is attested by the new cov- ers on pool and billiard tables and the cozy reading room well stocked with daily papers and latest magazines. With Father Fox, S. J., as speaker, the House of Philistorians held its first meeting Tuesday evening, September 22, for the purpose of elect- ing officers for the present semester. First in order was a short address of the new Speaker, on the House and its purpose. The elections followed with the result that Frank Brown was chos- en to fill the office of Clerk; James Coyle, that of Corresponding Secreta- ry ; Treasurer, Alfred Kavanaugh ; Ser- geant-at-Arms, Edward McLaughlin ; and Andrew Ginnochio, Librarian. Athletic Association The first monthly meeting of the Associ- ation was held Sunday evening, September 20. The newly elected President, Louis Milburn, was heartily given an ovation and respond- ed with a short, though pleasing ad- dress. As old business, an amendment to the awarding of block letters, was brought up and passed. By this amend- ment a committee, composed of the Moderator, the Coach, and the Captain of the branch of athletics, was empow- ered to award to an injured player his letter, though unable to take part in the game against Santa Clara ' s princi- pal rival, yet having played in a set percentage of games. Mr. Schween, the brand new mana- ger of the Students ' Co-operative Store, spoke very ably of that depart- ment as an instrument aiding largely in the payment of athletic debts. 40 THE REDWOOD. A thorough report on the financial status of the Associated Students was read by Treasurer William T. Shipsey. As new business, the newly Associ- ated Second Division was thoroughly discussed, and was decided to be an aid to the advancement of the main asso- ciation, and an excellent idea. Coach Higgins and Father White, S. J., when called on, I ' esponded with short, but very pointed talks on foot- ball and its future prospects, dwelling iipon a game losing spirit as some- thing very important, but entirely un- called for during the past two seasons. The business manager of the " Red- wood, " Edwin Booth, spoke of the magazine as a great assistance to the Student Body in financial difficulties ; his request for the earnest support of the students was heartily received. Junior Dramatics On Tuesday evening, September 15, four- teen old members of the J. D. S. answered " Aye " to the roll call. Those chosen to guide the destinies of the Society bid fair to prove as efficient as those who had the interests of the organization at heart in former years. The officers for the present semester are: Vice President, Francis B. McGurrin; Secretary, George Donahue ; Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, Demetrio Diaz ; Ser- geant-at-Arms, Norbert J. Korte. As an appropriate beginning for the new se- mester, a debate, " Resolved: That the present European War is a manifesta- tion of the fallacy of the Twentieth Century " , was decided on. William Irwin and John R. O ' Neil standing for the proof of the assertion, with Frank McGurrin and Demetrio Diaz, clothed with their power to sway nations op- posing. Football Rally A monster football rally has been decided on for the near future and to ensure its success a committee of fire-flies was appointed to attend to the lighting facilities. G. Avoirdupois Stears is chairman and will be ably assisted by John R. Griffin and T. Edi- son Sparks. They have our best wishes for success and knowing Mr. Stearns ' abilities from former rallies we are looking forward to a most delightful treat. j , p Many old faces were ™ n ii ti seen at the first foot- Play Football 1 11 . ball game against Bod Flood ' s All Stars. " It was not, " said the players, who were all old col- lege men, " as if it were a real game, but it seemed as if we were practicing once more to defend the name of our Alma Mater. " The team was gotten up by Bob Flood, who has done all in his power, since leaving the University toward the betterment of the athletic standing of the U niversity. Some of the old familiar faces seen among the players were : Irvin Best, A. B. ' 12 ; Demetrio Harkins, Harry Curry, Har- ry McKenzie, Errol Quill, Ex. ' 14. THE REDWOOD. 41 2nd Division Organizes On September 20th the Second Division of the University held a meeting for the purpose of forming an organization. A constitution dravv n up by the Second Division Association of Law (limited), v as read and adopt- ed. Officers were elected to the vari- ous positions of honor in the nevply ac- quired real, as follows: President, " W. Irwin; Vice President, Cyril Kavan- augh ; Secretary, Francis Dowd ; Ser- geant-at-Arms, Richard Eisert; Yell Leader, Thomas Connealy. After an address, mainly on athletics, from Mr. Watson, S. J., Junior Moderator of Athletics, the meeting adjourned. The Senate Elects Officers At a meeting of the Philalethic Senate, held September 8, Fr. D. P. Lawton, S. J., presiding, the fol- lowing officers were elected as officers for the present year: Percival O ' Con- nor, Vice President ; Artisan Ramage, Scretary; Thomas Boone, Correspond- ing Seerettry Adolph Canelo, Treasur- er; Michael Kiely, Sergeant-at-Arms. o. » . T 1 The St. John Bereh- St. John Berch- , c? + _, . , man s Sanctuary or- mans Society ■ j f ..r, ' ganized tor the com- ing scholastic year on Monday evening, September 7th, and the following offi- cere were chosen: Director, Mr. E. J. Whelan, S. J.; Prefect, Mr. W. T. Shipsey; Secretary, Mr. Ernest Sehween; Treasurer, Mr. T. Ybarran- do ; Censor, Mr. J. Aurroeeoechea ; Vestry Prefect, Mr. L. T. Milburn ; Sac- ristans, Mr. A. Falvey and Mr. H. Dier- inger. At the same meeting, John, Ig- natius and Henry O ' Neil, Harry Jack- son and Cyril Kavanaugh were hon- ored by admittance to membership. o J i-i. 1- ii_ At the semi-annual Sodality of the ,. ., o i Rl A r • meeting oi the Sodal- ity of the Blessed Vir- gin, held Sunday, September 20th, the following officers were elected to act during the present semester: Prefect, Louis T. Milburn ; First Assistant, Michael J. Leonard; Second Assistant, Thomas Kearns; Secretary, William T. Shipsey; Treasurer, Philip Martin. It is to be remarked to the credit of the sodalists that the meeting was very well attended. At the meeting of the Junior Sodal- ity of the Holy Angels, held the pre- vious Sunday, the officers elected for the ensuing year were : Prefect, Fran- cis H. Dowd; First Assistant, William A. Irwin; Second Assistant, Herman C. Dierenger; Treasurer, Benj. T. Wil- liams ; Censor, Richard H. Eisert ; Sec- retary, Ignatius Forster. Death of an Old Alumnus Charles W. Quilty, an old alumnus of Santa Clara, who for years has been a well-known figure in light and power development in California, 42 THE REDWOOD. died at his home from a general break- was most popular among his fellow down, brought on by his untiring ener- stiidents, and his public career was no gy throughout a long career. Mr. less prominent. Funeral services were Quilty, while a student at Santa Clara, held Wednesday, September 23. tXXiB t ' Twas on a lonely, distant sKore, s[o sound was Keard, save ocean ' s roar, Tne waves were climbing up tKe beacK, In efforts vain, the cliffs, to reach. TKe sultry day was almost dead, TKe sun beyond tKe Kills Kad sped, And, nature for repose, was dressed In gorgeous colors in tKe west. Soon twiligKt faded into nigKt, A solemn, yet a lovely sigKt, TKe tide Kad ebbed, and not a sound TKe silence broke, for miles around. E. R. HARTER, ' 18 Department of Engineering The students of the Department of Mechanical-Electrical Engineering, of the University of Santa Clara, have be- gun a series of tests on the machinery in the municipal pumping plant. It is planned to run tests on the triple ex- pansion Dow pumping engine, on the steam boilers, on the high speed Atlas engine, on the electric motoi ' S and on the centrifugal pumps. These tests will determine the exact cost of the fuel necessary to pump a thousand gal- lons of water into the mains. Later the cost per thousand gallons for salaries, depreciation, renewals, and overhead charges will be figured on the basis used by the State Railroad Commis- sion.. The work is in charge of Professor George L. Sullivan. The Kewanee boil- er, which is the only one tested so far, showed a thermal efficiency of 69 per cent and an evaporation of 12.9 pounds of water from and at 212 deg.. or a cost of 1-40 cent per pound of steam. The enrollment in the Freshman class of the College of Engineering of the University of Santa Clara shows an increase of 37V2 per cent over the class of last year. A new direct current generator has just been installed in the electrical lab- oratory and facilities completed for carrying out all the experiments in Clewell ' s manual. This is the manual used at Yale University and the exer- cises used here will be exact duplicates of the work at Yale. A new 50,000 pound universal test- ing machine is on the road from Phil- adelphia and will be in operation soon. This machine will enable the depart- ment to do some valuable work in de- termining the strength of materials such as concrete, stone, timber, steel, re-enforced concrete, etc. The ma- chine has a testing capacity up to a load of 25 tons. A Departure in Stadia Princeton ' s new $300,- 000 athletic stadium, known as the Palmer Memorial Stadium, is under construc- tion and will be completed in time for the Princeton-Yale game which takes place in November. It is a U shaped, reinforced concrete structure, with a seating capacity of 41,000. The straight portions of it are 454 feet in length. These are joined at one end by an ellip- tical shaped portion whose major axis is perpendicular to the sides, and 250 feet long. Besides the football field, 43 44 THE REDWOOD. the stadium contains a quarter-mile oval and a 220 yard straiglit-away. The design of the gridiron is of spe- cial interest. In its construction, the field was excavated to a depth of two feet and then built up in the following manner: A layer of broken stone, con- taining drain tiles spaced twenty-five feet apart, was spread over the entire field. Above this, one inch of loam, followed by ten inches of sub-soil, was laid. On these was spread an inch layer of land salt, manure, and cinders. This was followed by four inches of sandy loam covered by two inches of sod. The layer of land salt, manure and cinders was used in order to kill worms, thus preventing them from un- dermining the field. To facilitate drainage, the center of the field was made one foot higher than the sides. 450 tons of twisted steel bars and 20,000 barrels of cement was used in the structure. The development, dur- ing late years, of both the gas producer and has resulted in this form of power being used in small Gas Producer the gas engine plants quite as economically as steam power could be generated in even the largest plants. While the installation of small producers is more expensive than that of a small steam plant the saving in fuel is very marked. The best producers will generate 1 H. P. hour on one i ound of coal, even when the fuel is the very cheapest grade, called " run of mine " , while low, an efficiency boiler and engine in some eases requires five times as much. The producer requires very little attention and may be started up in 15 or 20 min- utes in the morning. In the large installations the cost is Iiractically the same and the saving in fuel is less i ronouneed, but the large producers compare very favorably with the high-efficiency steam outfits. Nor does the utility of these plants end with the generation of power. The gas is also used in metal-heating plants. They have an advantage over oil in this that the temperature is constant and may be applied through pipes along the entire length of the boiler. It is also much easier to get up heat quickly with gas fuel. — R. F. of M. E. Paul T. Hudner, an old alumnus of the University, was recently appointed Superior Judge by President Wilson. He was also selected by Governor John- son to fill out the unexpired term of Judge Dooling. Mr. Hudner is one of the oldest active members of the alum- ni. The Redwood v ishes him a long and useful career. " Hap " Gallagher, A. B. 12, is at- tending the Vanderbilt Dental College at Nashville, Tenn. " Hap " was a prominent athlete during his stay at Santa Clara, and a favorite amongst the boys. Henceforth, though of a cheerful disposition, " Hap " will be often " down in the mouth " . Amongst the old faces seen about the campus lately we were glad to greet the following: Ed Lowe 10, Bob Mur- phy Ex 10, August Aguirre ' 07, George Fisher ' 07, William O ' Shannes- say ' 11, Constantine Castruccio ' 13, Bob Flood ' 13, Demetrio Harkins ' 13, Archie Quill Ex ' 14, John Degnan ' 10, John Shea ' 09, Phil Twohy Ex ' 15, John Sheehy Ex ' 15, Martin Deetels ' 13, Harry Curry ' 13, Harry McGowan ' 13, Irvin Best ' 13, Harry McKenzie ' 10, Eugene Fitzgerald, Patrick Mc- Henery. Those who have heard and heeded a higher call, and " gone over the hill " , have also visited the campus, amongst whom were : Robert Sheppard, now teaching at Spokane ; Alexander Cody, S. J. ; Carl Budde, S. J. ; Fred Ralph, S. J. ; who are studying philosophy at Spokane ; Eugene Ivancovich, S. J. ' 10 ; Cornelius Mullen, S. J., teaching at Spokane; Alexander Oyarzo, S. J., ' 10; Thomas Lannon, S. J., ' 11 ; Edward Shipsey, S. J., ' 11 ; James Doyle, S. J. ' 10; Peter Dunne, ' 08, teaching at St. Ignatius, San Francisco. George Mayerle Jr. ' 08, was recent- ly married to Miss Clara B. Reach of San Francisco. Since his departure from amongst us he has always been actively identified with every move- ment for the well-being of his Alma Mater. We wish him and his bride all the happiness that it is possible to have here below. Walter Schmitz ' 07, has also become a benedick. Congratulations are in 45 46 THE REDWOOD. order from the Redwood and are sin- cerely and cordially extended. Walter paid us a visit lately and if he is as happy as he looks, for him, at least, marriage is certainly, not a failure. The Alumni Club of San Francisco will give a dinner at which " Pat " Higgins will be the honored guest, the date has as yet not been settled, but it will be held in the near future. Mr. Victor " White, S. J., will also be pres- ent. The purpose of this union is to get the old fellows behind our football team, to help aid the team, which is on its way to championship. The men of the graduating class of ' 14 are to be found scattered through- out the state toiling along their varied paths of life. Mr. H. McKinnou and J. Concannon, much to the gratification of the fellows about the campus, have returned to resume their law course. B. R. Hewett and A. Biochi are taking medicine at Stanford. V. Chargin is busily engaged in getting rid of the planet in the form of real estate. R. Yoell is attending the medical depart- ment at the University of St. Louis, and before he returns, fully intends to have mastered the art of being a " cut- up " . SAN FRANCISCO I stood, at eve, upon a mountain KeigKt And, decked in all Ker pride, m}? city saw, Her people safe, confiding in Ker might No tnougnt did give to earthquake ' s mighty maw. I saw Ker cKurcKes, mansions, marts and spires, TKat were Ker Doast, witKin a nigKt succumb, And swiftly yield to all consuming fires And I, Ky dint of awful tKougKt, was dumb. RUGBY NOTES. Inspired with enthusiasm over the new field, and the honor of securing the able services of Coach Pat Higgins, forty ardent rugby aspirants appeared at the initial practice of the 1914 sea- son. Under the able leadership of Captain Mike Kiely, the team has never had brighter prospects, and a banner year is expected from the fif- teen that will uphold the honors of our Alma Mater. The beginning of the season saw such veteran faces as Capt. Mike Kiely, ex-Captains Ybarrondo and Voight; Ramage, Curtin, Schultz, B. Fitzpat- rick, Noonan, J. Fitzpatrick, Coschina, Gillman and Stewart inspired with that old Santa Clara spirit that leads to vic- tory. Among the new matreial which bids fair to secure positions on the team are Wallace, the speedy and clever wing of last year ' s Palo Alto fifteen; Johnson, the pride sprinter of last year ' s Inter- collegiate field meet at Stanford; Hig- gins, a former member of the uncon- querable Warathas; Thomas, a noted sprinter of great ability; Mulholland, a noted athlete of fame from Gonzaga. Others, who are working hard are Muldoon, the Ench Brothers, Hickey, Martin, Amarel, Diaz, Trabuhco, John O ' Neil, Christy, Korte, Winston, Dona- hue, Jackson, Aurrecochea, Gianno- chio, Shipsey, Allen and Kearns. The cloud of gloom which over-sha- dowed the students of the University has completely dispersed Avith the re- turn of our popular coach, " Pat " Hig- gins. The students, as well as the members of the team, place the utmost confidence in " Pat " , as they recall the victorious squad of 1912, which defeat- ed the Barbarians, University of South- ern California, Stanford Varsity and others, thereby winning the intercol- legiate championship of California. Great credit is due to Father White, our Moderator of Athletics, and Stu- dent Manager George Nicholson, for the exceptionally good schedule of games they have arranged. As usual, we find the ever-reliable " Trainer Browne flinging the sponge and hoisting the jug, with John O ' Neil as able assistant. These two men de- 47 48 THE REDWOOD. serve praise for their untiring energy. To them is due much of the credit for the present prospects of success. Theirs is a work Avhich can not be over-estimated and the Redwood takes this occasion to express that their work is appreciated. Santa Clara 7. Flood ' s All Stars 0. Celebrating its initial appearance on the new turf field against Flood ' s All Stars from San Francisco, the varsity won a decisive victory by the score of 7 to 0. Notwithstanding the fact that Coach Higgins used a great deal of his new material, the team is to be congratu- lated on the excellent impression cre- ated by their many clever and speedy plays. Neither team scored during the first half, although Santa Clara threatened on many occasions, and only the strong defense of the " All Star " forwards prevented the varsity from scoring. Immediately after the kick-off dur- ing the second half, Coschina, Gilman, Muldoon and Amarel rushed the ball up to the " All Star ' s " twenty-five yard line. Here a serum was formed, and in a passing rush Thomas received the pigskin from Scholtz, and dodging through a loose field, scored the Var- sity ' s initial try of the season. Ram- age undertook to convert at a very dif- ficult angle and failed. Fighting hard, the Varsity succeed- ed in keeping the ball in the " All Star ' s " territory for the next few minutes, making a desperate attempt to score. None of these succeeded how- ever, although Curtin, breaking through the opponents back, carried the ball within a few inches of the goal posts. Here Briggs was penal- ized for pulling the ball out of the ruck. Bennie Higgins converted with ease, from a very difficult placement. Former noted stars of the Varsity, such as Quill, Best, Detels, Harkins, Curry, McKenzie, Tramutola, Twohy and Noonan, displayed their usual ability and fighting spirit. Benny Fitzpatrick played a great de- fensive game at fullback, while Curtin, Ramage, Wallace and Thomas dazzled the spectators on various occasions by clever plays and long gains. Among the forwards, Gillman, Coschina and Jim Fitzpatrick followed up well, and played a good defensive game. The teams lined up as follows : Santa Clara Position All Stars Gillman F R Noonan Muldoon F R Briggs Amarel, Martin F R Keeting Hickey S R Twohy Ench S R Schaupp Coschina Breakaway Tramutola J. Fitzpatrick Breakaway Quill Kiely, Capt. Lock McKenzie Schultz, Ybarrondo Half Harkins Curtin 1st Five Curry Ramage 2nd Five Turner Higgins Center 3 Evans Wallace R. W. Best Thomas L. W. Flynn B. Fitzpatrick Full Back Detels THE EEDWOOD. 49 Olympic Club 4. Santa Clara 9. In one of the most exciting finishes ever witnessed on the local gridiron, the Varsity won from the " Olympic Club " by the score of 9 to 4. A strong breeze beating upon the Varsity ' s faces found them defending the southern goal. In the kick-off Ramage kicked to Hale, who punted to mid-field. Here a scrum was formed and Coschina, aided by Capt. Kiely, Martin and Stewart, dribbled the pig-skin to the Olympic 25-yard line. Prom a throw-in Schultz receiv- ed the ball and passed to Curtin, who, in turn transferred it to Ramage. Here Ramage made a spectacular run dodging the entire clubmen back-field, but unfortunately was prevented from scoring by Mont- gomery ' s beautiful tackle. Referee Reading allowed the Olym- pic ruggers a free kick, which greatly relieved the situation and brought play to the Varsity ' s twenty-five-yard line. From a line-out, Lunt received a pass from Hale, and after a brilliant run, in which he dodged the backs, placed the ball over. G. Montgomery failed to convert. The Olympics were dangerous dur- ing the remaining few moments of play but failed to score. The second half found the Varsity fighting hard, but of no avail, they couldn ' t break down the clubmen ' s im- pregnable defense until ten minutes before the final report of the pistol was heard. From a line-out, twenty yards from the goal, B. Fitzpatriek broke through and stai-ted a dribbling rush. Several yards from the goal post Bennie picked the ball up and passed to Curtin, who, in turn passed it to Coschina, who car- ried it over for a try. Ramage failed to annex the additional point, from a hard angle. Again the play was resumed in the Varsity ' s territory, where Schultz re- ceived it from the scrum and punted safely into the Olympic territory. From a scrum Schultz passed to Ram- age, who in turn transferred the leath- er to B. Fitzpatriek, who won laurels for himself, by scoring from a very troublesome angle. Ramage annexed an additional point. To enumerate the brilliant lumina- ries of the battle is no easy task. Every Santa Clara man knew what he was on the gridiron for, and with that thought foremost in his mind, and so fought. The passing and clever dodging of Curtin, Higgins and Schultz, coupled with the tackling of Jackson and Ram- age was very noticeable in the back- field, while Capt. Kiely, Stewart, Ben and Jim Fitzpatriek dribbled ex ceed- ingly well, and as usual followed up well. The remarkable tackling of Har- ry Jackson, a former " Junior " , was commendable. Among the Olympians who deserve great credit are Best, Hankes, Bates, Quill, Brown, Guerin and Partridge. The teams lined up as follows: 50 THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara Position Olympic Club Martin P. R. Brown B. Fitzpatriek F. R. Quill Gilman F. R. Bates Cosehina M. R. Meyers Stewart M. R. Tissott Kiely Lock Partridge J. Fitzpatriek Breakaway Guerin Muldoon Breakaway Brown Sehultz Half Worsick Curtin 1st 5 Hale Ramage 2nd 5 Lunt Higgins C. 3 Hawks Wallace R. W. Best Ginnochio L. W. G. E. Montgomery Jackson Full G. G. Montgomery Referee, Reading ; Timers, Haley and " Avoirdupois " Gaffey. Becond Varsity 4. Stanford Second Varsity 9. The Second Varsity, although it has played but one game up to the present, has made an exceedingly fine showing. It is considered to be on an even basis with any team in the state. The won- derful knowledge of rugby, coupled with undying fighting qualities, has made each member of the team a high- ly respected recruit among " Rugby Enthusiasts ' ' . The Second Varsity were received as visitors on September 25, at Stanford, where they opposed the Second Varsity of that institution. It must be admit- ted that the Stanford squad looked to be exceedingly large as compared with our team, which averages 153 pounds ; but notwithstanding the great differ- ence in weight, each and every individ- ual member of our team did credit to his " Alma Mater " . The only try made during the first half can be accredited to Thomas, who received the ball in a beautiful pass- ing rush from Aurreeoechea. Jackson failed to convert from a difficult an- gle. The second half resulted in Stanford making two tries ; one being converted. The fact that Stanford ' s goal was threatened continually during part of the play only confirms the statement that Santa Clara played Stanford in a creditable manner. Owing to the large number of changes due to the addition of fresh players to their line-up, I am unable to give their team. The Santa Clara team lined up as follows : Forwards : Inch, ' Neil, John ; Mar- tin, Amarel, Winston, Dodge, Christy, Muldoon, Donohue. Backs : Aurreeo- echea, Emerson, Ginnochio, Thomas, Shipsey, Diaz, Jackson, Trabucco, Sehultz. JUNIOR NOTES. A team, composed of Junior mem- bers, has been showing wonderful abil- ity against the local high schools, and up to the present, has established an enviable record. In the games played so far this sea- son there has not been a score tallied against them, while on the contrary, they have scored a large number of points against their opponents. The team is composed of membei s ranging from 135 to 155 pounds. The THE REDWOOD. 51 speed and knowledge of rugby dis- played by them is equal to any team of its size on the coast. Their success is due to Coach Hig- gins and Capt. Harry Jackson, who have worked untiringly in the practice games against the Varsity. Coach Higgins has instructed each member in the technique of his posi- tion. As a result the team works in perfect unison. Apart from the filed work there is another prominent factor making for the Junior ' s welfare ; namely, Fr. Gia- nera. Both on and off the field he has shown untiring ability as director and has always lent his aid in all their un- dertakings. Against the " Centerville Union High School " , a total score of 17 points were chalked up for the Juniors. The tries are accredited to Dodge, Diaz and Ginocchio, and the converted goal to Jackson. Manager Amarel, Capt. Jackson, Trabucco, Christy, Martin, Kearns, Diaz, Dodge and Giannochio handled the pig-skin in commendable fashion. On the 25th of September two auto loads of spectators and rooters accom- IDanied the Juniors to San Mateo, where they opposed the crack High School aggregation of that city. During the first half the stellar per- formers were Amarel, Donohue, Tra- bucco, Emerson, Korte and Allen, while in the second half Kearns, Jackson, Aurreocoechea, Christy, O ' Neil, and Inch were the likely performers. The following members composed the " Noted " Junior team: Forwards: Martin, Christy, Korte, Dodge, Ench Brothers, Winston, Dono- hue, Berger and Sparks. Backs : Aur- reocoechea, Diaz, Kearns, Trabucco, Emerson, Allen, Jackson and McElli- gott. THE REDWOOD. _ — THE VICTORY THEATER F. A. GIESEA, Prop, and Manager E. A. BENJAMIN, Resident Manager PLAYING THE ORPHEUM SHOWS Every Friday and Saturday Nights and Saturday Matinee of Each Week. SEVEN BIG ACTS Of the World ' s Greatest Vaudeville Prices — Evening, 2Sc, SOc and 75c. Matinee, 10c, 25c and 50c. COMING ROAD ATTRACTIONS: The Great Comedy Wednesday Evening, October 29tli " KITTY MACKAY " JlS[!fUSr ' ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' A Most Wonderful and Intense Dramatic nPKri I31 » l r 4 jynv ' Aii n Success— Ttiursday Evening, Nov. 12th. 1 lit. Oil U Ul STcilCiUlsK " RARY MTNR " ' ' " ' Reigning Comedy Triumph AJ Jr U 1 Ul 1 1 JL Wednesday Evening, Nov. 25th. ' " ; u?sfay! ' Dlcr Geo. Afliss in Disraeli Hon. William A. Candidate for Judge of the Superior Court Judge Beasly is the present incum- bent, sitting in Department No. 1. Judge Beasly also presides over the Practice Court of the University of Santa Clara. County of Santa Clara Election Nov. 3, 1914 THE REDWOOD. Going to Sacramento? Ride in Comfort A SCENIC TRIP Observation Cars 1 Fast Electric Trains Safefy Block Signals all the Way Oakland, Antioch Eastern Ry. San Francisco Depot: Key Route Ferry SUIT CASES .. . .. LEATHER PURSES cy Si: cP NOVELTIES SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT " HOME OF STETSON HATS " SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON : THE REDWOOD. ' kz : COJ-YWCHT- Only a jester has any right to wear mis-matched clothes, and the only clothes made with per- fect matched backs are New Fall Models Now Ready GEORGE HOWES 19 South First Street Wm. J. McKagney, Secretary R. E. McMahon, President McMahon-McKagney Co. mc. THE STORE THAT SAVES YOU MONEY Carpets, Draperies, Furniture, Linoleums and Window Shades Upholstering SAN JOSE, CAL. Telephone, San Jose 4192 52 West Santa Clara Street HERE ' S A NUT BROWN RUSSIA CALF LACE BOOT ON THE NEW " GLIDE " LAST— NO PERFORATIONS OF ANY KIND, PLAIN STITCHED TIP, BLIND EYELETS TO THE TOP, LOW HEEL, ENGLISH BOTTOM — SEVERE ARIS- TOCRATIC LINES; ALSO IN BLACK VELVET CALF. $5 and $5.50 pair Established 1869 18-26 E. Santa Clara St., San Jose : THE REDWOOD. : z Knit Goods Sweater Coats Jerseys Athletic Hose Supporters Trunks and Tights BASEBALL, FOOTBALL AND TRACK SUITS BATHING SUITS, ETC. TEAM OUTFITS OUR SPECIALTY — ASK US FOR BIDS SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA HERBERT S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Special Rates to Students WE RENT SELL REPAIR REBUILD EXCHANGE ALL MAKES Phone, San Jose 349 EXCLUSIVE SERVICE Typewriters and Supplies SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES SAN JOSE TYPEWRITER COMPANY 24 South Second Street Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " K THE REDWOOD. ; Young Men ' s Sma rt Suits Made for us by HART SHAFFNER MARX— That ' s our suc- sess, having the Right thing at the Right time and at SPRING ' S PRICES, which means most for your money E.taMUh.dl865 pnUgB, itXt. Home of Hart Schaffntr Clothes Santa Clara and Market Streets MET HOFF KAYSER vet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE. CAL. Follow This Example The dishes and utensils for the culinary department of the University of Santa Clara were furnished by the TrINKLER-DOHRMANN CO. A high grade institution uses high grade merchandise. We will be glad to offer you the same advantages in shopping. sTrSt TRINKLER-DOHRMANN CO. Ifui ' ' ' ' General jl? . . Picnic Hauling y Parties NickelTs Transfer Co. 16 North First Street, San Jose Tel. San Jose 460 THE REDWOOD. Telephone,: J3 X 718 ' ERED W. SALTER, Proprietor THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Sunnybrook Bowling Alley FINE EXERCISE FOR STUDENTS Opposite Victory Theater 64 N. FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE Notice Automobilists : t i_ r- When in San Jose stop at L6LCn6r OSFS-gC Phon«, San Jose 303 214-224 North First Street Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara THE REDWOOD. (hZ Granadafig MADE IN SANTA CLARA Of California Figs, Walnuts Almonds and Raisins HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards DRIFTED SNOW FLOUR For Sixty Years The Standard p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe j. Origlia LamoUe GrilI_-.»« 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS Z THE REDWOOD. t . ._ - . . . .. ,.._, Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy -™ , . n- Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards , . Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS) Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Rmg up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R Wlien in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Mestanrant, Grill and Oyster House 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " The Farmers Union San Jose, California Santa Clara County ' s Largest General Merchandise Store Carry an especially large line of CROCKERY HAVILAND CHINA, Plain White for Decorating, Etc. Largest line of Canned Foods, Lunch Goods, Imported and Domestic Fancy Groceries. Mail Orders Given Especial Attention Century Electric Co. .58 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps + , , , H " THE REDWOOD. Z f Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. About our Fountain Pens. They are the serviceabe, non- leakable kind. University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. ice Cream V Q QniCd S Wholesale AND Candies Telephone S. C. 3S R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara AND Retail : THE REDWOOD. : Phones : Office S. C. ISIJ Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara Franklin St. Santa Clara We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box Only at maDDEN ' S PHARMACY V. Salberg E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Claras Cal. San Jose Safe Deposit Bank COMMERCIAL SAVINGS Safe Deposit Boxes The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Woks Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60 ; Santa Clara 99 J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose THE IDEAL BILLIARD PARLOR THE LARGEST AND BEST EQUIPPED POOL AND BILLIARD PARLOR IN SAN Under New Management JOSE. 81 South Second Street, opposite Jose Theater. IF YOU ARE TROUBLED. Let the University Barbers Take the Weight off Your Mind MAI STREET, SANTA CLARA THE REDWOOD. " The Hastings ' New Styles in Young Men s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grand Ave., San Francisco, Cai. THE REDWOOD. The Three Best Ways :T0 AND FROM= CALIFORNIA THE OVERLAND ROUTE Via OGDEN WITH THE OVERLAND LIMITED, Extra Fare Train THE PACIFIC LIMITED THE SAN FRANCISCO EXPRESS All Making Less Than Three Days to Chicago THE SUNSET ROUTE Via the Elegant SUNSET LIMITED— Three Days to New Orleans Connecting with Palatial Southern Pacific Steamers or Trains for the East THE SHASTA ROUTE Through the Beautiful Shasta Region, through Portland and the North PROTECTED THROUGHOUT WITH AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS Railroad and Steamship Tickets Sold to All Points INQUIRB OF A.NY AGENT A. A. HAPGOOD E. SHILLINGSBURG City TIcltet Agent District Passenger Agent 40— EAST SANTA CLARA STREET— 40 Southern Pacific THE REDWOOD. Z :►! Santa Clara JEWELERY TOILET ARTICLES FOUNTAIN PENS SOUVENIR POSTERS FOOTBALL SHOES TENNIS RACKETS TENNIS BALLS The Co-Operative Store UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA THE- RCDWOOD November, 1914 THE REDWOOD. : University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO. No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies Hotel Sutter SUTTER AND KEARNY STREETS San Francisco, California. New, Central, Fireproof, Comfortable, Reasonable The One Place in San Francisco We Cater Especially to College to Meet Your Friends Trade DIRECT CARLINE TO BOTH DEPOTS K. : THE REDWOOD. : Salinas Valley Grain Produce Co. Successors to H. B. MARTIN CO., Inc. WHOLESALE DEALERS IN Grain, Flour, Feed, Potatoes, Beans, Etc. " VAREHOUSES: SAN JOSE DEL MONTE JUNCTION (Castroville) SALINAS PHONE, SAN JOSE 57 349-357 North Fourth Street SAN JOSE, CAL. Going to Sacramento? A SCENIC TRIP Ride in Comfort Observation Cars Fast Electric Trains Safety Block Signals all the Way Oakland, Antioch Eastern Ry. San Francisco Depot: Key Route Ferry «i : Z h THE REDWOOD. : Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co. WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara : THE REDWOOD. : I WHOLESALE Commissiori Merchant TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 74-76 N. Market St • San Jose, Cal. rreservmg PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougli, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Liiienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000, Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton : : THE REDWOOD. Z Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA AMERICAN FISH MARKET Residence PhreVx 2 ? Wholesale and Retail Dealers in FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. : : i- THE REDWOOD. •K San Jose Typewriter Company 24 South Second Street Special Rates to Students EXCLUSIVE SERVICE Typewriters and Supplies WE RENT SELL REPAIR REBUILD EXCHANGE ALL MAKES Phone, San Joie 349 SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " San Jose Safe Deposit Bank COMMERCIAL SAVINGS Safe Deposit Boxes Corner First and Santa Clara Sts. San Jose, California Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. Z h THE REDWOOD. ,4- Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy — ii Ravenna Paste Company • Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose The Mission Banic of Santa Clara S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Solicits Your Patronage Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Ring up for a Hurry-up Del ivery Hestatd ' arit, Grill and Oyster Mouse el$ Phone Santa Clara 13 R 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " The Farmers Union San Jose, California Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for Santa Clara County ' s Largest General Merchandise Store Carry an especially large line of CROCKERY HAVILAND CHINA, Plain White for Decorating, Etc. Largest line of Canned Foods, Lunch Goods, Imported and Domestic Fancy Groceries. General Electric Motors and Lamps Mail Orders Given Especial Attention ■t - ..... _ „ , THE REDWOOD. Cold Weather IS HERE! Get your Sweater Mackinaw Flannel Shirt or Overcoat CONTENTS THE POET THE UNIVERSAL ANGLE THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE AIR INDIRECTION THE LOST LETTER - - THE WEIGHT OF JUSTICE QUIET FOR ME - THE HIGHER JUSTICE THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OF A MODERN EDITORIAL _ - _ EXCHANGES UNIVERSITY NOTES ENGINEERING NOTES - ALUMNI _ _ - Vv ' INTER - - - ATHLETICS _ - _ THANKSGIVING W. Bliss Murphy O. L. Oliver W. Lotz Tliumas Jenkins Daniel J. Ryan - Walter Philip Howard O. L. Oliver Wm. Kevin Casey AUTOMOBILE, - Marshall Garlinger Walter Bagsby J. Charles Murphy 5, 54 57 62 6.? 06 74 75 78 81 84 88 91 9.? 95 97 104 PAT HIGGINS. COACH MR. V. V. WHITE, S. J., MODERATOR GEORGE A. NICHOLSON, STUDENT Manager MICHAEL A. KIELY. Captain T «-T? Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal.. as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., NOVEMBER, 1914 No. 2 THE POET Lay the great dead where greatness chose to be, Above the murmur of commingled breath: Unknown, serene and kind, and sternly free — Aloof and free in that world-haven, Death. I knew him, say the voices of the day; Yes, for his heart was very great, and so You knew him, as the vendor of the clay Knew the Florentian, Michael Angelo. He reigned alone, nor laid the crown aside. Nor rendered up his bardic dignities In ripened age, but regally he died. The sceptre clasped in that small hand of his. All oceans were his treasuries: he heard Footsteps upon the waters, and was free Of the waves ' language, and he knew the word Of that sea- voice that rings o ' er Galilee. All poets were his brethren and his pride; God and the poets, prayed he everywhere— Upon the altars of the Great Divide And by the waters of the winding Ayre. Of him in Hucknell ' s desolated tomb, He heard the cry and reaching brotherly, An arm, when half a coward world was dumb, He plucked the nettle, planted rosemary. Lay the great dead with waters at his feet And vessels outward bound; the slow sail fills. His ships are on the sea: his dreams are sweet Beneath the drooping banners of the hills. W. BLISS MURPHY THE UNIVERSAL ANGLE PREAD out on a desolate flat of barren land was a mighty, far-circling struc- ture whose grim, grey walls it was impossible to mistake. On the wrong side of these walls three men sat talking quietly in the comparative freedom brought by good conduct. They all wore the conventional garb of the pris- on, — dull grey with white stripes. These three had as inevitably drawn together as they had emerged from the mass to the more distinctive plane of ' ' trusty. ' ' They were all men of intel- lect and a certain brand of refinement. Just noAV in the corner of the open yard, where they had been detailed on some small matter of water-pipe, they were discoursing on the relative merits of love, — maternal and otherwise. ' ' Mother love, ' ' said the oldest of the trio — a slender man whose calm brown eyes and unbending carriage still re- tained a distinction of individuality after nine years of the lock-step— " mother love is the one basic, un- changeable principle of humanity, the one dependable passion. It transcends all others as day dominates night. It animates all nature from the lowest creatures up. " They had been digging, and they sat on the sand to rest a moment under the lenient eye of the guard. The youngest prisoner, a boy of twenty. sentenced for the best ten years of his life — picked up a clod of clay, breaking it in his fingers. His eyes clouded so quickly and heavily that he finished the operation carefully before looking up. " I guess I know that, " he said tensely. The third — a man in the very prime of his life, a handsome fellow with a haughty, well-bred face — had kept a comparative silence. Now he spoke, and there was a hardness in his low voice that Avas not habitual. " Neither of you, I think, is mar- ried, " he said. " I am. " The older man interrupted him. " I was, " he said simply. The other, whose name on the prison roster was " No. 1822 " , went on: " There are things that one must ex- perience to discuss with any certainty. The idea that a thing must always be so, because it is commonly so, is a blind prejudice. Men talk, as you are talk- ing, from the universal acceptance of some rule ; and until they experience the exception to that ride of brutal first hand, they swear in their ignorance that it is positive. You have seen the universal angle, I have experienced the possible exception. ' ' The other two were silent — the older man because he imderstood, the boy be- cause he didn ' t. Presently No. 1822 went on : " Although we three have become 54 THE REDWOOD. 55 such friends as men may be in such a situation, none of us has told his story. Mine is a direct refutation of your the- ory. I am here because my mother put me here. Not but what it was my just due — I am still man enough to take what I deserve under my own colors — but there is the exception to your rule. " " It is a very commonplace story, like the history of hundreds of others here. It had to do with a banking house in which I held a responsible po- sition, a rather fast set of companions, a careless regard for my income, debts, more debts, an awakening, the usual chance to double funds secretly bor- rowed for a few days, a sudden slump, a sickening loss, disgrace, ruin, and no avenue but flight. My wife, a delicate, wild-flower thing, was prostrated, ut- terly overwhelmed, when I was forced to tell her the brutal truth. I left her " — the speaker turned deliberately, and looked at the blank, grey wall for sev- eral minutes, then he turned bravely back, though his face was white with the cruelty of the memory — " I left her broken-hearted, because she loved me. In her anguish she cried only that she loved me, and that I had broken her heart. " I went to my mother for help in my proposed flight from the city. She was in a room hung with family por- traits, and I remember how her face set in its frame of iron-grey hair, seemed suddenly to age. My mother heard my hurried words, — blurted out incoher- ently, for I had always held her in a certain reverent awe, — and I know that she suffered more in that one moment, than she had ever suffered in all her life. She gazed at me, transfixed. When she could move, she looked along that line of pictures, seeming to im- plore help from their silent strength. Then she walked down the long room, without a word, and rang a bell. She was my only source of help, so it fol- lowed that v ithin an hour I had been turned over to the authorities. " " That was three years ago. In one week, with ten months off for good conduct, I shall leave here to take up what there is left of life. Do you Avon- der that with my wife ' s sobs ringing in my ears, and with the memory of her trembling lip clinging to mine, of her arms holding to me to be fairly torn loose at the last moment, I should place her love — Aveak woman that she was — above all other? The city, roaring away not so many miles from here, holds them both : but which do you think will receive me — a man with the prison taint upon him, disgraced, dis- honored — back into the old life? You may draw your own conclusions. " No. 1822 rose abruptly, picked up his tools, and returned to work. The boy ' s blue eyes were Avide with wonder. The older man sat a moment, sighed, shook his head, and fell to his task in silence. A Aveek later No. 1822 stood in a room of the grim settlement. The grey and white stripes Avere gone, and in their place he wore a dark suit of ready-made clothes, which were in 56 THE REDWOOD. their crudeness a worse offense to his sensibilities than the prison garb had ever been. A few formalities and the convict who had served his time, was taken doAvn the long passage toward the heavy doors which opened to the outer world. A wild panic of emotion surged through his heart. A very storm of un- certainty seized him. His hands were cold, and his knees trembled. Then the big doors were before him, and he turned to shake hands with his two friends, the older man and the boy, who through special indulgence, perhaps a breach of prison rules, had been allow- ed to see him off. An official turned a great key in an oiled lock, touched a knob, and smoothly the doors swung open, the blessed sunlight poured in, and No. 1822 stepped forward, once more a free man. He was about to strike out with the uncontrollable rush of a boy, when something gave him a pause, and he stood rigid on the top step. Just at the bottom was a dark col- ored automobile, and behind the liver- ied chauffeur there sat a woman — an old woman whose haughty head was crowned with iron-gray hair, and on whose face unspeakable anguish had set its seal. Her drooping lips did not quiver as she swung open the door of the car and held out a gloved hand. " Come, my son, " she said gravely. Helpless, as if drawn by an unknown force, the man on the steps descended. He leaned against the door, catching at the outstretched hand. " Mother, " he cried. There was a terrible silence. The woman ' s face twitched. " Agnes? " he said, breathlessly. " Divorced and remarried — in Eu- rope. " She gently drew him inward, and he stepped into the car. " Home, Steffins, " she said steadily. The big door swung to, shutting in those behind it, but there was a tender light in the gentle eyes of the older man as he fell into step. Mother love had proven itself again the one de- pendable passion. 0. L. Oliver. THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE AIR Introduction. fully cover the subject, " The Constituents of the Air " , is an undertaking much too large to be prop- erly handled in one short essay. A good sized book could be written upon it. Many phases of the subject can only be touched up- on; others must be omitted entirely. The commoner characteristics such as boiling and freezing points, atomic and molecular weights, preparation and uses, are treated extensively in all text books so they will be avoided as much as possible, not because they are unim- portant but because they are freely ac- cessible to all who desire to know them. On the other hand, the more sensational parts of chemistry, on which the pop- ular writers are so prone to wax elo- quent, must also be avoided, for they are apt to establish false or distorted ideas. The purpose of this paper is to cover the more modern developments, which are of either technical or theo- retical value, avoiding that which is tedius and also those new ideas which have not been sufficiently proven. The air may be said to consist of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% argon by volume, yet there are many other gases present. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and dust have long been known to exist in the air. Besides these, neon, helium, krypton, and xenon, rare gases quite recently discovered, are present. After thun- derstorms, nitric acid, ammonium ni- trate, and ozone, formed by the action of lightning upon the air and water vapor, are also found. These rarer sub- stances, all told, do not occupy more than one hundredth of the volume of the atmosphere. Nitrogen. We generally regard the atmospheric nitrogen as an inert gas of no special value except in diluting the oxygen thus rendering it less active. In recent years, however, it is assuming a much more important place in our estimation. In 1898, Sir Wm. Crooks, in his presi- dential address to the Royal Society, seared us into thinking how we might use this atmospheric nitrogen by show- ing that at the present rate of consump- tion the nitrate deposits of the world will be exhausted in about 1925, and the people would be brought face to face with starvation through lack of fertilization of the soil. Many author- ities claim that the nitrates will last longer, but all agree that they will give out within the next fifty years. Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium are regarded as the four necessary constitutents of p roductive soil. Thus nitrogen, as a fertilizer, is almost indespensible in the raising of 57 58 THE REDWOOD. many of our crops. Within historical times, immense tracts of land in Sicily, in northern Africa, and in the valley of Euphrates, ' at one time among the richest corn and wheat producing re- gions of the world, have grown barren largely from the lack of nitrates to fer- tilize them. As nitric acid and nearly all other compounds of nitrogen are derived from the natural nitrates, we can easily imagine the inconveniences which would be caused by their loss. At present, Europe and America ex- pend nearly $60,000,000 annually in purchasing these nitrates. The supply of free nitrogen in the air is almost inexhaustible. It is esti- mated that it contains nearly three hundred and ninety trillion tons of nitrogen which, in its present form, is useless as a fertilizer or for any other commercial application. Before it can be used, it must be united with some other substance. The fixation of this atmospheric nitrogen is accomplished in two ways which are known as the " nitric oxide " and the " calcium eya- namide " processes. Calcium cyana- mide was discovered by Dr. Frank and Dr. Carlo while they were trying to make potassium cyanamide. In doing this, they found that calcium carbide absorbed nitrogen to form calcium cyanamide. It was then found that by treating this cyanamide with hot water ammonia was evolved. This gave rise to the idea of using it as a fertilizer. The manufacture of calcium cyana- mide requires only coal, limestone, air and heat. The coal and limestone are first heated in an electric furnace in order to form calcium carbide. This is taken from the furnace, cooled, and crushed into a fine powder. The pow- der is then placed in another electric furnace. The current is turned on and nitrogen gas-air from which the oxy- gen has been removed by liquefaction — is introduced. The current is con- tinued for about twenty-five hours. When taken from the furnace, the cy- anamide looks like black clinker. These clinkers are then ground fine and placed on the market as a fertilizer. The largest calcium cyanamide plant is located at Odde, Norway. It turns out about thirty tons of the cyanamide, containing 18% nitrogen, in a day. The fact that electric sparks dis- charged in the air caused oxides of nitrogen to be formed was first ob- served by Cavendish in 1781, but it was not until the advent of the mod- ern hydroelectric plant that the reac- tion was considered to be of any com- mercial value. This combination of the nitrogen and the oxygen of the air forms the basis of the " nitric oxide " method of fixation. Today, it is more widely used than the " calcium cyana- mide " process for by it nitric acid can be made almost directly. In the commercial process, a peculiar kind of electric furnace, in which a flaming arc is driven along copper electrodes by electro magnates, is used. Thru this arc air is blown. In its pass- age, it is partially converted into nitric oxide. Under ordinary circumstances the reaction would be reversible but in THE REDWOOD. 59 this case the air is driven thru so rap- idly that very little of the oxide is de- composed. The hot gases, as they come from the furnace, are rapidly cooled and then passed thru towei ' s containing broken quartz over which water is flowing. The oxides combine with the water to form nitric a cid. In the pres- ent process this nitric acid is pumped into large tanks and neutralized with limestone, thus forming calcium ni- trate. This, like the calcium cyana- mide, is used as a fertilizer. Oxygen. Among the constitutents of the air, oxygen ranks next to nitrogen in space occupied. In usefulness, it comes sec- ond to none. It is absolutely necessary to nearly all plant and animal life upon this earth. For many years ozone, an allotropic form of oxygen, generated by the action of the ultra-violet rays of the sun or electricity upon it, has cre- ated quite a large amount of interest. Half a century ago it was regarded as Nature ' s greatest purifier and was sup- posed to be present in the air in quite perceptible amounts. It has recently been shown that the tests formerly used for its detection were very inac- curate. Today, it is believed to be en- tirely absent in the air which we breathe or, if present at all, it is only in very minute quantities. Although the old ozone theory concerning fresh air has been discarded, ozone still con- tinues to be of interest. Owing to its remarkable chemical activity, it has at- tained no little prominence in tech- nical work and is continually being used for new purposes. One of the greatest factors in the promotion of pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia and bron- chitas is the breathing of foul air laden with decaying organic matter from our lungs, skin, etc. This " air sewage " , as one writer calls it, forms an ideal me- dium for the conveyance of disease microbes. Ozone is a very efficient agent in disposing of this " air sew- age " for it oxidizes it into harmless and inoffensive compounds. It does not kill the germs as many of its pro- moters would have us believe, for in order to accomplish such results it would require such concentration as to render the air unfit for breathing pur- poses. It simply disposes of the organic impurities in the air thus rendering it less favorable to the spreading of dis- ease germs. Engineers are especially interested in ozone for its value in water purifica- tion. It is well known that polluted water in streams running through open air for some distance becomes pure and healthy, due to the purifying properties of oxygen. This suggested using its active form, ozone, as a commercial water purifier. In this process the or- dinary river water is subjected to rapid filtration through sand filtei s for the purpose of clarification. Ozonized air is then forced through the water thus exterminating the bacteria. The apa- ratus for producing ozone consists mainly of two glass plates parallel to 60 THE REDWOOD. each other with metal surfaces on the outermost side of each. These are charged by high tension currents caus- ing purple brush discharges, known as " silent discharges, " between the two plates. The total cost of the process, includ- ing filtration and ozonization of the water and 5% for depreciation of the machinery, buildings, etc., ranges from $8.00 to $16.00 per million gallons. From the standpoint of purity the re- sults are very favorable. Tests made with samples of water from a plant in Paris showed that before filtration they contained about 2,682 bacteria per cubic centimeter, after filtration, 250, and after ozonization, 3. The germs of cholera, typhus, etc., were entirely ab- sent. The Rarer Elements. Argon, helium, neon, xenon, and krypton are present in the air to the extent of about one per cent. They may be defined as odorless, colorless, tasteless gases. To the majority of people these gases are seemingly use- less but to those interested in chemical research they are fraught with prom- ises of future discoveries that will help in unraveling the knot of the mystery of chemistiy. Around three of these gases, helium, neon, and argon, a series of experi- ments are being performed which seem to carry us back to the days of the al- chemists when the transmutation of metals was the all absorbing topic of chemistry. ' This statement seems im- probable, if not impossible, when we consider the theories prevalent today but when such eminent scientists as Ramsay, Soddy, Rutherford, Duncan, Rerasen, and others support it there must be more truth than fiction about it. Soon after these elements were dis- covered, Dorn found that radium, when heated to a high temperature, gave off a gas known as radium enamation. It is impossible to break down this enama- tion by any known means ; yet, of its own accord, it is gradually decompos- ed into a gas which gives the spectrum of helium. Furthermore when this same enamation is placed in water it breaks down, not into helium as would be expected, but into neon, another of the rare gases found in the air. Even here the wonderful phenomena do not stop. When the enamation is placed in contact with a solution of copper sulphate, argon, a third member of this inert family of elements, is formed. From the earliest times, chemists have directed their work along certain lines governed by theories formulated from previous experience. As their knowledge grew, by continued investi- gation, many of these ' theories were disproven and cast aside ; yet each served as a rung in the ladder by which man climbed to broader and more per- fect knowledge. After one of these theories was disproven there always followed a period of uncertainty in which the workers groped in darkness until they had obtained enough data to THE REDWOOD. 61 formulate a new working law. During the past century chemical research has been guided by the atomic theory. The usefulness of this theory cannot be overestimated ; it was the key by which the storehouse of modern chemical knowledge was unlocked. Recent de- velopments have given it a heavy jolt but a little adjiTSting will make it bet- ter than ever. Much quasi-philosophy is being talked by chemists interested in these new developments. When these men confine themselves to chemistry and leave philosophy to the philosopher, they are authorities whose words have the utmost weight. Radium actually decays into helium, argon, and xenon. All four substances are well known ele- ments with definite spectrums and places in the periodic table. What does this mean? Have all our efforts during the last century been directed along paths that lead us to nowhere or does it just disprove a few minor points without affecting the important things? The recent developments do not dis- prove the atom. On the contraiy, the atom is now an established fact, but our conception of it has changed con- siderably. Formerly, it was looked upon as a solid impenetrable mass which would never wear out nor be broken to pieces. Today, we know that this conception was errone- ous. Although we knoAV what the atom is not, we know not what it is. We are in one of those transitional periods when we must still use the old hypoth- esis until a better one can be formu- lated. The rarer constitutents of the air have not been the only factors in caus- ing VIS to change our opinions regard- ing matter. Physicists held that the atom was not the smallest particle long before any of these gases v ere dis- covered. The decomposition of radium enamation into helium, argon, or xenon has helped to verify their inferences. If I ' adium and these rare gases are ele- ments, and, as far as we know, they certainly are, they are involved in the first case of transmutation of elements known to man. They are not so use- less as they first seemed for they have helped the modern chemists, or al- chemists, as they may now be called, to investigate still farther the appar- ently unfathomable depths of chem- istry. W. Lotz. INDIRECTION Fair are the flowers and the children, but their subtle suggestion is fairer. Rare is the roseburst at dawn, but the secret that clasps it is rarer. Sweet the exultance of song, but the strain that precedes it is sweeter, And never was poem yet writ but the meaning out mastered the meter. Never a river that flows but a mystery sceptres its flowing; Never a daisy that grows but a mystery guideth the growing; Never a Shakespeare that soared but a stronger than he did enfold him; Never a prophet foretold but a mighter seer hath foretold him. Back of the canvass that throbs, the painter lies hinted and hidden; Into the statue that breathes the soul of the sculptor is bidden; Back of the sound broods the silence, back of the gift stands the giving, Back of the hand that receives thrill the sensitive nerves of receiving. Great are the symbols of being, but that which is symboled is greater. Vast the create and beheld, but vaster the inward creator; Under the joy that is felt lie the infinite issues of feeling; Crowning the glory revealed is the glory that crowns the revealing. Space is as nothing to spirit, and the deed is outdone by the doing; The heart of the wooer is warm, but warmer the heart of the wooing. And up from the pits where these shiver and up from the heights where those shine Twin echoes and voices swim starward, and the essence of life is divine. THOMAS JENKINS 62 THE LOST LETTER HE night had been dark and cold. The bleak East wind had swept over the barren sands till long past midnight, but the morning broke clear and cool. Out on the sands of the open prairie stretching away near Denver, a horse- man loped along on his shaggy cow- pony, the animal seeming almost as well pleased as his rider over the trip and the prospects of the beautiful day. The early May morning was glorious, and Jack Benton, the coAvboy mail- carrier, sang every song he knew, happy not only because of the spark- ling day, because he was nearing home and the end of his first trip as carrier. Suddenly the rat-like pony stopped short, throwing Jack over the pommel upon his neck. Benton looked, and his face lit up. " Good old boy, " he said, patting the shaggy animal, for just be- fore them was the precipitous edge of a small ravine which he had not no- ticed. Little did Jack know the trou- ble that that very stop, now seeming so uneventful, would cause him later. The ravine made necessary a five mile ride southward before a suitable pass- age could be found. Then he struck out briskly with hopes of reaching Denver before sundown. The day grew warmer and the sands which were forever shifting became distressful to both man and beast, but on and on the faithful little animal carried its rider beneath the blistering rays of the climbing sun. At last, just as its dim rays were crimsoning the tops of the mountains. Jack dismounted before a dingy postoffice which graced that coming city of the West. The usual loiterers were strolling about. They ran towards Benton in a body to hear the news, and when this ceremony was finished he unstrapped his mail-pouch and handed it to the clerk behind the counter. As Jack was about to leave a sudden impulse caused him to thrust his hand into his hip pocket. Then his face turned white and he reeled against the wall, " Gone, " he gasped, " " Gone " . When he gained his senses a crowd had gathered and were awaiting an ex- planation. " Wh at is it? " they cried in chorus, as he opened his eyes. " Old Jerry ' s letter, containing the last cent he had in the world, and I lost it on my first trip, " Jack muttered bit- terly. " Can ' t we go and look for it tonight? " he asked with an appealing glance about him. It was the postmaster who answered him, and his voice held not an accent of reproach. " We ' ll all go and help you the first thing in the morning. Now go 63 64 THE REDWOOD. home and see your mother. She ' ll be waiting for you. " Jack left his pony with a bystander, and walked unsteadily toward his lit- tle home. His mother was waiting at the gate amazed at the look upon the boy ' s face. It was in her arms that he told his story this time, and her loving words caused tears to flow doAvn his face. " As I was passing through Kansas City, " he told, " old Jerry Downs stop- ped me and asked me to take this let- ter which held his last cent, to his son, who is in jail. You know, the sheriff said that if he would pay back the money he stole and promise to leave the State he would be let free. His old father ' s heart was softened towards Johnnie, and, as he said, he collected all the money he could and borrowed the rest in order to get the boy free. " I assured him that I would give Johnnie the money, and departed for home. I left him, old and penniless, not even knowing where to go for the night. I ' 11 never be able to forget how he looked, standing there, gray-haired and bent with age, yet with a pitifully happy expression that seemed to say he was soon to see his boy again. " Jack turned away, for he was thinking of his own father who was lying in the little graveyard. That very night Johnnie Downs broke jail, not knowing of his father ' s sacrifice. Early the next morning he was passing over the very route Jack Benton had taken the day before. He had " borrowed " a saddle horse from a ranch and was making good time to- wards the border-line of the State. Late that afternoon, as he approached the small ravine that had meant so much to Benton the previous day, he saw a swirl of wind raising a cloud with it, and realized that a sand-storm was upon him. He rode hard until he reached Jack ' s canyon of misfortunes, and crouched beneath a rock on one of its sides. Shortly after sundown the storm subsided, and Johnnie decided to climb the steep bank in order to take a look about to get his bearings. Digging his hands into the sands to have a hold, after much struggling he neared the top. As he gathered himself for a final pull he felt something crumple within his grasp. When he opened his hand, a crumpled letter lay in his palm. He looked at the address and thought that ihis mind was failing him ; ' ' Mr. Johnnie Downs, Turlock, Colorado, " he read. But the writing looked famil- ar, and he opened the envelope. He stood as one dazed there in the dim twilight, when his eyes fell upon a thick sheaf of greenbacks. Here were a few lines ; perhaps they would ex- plain. " Dear Johnnie, " he read, " I am sending you this, the last cent that I have in the world that you may come back to me again. It is the sum you need to set you free, and come to me, my boy for I long to see your face again, my boy. Your Old Father. ' ' " So dear old Dad has not given me up, " he thought bitterly, " after all I THE REDWOOD. 65 have done to bring shame upon his old head. I ' m going back to him. " Johnnie climbed down from his look- oiTt and a minute later was off towards Kansas City and his father. He re- solved hereafter to lead an honorable life and to make his father happy dur- ing his last days. But Jack Benton reached Kansas City before him. He broke the ncAvs to the old man at three o ' clock, and at seven o ' clock that night, old Jerry Downs drew his last breath, heart broken that he should never see his son again. Just before he died, John- nie rode into town, and was standing beside the old man as he l)reathed his last. " Do you promise me to lead a better life hereafter? " asked the old man as he died. " I do, " answered the wayward boy with a sob that shook his whole body, " I do. " Daniel J. Ryan. THE WEIGHT OF JUDGMENT S Father Donnelly came slowly down the chapel steps he paused and glanced about the campus, teeming with life and en- thusiasm. Far over in a corner, shaded by the big theatre build- ing, were the busy racquet wielders, surrounded by the exponents of that sport. Nearby was the handball court, providing recreation and exercise for those who did not indulge in other pas- times, and under the steep steps leading to the office of the Moderator of Stu- dies was the Co-operative store, owned by the school and managed by certain students. Before the cake-filled shelves were hordes of hungry boys, each try- ing to attract the attention of an at- tendant and to roar out his demands. As these happy scenes of school life unfolded themselves before the priest, a smile of sj mjoathy and of recollection of his own college days enlivened his face. The gentle Chaplain turned and peered intently to where a lonely fig- ure was seated beneath the shade of an old elm tree. A smile of pity and of understanding overspread his features. Suddenly his brow contracted and his mouth hardened ; two boys sauntering past the dejected figure had hurled some cutting jibe at him, for he buried his face in his hands and his shoulders shook as if he were sobbing. " Poor boy, poor boy, " murmured the priest. " Surely he is having a hard time of it. I must go over and cheer him up a bit. " As the Chaplain approached, the boy did not raise his head from his hands. " Pliilip, Philip, " he said, " do not cry my lad. ' Tis a heavy load you have to bear I know, but try to bear it pa- tiently. ' ' " Oh, Father, I can ' t stand it any longer. I will go home. How cruel to suspect me and treat me so when I am innocent. Just now Jack Lawnor pass- ed me with one of his friends and he said it was a shame that decent fellows had to associate with me — a thief. 1 hate him. Father. I can ' t help it — T hate him. He has such a sneaky face and he always goes out of his way to torment me. " " There, there, my lad, " soothed the priest, " have patience. The study bell is ringing ; go up to your room and pray for strength to enable you to per- severe in your hour of trial. Every- thing will come out all right in the end. " Father Donnelly ' s brow was furrow- ed and his eyes half closed in thought. He was thinking over the peculiar case of the boy whom he had just left. Philip Calden was about 17 years old. He was the son of parents in moderate 66 THE REDWOOD. 67 circumstances. They hoped that the life and good influences of a boarding school would have a good effect on his disposition. By nature he was a surly, stubborn, almost morose youth and not a congenial companion. Some of the boys had made friendly advances to him, and Philip, striving to overcome his churlishness, had eagerly accepted them. The warmth and companionship of his friends thawed his cold heart, and in a few weeks he seemed to be a different boy, bright, jolly and gay. An infortunate incident occured, how- ever, which for a time threatened to ruin his college career, and finally his whole life. One evening, while studying in his room in the Senior Hall, he was aroused by the sudden entrance of Jack Law nor, a class-mate. Between the two boys there was a smouldering enmity. A peculiar dislike had sprang up be- tween them from their first meeting. The two had nothing in common as re- gards character. Philip, for all of his crusty exterior, had a generous heart. He was high-spirited, ambitious. Jack was the very opposite ; mean and un- derhanded in his dealings. He had tried unsuccessfully to cultivate the ac- quaintance of those whom he thought were blessed with an abundance of the good things of this life. But unfortu- nately for his aims Santa Clara is a democratic institution and he had been repulsed. " Well, Jack, what is it? " asked Philip, looking up from his books. " I was coming up this way, " answered Jack Lawnor, " and Earle Gray asked me to stop in and tell you that he wants to see you. " ' ' All right, ' ' said Philip, rising. " I ' ll go. Thank you, Lawnor. " The boy ad- dressed mumbled something incoher- ently and walked out. As Philip entered Gray ' s room (per- mission being readily granted to him by the prefect), a small, dark boy sprang up before him, dangling a gold watch in his hand. " How do you like it, " he shouted. " Isn ' t it a beauty? Dad sent it to me. Say isn ' t the fob a dandy? Gee, its just what I wanted. " And the little fellow in his pleasure danced around the room. ' ' Hush ! ' ' said Phil. ' Don ' t make so much noise or Father Brooks will be down here. Now stand still so I can see your wonderful watch and fob. " Calming himself Earle handed the time- piece to his friend. It surely justified his enthusiastic remarks. " It sure is a beauty, " agreed Philip. " And my, won ' t that fob catch the fel- lows ' fancy, thoiigh? I ' ve never seen anything so small and pretty. " " Pa had it made to order, " ex- plained the owner. " Well, you ' re lucky, " said Phil, " I would give anything if I had one like it. Goodbye Bud, I ' ve got to get back to my lessons. " " Oh, Philip, may I go with you? " begged the happy proprietor of the watch. " We ' ve got an awful hard theme for tomorrow and I want you to help me. " 68 THE REDWOOD. " All right, " assented the visitor. " But hurry up. " " I ' ll be ready as soon as I put my watch away, " replied Earle. " I guess the bottom drawer of the bureau will be the best, don ' t you? " " Yes, " said Philip, absently. " Come on. " The next day the whole school was amazed to hear that Earle Gray ' s new watch had disappeared and the fob had been found in Philip Calden ' s room! Everybody believed Phil to be guilty. Hadn ' t he been the last one in Gray ' s room before the watch disappeared? Wasn ' t he the only one who knew its hiding place? Groups of excited boys stationed themselves about the steps of Father Casey ' s office where the president was examining the accused boy. Speculation ran rife as to the punishment vv hich would be meted out to him. The majority thought he would be expelled, while others held the opin- ion that he would be forced to make a public apology. A dead silence fell upon the assem- bly; Philip, with a pale, tear-stained face and set mouth, was coming down the steps, directly towards the waiting boys. Arm in arm with him was Fath- er Donnelly, the gentle chaplain. Past the silent crowd they swept and kept steadily on until they disappeared within the portals of the Senior Hall. Then with exceeding quietness, the gathering dispersed in numbers of four and five to talk over the latest and most sensational happening in their college world. That afternoon it was rumored that, though evidence was strongly against the suspected boy, nothing could be actually proved, and in virtue of an ex- ceptional record he was to be allowed to remain. Philip ' s friends expressed their admiration of his courage, and ar- gued that if he were really guilty he Avould not stay and expose himself to the taunts and heartless jibes of his en- emies, and those Avho believed him to be guilty. Though they did valiant work the popular opinion was against him. The concluding argument of those so disposed was almost invariably " Pshaw! wasn ' t the fob found in his room ? This had happened almost two months ago and many v. ere being con- verted daily to Philip ' s cause in admi- ration of his plucky fight. There were some however, who took a fiendish pleasure in tormenting him. Their leader was Jack Lawnor. Of all the boys whom Father Donnel- ly had met in his long service as Chap- lain, there were none who had crept farther into his gentle heart and affec- tions than Philip Calden. He was the accused boy ' s staunchest champion. Lately he had noticed the rundown condition of Philip. While soothing him in the yard today he was disturbed to find how pale and thin he had grown. He must try to persuade him to accompany his class on their picnic. The outing would do him a world of good. The next day, as Philip was hurrying across the campus in the direction of THE EEDWOOD. 69 the Senior Hall, he was hailed by Fath- er Donnelly. " Philip, " he said, " to- morrow is the date of your class pic- nic and I want you to go. You are look- ing very badlJ " " No, no, " protested Phil, " I don ' t care to go, Father. Anyway the fel- lows would resent my presence. " " Never mind, " smiled his friend. " I ' m going myself and I ' ll take good care of you. You must go, lad. You need the outing badly. " " All right, Father, I ' ll go, " said Philip. The picnic day dawned bright and fair. Philip was up and out at an ear- ly hour. He dreaded the coming or- deal, for he knew that as soon as Jack Lawnor learnt of his going he would circulate among his crowd and urge them to torment Phil on the outward trip. As Philip, accompanied by Father Donnelly, approached the bus that was to bear them to Villa Joseph, he heard a low buzzing and knew that his class- mates were arguing among themselves as to whether he was going or not. Their curiosity was soon satisfied, for Philip, followed by his staunch friend, clambered into the waiting vehicle. The ride out to the scene of the picnic is one that Phil Avill long remember. Father Donnelly did his best to cover up the stony silence that had fallen upon the young picnicers when they realized that Phil Avas going to accom- pany them, but to no avail. Phil ' s heart sank with gloomy misgivings as he noticed the scornful glances that were cast in his direction. When the boys arrived at the Villa, they dispersed in croAvds of two and three to while away the time before the big spread at the noon hour. Philip and the priest marched off by themselves. They spent the whole morning togeth- er, climbing about the neighboring hills. And when they heard the faint toll of the dinner bell, they hurried off with healthful appetites to enjoy the bountiful spread prepared for them. Father Donnelly, knowing that Phil would be exposed to the taunts and jibes of his classmates if he sat among them, placed him at the end of the ta- ble where he would be safe from their remarks. What ravages thirty hungry boys can make in piles of sandwiches, cakes, cookies and the like ! They devoured everything in sight and when they arose from the crumb-strewn table, it was with few cares and well-filled stomachs. Too well filled perhaps, since the infirmarian was forced to work over-time that night easing their numerous pains. Phil and Father Donnelly arose be- fore the rest, and, excusing themselves started off for what the priest describ- ed as " the most beautiful spot in the entire Santa Clara Valley " . It was a long hard walk, but the beautiful sur- roundings made them oblivious to the fact. Wild ferns and beautiful flow- ers were in profusion. Great oaks lift- 70 THE EEDWOOD. ed their shaggy heads to the blue above. Many birds sang to them from amid the leaf-clad branches. Saucy squirrels chattered their indignation at the breaking of their peace by the two intruders. And then without warning from Father Donnelly, Philip stumbled upon the object of their tramp. It was a small lake in the very heart of the hills. Around its sandy, pebble-strewn shores were giant redwoods, lifting their mighty tops to the skies. They seemed to be armed sentinels guarding the picturesque spot. Here and there the sunlight stole through their gaunt branches and nestled upon the cool bo- som of the shimmering waters. Philip lost in admiration, did not move. " How beautiful, " he exclaimed at last. " It seems like a spot in a fairyland, doesn ' t it, Father? " " Yes, Philip, this little beauty spot of ours has no equal in my estimation. ' ' They spent the rest of the afternoon lying uiDon the warm sands around the little lake, making plans for future ex- peditions to come. " Why, Phil, " said the priest, looking at his watch, " it is after five and the bus leaves at six. Come, we must hurrj It is a good hour ' s walk. " Philip jumped to his feet, and following the priest started to climb the hill that lay between them and the main party. On arriving at the top they held their breath in wonder- ment at the scene that lay stretched out before them. The sun was just set- ting and it had tinted with hues of wondrous beauty the rolling landscape. Straight ahead was the shrine of St. Joseph, at the Villa of that name. The ebbing light of the day glinted and sparkled on its gilded spire. Beyond that, nestling in fields of golden grain and luscious fruit, were the scattered farmhouses. Suddenly Phil and Father Donnelly were aroused by a faint call for help borne up to them on the evening breeze. " Hark! " said the priest. " Did you hear that? " Again the cry was re- peated. Someone was in danger. To- gether they ran in the direction from whence came the sound. Philip slack- ened his pace and putting his fingers to his lips whistled loud and piercingly. An answering moan seemed to come from directly below them. ' ' My God ! ' ' burst from Father Donnelly, " one of the boys has fallen over the cliff. " Phil threw himself on his stomach and peered cautiously over. There with the sharp point of a scrub oak protrud- ing through his heavy SAveater, and himself sitting on an out-jutting ledge, was — Jack Lawnor. As soon as he saw Philip he redoubled his cries, begging him to rescue him. Phil ' s lips curled in scorn at the cowardice of Lawnor, who was in no immediate danger. " Hurry, my boy, and get a rope, " said the priest to Phil. ' ' Jack is in no great danger, but he imagines that he is done for and he might slip off the ledge. " As Phil bounded away, Lawnor increas- ed his cowardly cries. The priest lean- ed over the edge and was going to re- buke Lawnor severely, when the boy cried out. ' ' Oh, Father, listen to me. I have something to tell you. Philip THE REDWOOD. 71 Calden did not steal Barle Gray ' s watch ! I am the thief! " " What? " exclaimed Father Donnel- ly. " You the thief. " " Yes, " answered Jack, " I am. " At once the priest understood Jack ' s motive in confessing his guilt to the crime laid to another boy. Lawnor was a coward at heart and being placed in a perilous position, he was half-crazed with fear. His conscience troubled him and he had taken this opportunity to acknowledge his guilt. " Yes, yes, " said the priest, a cold sweat breaking out over him, " go on. " " Well, " continue ' d Jack Lawnor, sobbing bitterly, " after I told Phil that Gray wanted to see him, I got permis- sion to visit a friend ' s room. I stayed there about five minutes and when on my way back I stopped an instant in front of Gray ' s room. The door was half open and I peeked in through the crack. Gray had a watch in his hand and he was asking where he should put it. Finally he placed it in the bottom drawer of the bureau and I hurried across to my own room because Phil and Earle came out and started in the direction of Phil ' s room. At once there flashed into my mind the thought that I could get even with Phil. I determined to steal the watch and leave the fob in Calden ' s room, thus throwing the suspicion on him. Also I knew that nearly everybody would believe Phil to be guilty, be- cause he was the only one who knew Earle had the watch and where he had secreted it. Well, I stole into Gray ' s room and took the watch from the drawer. I slipped into Calden ' s room that night, after he had gone to supper and hid the fob under the bed. Then I went to my room and dug out a hole in the plaster of the closet. There I hid the watch. Oh! Father, I have suffered. I would do anything to right the great wrong I have done Phil. Will he forgive — " But here his sob-broken entreaty was interrupted by the sudden ap- pearance of Philip with a num- ber of his classmates and a stout rope. It was a matter of but a few minutes before Jack Lawnor was among his friends again, safe and sound. And the silent, penitent boy that kept close to Father Donnelly on the return trip was a decided contrast to the sharp-tongued, merry lad who had been in such good spirits that morning. Philip noticed the animated conver- sation between the Chaplain and Jack. He supposed the latter ' s silence was on account of his cowardly behavior a short time before, and that he was now trying to vindicate himself in the priest ' s eyes. Contrary to the usual custom the ride home was a very tame affair. The priest and Jack Lawnor were still en- gaged in their conversation. Father Donnelly was speaking low and ear- nestly to the refractory boy. Now and then he patted his shoulder kindly. Suddenly Jack burst into tears and the boys gazed at him amazed. He laid his head on the priest ' s shoulder and kept 72 THE REDWOOD. it there until they arrived at the col- lege. Philip immediately tumbled into bed and was soon lost in sl umber. The next morning he looked in vain for Jack. He even questioned Father Donnelly as to his whereabouts, but the priest evaded answering him directly. At breakfast he felt a strange change in the conduct of the boys who were leaders in the big yard. They no long- er seemed to regard him with suspi- cion. They smiled warmly and spoke a cheery word. Philip ' s starved heart expanded under the warmth of their greetings ; something he had not exper- ienced for many a long day. And yet his happiness was dimmed by perplex- ity. He did not understand the reason for the sudden change toward him; he did not know what to think. Near the end of the meal attention was called by Father Roberts, the Pre- fect of Discipline. A strange hush fell over the busy wielders of the knives and forks. " It must be something se- rious when the President is called in, " whispered some of the boys, noting the hurried entrance of the Rector and the worried look on his face. The Presi- dent walked straight to Father Roberts and after a whispered consultation faced the boys. A cold sweat broke out over Philip. His hand trembled, his face twitched. His throat was so dry he could barely swallow. He wondered if his table companions could hear the tumultous beating of his heart. He tried to com- pose himself, but to no avail. He knew that the time had come when either his innocence would be established or his guilt proved. The Rector ' s first words bore him out. " Boys, " he began, his voice low and vibrant with emotion, " there is one among you whom you have cruelly wronged. I need not men- tion the boy or dwell upon the case. You are as familiar with it as myself. This lad was suspected of being a thief. For almost three months he has lived among you determined that he would not depart until his innocence had been proved. All of you believed him guilty ; all of you scorned him ; all of you, at one time or another, tortur- ed him with your sharp tongues ; all of you are guilty of misjudging a fellow creatui ' e. Not all perhaps, since there are some who showed their faith in human nature and cheered him in his hour of trial. All of you who thought Philip Calden a thief are wrong, for his innocence has been proven! " The Rector ' s voice had gradually risen and his last words were taken by Philip ' s former enemies as a severe rebuke for their hasty judgment. Order was soon restored and the priest continued: " A sick and penitent boy left for home this morning. Thank God he goes back a better boy; in peace with him- self and his Creator. It was Jack Law- nor, the real thief. " A low hum of as- tonishment met this revelation, but at- tention was again directed to the Pres- ident. " Before he left, " the priest went on. " He gave me this and asked that I read it to you. ' ' A note followed. It was addressed THE REDWOOD. 73 to the students and signed by Jack Lawnor. " Dear boys, " it said, " when this is read to you I will be far away. All that you are told about me is true. I am the thief. I never fully realized my wickedness until I confided in dear Father Donnelly. Without his help I do not know where I should be today. But now I am at peace with God, and for the first time in many weeks I am at peace with myself. I will not ask you to forgive me — that would be too much, but I do beg that in your future treatment of Phil, you will make up to him with friendship and kindness what pain and sorrow I have caused him, through my own terrible sin. Let my punishment be a lesson to you. Never judge others rashly lest you be judged the same yourselves. Prom one who has no right to call you friends, but who asks your forgive- ness and begs your prayers. " (Signed) Jack Lawnor. A strange silence fell upon the boys. Philip, with down-cast eyes and flush- ed face, did not raise his head. And then with a mighty leap that carried him into the center of the refectory, sprang big Tom Donohue, the Captain of the Varsity football team, and the idol of the students. His mighty voice filled the hall. " Give a skyrocket for the nerviest little game-cock we ' ve seen in many a day, " he shouted. " He ' ll be a first team man some day. " And then in the scramble that fol- lowed, Donohue ' s last words still rang in Philip ' s ears: " He ' ll be a first team man some day. " Walter Philip Howard. QUIET FOR ME Noise for tKem that like it! TKunder in the sky — May tne}) ever find it Endless in supply! Like to see folks finding Things tKey tkink tkey want. Isn ' t to my minding, Saying can ' t and snan ' t, If there be Quiet for me. Railway trains a tooting, Trollys going some, WitK tKeir sirens Kooting Telling tney nave come. I don ' t care a penny How mucn noise tney make, I ' m not wanting any. Quiet is my stake Tes sir-ree Quiet for me. Roaring, squeaking, wKoopin g, Let tKem Kowl and shout, Quiet of tKe mountains. Quiet of tKe Kills, Let tKem do tKeir trooping Quiet of tKe fountains, WKen tKe scKool is out. Quiet of tKe rills. Split tKe sky witK cKeering, Never Kear me sneering Quiet of tKe billows. Quiet of tKe nigKt, At tKe noisy crowd — Quiet of tKe willows If tKere but he Quiet for me. In tKe morning ligKt — OK, let tKere be Quiet for me. O. L, OLIVER 74 THE HIGHER JUSTICE HE sun, a brilliant ball of glowing fire slowly sank in the west, bathing as it fell, the little Arizonian town of Estrella in a flood of roseate beams. As it reached the horizon it seemed to pause a moment in the zenith of its golden glory and then with a few parting lance-like rays, which ushered in the peaceful hour of twilight, it fell — a crimson, blood-red mass. Those last few rays seemed to focus on a man mounted on a powerful gray horse, as he slowly rode into the town. This foam-flecked steed ' s panting breath, red, distended nostrils and de- jected gait, told of a long, hard ride. The man too, looked worn out and as he dismounted in front of the Wild-Cat saloon he stumbled and nearly fell from fatigue. Rocky Bill, or William Grazer — his " Sunday name " , as he expressed it — was a giant man topping by head and shoulders any other man in Estrel- la. A square, rugged face, pierced by a pair of brown, flinty eyes that lay beneath great bushy brows, and bound- ed by a two week ' s growth of stubby beard, was all that a casual observer would notice at a moment ' s glance. But on closer scrutiny one would see that under that outward cast of feat- ures there lay a vague undefined note, betraying a quick undisciplined temper which would lead him into brawls and fights of which he would soon repent. A man from the crowd of loungers always surrounding the saloon, ad- dressed him: — " Hello, Rocky, " as he saw Rocky reel again and clutch at his horse for support, he added: " What ' s the matter? " " Forty-eight hours in the saddle, " Bill replied in his deep husky voice. " What ' s up? " was the immediate question. " Aw — nothing. My pardner Pete slipped off with the dust a few days ago up at the mine. " " Well, look to your shooting irons, " continued the man; " Pete is in there now. " Without another word Bill strode with a steady step to the door, and swung it wide open. The first man that met his gaze was his partner lounging half drunk against the bar. Filled with a blind unreasoning rage and without giving his erstwhile part- ner a chance to vindicate himself, Bill " heeled " and shot from the hip. See- ing a scarlet stream spurt from the man ' s head he turned and fled. The inhabitants of the sleepy little town curiously turned and gazed in open-mouthed wonder at the horse and rider as they tore up the main street 75 76 THE REDWOOD. and melted away into the dusk of the evening desert in the direction of Qui- jotoa, three hundred miles distant. Once out on the desert, with the town of Estrella nearly twenty miles to the rear of him, he drew in his horse to a slow canter and then opening his sad- dle-bags, he took no te of his provisions. " Food and water for three days, " he enumerated to himself. " Well — I guess I can pull through on half ra- tions. " Then as the rapid cooling of the air and the gentle cadence of the stars warned the advent of black-eyed night, he stopped his horse, intending to rest for an hour or so before continuing his flight. Then, suddenly, he began to wonder, if, after all, he was right in fleeing. Perhaps he was not as guilty in the sight of man as he was in his own conscience. So his thoughts rushed on like a narrow and turbulent mountain stream. At last they grew more peace- ful, drifting along deep and placid as the stream glides calmly upon reaching the lowlands. Whereat tired nature asserted herself and stretching his limbs he sank into the peaceful oblivion of deep and dreamless sleep. The following afternoon found him riding along under the hot desert sun that blazed pitilessly down, transform- ing the dull grey sand beneath his horse ' s feet into a veritable furnace. Knowing that the inhabitants of Es- trella would not pursue him, but send pigeons to adjacent towns carrying in- telligence of the murder — a means of communication often resorted to — he confined his horse to a loping trot — a pace the animal could maintain for days. As he rode along little minia- ture whirlwinds scurrying here and there through the sun-scorched sand, filled him with a vague apprehension. They grew larger and larger. Then he felt the sting of the minute grains as they were hurtled at him by an increas- ing wind and he knew he was about to encounter one of those desert terrors — a sand-storm. Cheeking his horse he dismounted and began to prepare for his fight against the elements. Having once, years before, weathered one, he knew that all that could be done was to force his horse to lie down and thus obtain a slight shelter in the lee of the animal ' s body. For seeming eternities that storm fu- riously threw its might against the man and beast cowering beneath its rage. Time, and time again, were they oblig- ed to move to avoid being buried be- neath the ever-shifting sand. At last the storm showed signs of abating and none too soon, for both were near suf- focated from the driving sand. The storm was over. The sky quick- ly cleared and in a remarkably short time a man and his horse deluged with sand and struggling to their feet, were the only traces left of the wind ' s un- bridled fury. Rocky, slowly staggering to his feet, with trembling hands began to rid himself of the intolerable sand. Sand! Sand! Nothing but sand! Sand in his ears, eyes, nose and mouth. He could still feel, in imagination, the THE REDWOOD. 77 sting and the whip of the sand. As his parched and dusty throat called for a soothing drink of water he lurched over to where his horse stood. Did his eyes deceive him? Would that they did! The saddle-bags containing his food and water were gone — buried perhaps under tons of drifting sand. Throwing himself on the ground he clutched the burning sands as if to wrest from Earth that priceless treas- ure which she held somewhere in her bosom, perhaps within a few yards of him. He dug frantically with his hands for a few minutes, but then, as the fact that he was completely lost — his food and water gone, the trail obliterated by the shifting sands — swept over him with an overwhelming rush, his senses fled and he lapsed into merciful uncon- sciousness. « A clear, cloudless, Arizona sky, pierced by the omnipresent sun, bound- ed on all sides by a well-defined hori- zon, and serenely floating above a des- ert — the same desert — is the setting for the scene which we are now to picture. A buzzard is wheeling lazily high, high above — planing to and fro with in- credible ease — its sharp, keen eyes fixed on a tottering figure down be- low. For two long days it has followed its prey, the dying man, and now it instinctively knows that soon it will gorge on his remains, according to the inevitable law of the desert. The man is Bill— Rocky Bill. Not the hardy, virile Bill of a few days be- fore, but a crazed, delirious man, suf- fering from a terrible thirst. His half glazed eyes, black, swollen tongue, and slow, stumbling steps, tell of them- selves, his terrible story. He is near- ly dead from thirst. Since that nerve- racking sand-storm it has been just a steady monotonous crunch, crunch, crunch through the soft sifting sands. And as he lurches along his steps grow slower and slower. Now he stum- bles ! He falls, never to rise again. The buzzard swoops lower and lower. The man, as he gazes through glassy eyes at the Black Nemesis of the air, futily curses the winged creature, for he knows the bird ' s grewsome expecta- tions. A convulsive heave, a drop of the jaw, the stifled death-rattle; and the man is no more. He has paid with his heart ' s last throb, for that shot in the Estrellan saloon. With one last plane the feathered bolt shot down and with a tilt of the wings greedily alighted on the body. In the trans-desert town, Quijotoa, two days after the shooting in the Es- trella saloon Sheriff Breaker received by a carrier pigeon a message which ran: " Grazer is fleeing. Thinks he is guilty of murder. Is innocent. He shot at Pete Blackwell, but bullet glanced from side of head. Pete only stunned. ' ' Needless to relate. Grazer was never again heard of. Perhaps, though inno- cent in the eyes of his fellow-men, he was guilty before that Higher Justice, — the Almighty — before Whom men ' s hearts are open. Wm. Kevin Casey. THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OF A MODERN AUTOMOBILE for HE electric starting and 1 lighting system of the mod- ern automobile was first used in 1911 on the Cadil- lac. Its introduction brought forth a demand a self-starter. To meet this a de- vice was furnished by the factories. A year ' s trial, however, sufficed to show its inefficiency. Meanwhile, fore- sighted manufacturers of electrical specialties were developing electric starting and lighting systems to suc- ceed the gas priming makeshifts, and electricity conquered. The 1913 show demonstrated their superiority. This in brief is the history of the electrical starter and lighter. In one year elec- tricity had practically cleared the field of its competitors, and the electric starting and lighting system had come to be regarded as an essential part of the modern automobile. Referring to the sketch, the opera- tion of starting is as follows : The ignition switch, spark and throttle levers are set as though the engine were to be cranked by hand. The starting switch is then depressed, closing the circuit from the storage battery to the motor. At the same time the pinion of the motor is brought into mesh with the gear on the fly- wheel, causing the engine to rotate. When the engine makes its cycle, the switch is released, and this allows the gears to return to their normal posi- tion. As the engine accelerates, the dynamo voltage builds up, until it is high enough to close the circuit from the dynamo to the battery through the automatic cutout. The battery is then being charged. Any or all of the lights may be turn- ed on from the junction switch. The horn is sounded from the horn button. The most popular manner of apply- THE REDWOOD. 79 ing the starter is through a sliding gear or pinion on the starter shaft meshing with a gear cut on the peri- phery of the fly wheel. Most of the well known cars use this type. The motor usually has a 2 to 1 re- duction with the shaft carrying the sliding pinion. Ingenious exceptions to this style of mounting are found, such as the end play armature of the Mercer-Rushmore, which, by excessive " end-play " al- lows the starter pinion to unmesh by the action of a spiral spring in the hol- low armature shaft. When the current is applied, the armature is drawn into place by the magnetizing of the field. This causes the pinion mounted on the armature shaft to mesh with the fly- wheel gear. When the engine is started the switch is opened, and the spiral spring unmeshes the gears. Another method of meshing the gears is the use of a solenoid which is ener- gized simultaneously with the starting motor. In this case the solenoid exerts pull enough on the sliding pinion to overcome the resistance of a spring. When the engine has started the spring unmeshes the gears. Next in size to the pinion and fly- wheel gear is the silent chain type. About twenty-five per cent of the ma- chines now in use employ this type. The Entz system as used on the Franklin and Chalmers is a typical ex- ample of direct chain drive, the motor- generator requiring only a single con- nection which is usually made to the crank shaft. The Marmon uses the North-East starting and lighting sys- tem in a similar manner. Where a single unit (motor and generator in one) type is used, the gear ratio changes from about 2i to 1, which is the ratio of the generator speed to the engine speed when the generator is driven, 20 to 1 when the unit is cranking the engine. This is accomplished by the interposition of a reducing gear, which only comes into action when the system is used as a starter. This reducing gear is gener- ally of the planetary type, and is self- contained in the motor. It will be noted that the two classes mentioned, i. e., fly-wheel gear and pinion and chain drive, comprise a little more than 75% of the total. The remainder is made up of scattering groups. For example, the drive is made to the pump or magneto shafts, or to a special shaft designed for the purpose, in the Chevrolet and the Abbot. Modi- fications of this type are found on the Mitchell and the Reo, where the starter is geared to the transmission. The Jackson demonstrates the compactness made possible by the use of the worm drive by replacing the " Autolite " starting motor in a vertical position at the forward end of the engine with its shaft extending downward. The system of direct generation and direct starting is represented by the U. S. L. integral system, as used on the Jeffery. In this case the motor-gener- ator takes the place of the fly-wheel and when completely housed in cannot be distinguished from the usual casing 80 THE REDWOOD. that protects this essential on the cars of today. To summarize : The fly-wheel gear type of starter is used on about 50% of all cars equipjied with self-starters ; typical examples being the Buick, Cole, Case, Hupmobile, etc. The silent chain drive comprises about 25% of all self-starters and is used on such cars as: Franklin, Chalmers, etc. The cars which are started through the pump or magneto shafts are : The White, Chevrolet Abbot, etc. Marshall Garlinger, M. E., 17. Q o z S s; — (i tn _ »: UJ X I Z i i o €. | 6l£(tfMd. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS - - - ALUMNI - - - UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ASSOCIATE EDITORS EDITOR EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' 15 EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' 15 JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 HOWARD E. CRANE, 15 F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' 15 EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 00 a year; single copies IS cents EDITORIAL The curtain has drop- Rugby ped upon the 1914 Rug- by Season here at Santa Clara. The lingering memories of many brilliant plays, of glorious vic- tories, or perhaps a noble defeat, in which our men died fighting, — these alone remain with us the subject of pleasant reflections. All in all we are justified in considering this a success- ful year. Previous to our meeting Stanford and California, we were possessed of an enviable record, having defeated every team we had met. However, in spite of our determinations to attach these two fifteens to our belt, we were disappointed in both games. Nevertheless, there is a certain amount of consolation to be derived from the showing made by a team, ir- respective of the fact that the final score may be against it. Such was the case in our game with Stanford, 81 82 THE REDWOOD. for, to put it in the words of a local sporting critic, our boys left the fieJd " defeated, but far from disgraced. " Our varsity put up a creditable exhi- bition of Rugby, and it is generally conceded to be the best game played on the Stanford turf in years. In fact it was admitted by the two New Zeal- anders in the Cardinal line-up, to be the hardest game they had participat- ed in since coming to America. " While the honors were equally divided dur- ing the first half, our men kept the play on Stanford ' s twenty-five yard line, endangering their goal fully four- fifths of the second half. It is in view of such admissions, that we can accept the short end of the score with a feeling of pride. As to our game with California, the less we think of it the better we feel. It was pitiful to see such a defense of the Red and White, but, as every team has its off day, we must here be satis- fied with such an excuse. A brief review of the full schedule shows that though we suffered defeat upon two big occasions, the Varsity was consistent in playing excellent football throughout the year, and the 1914 season closes with great future prospects for maintaining our present prominent position in the Rugby world. On November 4th, the people of the State of California voted upon a Constitutional Amendment exempt- Merchant Marine ing from taxation large vessels regis- tered at their ports. Some of the ar- guments put forth in favor of this Amendment were narrow and small , but the Amendment itself was a most laudable one. It is a National desire, at present, to increase our Merchant Marine. In times of peace American ships flying the American flag, supplying the Na- tion ' s wants, and carrying to foreign countries the Nation ' s products, bring prosperity, patriotism, respect and power. In times of war an American Merchant Marine is needed by the Gov- ernment as a reserve from which to draw hospital and supply ships, trans- ports and colliers, and even cruisers, just as Germany recently mounted gims on the Wilhelm der Gi ' osse and Kron Pi ' inz Cecile, speedy passenger ships, which then went forth and were a great annoyance to British shipping. A Merchant Marine is further need- ed, when our Nation is at war, to carry those elements which, though not na- tive to the States, are so necessary to the manufacture of compounds, with- out which we could not sustain a war. This, of course, would be done at a risk, but it would be suicide to rely upon the ships of some neutral country to do it for us. However, before we can build up this large and efficient Merchant Marine there must be more legislation like the California Amend- ment cited. It was to take away a State tax from the burden of American Registry; now formulate another to THE REDWOOD. 83 lessen the initial cost of the ship by- exempting it and the materials going into it, from taxation while in the building. Then let Congress revise or repeal the mandatory Inspection law, the Stowaway law, laws requiring ex- cessive creAvs and unnecessary equip- ment; in a word, American Registry is now, in many ways, more exacting than foreign ; level it. Then, and only then, will American shipowners seek Ameri- can Registry for their shij s, will our flag be carried to all the ports of the world, — will the pi ' ide of our grand- fathers become ours. Apology Through an inadver- tence we failed to give credit to William P. Doran, as author of " The Aeronaut ' s Crime " , published in our October num- ber. We sincerely apologize to our worthy contributor, for this negligence, and trust that our future will be free from any further mistakes. Time and tide wait for no man : the hungry press delays not for the prod- ucts of any exchange editor ' s type- writer. There are, moreover, certain restrictions in regard to space imposed upon him. It is owing to these lament- able but potent facts that we cannot " obey that impulse " and give to each of our exchanges the attention each merits. In pleasing contrast with the dearth of matter which confronted us on the occasion of our initial venture into the realms of Exchangedom a short month ago, we find our desk piled high with an inviting array of contemporaries. Sadly relegating our desire to the background we will per- force be content with noting the con- tents of but a few. _, The first of those to p .| . . come to hand is the GeorgetoAvn College Journal, a dignified publication whose artistic cover and substantial makeup truthfully presage the high standard of its contents. From editorials to ad- vertisements it is replete with sterling worth. Two Prize Essays ( " The Mak- ing of a Short Story " and " Mexico: Its Problems and Its Leaders " ) have been awarded the distinction to which they are entitled. The first of these is a really intelligent and thoroughly in- teresting analysis of the short story, that compact, efficient, and dynamic little companion which has achieved such pre-eminence in the literary field. The writer shows himself to be thor- oughly familiar with his topic, and dis- plays a scholarly knowledge of its history. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief historical sketch of the short story, and the latter part to a discussion of it as found in the work of its best known exponents. The writer very wisely takes — if we may venture to substantiate a statement that al- ready has been accorded such wide- spread recognition — the work of Pee as exemplifying the short story in its first perfect form, and Poe as the first writer to devote his genius consistently to it. He cites several of Poe ' s stories (notably " The Fall of the House of Usher " ) as examples. To attempt a criticism of the paper is beyond us, chiefly because of its literary excel- lence, and partly because we fucQ natur- 84 THE REDWOOD. 85 ally averse to criticizing our own per- sonal and pet ideas on the subject, which the writer here sets down " in toto. " The second essay handles its widely- discussed subject with refreshing orig- inality. It is only the gifted few that could take poor Mexico ' s vicissitudes and present them in such a way that one forgets that the theme has already been handled by countless other writers. As regards fiction the issue is well supplied. A little story entitled " Cher- cez le Nez " is rather entertaining, but the thought expended on the plot has evidently been reduced to a minimum. One of the most striking and pleas- ing features of the book is its book- review column. The writer (who, by the way, modestly screens his identity) presents a digest of current fiction in a novel manner, and one finds the notices conspicuously lacking in the rather tedious atmosphere that ordinarily marks a column of that nature. It in- cludes, besides its essential matter, a clever discussion of the " Sherlock Holmes " type of fiction with which our book stalls are at present so plentiful- ly stocked. The issue is embellished with but one cut, which is, however, an excel- lent one. We would recommend one or two more of these. Would it be presuming too much to request that a near issue contain a few glimpses of Georgetown life, as seen through the photographer ' s lens, that we fellows out in sunny California may have a picture of Georgetown apart from that reflected in the literary work of her students ? The Martian launches The Martian upon the second year of its career in an ex- tremely creditable manner. It is sel- dom indeed that one finds so young a publication displaying so many of the earmarks of " class " as does this little book from Lacy, Washington. As we observed in its Exchange column a re- quest that suggestions be submitted, we would venture to urge stricter atten- tion to the proof sheets, and thus fore- stall typographical errors. We would further advocate the adoption of line drawings or some other form of depart- mental headings other than the plain type now employed. There are several praiseworthy es- says and stories and a three-act play that is a commendable effort. There is little verse, but that little possesses considerable merit. As a whole the book is a success from a literary standpoint, and we sincerely hope that it will maintain the standard already established. If this proves to be the case, a continuance of that suc- cess we feel to be assured. The Tattler From Randolph-Macon Woman ' s College comes the breezy Tattler. Its makeup and contents prove beyond doubt that as a college journalist the fair feme equals the best of her con- 86 THE REDWOOD. temporaries of the sterner sex, and surpasses not a few. The short stories, of which there are several, are all that could be desired as far as the word be- fore the hyphen is concerned. Despite their brevity, however, they are with- out exception lively and entertaining. A clever bit of negro dialect and char- acter work is found in " Satura " . The verse is excellent. We especially ad- mired a poem called " To the Shadow of a Humming Bird. " The figures are graceful, and there is an undercurrent of pathos that elevates the poem above the ordinary. There is a well written essay which has as its theme the late Baroness Bertha von Luttner, and another which is an appreciation of George Barrow. A unique department called " The Ham- mer " is devoted to " administering a knock where it is needed " . It is a clever idea, and we are almost selfish and ungallant enough to wish that the idea were not, as its editor expressed it, something that is " peculiarly of Rondolph-Maeon ' ' . iiTMi- T •!. To say that the Wxl- Williams Lit- ,. .. nr ., » XL1 liams Literary Month- erary Monthly ,•,,,• .. .■ ly IS attractive, artistic, and of a standard seldom equaled by college journals would be but a repeti tion of the sentiments that its appear- ance in our Sanctum invariably awakens. The first story is unusual. Its picturesque Italian setting serves admirably to enhance the efl ' ectiveness of its rather fanciful plot. The story is of a young man, one of whose an- cestors had, like himself, been an ac- complished musician. He is now re- duced to dire straits, and is driven to the painful necessity of selling his an- cestral home. In discussing the situa- tion with one of his friends, he men- tions some very valuable jewelry that had disappeared during the lifetime of his musical progenitor. Perhaps the author allows the cat to peek a bit too far from the bag at this point. Still the fault is not of sufficient seriousness to rob the story of its effect. Entering his music room, for what is evidently the last time, he is rummaging about among some music, when he accident- ly uncovers a manuscript on parch- ment, yellow Avith age. He plays it over on his organ. The melody is an unusual one, ending in a sweeping chord. He plays it again, more confi- dently. The final chord is reached. It peals out through the room. Suddenly there is a crash of breaking glass. A huge globe, shattered by " The Domi- nant Chord " , falls to the floor and in the fragments are discovered the lost jewels. The idea is clever, and the story is very well written, sustaining the interest throughout. The other story is also good, but is overshadowed somewhat by the first. There is, moreover, an excellent essay ( " Illustration As a Fine Art " ). We regret exceedingly that lack of space forbids further comment. We also received the following : Marquette University Journal, Ford- ham Monthly, Reed College Record, THE REDWOOD. 87 Mills College Magazine, The Morning Star, The Laurel, The Academia, The Occident, The Solanian, The Niagara Rainbow, The Viatoriana, Days and Deeds, The Young Eagle, Ave Maria, and others. FINE CLAY. Isabel C. Clarke. An interesting Catholic novel, in which Miss Clarke gives a most pra- tical exemplification of our Lord ' s words, " What do it profit a man if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his own soul. ' ' One cannot help but admire the great faith of Veronica Maxim, who, when tempted almost be- yond endurance by Lord Strode ' s younger son, Gifford Lumleigh, prefers a seeming disgrace rather than deny her Faith and its precepts. Miss Clarke describes pathetically the al- most soul-rending hardships that Am- brose Lumleigh has to contend with, but owing to the Catholic training re- ceived from his mother in his infancy proves beyond doubt that he is, in very truth, fashioned of fine clay. The scenes of the story are laid in France, England, and Italy. This excellent book may be had from Benziger Bros. Net $1.35. yk ImtJ rsttg Nnt a Student Body Meeting At the second regular Student Body Meet- ing, a motion was brought up and passed whereby Stan- ford was made our logical rival in foot- ball. A long discussion was held as to whether we should select Stanford or California, but as it was pointed out, Stanford treated Santa Clara much more as an equal in their recent foot- ball relations than did California and consequently Stanford was readily chosen. It has been mutually agreed that the unpleasantness which took place on the field was unfortunate, but there is not the least thought of discontinuing re- lations because of it. Rallies Before the games with Stanford and Califor- nia, big bonfire rallies were held. The main object of these rallies is to infuse sentiment, or ' ' pep ' ' ; but the old and famous spirit of Santa Clara that never says quit, infused spirit into the rallies. The spirit that brought Santa Clara to the front, the spirit that has won her games and that has cheered her on when losing, was shown in such a manner that outsiders attending the rallies were heard to re- mark that they had rarely seen equal enthusiasm on the campus. Long ser- pentines twined back and forth around the bonfires, in time with the music of the University Band, which, certainly helped on the life of the evening. Many pep-inspiring speeches were heard, and among the speakers of the evening were, James P. Sex, the Foot- ball Captain and Coach, the Football Manager, and many of the players. Trips In proof of the asser- tion about the fighting spirit of Santa Clara we have but to think of the sentiment displayed on the trips to California and Stanford. To see the men on the train and to hear their songs and yells, hoarse as they were, none would sus- pect that they had been defeated. By the score only, however, was that de- feat shown, for theirs was the greatest of all victories, the virtual victory. Junior-Senior Game ' 16— 15— ' 15— 3. The Seniors request that this note be abbreviat- ed to this extent and that nothing more be said about it. THE REDWOOD. 89 Freshman Class The Freshman Class of Letters met recently for the purpose of electing officers. The meeting was called to order by Fr. Fox, S. J., and the officers elected were: President, Edward L. Nicholson. Vice-President, Rudolph J. Scholz. Secretary, Ernest W. Schween. Cor. Secretary, Robert E. Tremaine. Treasurer, Edwin R. Harter. Sergt. at Axms, Neal McCarthy. Ath. Manager, Andrew X. Ginnochio. A committee was appointed and a constitution was drawn up. In it a monthly class due was provided for, and the provision has been well met by the members for the month of Octo- ber. The Class Teacher, Fr. Fox, S. J., intends to present a class play very soon, by which, it is hoped that Mr. Harter ' s job will be made a very busy one. Farewell to " Pat " Pat Higgins, Football Coach of the University Squad, was shown the respect and esteem which every stu- dent has for him, both as a Football Coach and as a man, by the simple, yet heartfelt and sincere farewell rally held in his honor Saturday evening, No- vember 7. Speeches of appreciation of the in- terest he has taken in the team, and the way which he has worked to per- fect it were heard from Mr. White, S. J., Moderator of Athletics; Bernie Hig- gins, Manager Nicholson, Arthur Bates and Harry Jackson. The Junior Team in acknowledgement of his efforts in coaching them, presented him with a handsome cigarette case. We all wish Mr. Higgins a happy stay in the South and hope for his return next year. House of Philhistorians At the last meeting of the House of Philhisto- rians, held Tuesday evening, November third, George G. Fox, S. J., presiding, discussions as to who should be elected Governor of the State was held in the form of a debate. Frank Brown and Alfred Kavanagh very ably upheld Governor Johnson, but as the notorious Mr. Brown is sus- pected of having forged a telegram from the Governor to uphold his state- ments, he will be tried in the Superior Court of the University of Santa Clara, and will, in all probability, be sentenced to life imprisonment. They did not win the debate. Messrs. Clar- ence Canelo and Edward Nicholson plead that they were the victims of circumstances, for there was so little said against Captain Fredericks that they had nothing to speak about. The winners, Patrick Calhoun Desmond and Demosthenes Bradley, spoke so well, that, had they been able to deliver their speeches in public, " Constitu- tional John " Curtin would have un- doubtedly been elected unanimously. _,,,.. The Senior Dramatic _, 6 6 Club of our University Show . , . . . is planning to give a Thanksgiving entertainment in the 90 THE REDWOOD. Auditorium on November 24th. A most excellent vaudeville program has been prepared, and we are promised a most enjoyable time. Gem Theatre does not leave them free. Signed up After a long search in quest of the mysteri- ously plaintive melodies heard at frequent intervals about the campus, the source has at last been discovered in a number of retired opera stars, under the directorship of James Curtin, late of the Italian Opera. They have received many offers of late from the different high-classed cir- cuits, but their agreement with the The outlook for track Earthquake this year is very bright. Much new material was developed on the evening of November 8, when old Mother Earth saw fit to shake herself slightly. Johnson, the crack 100-yard man, developed speed such as he had before deemed impossi- ble in making his exit from the Chapel. Still he was but one of two hundred odd students who showed similar speed. f7:TXH T?5o;7;;gEBi[ Ei3 n wwm rj m mmr v - i ---] c In the September 16th, 1914, issue of the ' ' Building and Industrial News ' ' there appeared an article of about twenty-five hundred words, entitled " Mission Architecture. " This article by E. V. Fuchs, A. E. 16, was published in the Engineering number of the Redwood last year. At the last meeting of the Engineer- ing Society it was decided to have an official pin. Many notable drawings were put before the society and after much debating the society voted to adopt the pin designed by I. A. Oliver, M. E., 16. The class in Power Plant Testing ran a test on the County Hospital pumping plant October 14, 1914. The combined efficiency of the motor and pump was 441 4%, it required 36.9 horsepower to run the pump and the power to pump the water cost 3.6 cents per thousand gallons. A number of laudatory comments have appeared in the Engineering journals on Professor Sullivan ' s paper, which was presented at Princeton Uni- versity last summer. This paper open- ed the discussion on methods of teach- ing engineering at the meeting of the Society for the Promotion of Engineer- ing Education. The library of the Engineering So- ciety, which until now has been in the basement of the Senior Hall, has been moved into the drafting room. The new location is far more accesible to the students. Many new volumes have been added and the library now ranks as one of the best engineering libraries on the Pacific Coast. Permits covering work to cost $5,000,000 in the development of 30,460 H. P. have been issued by State En- gineer Lewis of Oregon during the past quarter year. More pepetual motion — The Kansas City Post of September 5th reports a compressed air engine invented in that city, in which the exhaust passes into a double steel tank, i. e., one tank in- side another, where the nitrogen is sep- arated from the oxygen (process not explained) and rising, forces fresh air into the smaller tank, by which press- ure the engine is run. A new process for applying a metal coat to another metal surface, to wood, plaster, cement, paper, glass or cloth has recently been developed. The ob- ject to be coated is held in an air blast a few inches from the metal. The amazing part of the process is that the minute particles of metal discharged 91 . : 92 THE REDWOOD. by the air blast adhere and form a dense smooth coating, instead of flying off as dust. SUBSTITUTES FOR GASOLINE. Last year the Engineering Experi- ment Station of Pennsylvania State College tested gasoline, kerosene, kero- sene mixed with gasoline, motor spirit and alcohol to determine their relative cost as engine fuels, with the follow- ing results when no water was inject- ed: Cost per B. H. P. H. P. Hr. Gasoline 7.95 2.58 Kerosene 8.36 1.43 Kerosene and Grasoline...8.23 1.67 Motor Spirit 7.93 2.05 Alcohol 9.45 8.02 Water injection gave these results: Kerosene 8.11 1.61 Kerosene and Gasoline...8.04 2.12 Motor Spirit 7.93 2.22 Alcohol 5.65 9.87 Safety First — Portland, Ore., has the first Municipal Safety First Commis- sion. It is composed of different de- partments, having for their heads vari- ous municipal officers and officials of different companies. Slides at Culebra. A landslide, 1500 feet in length, oc- curred on the east side of Culebra Cut in the Panama Canal on October 14, blocking the channel for 1000 feet. Slides of this type are to be expected during the early days of the canal, but this is no reason for uneasiness, because very little damage can be done by them. They will continue until the sides of the cut have attained their nat- ural slope, which, according to Geolo- gists, will be api roximately 1 in 5 for the strong lava formations and 1 in 10 for the softer material. The oi ' iginal estimate of excavation in the Culebra Cut was about 1,500,000 cubic yards. At present, due to the many slides, something like 10,000,000 cubic yards have been excavated. The State Hig-hway. Work on the California is progress- ing very well. Up to the present time 212 miles of the road have been fin- ished and accepted, and 615 miles have been partially completed. „ . „, On the evening of Oc- Santa Clara , 01 ..i, , , „ L tober 21st there assem- Club Banquet g (. . maine in San Francisco a large number of loyal sons of Santa Clara for the dual purpose of partaking of the elab- orate supper which a very able enter- tainment committee, under chairman Frank Hennessy, had prepared, and of " boosting " Santa Clara ' s coming rug- by games with Stanford and California. Among the enjoyable features other than the elaborate spread and the joys that are inseparable from a Santa Clara reunion, were the exquisite deco- rations in red and white, credit for which was accorded reception chair- man Wm. F. Humphrey. A further source of inspiration were the master- ful responses which Toastmaster, Presi- dent John H. Riordon elicited from the following members of the Santa Clara Club: Fathers W. M. Boland, S. J. and R. H. Brainard, S. J., Mr. White, Coach Patrick Higgins, Chief of Police White, and the Honorable Judges Cof- fey and Richards, J. J. Barret, Michael Tiernan and Frank Hennessy. A glance at the faces of those present showed men prominent in every walk of life. It is no wonder, therefore, that when the Santa Clara Club ad- journs and its separate members go forth, they radiate an atmosphere of enthusiasm for rugby or for whatever else their united efforts tend to foster. In this regard we might mention that there were present at our rugby games with Stanford and California, Alumni, Old Students and staunch supporters by the hundred. They came from every part of the state. Besides those who were actually present many others were with us in spirit, as was shown by the long list of telegrams received. ' 69 Barely a score of years after the " forty-niners " streamed into California in quest of treasure, J. Perkins Tracey left his Alma Mater. It is long since 1869, but the elapsing years have 93 94 THE REDWOOD. wrought no change in the heart of a true Santa Claran. Nor is time the only element now separating this old Alumnus from the school of his youth. A continent stands between us and him. His home is in Mt. Vernon, N. Y. Think then of the pleasure that his oc- casional letters afford us. We will risk the breach of any rule that may exist against anticipation, and even the possibility of a reprimand from the Literary Editor, and venture to suggest that it is quite probable the name of one of the Class of 1869 will soon appear as a literary contributor in our columns. During the month Honor- ' 89 able Joseph J. Trabuceo of the Class of 1889 was about the Campus visiting both his Alma Ma- ter and the younger generation of Trabuccos now following in their father ' s footsteps. The Judge saw and immensely enjoyed the rugby game be- tween our Varsity and the Barbarian Club team. Though it is twenty-five years since Judge Trabuceo ' s graduation, that time has not been sufficient to remove the memory of his name from Santa Clara ' s traditions. A ' teacher of the Old Guard was recently heard to say, " Ah! He was a fine student; and a good fellow, too. They called him ' GenialJoe. ' " At the August primary Judge Tra- buceo was re-elected Superior Judge of Mariposa County without opposition. " Joe " Trabuceo is still ' Genial ' — and still a ' Student ' , too. ' 99 ' The Class of ' 99, especially, will be glad to know that their representative from San Luis Obispo, Thomas A. Norton, of football fame, has been elected Su- perior Judge of that County. In the different capacities of City Attorney and Mayor of San Luis, Mr. Norton has shown his worth, and his constituents will not regret their choice. ' 07 Death, no matter in what form it comes, is sad. When it leaves a broken hearted youthful husband and motherless chil- dren it is doubly sad. To George H. Casey, ' 07, of Sacramento, whose young and charming wife has been called by the Grim Reaper, we wish to express oiir heartfelt sympathy on this occasion of sorrow. Manuel V Ferreira, on his ' 10 graduation in 1910, returned to his native Hawaii, where he has since been connected with the Home Insurance Company at its main office in the City of Honolulu. We have recently received a verified state- ment of exceeding commercial import which was sworn to before him as a Notary Public of the First Judicial District, T. of H. THE REDWOOD. 95 Another member of the ' 10 Class of 1910 is soon to de- part from the ranks of celi- bacy. By the time of the issue of this number F. Arthur McHenry will have become a benedict. " Pat " was formerly of San Luis Obispo. Since his graduation he has been prominentnly connected with one of the State ' s largest petroleum con- cerns. To the great detriment of the oil business " Pat " has, for some time past, been located in San Jose, guiding through to extensive and prosperous business one of the Garden City ' s larg- est and best hotels, the Montgomery. The wedding is announced for No- vember 11th at Saint Joseph ' s Church, San Jose. Congratulations, " Pat " ; and we wish you every happiness. WINTER I love thee, Winter, generous and austere; Great sire of fruitful seed, and sap, and flow Of wondrous rivers rolling through the year; Feeding frail Spring from vanished breasts of snow, And giving brown-eyed Summer shades of green. Till languid Autumn cries on thee for sleep. And mailed holly lifts his polished sheen Of armor, and the wind is on the steep. WALTER BAGSBY RUGBY NOTES. Santa Clara ' s Rugby season has come and gone. With the exception of the last game of the schedule, that with California, the season was a pro- nounced success. Teams of the calibre of the Barbarians and Olympic Club fell before the Varsity ' s powers in a way that left no doubt of the latter ' s excellence. The Stanford-Santa Clara struggle has made memorable history in Cali- fornia ' s Rugby annals. Though de- feated 13 to 0, the Red and White came through that great game covered with glory. Never before had Stanford ' s splendid fifteen been so forced to the limit as on that occasion. During the entire second half, with the exception of two lightning-like plays that result- ed in scores, the Missionites held the Cardinals pinned on her own goal line. Time and again a score seemed certain ; but on every occasion the defense of the Stanford men proved as impregna- ble as the opposing attack was slash- ing and powerful. The magnificent showing made at Palo Alto seemed to presage a Red and White victory over the Blue and Gold the following Saturday. But alas ! such was not to be. The Varsity never played so much off their game as on that fateful afternoon. Forwards and backs alike were far from themselves. Passing, dribbling, following up — in a word, every department of the game showed the Santa Clara men at a decided disadvantage ; and the inevit- able result was an overwhelming vic- tory for the Blue and Gold. Many explanations have been offer- ed to account for the utterly unexpect- ed slump of the Varsity, but after all is said and done, perhaps the best ex- planation is simply that it was just a case of old " Joe Slump " . Many rugby critics claim the game against Stan- ford proved too gruelling for the Var- sity to oppose California in the short 96 THE REDWOOD. 97 time of a week, and undoubtedly their suggestion was correct. Still, the best team in the world is liable to Mr. Slump ' s attacks and frequently suc- cumbs to them ; and that Santa Clara is not an exception was fully demonstrat- ed in the game in question. To Coach Higgins, who was untiring in his efforts to put forth a winner, students and faculty give great praise. " Pat " is without a doubt the premier Rugby coach in America. It was his misfortune, not his fault, that the Red and " White was trailed in the dust at California. And it is the firm belief of everyone at the Mission University that next year he will more than re- trieve the glory of old Santa Clara, and place a team in the field which will have some very close arguments with both the Varsities. The success of the past rugby sea- son is in no small way to be attributed to our Athletic Moderator, Mr. V. V. White, who, with an earnest zeal, faith- fully accepted his repsonsibility and then lived up to every requirement. To Student Manager George Nichol- son, the Student Body is indebted for the excellent schedule of games ar- ranged this season, and, furthermore, his able efforts greatly aided in receiv- ing very substantial profits from the Stanford and California games. Among the loyal supporters, and fighters of our fifteen. Captain Kiely deserves every encomium, capable of being bestowed upon a Captain, as " Mike " earnestly lent every available effort in leading his team to victory. The Redwood extends its heartiest con- gratulations to Captain Kiely and every individual member of the team, for the noble manner in which they have upheld the honor of the Red and White. Among the accidental qualifications necessary to inspire pep and zeal into a victorious or subdued team is the support lent them by the students, of a High School or University ; and the " Redwood " in behalf of the stu- dents avails itself of this oppor- tunity of expressing their sincerest gratitude to Algy Allen and George Donahue, who so ably held the rooting section together. When a victory was ours, or even where we realized a de- feat, we are confident that the out- come, whether the one or the other, was ameliorated by the zealous efforts of these enthusiastic gentlemen. Santa Clara 27. Barbarians 5. In one of the fastest games of the season, played on the University turf, the Santa Clara Varsity won a decisive victory over the hard-fighting Barba- rian Fifteen, by a score of 27 to 5. The Mission boys scored five times, which were the results of many beau- tifully executed passing rushes, while Ramage won merited applause on two separate occasions, for converting two field goals from difficult angles. The contest was intensely interest- ing from a spectator ' s view-point; as 98 THE REDWOOD. the combined harmony and unison of the passing rushes, coupled with clever dribbling, revealed the many secrets of the English game. As usual the Varsity failed to demon- strate their real knowledge of rugby during the first half and the pistol re- port found the Barbarians leading by a score of 5 to 3. Immediately after the opening of the second half, Schultz secured the pig- skin from the scrum, and sent a perfect kick into Curtin ' s hands, and the latter easily evaded the entire clubmen ' s de- fensiA e line and scored. Ybarrondo converted from a troublesome position, making the score 8 to 5 in Santa Clara ' s favor. Following the kick-off the clubmen, fighting desperately, threatened to score until Bates greatly relieved the situation by cleverly picking the ball up, passed to Noonan, who in turn sent the flying pig-skin into the hands of Benny Fitzpatrick, Avho scored. Ybar- rondo failed to convert from a distant kick. But a few minutes following this failure. Tommy proved his efficiency as an accurate place-kicker, when he converted a free kick, from the 45-yard line. The Barbs then took the offensive, for the next few moments of play cen- tered on their ten-yard line. A se- ries of punts and passes worked the ball back to Santa Clara ' s 45-yard line, where another free kick was awarded the collegians. Ramage undertook the burden of converting, and emulating Ybarrondo, he placed the pig-skin squarely between the posts with a beau- tiful kick from placement. The vitality of the clubmen greatly weakened during the remainder of the play, as the plucky fighting of the col- legians proved too difficult a burden to withst and, when Capt. Kiely, Muldoon and Bates dribbled the ball through their forwards. Here Jim Fitzpatrick received the ball in the loose, and quickly transferred it to Voight, who dodged through the field for another try. Ybarronda annexed an additional two points by converting from a diffi- cult angle. Again the Santa Clara back-field startled its many enthusiastic admir- ers, when the entire back-field figured in a speedy passing rush, which result- ed in a score. The ball was handled by Schultz, Higgins, Ramage, Curtin and Thomas, the latter scoring. The combined harmony of the pass- ing of the backs proved very conspicu- ous, and praise is due to each and every one ; while the playing of Bates was encouraging, and Noonan, Coschina, Capt. Kiely, the Fitzpatricks and Voight were the individual stars of the forwards. Clarke, Si Davinson, Chris Momson and Phippen proved the heavi- est gainers for their team. The teams lined up as follows : Santa Clara Barbarians Gilman Forward Arnott B. Fitzpatrick Forward Phippen Bates Forward Matheson Coschina Forward Gladstone Hickey Forward Boulware THE REDWOOD. 99 Santa Clara Barbarians Muldoon Forward Kiely Forward McNair Voight Breakaway Cashell J. Fitzpatrick Breakaway Olaine Ybarrondo Half Murray Schiiltz Half Eamage 1st Five Momson Curtin 2nd Five Robbitt Higgins Center Three Cobb Wallace Wing De La Mar Thomas Wing Davinson Stewart Fullback De Wald Referee : John 0. Miller. Timers: " Avoirdupois " Gaffey and Herlihy. Santa Clara Second 8. Stanford Second 8. In one of the most thrilling and excit- ing finishes ever witnessed on the local grid-iron, Santa Clara ' s second varsity overcame a lead of four points after the final gun had sounded, and tied the score with the Stanford second team. The Cardinal second ' s celebrated their scoring in the initial half of the centest, while the wind greatly favored the Missionites proved a wonderful as- set to them in the second half, when they anexed their counters. The rigid defense put up by the Car- dinals during the last five minutes of play added much from the spectators ' point of view, and a sudden wildness of enthusiasm and joy entered the hearts of the supporters of the " Red and White " , when the score was tied. After twenty minutes of play in which Stanford almost continuously kept the ball in Santa Clara ' s territory, Clarke broke from the scrum in a drib- bling rush and, following the ball up, kicked it over the line and succeeded in outsprinting Geha for the pig-skin. Stanford ' s second score came as a result of a beautiful passing rush in which Clarke passed to Smitherum, who, in turn, transferred the flying pig-skin to Jordan, who annexed Stan- ford ' s additional four points. From a very difficult angle Davis failed to convert. The second half found the plucky Santa Clarans fiercely attacking the Stanford line, and finally Jim Fitzpat- rick succeeded in scoring after a des- perate run through the Cardinal back- field. Bernie Higgins found the angle too difficult for conversion. Play continued for eight minutes longer, and on the final report of the pistol, Keene Fitzpatrick stubbornly fought his way over the line. Higgins failed to convert from a difficult an- gle. The wearers of the " Red and White " who played a creditable game, were Higgins, Jim and Keene Fitzpatrick, Schultz, Diaz, Amarel, Hickey, Winston and Thomas. Eddie Amarel was unfortunate enough to break his shoulder in an at- tempt to stop a dribbling rush of the Cardinal forwards. Bernie Higgins and Jim Fitzpatrick made long gains for Santa Clara and their punting Avas excellent, while on the defensive they managed to frus- trate the passing rushes of the Stan- ford back-field. 100 THE REDWOOD. Of the back-field men, Schultz and Thomas proved the best gainers, but, owing to the wet and soggy condition of the grounds, it was impossible to do any of the clever dodging for which these players are noted. Line-up as follows : Santa Clara Stanford ' Neil Forward McGilvery Dodge Forward Clarke Martin Forward Kester Christie Forward Sargeant Muldoon Forward J. Fitzpatrick Forward Smitherum Winston Forward Jordan Hickey Forward Bloesser Cunningham Half McEwen Schultz 1st Five Scott, Hayes Diaz 2nd Five Wilkins Ginnochio Center Three Davis (capt) Emerson R. Wing Hammon E. Wing Laine Thomas L. Wing Wynne L. Wing Townsend Geha, Fullback West Jackson (capt) Fullback Referee: Bates. Timers: Gaffey and Herlihy. Santa Clara 13. Flood ' s All Stars 7. Sunday afternoon, the eighteenth of October, Student Manager Nicholson arranged an exhibition game with Flood ' s All-Stars, from San Francisco. At 2:30 o ' clock the entire seating capacity was occupied, and the record crowd saw one of the cleverest contests of rugby ever witnessed on the local gridiron. Santa Clara took the offensive from the start, rushing the ball down to their opponent ' s goal-line, immediately after the kick-off. Here a scrum was form- ed and Higgins receiving the ball passed to Ramage who unluckily lost the ball after he crossed the line. Play was resumed in the " All-Stars " territoiy, but, owing to the impregna- ble defense put up by them, the collegi- ans failed to score. Near the end of the first half Ybar- rondo passed to J. Fitzpatrick, who scored the collegians first try. Ybar- rondo converted from a troublesome angle. Following the kick-off the " All- Stars " , ' headed by Quill and Momson, dribbled the ball into the Varsity ' s ter- ritory. Here Referee Reading penaliz- ed the Varsity and aivarded a free kick. Best made a successful attempt in safely placing the pig-skin squarely between the posts. Immediately after play was resumed in the second half, Coschina leaped high into the air from a line-out, and catching the ball fell over the oppon- ent ' s line. Ybarrondo failed to con- vert from a hard angle. A few minutes later Schultz took the ball from a 15-yard scrum, and after making a swerving run through the op- posing breakaway and halfback, passed to Bates, Avho scored. Ramage failed to convert. When the gun sounded, ending the first half, play was resumed in mid- field. Both teams eager to score, managed to keep the ball in bounds until the Varsity threatened to score. THE REDWOOD. 101 Here Detels received the ball and punt- ed to Ybarrondo. Tommy returned the ball, and Quill receiving it dodged safe- ly past the forwards, and transferred the pig-skin to Momson, who scored. The Santa Clara forwards played a brilliant game and confined the play in their department during the greater period of play. The back-field appear- ed quite erratic in executing their passing rushes, which failed to reveal the true merit of the Varsity. Among the forwards Bates, Coschi- na, J. Fitzpatrick, Capt. Kiely and Noonan proved the most conspicuous players, while Ramage, Curtin, Schultz and Higgins played well in the back- field. For the losers Flynn, Best, Momson, Quill, Hawkes, Montgomery and Detels deserve praise for the many speedy and clever plays they executed. The teams lined up as follows: Santa Clara Flood ' s All Stars Bates Forward Keating B. Fitzpatrick Forward Quill Noonan Forward Single Coschina Forward Glasson Hickey Forward Rhodes, Hully Kiely (capt) Lock Sargeant Voight Breakaway Tramutola K. Fitzpatrick Breakaway J. Fitzpatrick Breakaway Momson Schultz Half Ford Ramage 1st Five McAbee Stewart 2nd Five Schroeder Curtin Center Three Hawkes Higgins R. Wing Flynn Wallace R. Wing Montgomery Thomas L. Wing Best Ybarrondo Fullback Detels Stanford Varsity 13. Santa Clara Varsity 0. Playing one of its best rugby games of the season, Stanford ' s formidable rugby aggregation scored a decisive victory over the Varsity by a score of 13 to 0. The brilliant individual ef- forts of the Cardinal backs, rather than their combined strength, were re- sponsible for the tries earned. Considering the general run of the game the Missionites shared an equal advantage with their victors, and the defective eyesight of Rev. Mullineaux proved too great a handicap for the Varsity. Rugby critics considered it the best game ever witnessed on a California field, and though defeated, the Varsity emerged from the battle with many laurels. Santa Clara confined the play among their forwards, and on repeated occa- sions accomplished long gains by their clever dribbling, while Stanford passed the ball out to their back-field at every available opportunity. Erb opened the game by kicking off, and a return punt by Voight centered the play on the fifty-yard line. Follow- ing several scrums and line-outs the Cardinal ruggers brought the play on the Varsity ' s 25-yard line. Here a scrum was formed and Aus- tin receiving a snappy pass from Erb dodged through the Santa Clara back- field and scored. His attempt to con- vert his own score was a failure. Immediately following a drop-out Stanford had the Mission ruggers on 102 THE REDWOOD. the defensive, and Gard nearly scored after a sensational run. From a scrum Stewart greatly relieved the situation by booting safely into Stanford ' s terri- tory. Good forward play by the Mis- sion players put Stanford on the de- fensive, and Ramage tried for a field goal from the forty-yard line but missed. Carrol ' s kick relieved the pressure, but again the forwards dribbled the ball into Stanford ' s territory. Follow- ing a line-out Higgins secured the ball from B. Fitzpatrick, and passing the Stanford wing, quickly transferred the pig-skin to Voight, who safely carried it over the line. Before he could ground the ball Carroll made a low, diving tackle and Voight was thrown into touch-in-goal. The referee claim- ed Voight had received a forward pass and called a scrum on Stanford ' s 25- yard line. With all due credit to Rev. Mullin- eaux ' s refereeing I must candidly con- fess that he alone, among the 5,000 spectators claimed that Higgins passed forward to Voight. An excuse given may, perhaps, be acceptable, — that per- spiration rapidly forming on his glasses caused a slight impairment in his eye- sight. After the gun had sounded the expi- ration of the first half. Reeve broke away, and passed to Austin, who in turn transferred the ball to Caroll, and back to Reeves. It ended in Reeves be- ing knocked out by a hard tackle from Ramage. At half time Stanford led by a score of 3 to 0. Santa Clara, inspired with unusual vitality, commenced the second half in vigorous style and soon had the Cardi- nal players on the defensive. Curtin, receiving the ball from Capt. Kiely, got away and ran 20 yards. Here he was tackled but quickly rolled over, got up and slipped the ball to Stewart, who sent it on to Ramage, who trans- ferred it to Thomas, the latter finally scoring. The many thousand ardent support- ers of the Red and White went wild with joy, but unfortunately the defect- ive eye-sight claimed Thomas stepped into touch-in-goal before he grounded the ball, and consequently the score did not count. With Santa Clara still pressing, Lachmund kicked the ball past the for- ward line, and following up fast, out- sprinted Ybarrondo for the ball, and another kick placed the ball over the line, where he fell on it. Austin con- verted an easy goal, bringing the Stan- ford total of points up to eight. Play lodged in Stanford ' s territory, and Santa Clara was awarded a free kick on Stanford ' s 40-yard line. Ram- age tried the penalty kick, and unfor- tunately the Stanford ' s forwards blocked a kick, which undoubtedly would have been a score. A cross-kick by Urban was picked up by Burns on his own forty-yard line, and on dodging a Santa Clara back, he was tackled by Stewart, but Burns passed to Carroll, who romped unopposed over the line and scored di- THE REDWOOD. 103 rectly behind the goal-posts. Austin converted an easy goal. Shortly before the game ended Santa Clara nearly scored, but Schultz in his eagerness picked the ball out of the scrum, and the resultant free kick greatly relieved the situation. Voight was ordered off the field for rought tactics, but I dare say the Santa Clara player, under the impres- sion Urban had the ball, used only ne- cessary force in trying to secure the ball, bu t unfortunately Urban dropped it before Voight stopped pulling him out of the scrum. Though we deplore the rough tactics of Mr. Hickey, in this spirited contest, the provocation he re- ceived will do much in the eyes of every fair observer to minimize his fault. The teams lined up as follows : Stanford Santa Clara Hall Forward Bates Soper Forward Noonan Winer Forward B. Fitzpatrick Clover Forward Christie Jacomini Forward Gilman Pettingill Forward Cosehina Forward Hickey Braden Forward Kiely Gard Breakaway Voight " Wylie Breakaway Higgins Erb Half Schultz Austin 1st Five Stewart Lachmund 2nd Five Ramage Carroll Center Three Curtin Urban R. Wing Wallace Reeves L. Wing Thomas Andrews Fullback Ybarrondo Referee : Rev. Mr. Mullineaux. SECOND DIVISION NOTES. Owing to lack of numbers in the " Second Division " , it was difficult to participate in regular football practice, but those who came out seemed to learn the game quickly. The games between the two respect- ive dormitories proved the most inter- esting and exciting. Besides practice games, a game was played with the " Mountain League " team, who, after a hard tus- sle defeated the " Midgets " by a score of 6 to 3. The most conspicuous mem- bers among the second division were Comically, Doud, Kavanaugh, Foster, Falvey, and " Hank " O ' Neil; while Capt. Marenovich, Leonard, Brown, and McElligott were responsible for the " Mountain League " victory. All that is needed with regard to many of the players is weight and coaching, and another year should find them valued members of the " Juniors " . SIDE LINE NOTES FROM THE MOUNTAIN LEAGUE. At their annual meeting on October 15th, the members of the Moun- tain Leaguers elected their officers and captains for the ensuing year. T Boone was unanimously elected presi dent of the League, while M. Ginno chio was chosen coach. Marenovich Gaffey and " Avoirdupois " Stearns were elected as the leaders of their re- spective teams. Playing a regular schedule of games Gaffey and his warriors were 104 THE REDWOOD. conceded the championship, when they Sparks, Gianella, Quill, Griffin, Fitz- defeated Marenovich ' s team in the gerald. final games. The following stellar per- A selection from the entire squad formers are deserving of credit: Can- of the " Mountain Leaguers " defeated non, Brown, Leonard, McElligott, Ka- Santa Clara High by a score of 18 to 0. vanagh, Burke, Mendez, Cornell, THANKSGIVING The bells are flinging a joy song Over the land today, And the sparkling beams of silvery light Make the homeliest face seem warmly and bright With their translucent ray. The chimes are telling a love tale To the trees all bare and shorn, And a trillion drops of glistening dew Fill the leafless tree with life anew — On this Thanksgiving morn. • » The guns are booming a death knell Over the sea tonight, And many a peasant lies in wait To hear the call of that awful fate Before the morning ' s light. Wild shells are shrieking a hell-song Over the sea today. And fiends rush over the fallen slain To bury them under with dead again, While widows wait and pray. J. CHARLES MURPHY THE REDWOOD. z A Store for Young Men Eateblished 1865 Our young men ' s suits and overcoats are made with that dash and snap young men like. A young mens store is where they like to buy such clothes. Our ' s is that store. Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes g ' pnng 0. inr. Santa Clara and Market Streets E. L. REIDING JEWELER, WATCHMAKER, ENGRAVER 15 West Santa Clara Street Phone, San Jose 4027 SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SUIT CASES PURSES 63-91 South First St, San Jose. Cal. LEATHER NOVELTIES SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT " HOME OF STETSON HATS ' SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON THE REDWOOD. — __ _ __ Don ' t Wear Glasses Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists 50c; by mail 6Sc EstabliBhed 20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Wm. McCarthy Sons QOFFEE TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California Vargas Bros. C- LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies Sm ' XnrveryS ' wrn7th " em. Main Line, Santa Clara 120 THE REDWOOD. Z -•i General Hauling Picnic Parties Nickell ' s Transfer Co. 16 North First Street, San Jose Tel. San Jose 460 Teleohones- i Kearny 5811 leiepnones. 15 3718 FRED W. SALTER, Proprietor THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. MET HOPE KAYSER vet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR SIXTIETH YEAR : : i THE REDWOOD. Heaven helps those who help themselves. YOUR CHOICE OF u- " 4 nnc i DELAY THE BEST Jl. A 1 NO TIPS Royal Cafeteria 20 EAST SAN FERNANDO ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. THEATER lOSE Vaudeville and PRICES Week Day Matinee 10 cents any seat. Night 10 and 15 cents Matinee Daily at 3 p. m. SUNDAY, FIVE PERFORMANCES Matinee, 1:45 continuous to 4:30. Niglit, 6:30 continuous to 10:30 For all yf iQfH J t5 The Standard Sports X " ffi MuA Goods A. G. SPAULDING BROS. 156 Geary Street, San Francisco ASSOCIATED OIL COMPANY Crude Oil, Gasoline, Distillates J. R. CHASE, AOENT Phone, S. J. 36 115 N. FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 824 IF YOU ARE TROUBLED Del Rey LET THE Billiard Parlor University A Place for Gentlemen Barbers J. W. POOLE, Prop. Take the Weight off Your Mind 39 N . First Street San Jose, Cal. Main Street. Santa Clara Phones : Office S. C. 151J Residence S. C. 112 Y F. O. ROLL DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Dentist Real Estate and Insurance Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p, m. Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line Franck Building Santa Clara 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company PHOTO ENGRAVING ZINC ETCHINGS ( HALF TONES Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make It better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA " ■ ' ■ ' ' THE REDWOOD. Granadafig MADE IN SANTA CLARA Of California Figs, Walnuts Almonds and Raisins ji HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards DRIFTED SNOW FLOUR For Sixty Years The Standard p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. Origlia LamoUe Grill_«« 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD. 3 : MANUEL MELLO Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE EiiterpriseLaiiiKlryCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice SANTA CLARA Globe Barber Shop Franklin St. Santa Clara Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool IYl Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara -Jb THE REDWOOD. Z The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60; Santa Clara 99 J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose E. Gaddi Franklin St. Santa Clara V. Salberg Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. We promise you relief from all Stomacli Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box Only at m dqe .s PHARMACY About our Fountain Pens. They are the serviceabe, non- leakable kind. University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. THE IDEAL THE LARGEST AND BEST EQUIPPED POOL AND BILLIARD PARLOR IN SAN Under New Management JOSE. 81 South Second Street, opposite Jose Theater. 9 A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Ice Cream AND Candies Colonica ' s Telephone S. C. 35 R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Wholesale AND Retail : : THE REDWOOD. : T=?. ' V ESTABLISHED 1869 THE BRITISH BLUCHER One of the new " Style Starters " of the English shape, made in the new shade of nut brown, ma- hogany, Russia calf, or black velvet calf. Lace blucher style with blind eyelets. 18 to 26 EAST SANTA CLARA STREET SAN JOSE Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE MARK ' " HbEGATi MARK, CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS Market Street, opposite Telephone Building Continuous Performance 11 a.m. to 11 p.m. WE AL VAYS TRY To procure the best and very latest Motion Picture Plays ; they please hundreds and hundreds of patrons week in and week out, and they will please you too. There ' s always something new and novel in realistic and entertaining " Movies " at this theatre. Send the children ; they are safe and cared for here. : THE REDWOOD. f The Hastings New Styles in Young Men s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grand Ave., San Francisco, Cal. , — ., THE REDWOOD. t 1- The Sunset Three days to New Orleans via Route " Sunset Limited ' ' Through Los Angeles and South- ern California and the Cotton Fields of the South Through Standard Sleepers and through personally conducted Tourist Sleepers Ask any Agent or From New Orleans take the Pala- tial Southern Pacific Steamers to New York, or via train to all points A. A. HAPGOOD City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Passenger Agent 40 E. Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. SOUTHERN F , , , . .. PACIFIC — THE REDWOOD. l , , ., TKe Co-Operative Store of tke University of Santa Clara invites its friends to inspect their line of jewelry wKicK will be on display after tke first of December OUR STOCK OF PENNANTS, PILLOWS AND PLACQUES IS FULL OF THE LAT- EST IDEAS, WHICH WILL HELP YOU IN SELECTING YOUR CHRISTMAS GIFTS H. ... .. . _._. . . . , , ' ■ , TMC RCDWOOD THE REDWOOD. ,111 SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leadiag to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO. No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans s INSUM A Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies SUTTER AND KEARNY STREETS San Francisco, California New, Central, Fireproof, Comfortable, Reasonable The One Place in San Francisco We Cater Especially to College to Meet Your Friends Trade DIRECT CARLINE TO BOTH DEPOTS THE REDWOOD. : What could be a more suitable and acceptable gift than er For a given amount, or any of the many useful articles we carry Suits and Overcoats $15.00 to $40.00 49-51 South First Street San Jose, Cal. Z ' Going to Sacramento Christmas? Ride in comfort A Scenic Trip Observation cars (t Fast Electric Trains Safety Block Signals all the Way Oakland, Antioch Eastern Ry. San Francisco Depot: Key Route Ferry THE REDWOOD. iC Z i Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI WHOLESALE COMMISSION AAERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara lournal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ? Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORJ IA ¥1 THE REDWOOD. : 1 WHOLESALE e • n Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 30Q 74-76 N. Market St. San Jose, CaL rreservmg PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougli, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4tli Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton : THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288 290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA American Fish Market Residence Phors ' j.Vv " ? Wholesale and Retail Dealers in FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. LOCICERU, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. — f THE REDWOOD. Correct Wearing Apparel In Men ' s Furnishing and Hats Agent for ED. V. PRICE CLOTHES 23 W. Santa Clara Street 24 South Second Street WE RENT SELL REPAIR REBUILD EXCHANGE ALL MAKES Phone, San Jose 349 EXCLUSIVE SERVICE Typewriters and Supplies SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. : - THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 824 Del Rey Billiard Parlor A Place for Gentlemen J. W. POOLE, Prop. 39 N. First Street San Jose, Cal. ■1 IF YOU ARE TROUBLED LET THE University Barbers Take the Weight off Your Mind Main Street, Santa Clara Phones : Office S. C. 151 J Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose Boys Before you buy your Christ- mas Candy and for fine Boxes of Candy, see Mrs. J. A. Rudolph 16 S. First Street, San Jose A Fine Line of Sweet Grass Baskets ALL MEMBERS OF SantaClara Coffee Club Should arrange to be present at their next annual meeting, which will be held In the Club Rooms on Monday evening, January 18, 1915. A splendid program is being prepared and a rousing good time is expected. Everybody who ever donated towards the Club is Invited to come and see how it is growing. M. R. GLEASON, Manager. HEADQUARTERS FOR Waterman Fountain Pens Pocket Books Address Books Fine Diaries Millard Bros. THE BOOKMAN 7 W. Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. THE REDWOOD. ' K. Get your next Suit or Overcoat =AT= The White House See " Harmony Blend " the new " Knapp Felt Hat " Market Street, opposite Telephone Bldg, Continuous 11 a.m. to 11 p.m. Dec. 18 and 19 " Julius Ceesar. " Friday, Dec. 18, " Zudora " first episode, (one day only.) Dec. 20, 21, 22, " ' The Education of Mr. Pipp " with Digy Bell. Dec. 23, 24, " Panama Exposition Moving Pictures of Santa Clara County. " Dec. 25, 26, " The Tangle " and " Birth of Our Savior. " Dec. 27, 28. 29, " Lena Cavaiiere " the world ' s moat famous beauty in " Manon Lescaut. " Dec. 30, 31, " Lena Rivers " with Beulah Poynter, Your remembrance of the Liberty Theatre is one of being warm and com- fortable while enjoying a good presentation of the world ' s greatest plays, while the weather outside may be stormy and disagreeable. Changed Sunday, Wednesday, Friday : CONTENTS CHRISTMAS _ - _ Edward L. Nicholson 105 INITIATION _ - - Patrick Delacey-Mulhall Hih A CHRISTMAS Grace - - William Allen Irwin 110 THE NIGHT - - - - J. E. Trabucco 114 ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNALLING ,1 Imer Dreischmeyer I ,j. I Servando Barroquillo J CHRISTMAS EVE - - _ Edward L. Nicholson 1 U ' THE HICKVILLE MURDER - F. Buckley McGurrin 12, i THE GHOST OF BARSTONE MANOR - William Kevin Casey 128 EDITORIALS - - - - -- - - 132 EXCHANGES - - - - - - 1 fS BETHLEHEM - - _ _ Roland Maginnis l.?y UNIVERSITY NOTES - _ _ - - no Alumni ----- - - 14s ATHLETICS ------- 148 OFFICERS OF ASSOCIATED STUDENTS LOUIS T. MILBURN, Pres. GEORGE A. NICHOLSON, STUDENT Mgr. ARTISAN J. RAMAGE, Sec. WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY. TREAS. W. BENJAMIN FITZPATRICK. SERGT. AT ARMS T s-T?, Entered Dec. 18. 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., DECEMBER, 1914 NO. 3 QlhrtHtmaB Drear}? tKe nigKt and still, Swiftly tKe winters jled ; Long Kad tKe day deen done; Stony tne patn tKey trod Sad is tKe Virgin MotKer ' s gaze, Leading tKe Gentile Keart away, As if tKere looms tKro ' tKe Kang- WKere tKe KeatKens ' idols Keld ing Kaze, tKeir sway ; TKe fate of Ker new-born son. TeacKing tKe ways of God. Mellow a great star beamed AK ! but Ke died for us ! Far in tKe eastern skies; Tearful tKe story told SKouts from tKe valley far be- Of Kim wKo sold to tKe HeatKen low Korde, Welcomed tKe CKrist CKild ' s crib TKe Burning Heart of CKrist, our as tKougK Lord To KusK tKe Virgin ' s sigKs. For a paltry sum of gold. Dreary tKe Kour and still; Long Kad tKe day been done; Tearful tKe Virgin MotKer ' s gaze On tKe cross, Kalf Kid bj) tKe Kang- ing Kaze, And tKe form of Ker dying Son. E. L. NICHOLSON. INITIATION F ever a book depended for its origin upon a mode of thinking ckaraeteristic of one man, then that book is " Initiation, " and the one man in all the world who could have written it was Robert Hugh Benson. This must not be taken to mean that the book is an adequate expression of his individuali- ty. It is far from being anything of the kind. Rather is it an expression of one aspect of a mind which had many aspects. It is a reflection from a na- ture which might have taken for its symbol the Koh-i-Noor; for, like the famous diamond, it had many facets, and was large, precious and unique. Pain — Who would ever dream of taking pain as the theme of a novel? Surely no one but Benson. We are surrounded by it everywhere. We find it broadcast from the Poles to the Tropics. It abides in the palace and it lurks in the cottage. We know it was there in the days of Caesar, and we know it will remain when we too are gone. The finest of our race, men and women, and many from among our wisest, continue to-day the age-long struggle for the conquest of pain. In- stitutions, societies, corporations and governments all over the world, are employing whole armies of trained fighters in the campaign, but still it remains, persisting, seemingly omnipo- tent, and certainly ubiquitous. There is nothing more aggressive, nothing more common ; yet, who would dream of writing a novel on pain? Perhaps most of us are like Enid and Nevill in " Initiation: " Ave too look upon it as " a kind of physical sin, " as a stain upon the beauty of life and, therefore, shun it. So it remained for Robert Hugh Benson to Avrite the " Apologia " of pain, and none was better fitted for the task. Sir Nevill Fanning, Baronet, is twenty-three, tall, handsome, and re- fined. He is a Catholic less from con- viction than heredity. Yet he has nev- er dreamed nor would ever dream of drifting from the Church. For this boy, educated at Stonyhurst, there is only one religion possible : so he is reg- ular at his duties as a Catholic, and maintains his chapel and priest " and all that " as a matter of course, just as his father had done before him. But Nevill is as nearly a pagan as a Cath- olic may be. He has yet to discover his religion. For him joy is the fullest re- alization and the aim of life. There is no place in his religion for pain. Suf- fering in any form revolts him. It rouses in him a storm of antagonism and revolt. While on a visit to Rome Nevill falls in love. The girl, Enid Bessington, is beautiful, strong-minded and serene, but utterly selfish. They become en- 106 THE REDWOOD. 107 gaged and there follow for the boy some months of unclouded bliss. But Enid, unable long to conceal her al- most maniacal egotism, quarrels with Nevill and jilts him. The terrible an- guish that follows reveals to him new vistas, ncAV secrets in his soul. He be- comes more gentle, more patient, and more humble. His recurrent terrible headaches, which he has inherited from a dissolute father, now begin to grow more constant and ever more violently painful. Thus, quivering in an agony of physical pain, his soul tortured in an ecstasy of grief, and gradually going blind, the " initiation " of Nevill Fan- ning begins. Mrs. Anna Fanning, his aunt and housekeeper, becomes all the world to Nevill. She too, had come through much pain and prayer to a deeper knowledge of her faith. And now, through the intuitions of the convert mystic, Mr. Morpeth, she is led to see the Hand of God working His design in her nephew ' s soul, through suffer- ing. In her deep love for her nephew, she urges him to consult a specialist in London, but learns then that he did not. And now follows what seems the most extraordinary passage in the book: " Then, suddenly, she remebered, that Nevill had said nothing as to having seen any doctor; . She would write tomorrow, and tell him that he must go at once, if he loved her. And then again her heart sank down. A shadow such as this was not just a matter that could be banished by a doctor ' s consulting-room and a few drugs. " She could not banish it so, even if she would. " She would not banish it so, even if she could. " Here, then, is the spectacle of a cultured, strong-minded, and altogether lovable aunt, with an affection for her nephew as deep and true as a mother ' s, delib- erately smothering her poignant wish to protect him, and leaving him to a fate which she feels is overtaking him —and why? Because the mystic Mor- peth, had taught her " to understand that Pain was not the greatest of evils ; that it might be even not an evil at all, but a good; that a curse, if truly the shadow of a blessing, might be that very blessing that could come no oth- erwise than in a sombre dress. " Nevill noAV grows rapidly worse, un- til finally he goes utterly blind. The specialists advise an immediate oper- ation, from which, after enduring more pain, he recovers, only to learn that his trouble will return, probably within a few months. He now grows ever more gentle, ever more humble, Grace, which so long had lain dormant, now awakens in him a consciousness of Him from Whom all things proceed ; and he learns the meaning of the last great sacrifice now asked of him — the sacrifice of Death; thus " every image faded from him ; every symbol and memory died; the chasm passed into nothingness ; and the Grail was drunk, and colors passed into whiteness ; and sounds into the silence of Life ; and the Initiation was complete. " As was indicated at the outset, what strikes one most forcibly about the 108 THE REDWOOD. whole book is the uniqueness of the theme. To choose pain as the theme of a novel requires both courage and orig- inality. To teach that pain may not be an evil, but a blessing in disguise ; to preach that not only is it a blessing, but a necessity — at least for such na- tures as Nevill ' s — for complete initia- tion, this then is the " message " of the book. The characters are all drawn with an elaborateness and truth char- acteristic of all his work. In fact it might be said that in parts he was in- clined to over-describe, as in his oft re- curring, minute (we had almost said ' tedious ' ) descriptions of rooms, furni- ture and household effects, and more noticeably still, his elaborate minute- ness in describing moods and emotions, agonies and ecstasies in all varieties and degrees, from infra positive to ul- tra superlative. Like some art- ists of the impressionist school he was inclined here to lay too much em- phasis on the " high lights. " This tend- ency to over-portray strikes one most forcibly in his continual, almost monot- onous reversion to poor Mrs. Bessing- ton ' s single defect — her garrulity. Judged fi ' om the standpoint of the story, that is, judged merely as a story, the book is not, by any means, to be ranked among the best. There is no plot : A boy falls in love in Rome, comes home, is jilted, has headaches, aches grow worse, becomes blind, undergoes operation, recovers, relapse — dies. Surely there was never a simpler plot than this. But then it will be said — and rightly — the book was not written for the plot ; no, its author thought lit- tle of plot in his ardour for the subject nearer his heart, in his great enthusi- asm to preach a doctrine, in which he himself most ardently believed. Early on the morning of October the nineteenth there appeared printed in large type in the London newspapers the following: " Monsignor Benson, the famous Roman Catholic preacher and novelist, died suddenly at Salford, early this morning. " Thus was news given to the world of the passing of one who has left a place that there is none to fill. Monsignor Benson occupied perhaps the most anomalous position of any of the leaders of Catholic thought. The son of the Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, educated in an atmosphere of strict Anglicanism, under a father whose High Church principles did not alter in the least his antagonism to Rome, himself once a Protestant minis- ter, he had become one of greatest and best known figures in all the Catholic Priesthood. Monsignor Benson was received into the Church, September the eleventh, 1903, and was raised to the priesthood in Rome in 1904. During his ten years of work as a priest he preached and lec- tured a great deal in England, Ire- land, Rome and America. His fertile, untiring pen, produced some twenty- five volumes, all of which are fine books and helpful, many of which will continue to preach to future genera- tions, the " message " which he always had, and without which he never un- THE REDWOOD. 109 dertook a novel. He was a man of large culture, wide reading and extensive travel. He had climbed the Alps, steered the Cambridge eight, played half-back in football, and remained untouched by the moral laxity which prevailed even in the best society in the universities. When he was twenty- one, he found that his religion had for him no real vitality. It was a negative, incoherent thing which permitted him to dabble in spiritualism, hypnotism, theosophy or skepticism, and failed ut- terly to bring him close to the Pres- ence of God. It was during his travels through Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land, that he discovered the isolation of Anglicanism and the widespread unity of Catholicity. His first thought of conversion came to him in a little mud-chapel in Egypt, and again Vv ith more urgent appeal when on the road to Damascus he read that the man who had lead him to take orders as an Anglican minister had himself be- come a Catholic. The only thing which stood in the way finally was Papal In- fallibility, until a study of the Petrine Texts made all clear to him, and then, on the 11th of September, 1903, the Church received into her fold one of the brightest of her sons and one of the most tireless and fertile of all who have given up their lives to her cause. Patrick DeLacy-Mulhall. A CHRISTMAS GRACE T is winter. All around the Arctic mountains are cov- ered with snow. Below in the valley is a frozen mir- ror shimmering now and then in the feeble rays of the moon that struggle through the shroud of the Long Night. On its northern shore, close to the frozen rivu- let that scattered its flood songfully in summer, and sheltered by a few lofty pines, is a primitive log-cabin. Banked high against its sides is the snow, save where it had been shoveled from the doorway. In spite of the bleakness of the outside night, the scene within is one of comfort. The interior is characteristic of an Alaskan miner ' s cabin. At one end a spacious fireplace, in which a cheery log is burning, lights up the room, while at the opposite extremity are two bunks, built ship fashion, one above the other. Above the fireplace hangs a crucifix, an article for the most part unknown to these cabins. Upon a rudely constructed mantle below are two pictures, one of a matronly figure, with silver locks and a kind, sad ex- pression, the other a girlish face, Avith tresses of gold and youthful laughing eyes. A rough table and a couple of chairs set in the middle of the room complete the picture ; above which sus- pended from the ceiling is a battered coal oil lamp, which at the present time is not lit, the fire affording the only illumination. The human beings that complete this picture are two in number. One, a boy, just on the verge of manhood, lay on the lounge. His dress was one of a typical Alaskan " sour-dough. " His heavy shirt lay open at the neck, his corduroys stretched to where they were swallowed by a pair of heavy top boots. His face was fair and hand- some, with eyes of azure blue. To com- plete his Gaelic appearance, his person Vi as surmounted by a shock of very bright red hair. The name of the youth was Larry MacDougall. His companion, an older man, who had battled with the vicissitudes of life for upwards of two score years, was seated in front of the hearth smok- ing a short black pipe, and scowling the while. His dress was similar to the other ' s except that around his waist was a cartridge belt from which hung a bolstered .44. A heavy brown beard covered his face, and his thinning hair as well as his beard was interspersed with gray. His eyes were brown and piercing. Li build he was short and stocky in comparison with his compan- ion ' s height. Now and then he ad- dressed ' short, snappy remarks to the boy on the lounge, who continued to stare into the glaring embers of the 110 THE REDWOOD. Ill fire. Seeing that his words had no ef- fect, he tried a gentler and more per- suasive tone. " Mac! Don ' t be a fool. The storm has just blown over and is liable to come up again any minute. It is taking the Devil ' s chance. ' ' And again growl- ing as he spoke, he cried, " Besides there ' s no God. You can ' t talk to me about that. I haven ' t been to church for fourteen years, and have been the better for it. Religion is good enough for old women. " " Hogan, " for Patrick Hogan was the elder man ' s name, " what church did you go to when you were a boy? " " The same as yourself, Mac. I was baptized Roman Catholic, a Sodalist, and such truck. I am sorry I ever heard anything about it. " At the mention of the Sodality, Lar- ry ' s face lit up and he fervently mur- mured " Maria Ora pro eo! " Hogan stared dubiously at his com- panion, as he uttered these words, but did not understand them. Little did he know that they were borne on fleeting wings to the Queen enthroned above, and She was already petitioning the Shepherd to save Her lost lamb. " Husky, " as Hogan was nicknamed, after gazing at MacDougall a while longer, decided to renew the attack again, and this time he began to sprinkle his conversation with rough words. As a iiery storm of curses fell from his lips, the boy sprang up. " Stop, Hogan, or I ' ll—. " He fell silent and again sank into his seat. For a moment there was no word and then the boy began : " Hogan, you and I have been part- ners for two years and we have never quarreled. I did not criticise your want of religion, and you did not trouble me. I don ' t know why you should take this occasion to make trou- ble, but if you want to know the real truth I will tell you. " " Do you see that picture? " he said, pointing to the portrait of the elder wo- man. " That ' s my mother. My fat her died when I was but a child and for twenty long years that mother has sup- ported me. Her struggle was hard, for my father had little to leave her. But she managed to keep the wolf from the door, and to give me a high school edu- cation. During all this time she was a fervent Catholic, and to this she at- tributes her success. In my younger years, as I said my little prayers at her knee, she taught me to love Mary, the Comforter of the Afflicted, who had carried her through her sorrows. " I came to this country to try to re- pay her and to provide for her a com- fortable old age. I came to make my fortunes in the gold fields. How I have succeeded you know. But before I left home I solemnly promised her that I would be true to my religion. Do you now wish me to break a promise made to an aged mother? Tomori ' ow is Christ- mas and in fulfillment of that promise I am going to Mass. Come with me Husky ! Remember the days of your childhood, the Chi ' istmas crib, the gar- lands hung about the Church, Do come 112 THE REDWOOD. with me, Husky — and he paused, ex- pectant for a reply. The old miner was silent, and hung his head. Then lifting his eyes, he gazed at the picture of the girl upon the shelf above. " Mary, my daughter, " he mur- mured, seemingly unconscious of the other ' s presence, " how I have wronged you and your mother ! ' ' And again, as the powers of darkness gained the mas- tery of his soul, he cried : " Oh, Hell, there is no God, " and staggered off to bed. Soon the younger followed after fixing the fire for the night. In the morning, before the dreary winter sun had arisen, MacDougall was well on his way to the little trading station about six miles distant. Here a priest from a nearby Jesuit mission came on Sundays and Holy days to celebrate mass. As MacDougall has- tened on as briskly as his snow shoes would permit, his thoughts turned to Hogan back in the cabin. He decided to oifer his Christmas communion for his salvation, and taking a rosary from his pocket, he began to count his beads. In the meantime Hogan sat staring vacantly into the dying embers of the breakfast fire. Now and then his ex- pression would change as his guardian Angel and his evil spirit struggled for the supremacy of his soul. He thought of his youth in Ireland, of the days of sunshine and joy. But with these re- flections would arise thoughts which had ruined his life, and had estranged him from God. He tried in vain to dis- miss the subject from his mind, but still the indomitable question pursued him, " Choose! Do you believe in God or not. " He sat there well into the morning, and was finally aroused by the pangs of hunger. He prepared himself a small lunch, and after consuming it, threw himself upon the lounge to sleep. It was late when he awoke. He had slept later than he had expected. Out- side the wind whistled around the cor- ners of the cabin. Stepping to the door he was surprised to see the snow fall- ing heavily, and the blackness of the winter night set in. He pulled from his pocket a time-worn silver watch, a luxury little known in these parts, and discovered to his dismay that it was a little after five. But where was MacDougall. It was high time that he was back. He must go and look for him by all means. How foolish he had been to quarrel with the lad. He prepared to set out on his hunt for his companion, muttering to him- sef the while curses upon the poor boy ' s head. But his heart was not with his words. He really liked the lad, almost loved him. And, too, MacDougall ' s communion offered that morning for his sake had done much to soften his heart. Finally having armed himself for a battle against the elements, he stepped into the howling night. The wind seethed around his ears, and the snow fell fiercely, hiding his view of the trail ahead so that he had to feel his way along. Now he would step into THE REDWOOD. 113 some snow drift, now stumble over some hidden stump or rock. After hours of slow and painful trav- el, when he had accomplished about one-third of the distance to the trading station, he thought he made out a black shape on the trail. Hastening forward he discovered it to be the in- sensible form of MacDougall. Stoop- ing over the unconscious lad he began to rub his frozen limbs with snow. As faint signs of returning consciousness began to appear, he put his flask of brandy to the boy ' s lips, and awaited the result, still rubbing him softly. Slowly the breathing became more regular and stronger, but still the boy was far from recovery. After a half hour or so, he slowly opened his eyes only to shut them again. After another short period he lifted his tired lids, and his sight rested on Hogan ' s expectant face. Slowly a smile of recog- nition played upon his pale features. He opened his lips as if to speak, and Hogan bent closer to catch his words. He heard the boy whisper, sweetly, softly with a voice like an Angel ' s, " Maria, Oro pro eo. Mary, pray for him. " Again the lad smiled, and his eyes glistened for a second, and then — - His soul was before his maker. Hogan glanced at the dead face, and sadly thought of his companion ' s dying words. Then an impulse seized him, and falling, sobbing on the ground, he fervently cried, " Oh! Mary! Mary, Mother of God, pray for him ' ' Then he gave way to a paroxysm of grief. And as his words, coming from the depths of a truly penitent heart, were wafted Heavenward, another soul was entering the kingdom of God. It is again winter. The snow, a pure white carpet, covers the ground. A frozen lake is also there, but the scene is a different one. On the side of a gently sloping hill, the grey towers of a Trappist monastery arise. Outside it has the aspect of a humble, yet vener- able old pile. Inside the chapel is plainly decorated as befits the charac- ter of the house, but the Christmas crib is present, testifying to the deep devo- tion of the venerable monks for the In- fant Saviour, born again this day. Be- fore the crib a eossocked figure kneels, gazing longingly at the King of Kings. At last slowly, and painfully, for he is aged and infirm, he arises, and goes quietly over to the shrine of the Im- maculate Conception, and with tears rolling down his wrinkled face at the memories of long ago he counts his beads. And, as the last decade is fin- ished, with a humble burst of grief, he utters the words, " Maria! Ora pro eo. " He remains in this posture for a few moments. Then his head falls on his breast. He reels unsteadily and falls. One more saint is in heaven. Husky Hogan ' s pen- itence is complete. That day Mary, the Refuge of Sinners, was gladdened by the reunion of two of her children. William Allen Irwin Jr. SIljp Nigl|t Westward sinks tKe burning sun, Soft tne evening snadows fall ; LigKt is flying, Da}? is dying, Darkness stealetK over all. DeatK knells sKriek tKeir dismal cry, Sadness gnaws at every heart. Soldiers groaning, Widows moaning. War has entered, joys depart. Destiny a nation holds , Death its greatest harvest reaps; Souls are flying, Orphans crying. Ruin rules and pity weeps. J. E. TRABUCCO. 114 ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNALLING OR nearly forty years the movement of trains was controlled by the tele- graph, but as the traffic grew and the speed in- creased, it became appar- ent that some aiitomatic means was necessary to relieve the responsibili- ties of the despatcher and to safeguard life and property. In 1906 the Inter- State Comerce Commission began an investigation of block signal systems, and of the means of compelling rail- roads to install safety devices for the protection of life. But as wrecks are a great expense to railroads, it is safe to assume that they have been doing all in their power to prevent them. Electric block signal systems cost a great amount to install and only roads on which the traffic is heavy can af- ford them. The basis of nearly all electric block signal systems, the track circuit, was patented by Wm. Robinson on Aug. 20, 1872, but the company controlling the patent made only 920 signals. It was not until the patent expired in 1889 that real activity in the line of electric block signalling began. In the next fifteen years 20,000 signals were constructed. In all block systems the road is di- vided into sections or blocks. Only one train is allowed to occupy a block at one time. The length of the block varies with the speed of the train and the amount of traffic ; but it is genei - ally of sufficient length to enable the engineer to control and stop his train before the next block is reached. At the beginning of each block is some kind of a signal to show whether or not the block is occupied. The sem- aphore type of signal is most commonly used. It consists of a narrow blade pivoted near one end to an upright post. A light casting is fitted to the short end of the blade. There are holes in this casting for colored bull ' s-eyes, behind which a light is placed at night. This blade is connected to mechanism at the base of the signal so that it can be raised or lowered through sixty de- grees. When the blade is in a horizon- tal position the block is occupied, but when it is pointing downward the block is clear. There are usually two sema- phores on each post. One, the home signal, is red, and indicates whether or not the block it protects is occupied. The other, the distant signal, is yellow, and indicates whether or not the next block ahead is occupied. When an en- gineer finds the home signal in the hor- izontal position he must stop. When he finds the distant signal in the hori- zontal position he must proceed with caution to the next block, expecting to find the home signal there at stop. If 115 116 THE REDWOOD. the block is veiy long the distant sig- nal is placed in the middle of the block, as the engineer still has time to control his train before the next home signal is reached. At night the engineer is guided by the colored bull ' s eyes. Red is stop, yellow caution, and green clear. Green is used instead of white because a broken red bull ' s-eye would show white. The block system in its earliest form was used in 1863 and was known as the telegraph block. It consists of a tower and a signal at the beginning of each block. The signals were normally at danger, but when a train approached, the operator would telegraph to the operator controlling the block ahead. If t he block ahead is clear he sets his signal at clear and allows the train to enter his block. He will not allow another train to enter the block until he receives notice from the operator ahead that the train has passed out. This system was too dangerous, as the operators frequently made mis- takes, so a new system, the controlled manual, was put into practice. The signals are normally at danger, but are cleared when a train approaches. The tower-man clears the signal by turning a crank. But this crank is always lock- ed and can only be released by the man at the next block. When a train aj?- proaches, the operator telegraphs or signals to the next block. If the next block is clear the operator there turns a switch that unlocks the first operat- tor ' s signal lever. The first operator now clears his signal, and when the train has passed he sets it at danger again, where it is locked as before. This system prevents many accidents, as two men must know of every operation and accidents due to the carelessness of one man are reduced to a minimum. But even with the controlled manual the human element is too prominent for absolute safety. So, finally, the automatic block signal was brought in- to use. It is operated solely by the pass- age of trains, no human operators be- ing necessary, except to keep the sig- nals in working order. As soon as a railroad can afford to install the auto- matic system they discard their old signal systems for the new. The operations of the automatic sys- tem for double track railroads is quite simple. The rails of each block are insulated from the adjacent blocks. A current from a battery at one end of each block is passing through the rails at all times, each block having its own circuit. At the other end of the block is a relay connected to the rails so that the current flows through it and keeps it energized. When this relay is ener- gized it closes a secondary circuit that operates the mechanism that moves the signal. So, when there is no train on the block, the relay is energized and the secondary circuit closed. This cir- cuit operates a small series motor, which is connected with the semaphore shaft through triple reduction gearing, and lowers the semaphore to the clear position. When the semaphore is down the motor is automatically cut out and an electrically-operated lock holds the THE REDWOOD. 117 semaphor in place. When a train en- ters a block the track circuit is short- circuited through the front wheels and axle of the locomotive, and so the relay is deprived of its current. The relay, being deenergized, no longer holds the secondary circuit closed, as a spring pulls the armature away, thereby sep- arating the contact points, and the elec- tric lock, holding the semaphore down, is released. The semaphore is forced to the horizontal position by the weight when such a condition exists, the relay of the semaphore guarding that block would become deenergized, and the sig- nal would go to the stop position. The automatic block system for sin- gle tracks is more complicated, as the train not only must set signals behind it, but must also set signals ahead of it, against opposing trains. The sig- nals are so interlocked that the train on entering a block sets three signals, one behind and two in front. The sys- Bhck Sianol Sysfem For Sma e Track Ra lroads ' of the casting on the short end. " When the train leaves the block the current once more energizes the relay and the semaphore is lowered and locked. Each distant signal is interlocked with the home signal, one block in its rear, in such a way that when the home signal goes to the stop position, it opens the circuit controlling the dist- ant signal so that it also goes to the horizontal or stop position. Since a broken rail or an open switch would break the track circuit, tern can best be understood by refer- ring to the diagram. The semaphores A, B and C, are for stopping trains going in the direction of the arrow, while those on the other side of the track are for trains going in the oppo- site direction. Each semaphore depends upon three relays instead of one as in the other system. It can be seen that each block has its track circuit battery, and that there are also batteries for the operation of the semaphores. When there is no train on the blocks 118 THE REDWOOD. shown in the diagram, all the relays are energized, and so all the secondary circuits are closed, holding the signals at clear. Leaving ont of consideration all former signals, when a train enters the first block, going in the direction of the arrow, the current from the bat- tery G, is short-circuited and relay 2 is deenergized. By following the dia- gram it is seen that the circuits con- trolling signals A, D, and E, are opened and the signals go to danger by the weight of the casting. When the train enters the next block the relay 2 is en- ergized, but the relay 3 is deenergized and prevents the circuits controlling signals A and E from being closed, so these semaphores remain at stop. D, on the other hand, goes to clear, as it is of no protection to the train. Now the train enters the third block and relay 3 is energized, letting A go to clear, but relay 4 is deenergized and this prevents E from going to clear, and at the same time lets B and F go to the stop posi- tion. This action is repeated as the train goes on. The batteries used are of the gravity type. These are encased in a water- proof box or tube, and set deep enough in the ground to prevent freezing. Automatic block signals are now used on more than 15,000 miles of rail- roads in this country. They reached their highest stage of development on the New York subways and elevated railroads. Here they are provided with an automatic device to stop the train should the motorm an pass a signal set at stop. This consists of a device on the locomotive that comes into contact with another device beside the track, and this operation makes the necessary electrical connections that cause the power to be thrown off and the air- brakes set. This automatic stop is sel- dom used elsewhere, as it is not only expensive to maintain, but it reduces the traffic capacity of railroads. Elmer Dreischmeyer, E. E. ' 18. Servando Barroquillo, C. E. ' 18. CHRISTMAS EVE N a little cabin on the edge of the ' Bad-lands ' of Col- orado, an aged woman sat before a scant brush fire, her thoughts far away. The wind moaned and whined about the old cabin, and whis- tled through the thin cracked walls. Though she had heard it many times before, yet it was never quite so fierce. It sounded, she knew not why, like the ghostly groaning of an Aeolean harp, as when many years ago, her husband had stretched in thelone scrub oak ; and in the great storm that night when he died it had moaned as piteously. His death had left her alone, un- cared for, in that God-forsaken region ; for her son, two years before, had gone out to California to try to do what his father was now unable to do : provide a comfortable living for the three in his parents ' declining years. The old woman shivered, as the bit- ing wind struck her, for the brush fire was low. For two days the blizzard had raged and she had been unable to gather more, fearing that once she left the cabin she would be unable to find her way back. In an instant ' s silence between the wailings of the winds, she heard the chorus of wolves from the frozen night, and her mind turned to her hus- band ' s grave just behind the cabin. and heaped high with stones. Moving to the window as a flash of lightning seemed to split the hut, she saw a huge hairy form standing behind the wooden cross she had set above the simple grave. The night seemed to grow colder and colder, as the fire burned low. Again the frail form shook as she knelt and raked the few remaining sparks, to call them back to life. She rose des- pairingly, and with the realization of her circumstances came the thought of what her boy had promised when he had left two years before. She groped among the candles on a little shelf until the letter, soiled from much handling, lay in her withered hand, now blue with cold. She took the tallow candle from the shaky table and holding it upside down for a moment, fastened it in the few drops of melted tallow that had fallen upon the hearth. Then, kneeling be- side it, she drew the letter from the envelope and by the flickering light, read the first few lines. She knew them by heart, for after her husband had died, months before, she had read them each night, and then knelt with clasped hands to pray that, as her son had said, he would return before Christmas. Of his good fortune she had thought much, but his fortune 119 120 THE REDWOOD. was nothing, he himself was all, and she wished and prayed for her boy ' s return. " And it must be nearing Christmas time, " she said, half aloud, " God grant me to see him once before I go. " She was still kneeling beside the blackened coals, and as the fierce, re- lentless cold of the storm filled the little cabin and wrapped about her, her gray old head sank lower and lower upon her breast, and her eyes closed softly. Suddenly her bent back straighten- ed, though her eyes remained closed, for her mind was floating away to- wards the Eternal Rest. She seemed to see her boy and he was coming home to her through the storm. She saw him plunging on and on through the driving snow and sleet. Her eyes seemed to pierce the darkness through which he fought his way. Ah ! She tried to cry out, for his foot had struck something in the snow and he plunged headlong. She held out her hand to him, but he could not see her. Yet he seemed to hear her voice, and with head bent low, as if to ward off the cold, he plunged on. Again he fell, and she held forth her hands to raise him. He felt for the straps to unloosen the pack he carried, but her hands withheld his. Then, with a whispered prayer, I ' ising to a shout, yet silent in the awful blizzard, he seem- ed to gain strength, and guided by her hand, he plunged onward. Ah! Thank God, a roar of thunder. and then in the flash of light she saw the cabin. John Hapgood had indeed done well in California. He could not forget the promises he had made to his aged mother and his failing father, and his efforts were mainly due to his remem- brances of them. The last month be- fore Christmas seemed like a year to him, before he should, as he had prom- ised, return to the little cabin he call- ed home. So it was with high spirits that he packed his trunk a Aveek before Christ- mas, and with a ticket to Niscasio, fourteen miles from his home, yet the nearest station, he hoped soon to be with his father and mother, for he had received no word of his father ' s death. The train, with the help of its snow plows, ran to a place within five miles of Niscasio, but here the snow was so deep that they were of no avail and the train was halted, but the engineers hoped that by the twenty-third of De- cember, they would be able to go on. That gave the snow two full days to soften and they rested assured. But when the passengers awoke the next morning, they were in the midst, of what John agreed, was the worst snow storm that he had ever experi- enced in those parts. All day he was restless, for he long- ed to be on his way. During the night the storm lulled somewhat. As the next day wore on, the snow and wind ceasing and ever rising again, he be- THE REDWOOD. 121 came more and more imijatient, until, about four o ' clock in the afternoon, he wrapped some food in a blanket, filled his small pocket flask, and started off in the direction of the little log cabin. He trudged on and on, realizing with every step that two years in the office had done little towards conditioning him for the task that was before him. Two hours after he had started, night fell, and with the darkness, the storm rose with redoubled fury. As he plunged on in the blackness of the night, the awful realization that he had lost his way dawned upon him. He tripped and fell, rose and started on again. Suddenly, as he pushed on through the driving snow and wind, he thought he saw, in the darkness, a withered form, but in an instant it was gone. Yet he seemed to hear a voice calling to him through the black- ness of the raging blizzard. He shivered, partly from the awful cold, partly from the thought of a crazed man wandering through that awful storm. Still, an irresistable pow- er drew him towards the voice. Again and again he tripped and fell, only to rise again, and plunge on toward the mysterious voice, always so close, yet never nearer. As he fell the last time, he turned his face to Heaven, his voice rose, and he shouted aloud with the aw- ful realization of his plight, and mad- dened with his surging thoughts. He seemed to gain new strength as he rose, and the voice seemed closer, until suddenly with the roar of thun- der deafening him, and the flash of the lightning nearly blinding him, he saw, directly before him, the cabin, a cold gleam of light coming from within through the little window. He sprang to the door, and grasping the knob, flung it open. By the cold fireplace he saw, by the flickering light of the candle, his mother still kneeling. He threw himself upon his knees by her side and called to her again and again. He carried her over to the little bed and chafed her blue hands. He drew the flask from his pocket and poured the brandy between her lips. Bending low, he laid his hand upon her breast and felt her heart beating faintly. She shivered and moved her hand. " Come this way, my boy, " she whispered. " It is your mother. This is the way home. " He knelt for a moment beside the bed. " Yes, yes, mother, I hear you, " he called. He felt enough strength now, to fight storms a thousand-fold great- er than this, and opening the door, he pushed his way out through the wind and snow, guided by the flashes of lightning, to a place where he had not- ed a heap of brush. He gathered an armful and fought his way back. He had had no chance to ask where his father was, but as he closed the door, the lightning flashed again and he saw the pile of stones and knew what they meant. With the help of some coal-oil he soon had a fire crack- ling on the hearth, and spreading the 122 THE REDWOOD. blankets before it, he laid the cold bent figure upon them. As he rubbed her wrists and poured more brandy be- tween her lips, she turned her face to- ward the blaze and opened her eyes. " My boy, " she cried, in a radiantly happy voice. In her smile all her years seemed to vanish, as she clung to her boy and heard him answer to her whispered question, " Yes, mother, it ' s Christmas Eve. " Edward L. Nicholson. THE HICKVILLE MURDER NE leapt to Ms feet and tore his hair — a convinc- ing demonstration of the temperament so requisite in those of his ill?:. The other, whose name chanced to be Allan, also rose, but instead of imitating his companion, he crossed to the door and opened it. His cool, per- susive voice hurried on, and shortly the door was gently, but firmly closed. Re- turning, he seated himself on the edge of a convertible bed, and gazed dis- consolately into the face of his com- panion. " It ' s absolutely impossible to con- tinue, " groaned the temperamental one, with hands in hair, " we are as likely to succeed in a boiler factory. " Alvin was about to reply, when from across the area came the nerve-rack- ing din of an automatic piano vigor- ously pumped. Temperament leaped into the air, and kicked to tatters a fairly good derby hat. " For Heaven ' s sake, man, " he shouted, " suggest a remedy for this infernal distraction ; some unapproach- able fortress — an impenetrable jungle — a desert — a — " " Hickville! " calmly spake Allan. His companion stopped his panther- like strides. " Hickville? " he repeated blankly, with much the same expression one ob- serves when Kalamazoo is mentioned. " It ' s the very thing; one train a day, one grocery store, one hotel, one electric light, and one million mosqui- toes — and it ' s only three hours out. " " It sounds promising. When does that one train start? " " At nine-forty, I believe, but heaven alone knows when it arrives. ' ' " Anything is preferable to this, " groaned the other bitterly. " Pack the typewriter! " The mid-day sun brought warmth to Hickville ; the mid-day train brought two strangers, which, for the natives, was a much more propitious event. They alighted, so the " Bugle " said in its bi-weekly issue, with that cosmo- politan air so generally noticed in Hick- ville visitors. They were stylishly attired, one was artistically moustach- ed, and both were laden with a miscel- laneous assortment of leather cases. Apparently unconscious of the rip- ple their arrival was causing in the placid waters of Hickville routine, the two strangers found their way to the Grand Hotel, established themselves in a room on the second floor, and later descending, dined in state. While the window giving into the dining room was filled during this op- 123 124 THE REDWOOD. eration by the closely-packed faces of Hickville ' s prominent citizens, there was still comparatively little excite- ment. Not for a moment did the peaceful burghers dream of the cloud that was shortly to burst over their heads, of the terrible genii which were to issue from the depths of those mys- terious leather cases and engulf hope- less Hickville in their terrible grasp. The evening was spent by the two strangers sitting in the antiquated rockers on the " stoop, " and by the denizens sitting on the straggling rail- fence opposite. With the gradual dark- ening of the sky and the re-appearance of Hickville ' s unequalled mosquito squadron, the strangers withdrew, and Hickville was plunged into darkness. It may startle the reader to learn that in Hickville burned brightly the spark of romance. The fact was little known abroad ; in fact it was confined to the ample bosom of one Helma John- son; a young woman of a lumpy short frame and straggling yellow hair, whose daily task consisted in washing the dishes in the hotel kitchen. Yes, the spark was there, and Helma had waited some years for the supreme mo- ment to come — the moment in which she could loose the spark and allow it to whirl her up to the glorious heights of adventure for which she felt pre- destined. Now, as the two strangers withdrew from the range of her observation she sighed ; it was not a sigh of regret, but of pity — for herself, and for the long years of waiting. For somehow the ro- mantic soul of buxom Helma felt that the eventful hour was at hand, and she trembled — if one of her amplitude may do so without quivering — with expecta- tion. But Helma, besides being roman- tic, was also something of an artist, and she spent some time in the gloom of the backporch, revelling in antici- patory conjectures. At last she thought the time to be ripe. With a sharp intaking of her breath, which sounded like the whist- ling of an air-brake, she gathered her- self together, (I am saying this liter- ally), and slowly commenced the as- cent of the backstairs. How plebeian — unromantic — matter-of-fact that state- ment is ! Helma puffed up no back stairs — she crept softly up a winding turret stair case. Reaching the upper hall she cautiously opened the door. All was well. The familiar scene shrouded in deep shadows now took on a new appearance. It was a dark, stone-walled and altogether mysterious passage in a haixnted castle. Helma sighed rapturously. Then she crept cautiously down the hall. Mid-way a narrow shaft of light mark- ed the room of the two strangers. From it issued a strange metallic, clicking sound — an enigma. Then the sound ceased, and two voices were raised in discussion. The tone grew louder, the argument more heated. Helma drew nearer, biting her fin- ger to keep back the squeal of delight that crowded to her lips. Reaching the door, she deposited her bulk on her knees and on the floor outside, THE REDWOOD. 125 and with the ease of long practice ad- justed her eye to the key-hole. There was very little light within the room. On the table near the cen- ter stood the murky oil-lamp, and crouched over it were the figures of the two mysterious strangers. Helma sniffed appreciatively. Here was the ideal conspiracy scene — a dark room, a flickering light, two crouching fig- ures, a heated consultation, perhaps a quarrel, and then flashing knives. Who could tell? Helma stirred slight- ly, and substituted an ear for an eye (though not in the Scriptural sense). Then she stiffened suddenly as she caught the gist of the debate. She nearly screamed, but recalling her role of heroine, she stifled the inclination and listened on for some time. Then half-paralyzed with fear, she strug- gled to her feet and fled down the hall. No town of the calibre of Hiekville would be complete without a hotel like the " Grand, " and no Grand Hotel would be complete without its be-spec- tacled and be-whiskered proprietor. Such was Henry Jenks, whose ferret eyes peered blinkingly from behind the sheet-iron stove. Surrounded by a select coterie of friends he was then engaged in expounding his theory of the why and wherefore of the new-com- ers. His monologue was progressing beautifully when a bomb dropped into the midst of the little gathering. This bomb was large and very substantial; in fact it was Helma herself. She rushed into the " lobby, " breathless and gasping. " God protect us! God help us! " she screamed, upsetting a chair and the post-master, who happened to be in it. The circle sprang to its feet, electri- fied. " What — what — " at last gasped the proprietor, whose presence of mind was remarkable. " It ' s a murder. A murder in this hotel. God protect us! " wailed the tragic Helma. " A murder here? " gasped the audi- ence. " Yes, I ' ve just been hearin ' them planning it. Upstairs it is ! " " See here, young woman, " gruffly demanded the lion-hearted constable, William Gillis, Sr. " Let ' s have th ' de- tails. Th ' details is what we want. " " Yes, give us the details, " chorused the others, following the official lead. " Well, sir, " she began breathlessly, " I was passing along the hall on the way to my room, when I seen a light underneath a door. I stopped and list- ened for a piece. " Here she stopped and blushed slightly, but the noble girl was to be deterred by no such trivi- ality as eavesdropping. " Didn ' t Old Nick Carter do it all the time? " she triumphantly argued. " Go on, let ' s have it all, " urged William Gillis, Sr. " Yes sir, yes sir, every horrible de — tail, " seconded Jenks, his enunciation punctuated by the frenzied pump-like motion of his chin-whiskers. " They were talking about murderin ' a feller. First the skinny one ' ud say, ' Let Clarence kill ' em. Then the other 126 THE REDWOOD. one with th ' mustache ' ud say, ' No, we ' ll have Helen come into the livin ' - room and stab him in the back. ' Oh, it ' s terrible — jest terrible. God save us! " The poor girl was verging on hysteria. Not so the lion-hearted con- stable. Not he. That noble man rush- ed to the stairs, and having entrenched himself on the second, turned and ad- dressed the open-mouthed assembly. " Friends, " he began, " there ' s a foul deed bein ' did in Hickville. Justice must be done. I ask each and every man here to follow me to th ' death if need be, ' til we capture these here con- spirators, and place them beneath the wheels of Justice th ' — th ' Juggu- naught ! ' ' This burst of eloquence produced the desired effect. Even little Josh Williams, who had trembled as though palsied at Helma ' s tragic entrance felt himself assimilating the ferocity of a lion. " Yes, " he squeaked, " Jostice must be did! " And it must be confessed tha t Wil- liam Gillis, Sr., cut a very fine and no- ble figure as he stood there polisliing his star and squirting oil on the huge revolver which he had carried for thirty-five years. At this juncture the door burst open, and in tumbled a substantial re- inforcement from the grocery store. That night is memorable in Hickville for many reasons. Not the least of these is the fact that for the first time in fifteen years the checker game in the general store was broken up before nine o ' clock. William Gillis, Sr., then marshalled his forces, gave vent to a few more blood-stirring utterances, and the ad- vance began. Slowly the avenging column creaked up the ancient stairs. Not a light showed; not a sneeze broke the silence. Helma, rolling along in the rear, was blissfully dramatizing the whole en- trancing event as she moved. " Hist! " breathed William Gillis, Sr., " We ' re nearin ' the quarry. You stay there. I ' ll go ahead and reconi- ter. " With this he moved off in the darkness as quietly as a well-laden truck on a wooden bridge. His wide-eyed followers, straining forward into the darkness, saw the mighty bulk of this indomitable spirit stop before the fateful door. The glow from the crack beneath splashed over his noble features as he sprawled on the boards. The silence was intense. Then from that mysterious room came the low hum of voices. ' ' I tell you Clarence must do it ! Can ' t you see he ' s the logical murder- er? Nervous, high-strung — everything points to him. " " That makes not the slightest dif- ference. Helen should do it. She ' s certainly capable of it, and besides — " The rest was lost. But this much Avas sufficient for Hickville ' s avenging angels. William Gillis, Sr., prepared for the THE REDWOOD. 127 triumph of his life. For thirty-five years his had been the sacred trust of the law and order of Hickville, and for thirty-five years he had thirsted for a real criminal to bring cowering to the bar. Here were two, — high class crooks from the city, and caught red-handed. William Gillis, Sr., swelled with pride. " Stand back, you folks! " he com- manded. " They probably ' 11 resist. " Then he swallowed his heart, ad- vanced a step, and brought his revolver butt down on the door with a crash. He of the temperament leaped to his feet with a cry and tore his hair. " Oh, ye gods! " he wailed, " even here? " The other, whose name was Allan, also rose, and crossing to the door, op- ened it. Immediately he disappeared into the gloom of the ou ter hall. A great shouting and scuffling ensued. " What in the name of all that ' s holy — " muttered the temperamental one, gazing at the vacant door. He was not long left in darkness. For in an instant twelve or fourteen husky Hickvillites hurled themselves across the room to where he stood. He raised his voice in protest. He might as well have attempted to halt an avalanche with his eloquence. His arms were pinned to his sides, his feet trussed up, and in no time at all he was whisked away — down the hall to the stairs, and then to the lobby, where he was thrown unceremoniously upon the floor. Round the desperate criminals — now harmless, their fangs drawn, clustered the greater portion of Hickville ' s pop- ulation. And William Gillis, Sr., was also present. With one ponderous foot resting almost on Allan ' s head he was modestly recounting his share in the Great Adventure. Things were indeed rosy for William Gillis, Sr. Cheer upon cheer shook the rickety building, and all for him. His little speech, be- ginning, " Friends, I don ' t know how I kin thank you — it wasn ' t nothing— I seen my duty — " etc., was well under way, and threatened to be good for an- other half hour. Suddenly, for the sec- ond time that night, the buxom Helma appeared on the scene, bringing con- sternation in her wake. Only this time she held it in her hands. It was a bun- dle of manuscript. She was perusing it rapturously. " Say folks, " she exclaimed, " here ' s something I found in their room. An ' say, it ' s swell — all about a big murder, and everything like that! " William Gillis, Sr., gazed blankly at the faces around him. Then he turned and strode from the room. Reaching the street, he continued to stride, and if discomfiture is motive power, he is striding still. F. Buckley McGurrin. " THE GHOST OF BARSTONE MANOR " N front of a capacious brick fireplace, from which a bright turf fire diffused its genial warmth over the large dining room, j aint- iug the panelled walls a dusky red, sat Mr. " Warner, peacefully enjoying his after-dinner pipe. He was middle aged, of medium height, with angular features that gave him an air of determination which was not at all lessened by a pair of steel-gray eyes. His forehead was high and well-shaped, and over it a mass of light brown hair curled in crispy confusion. His wife, however, who was assisting Mary, the servant, to clear away the remains of the evening meal, was a direct contrast, with her softly rounded features and dark, lustrous eyes, which d anced in the soft firelight. Her hair in that shadowy glow glinted like bronze and beaten gold. They had just returned from a de- lightful honeymoon spent in Wales, fol- lowing their wedding three weeks pre- vious in Dublin ; and having heard of Barstone Manor in Westmeath, had de- termined, after investigation to pur- chase it. It was a massive building of fretted stone, old with the moss and folklore of centuries and sadly scarred by the march of time. Mr. Warner had just smoked his pipe and his wife had finished the clearing of the table when a knock was heard on the door. He opened it and saw that it was Shane O ' Connor, the caretaker of the house. Shane was an old man, on whose brow rested the weight of some sixty winters, and the greater part of his life had been spent in the care of the man- or. In his younger days he had been evidently well to do, for he was an ed- ucated man as could easily be gathered from his conversation. His wrinkled, weather-beaten visage, small, subtle eyes and low, retreating forehead gave him a general appearance of craftiness, while his uneasy and nervous manner indicated a certain mental unrest. " Why, good evening, Shane. Come in. " Shane did so, and Mr. Warner, point- ing to the comfortable armchair by the hearth, motioned him to sit down. Mrs. Warner and Mary drew their chairs up to the fire and listened in contented silence to the animated dialogue. " Well, Shane, I am glad to see you. How are those yoiang sheep I saw over in the field the other day, getting along 1 ' ' ' ' Ah, then, they are not doing so bad after all. Did you get those eggs I sent over yesterday? " " Yes; thanks ever so much. By the way, Shane, there is something else that I would like to speak with you 128 THE REDWOOD. 129 about; " and his voice lowered a trifle. " We have been hearing some extreme- ly strange sounds around the house for the past two nights — rattling of chains, with knocks and scratches at the doors and intermittent groans. " " Ah, yes, and that ' s not all you ' ll hear of them, " solemnly warned the old caretaker, " it ' s the ghost of John Barstone, who came to a bad end here, nigh to thirty years ago. I was a young man then, and John Barstone, who had just come in for the estate up- on his father ' s death, hired me to look after the premises. Squire Barstone was a strange man, a very strange man. I certainly believe he was sub- j ect to periods of temporary insanity, for he would shut himself up in the Manor, and I would not even have a glimpse of him for days at a time. " " Once, about two years after his father ' s death, one of these lapses oc- curred, and, as usual, the Squire isolat- ed himself here. Two days, three days, a week passed and still no sound from the house. At last I could bear the suspense no longer so I determined to find the solution of the mystery. Ac- cordingly I summoned a bailiff from the neighboring town and together we forced the lock. The sight that met our eyes was a gruesome one indeed; for there in that very hearth, " he said, pointing to the big open fireplace be- fore them, " hung the body of Barstone, suspended from a rope attached to those oaken beams above. " The two women shrank back affrighted and cast uneasy glances at the door, expecting every moment to see the hideous face of some uncamiy visitant make it ' s appearance with ar- dent eyes and breathing fire and brim- stone. " We cut him down, " continued the old man, " and the body was taken away to the coroner by the bailiff, but his ghost haunts this house ever since. Family after family have moved in, but they always left soon. When the house is vacant I never go near it; but I live over there in my little shack with my dog Trixy for my sole companion. " By this time his little audience had gathered closer round the old man ; the women paled timorously, and uneasily scanned the flickering shadows, while in the play of the fire-light on the win- dows they imagined strange phantasies and weird reflected spectres. The old man continued telling story after story of ghosts, banshees, and the like, from his large stock of tales. Blacker grew the hovering night, and stiller the world ; the little group peer- ed into the hazy dimness of the fire- place, where here and there a steady ashy glow emanated phoenixlike from the dying embers. Suddenly all started and gazed in fear at one another. Each face mir- rored the question: " Did you hear it? " in a silence more ominous than actual words. For out of the stillness of the night there came a distant agonized cry, as if of some lost soul in distress, accompanied by a faint clanking of chains. Slowly and steadily the clash- ing and rattling approached. The lit- 130 THE REDWOOD. tie group gazed fearfully at one an- other, while nearer and nearer came the awesome sounds. The two women sat perfectly still, tense with fear; but Mr. Warner not- ed his shotgun, well-oiled and primed, on the huge pair of elk horns just above the hearth, and a steely glint came into his eyes. His jaw grew set with determination. The sound was now at the very door, and a scratching and rattling ensued outside as if some uncanny being, cov- ered with chains were trying to gain an entrance. The younger man rose quickly, and silently reached for the gun. " For God ' s sake, don ' t provoke it. It will go away, " implored Shane. But Mr. Warner ' s eyes showed his resolve as he grasped the Aveapon and strode toAvard the door. The old man v as almost hysterical in his anxiety and he tried every means in his power — persuasions, entreaties, threats; even physical force to detain Warner — but all in vain. The aged keeper ' s grasp was easily shaken, and in a trice War- ner Avas at the door. He paused a moment, then quickly sAvung the oaken portal Avide. Shane ' s dog Trixy trotted in. Chains were art- fully disposed about her body, some of Avhieh Avere fastened tightly and this had caused the cry of pain that warned the gathering of her approach. Now that she saAV her master, however, she sprang toAvards him with a yelp of joy. But Shane, on seeing the dog, trem- bled violently from head to foot. His face assumed a ghostly pallor and he made a wild rush for the door. But Mr. Warner Avas too quick for him. He swung his gun to his shoulder and cooly said: " Before you leave this house, this Avill have to be explained. " At the sight of the gun, his host ' s set face and the overwhelming evi- dence, Shane quailed noticeably. " Just a little joke, Mr. Warner, " Avhined the caretaker, uneasily twist- ing his face into a paiirful grin. But the younger man Avas not so easily to be deceived. " We will tell that to the bailiff in the morning, " he quietly remarked. Whereat the old man broke down and shi ' inkingly confessed all. It seems, that once, while prying around the house when it was vacant, he discovered an old dust-covered manuscript revealing the fact that some gold and silver-plate had been buried on the premises by former own- ers ; but the important part being, for some reason or other, Avritten in a spe- cial preparation the description of the exact spot was obliterated and there remained a puzzling blank. The old man acknowledged that about seven years ago he had found the perplexing paper and had been searching ever since. Year in and year out he sought this Eldorado of his dreams, bixt dis- mal failure met him at every turn. Being able to search only when the Manor was unoccupied he employed this ruse of frightening tenants into leaving, giving them the impression that the house was haunted. On Mr, THE REDWOOD. 131 Warner ' s request, he surrendered the document and when the younger man scrutinized it he noticed that, as the old man had said, the important place was utterly effaced. But suddenly he was struck by a brilliant inspiration. Having been somewhat of a historian in his youth he remembered that in medieval times the noblemen of West- ern Europe were wont to write many of their important documents in a solu- tion of cobaltous chloride, or lime- juice. Recollecting that heat would restore the writing, he accordingly held it close to the few remaining embers on the hearth for a short time. To his intense satisfaction the writing became slowly legible. The next morning the treasure was found, and on opening the old leathern brass-bound chest, which had probably lain undisturbed for cen- turies, they came upon a piece of time- stained vellum and on it was written these words in antiquated English : — ' ' To hym that it doth concerne : This plate and these jewels of ye Barstone hous, with ye Barstone escutcheon, in cas of my deth and ye deth of myn sone, is in ye possessione of ye owner of Barstone Manor. " Sire Edwarde Barstone. " W. Kevin Casey. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to linit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS - - - ALUMNI - - - UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ASSOCIATE EDITORS EDITOR EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' IS EDWINS. BOOTH, ' 15 JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 HOWARD E. CRANE, IS F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' IS EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, Sl.OO a year; single copies 15 cents EDITORIAL The Christmas Spirit This is the season of ti ' ue and loyal gener- osity to God and man. It is the old story — God born for us to suffer for us. The joy, the angels ' song and the rest mean this, nothing more, — a love of suffering and suffer- ing out of love. No matter how we may gloss it over with bright-winged angels and canticles from the sky, the manger and the cold, and the poor mother warming her God at her breast, remain. The call of the time is for generosity. That is the Christ- mas spirit? But why the universal joy of the season? Out of this suffering, this sac- rifice, comes the joy of peace to man. Peace from our love for God; peace and good will tow ard our fellow men. From this peace of mind flows our ex- ultation. And now, to our readers, we extend our best wishes for a Joyous and Mer- 132 St- D I ' c O n H THE REDWOOD. 133 ry Christmas, for the joy of generosity, the peace that comes from good will. Friends of Christmas Spirits — good, bad, high, low, and ferment- ed, are always more in evidence during the Christmas season than during any other period of the year. They run riot, to employ a highly original phrase. Good spirits are spontaneously engendered by the very atmosphere that prevails; bad spirits, unforti;nately also present, are resultant from the same cause, though with " reverse English. " High spirits follow the indulgence in the fermented spirits ; low spirits also follow, but as a generality after a longer interval. As to the fermented spirits themselves : what congenial gathering at this most congenial of periods may be said to be complete in its congeniality without its bowl of egg-nog, or some kindred con- coction? Even the plum pudding that adds the finishing touch to the after- noon ' s indigestion flares proudly un- der its mantle of brandy sauce. Perhaps it is due to our early envir- onment that we invariably associate the Christmas period with a conglomera- tion of glowing shop-windows, innum- erable holly-wreaths, elusive bundles in great numbers, and tingling noses and numb pedal extremities in still greater numbers, early, and very brief twilights, consequently long evenings, glowing grate-fires, refractory furnace- fires, damp, clinging snow-flakes, their descent rendered erratic by chill blasts of biting wind, tissue paper, crimson ribbons, heavy overcoats, or the lack of them, fur lined gloves, chilblains, candy canes, Christmas trees, their staid greenness enlivened by candles and glittering tinsel, mistletoe beckon- ing alluringly with its virginal white- ness from shadowy recesses. Each of the above items possess a peculiar and personal function. The glowing windows — or their contents — - entice long-hoarded savings from the pocket with lightning rapidity. This rapidity is so pronounced that we are aware of their passing only in a semi- conscious way. The holly wreaths, pendant everywhere, obligingly fur- nish yet another channel for the pass- ing of those same hoarded savings, and a most effective means of pricking chilled fingers, thus restoring long dor- mant circulation. The bundles, be- sides sharing at least one of the quali- ties of the holly, also afford us an op- portunity of giving thanks that Christ- mas comes indeed but once a year. The tingling extremities render the fires most grateful, and bring us to realize that, after all, the fortune they are voraciously consuming has not been squandered entirely in vain. The snow-flakes bring Christmas cheer into the humble homes of coiintless tailors throughout the country. The tissue papers and ribbons tend, in their un- necessary profusion, to key the recip- ient ' s curiosity to an otherwise unat- tainable pitch as he delves through their endless layers in unwrapping presents, and enables him to discourse 134 THE REDWOOD. much more eloquently on the worth- lessness of the gift when it eventually comes to light. The overcoats stimu- late business for the knights of the golden spheres ; the gloves occasion- ally warm the hands. Chillblains con- vince us that we really were cold, and that we are now really warm at last. Candy canes presage sticky digits and upset stomachs. Christmas trees make passable kindling wood, though usual- ly they produce much more smoke than heat. The candles and tinsel ropes, indispensable adjuncts, perform the kindling operation to everyone ' s com- plete satisfaction, if, perhaps, we ex- cept the underwriters. Lastly, the mistletoe, coy, demure, and alhiring, causes long-dormant hearts to leap once more, old men to cast aside the gravity of years, spinsters to man- oeuver, maids to manoeuver also, but in an opposite direction, and spurs bashful swains recklessly to achieve a long-nursed desire. Surely, when one pauses to consider the host of old-time honored marks that distinguish the period, he ceases to wonder why it is accorded such a cherished spot in the hearts of the uni- versal brotherhood. Christmas alone, of all our holidays, wakens in every breast the all-inclusive charity that was its Founder ' s fondest wish, and quickens in every heart the desire — if not, unfortunately, the fulfillment — of the divine injunction: " Peace on Earth; Good Will towards Men. " Plagiarism We have been inform- ed by the head of the Department of English and by Professor James of Mills Sem- inary, that " Indirection " , a beautiful poem, published by us in our last num- ber is not by Thomas Jenkins, but by Richard Realf, and that Steadman ' s Anthology contains the poem. Needless to say v e regret having published the poem over Mr. Jenkins ' name, regret it very much, and we shall give Mr. Jenkins whatever opportunity to ex- plain he may desire to have. Now that the journalistic wheels have had time to free themselves from the rust accumulated during the sum- mer months of inactivity, and their bearings have an opportunity of bene- fiting by injudiciously applied lubri- cants, many of the jolts and grins con- sequent to their initial revolutions have disappeared. The result, as experienced in this month ' s Exchanges, is most fa- vorable. " We find the riding qualities of many of the vehicles of literary en- deavor that found their way into our olfice vastly improved, and well-oiled springs and an occasional well-placed shock absorber have made the rocky road of the Exchange man ' s perusals compartively smooth. Merci, mes- sieurs. One of the most lamentable draw- backs to the effectiveness of some of our contemporaries is encountered in the " Joke " columns. It is not advis- able for any college journal to run such a column unless its contents be above the average run of pleasantries. If the jokes be really humorous, its presence is ardently to be desired; if they are but mediocre, they are detre- mental to the entire work, and serve to detract greatly from the dignity with which a college book should be invest- ed. But to confine ourselves to con- crete instances : The Pacific Star This little book offers in its column headed " Pleasantries " one or two passable jokes, and a number of things that might have passed as such in " the go od old days. " Barring their age, they are fairly good, and no doubt elicited a laugh or two from the weary pioneers as they paused in their labors to manufacture a few slap-jacks. Its editorials are very good, and range themselves with the greater part of the other contents into a class that presents an agreeable contrast to the humor. " Pete ' s Last Ride " is an in- teresting story, although it is as melo- dramatic as its title, and not startling- ly original " We would have relished some ending other than the time-worn " slab-and-inseription. " The writer has narrative powers that merit devel- opment. The next story — one dealing with a wealthy young man his fiancee, and a mysterious actress who eventual- 135 136 THE REDWOOD. ly proves to be the young man ' s sister — is a fair, but rather a discouraging attempt. Perhaps its greatest fault is the tax it imposes upon one ' s credulity. Had the writer sufficient ability, he might have taken the same idea and " gotten away with it, " but such is very evidently not the case. " The Pa- cific Star " contains several essays that are interesting and readable. We would suggest that some of its contributors endeavor to acquire greater smooth- ness of style. Despite its several draw- backs, it is a breezy and attractive pub- lication. Our initial impression The Collegian of " The Collegian " was a favorable one — in fact it was by far the most favor- able that has been created in our weary mind, — cloyed as it was by a semi-di- gested mass of poetry, stories, and es- says — by any of our contemporaries. And this delightful variation was caused by one story ; a well-rounded, breezy, forceful tale entitled " Not in the Articles " . Permeating the piece is the glamour of the prize-ring, — a clever bit of atmosphere work. Its de- velopment is artistic, and its interest- sustaining qualities are of a grade sel- dom encountered in books of the same tyi e. The writer has powers that should ultimately land his work in some of the big periodicals. The editorials are of a high standard, and an essay, " The Ethics of Child Labor " is a timely and scholarly dis- course on this much-discussed ques- tion. In fact our perusal of the book was one frought with pleasure and profit, and we were about to lay it aside with a prayer of thanksgiving when our glance fell upon the Exchange column. Then we paused. A fatal pause it was, too, but one prompted by praiseworthy motives. The work of our brothers in this particular branch of endeavor is invariably of interest to us. By their work we can measure our own short- comings, and profit by their riper ex- periences — or take warning from their errors. So Ave paused. Alas for the rosy hue that tinted our recollections of the book ! It was doomed to destruc- tion. Despite tht captivating stories, interesting essays, and attractive verse, it faded into oblivion. We maintain that Humor, or what passes for such, should be carefully segregated and labeled, so that he who is by nature guileless may see and take warning. But in this respect " The Collegian " is unique. From the shelter of the re- assuring heading of the Exchange col- umn leaps, treacherously, and appar- ently with malice aforethought, the flippant comments of its facetiously in- clined editor. Honesty, it must be acknowledged, is one of his shining virtues, for at the very outset he warns the reader that he knows absolutely nothing about journalistic make-up, A ersification, and so on. The warning was superfluous, though doubtless well-meant. Honest as he is, he ne- glected to include in his confiteor an- THE REDWOOD. 137 other subject which deserved a place We refer to mythology. Our contem- porary has evidently confused Mars, the war-like diety, with several other mythological personages, notably Achilles. As we have been led to be- lieve by several authorities, it was Achilles and not Mars who was handi- capped by the vulnerable heel. The reference to the " li ' l bow and ham- mer " we fail to place. Taken as a whole, the issue was per- haps the most interesting one that fell to our lot this month. rriL rw. 7- Mt We feel called upon to The D Youville , , i, . • ,, . congratulate the fair • " editors of the D ' You- ville Magazine on a number of things. Perhaps the feature of the book that excited our greatest approval was the high quality of " fillers " with which it is embellished. They are truly artistic, both as regards conception and execu- tion. It is seldom, indeed, that one en- counters a book that presents such at- tractive headings, and when such an event does occur it is only fair that they be given the praise they deserve. We unhesitatingly assert that they sur- pass anything in the same line we have yet encountered. With the reviewer ' s mind already half worn by such artistic embellish- ments, it is extremely easy for him to pass on to the literary contents in a re- ceptive frame of mind. And the sto- ries, essays, and verse contained in " The D ' Youville Magazine " are of such quality as to crystallise his first impression. All of the work gives evi- dence of the feminine mind. It needs no great deductive powers to acquaint the reader with the fact that they were all the products of a pearl handled pen. And when my lady easts aside her diet charts and kindred adjuncts to the do- mestic economy course, where is the callous male who can remain indiffer- ent and unappreciative of the results? We were pleased to welcome " The Stanford Sequoia " and " The Colum- biad " to our table. Some of our old friends failed to put in an appearance at this writing. We sincerely hope that they will endeavor to be more prompt in the future. We missed them. Among the college journals with which we were favored this month were: The Creighton Chronicle, The Laurel, The College Student, The Gonzaga, The Georgetown Journal, The Ford- ham Monthly, The Morning Star, The Mercerian, Reed College Record, The Texan, and numerous others. BOOKS REVIEWED. Rambles in Catholic Lands by The Revd. Michael Barrett, 0. S. B., is a very pleasing record of a journey through the Rhineland into Italy. The Churches, Monasteries, Cathedrals of interest to Catholics, are described in a very entertaining way that in no re- gard is redolent of Baededker or the chitchat of the ordinary traveler. Fath- 138 THE REDWOOD. er Barrett has eyes to see the devotion and heroism that have kept alive the faith in these Catholic lands and a no less keen appreciation of the loveliness of the art in which such heroic faith so naturally and expressively clothes itself. These Rambles would make a very excellent Christmas gift. $2.00; Benziger Bros., N. Y. Roma. Ancient, Subterranean and Modern Rome, by The Revd. Albert Kuhn, 0. S. B., D. D. This excellent book continues in each fascicule to de- serve the approbation we gave it on its first appearance. The present part, dealing with The Vatican Museum and The Catacombs, is unusually well illus- trated. We read the history of The Catacombs with especial attention with a view to judging of the probable com- pleteness of the parts to follow. We found nothing that we could not heart- ily approve. The illustrations of this part are especially well chosen. In eighteen monthly parts, each part, 35 cents. Benziger Bros., N. Y. Fine Clay. Isabel Clarke. In this novel the characters are excellently done and cleverly handled throughout the entire story. It is a tale of strug- gle, that tense struggle that comes of a holy resolution to be faithful to no- ble ideals, and will rejiay the attention of any reader who is not dead to the romanticism that is at its best in ev- e ry struggle where the fight is for the better things. We would gladly see Pine Clay (the title is most appropri- ate) widely read as an antidote to the trash that is published about ideals that are of the earth and earthy. $1.50. Benziger Bros., N. Y. Shipmates. Mary Waggaman. The book is in Miss Waggaman ' s best vein. It is a story of heroism in unusual places. Judy is real and painted to the life. The clear air of the sea flows through the latter part of the story. Roving Rob is good, Pip is lovable, but our sympathies are mostly for Judy. Would that there were more of her kind ! The book never fails to interest, and will be most delightful and use- ful to the young. 60e. Benziger Bros., N. Y. " Five Birds in a Nest " is another children ' s story by Henriette E. Dela- mare, full of the real Christmas spirit as a French child appreciates it. The customs and traditions centering about Bonhomme Janvier must be new to many of us, and for the children are told in such a sprightly way that they cannot fail to please and instruct them. 60c. Benziger Bros., N. Y. " Round About Home. " The Rev. P. J. Carroll, C. S. C. This is a book we had almost said of stories so inter- esting and true to life are all the char- acters that come and go in its pages. Most reminiscences have a fashion of being unreal, wax-works instead of living things. No one that reads Fath- er Carroll ' s scenes and memories will THE REDWOOD. 139 doubt for a moment of his characters being alive and true. And with the life and truth comes in the goodness that is the portion of God to the modest Kerry. An excellent book in every way, instructive and touching, and showing how the lowly thatch may hide a heart of gold. $1, The Ave banks of the Shannon and strong and Maria Press. BETHLEHEM WKite were tKe roads to tKe sleepy town, Wnite were tne sneep ail safe from harm, WKite were tKe flakes tKat fluttered down. And wKite tKe Virgin MotKer ' s arm; And Ker dear Keart was glad. Rudd}? tKe ligKts in tKe careless town, Ruddy tKe King ' s KrigKt guiding-star, Rudd}? tKe Babe as sKe lays Him down, And ruddy tKe wounds sKe saw afar ; And Ker dear Keart was sad. ROLAND MAGINNIS. Intti rsitg Nnto student Body At the fourth Student Body Meeting, held Tuesday evening, Nov. 26, the main business was the awarding of ' Varsity and Junior Football men their sweaters and Junior J ' s. The men receiving their block S .C. ' s were Curtin, Thomas, Wallace, and Hickey. The Juniors yesterday were granted the privilege of wearing a small shield on a flannel blazer, instead of the reg- ular Junior emblem. The men playing on the junior team were: Jackson (Capt.), A. Ginnochio, D. Diaz, W. Shipsey, R. Emerson, E. Trabucco, A. Allen, 6. Ench, E. Amaral (Manager), H. Cunningham, T. Kearns, J. O ' Neill, N. Korte, J. Winston, P. Martin, E. Danna, J. Christy, G. Dona- hue, J. Aurrecoechea. Fr. White, S. J., thanked one and all for the support given throughout the football season and congratulated the men on the showing made. After the monthly report was read by Treasurer Shipsey, the meeting ad- journed. The St. John Berch- man ' s Society held their annual banquet the first part of this month, and it St. John Berch- mans Society was certainly an enjoyable event for each participant. The banquet being over, and every one in the best of spir- its, speeches were heard from Mr. Wliekan, S. J., Director, and Messrs. Kearns, Canelo, Martin, and Irwin, as they were called upon in turn by Toastmaster Shipsey. Later on in the evening the slumbers of the com- monwealth were disturbed by the strains of sad music which sought re- lease from the men-y scene of the ban- quet hall. The new members formally received at the banquet were George Donahue, Harry Jackson, Alvin McCarthy, Adolph Canelo, Herman Deringer, Ed- ward McLaughlin, Alfred and Cyril Kavanagh and Andrew Ginnochio. The beauty of the banquet hall was due to the untiring efforts of Ernest Schween. Thanksgiving W l- everybody ' s back Vacation ' Z " Thanksgiving Va- cation and his fondest memories of home are heightened by the fact that Christmas is not far off. The Open Sesame when the men re- turn is, ' ' Hello ! Back again ! ' ' " Yep. " 140 THE REDWOOD. 141 " Have a good time? " " You bet. " Six o ' clock Monday evening, 1st of December, found every man back at the grind, yet willing to confess reluct- antly that he was a little homesick for the old campus whenever his thoughts ' midst fun and pleasure, found time to return hence. They wandered East, they journeyed West, they traveled North and South, in the morning and at noon, but the night time found them tucked in their blankets in the Senior Hall. House of Philhistorlans At the last meeting of the House of Philhis- torlans the subject : " Resolved, that Co-education is bene- ficial in all schools, " was thoroughly thrashed out and when tht end came the affirmative, consisting of Napoleon Ench and Peter Z. Weyand stood vic- torious. The defeated team, Thomas Hiekey and Leslie Sheehan, spoke very well, and the opposing side were forced to bring forth all their reserve powers to gain the decision. The reader of the evening was Adolph Hyman and the critic Ernest C. Schween, both fill- ing their parts enviably. Inter-Class Championship Little has hitherto been said about the Inter- class championship in football, won by the Juniors. In 1912 they had what a number of Freshman classes for many years back have failed to possess, an excellent baseball team. In the football games the Seniors, mighty in law and order, were shown their places on the gridiron and soon after the Freshmen ' s scalp hung at the Junior ' s belt. The championship belt will be on display at the Exposition next year. Theatricals Tuesday night, Nov. 24, the Senior Dra- matic Club played to the largest assembly that ever attended a vaudeville entertainment in the Uni- versity Theatre. The show was a suc- cess from beginning to end and showed great preparation. Luckily for all concerned, no comedy was indulged in. The University ' Twelve-tette sang sev- eral selections from Sears Robuck and some of the other old masters, while the Orchestra Quartet indulged in a number of selections at the expense of the audience. The entire show was under the di- rection of Fr. Fox, and the business end was guided by the eagle eye of Keene Fitzpatrick. There was one beautiful effect be- sides the scene entitled the ' Twelve- tette ' , and that was arranged by Stage Manager Stearns. The great success of that flock of canaries was not surpris- ing considering the fact that Burke, Bergna, Kavanagh, Weyand, Diaz and Curtin have times appeared on the stage and sometimes without a single missile being thrown. 142 THE REDWOOD. Notwithstanding the Dutch smile of Napoleon Ench and the decidedly United States moon rising behind the screen, propelled by Dodge, who is of Irish descent, the Spanish Troubadour act went through very nicely with Emerson as first tenor and McGurrin a close second. dues for a banquet, we should certainly hear from them before long. Senior Class At a special meeting of the Senior Class the design of the gradua- tion ring accepted consisted of a block S. C. with their numerals, ' 15, engraved on either side. The order has already been placed, and the mighty Seniors expect to be wearing their rings before Christmas. At a recent meeting Junior Class of the Junior Class, the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Thomas Ybarrondo. Vice President, George A. Nicholson. Treasurer, Joseph Herlihy. Secretary, Roy Emerson. Sergeant-at-Arms, Benjamin Fitzpat- rick. Athletic Manager, Alfred Kavanagh. The Juniors have not as yet trans- acted any important business since their organization, but as they are one and all in search of a good time at all times, and besides having a two-days ' picnic coming to them, are collecting Junior Drama tic Society The Junior Dramatic Society held their reg- ular weekly meeting last Tuesday evening, and as an appro- priate (more or less) question, " Re- solved, That all Intercollegiate athletic contests should be abolished, " was very well presented. The speakers on both sides narrated forcefully the pros and cons of university athletics. Negative arguments were put forth by Kevin Casey and Elisha Dana, while the affirmative side of the question was defended by Thomas Sparks and Roy Loofurrow, the latter two gaining the decision. Hugh Cunningham, the Boy Orator, recited " Smiting the Rock, " and brought out the beauty of the poem, and an excellent criticism was read by Prank McGurrin. The J. D. S. intend to make the " Dramatic " part of their name bear fruit; and let none be surprised when the thespians in the society get busy next spring and present one of Shakes- peare ' s Twentieth Century dramas. Fourth High Class Election The " Fourth High " Students have certainly a lot of pep stored up. They have organized, and the Presi- dent, in his official statement for the month of Autumn, says that he will THE REDWOOD. 143 soon have the mid-term ex ' s ready for the fellows. He could not, however, consider lengthening the Christmas Vacation for unstated reasons. But to get back to the election. We surely think as Mr. Kearns said in his inaugural speech: " You fellows have certainly used your brains in this elec- tion. " In case of Mr. Kearns ' sudden death and when he is in " Washington on busi- ness, Mr. Allen will be the ruling mon- arch. McGurrin states that the one good choice they made was in electing the secretary. P. S. McGurrin is secretary. The class was not sure of the honesty of Walter Howard, the applicant for the treasury department, so they al- lowed him to wander about the Campus for three minutes with thirty-six mil- lion dollars of Commercial Depai ' tment notes, and under strong guard. The moral of the story is that he was not arrested by Sergeant-at-Arms Korte, and we all wish the Fourth High the best of luck. ' ' Sowing Wild Oats " T r M h were all glad to . hear that J. Charles Convalescnig t. , .i , Murphy, the poet laur- eate of our Freshman Class, successful- ly underwent an operation at O ' Con- nor ' s Sanitarium several days ago and is now rapidly recovering. Without Charlie the Freshman Class would not be very poetic, and we unite in wishing him a speedy return. The Senior Dramatic Club is again a flour- ishing organization of Santa Clara. With the return of Fr. George Golden Fox, S. J., from Italy, the work has begun anew. The club has been reorganized and the staff chosen for the current year. The ma- terial has been found and is being grad- ually perfected, so we may expect much from the Senior Dramatics this year. Fr. Fox has brought with him many ideas which will greatly aid him in all his undertakings. These have been gathered from the many places of in- terest which he visited. He was for- tunate enough to attend the Passion Play of Oberammergau in Bavaria. The staff of the Senior Dramatic Club is : President and Stage Director, Rev. George G. Fox, S. J. Business Manager, Eeene Fitzpat- rick. Assistant, Bernard Higgins. Stage Manager, Claude Dodge. Mechanician, George Stearnes. Stage Assistants, W. Mendez, F. Covert, J. Griffin, C. Moore, H. Hall. Property Master, Alvin C. McCarthy. Stage Carpenter, Michael McElligott. Electrician, William Muldoon. Assistant, James Hickson. President of The Orchestra, Rev. E. J. Cunningham, S. J. Director of The Orchestra, Prof. Samuel J. Mustol. Press Agent, Ernest W. Sehween. 144 THE EEDWOOD. The first production of the club will be a three-act comedy entitled " Sow- ing Wild Oats, " which will be given in the University Auditorium on the evening of December 19th. The cast has been rehearsing for the past few v eeks and it goes without saying that the play will be a success. The show is to be given for the benefit of The Student Body. Treasurer will benefit by the production and all are working hard for a large audience. New scenery has been secured and the many other improvements of the past month will be in readiness for the evening of the performance. Guy W. Conner, 1900 — ' 00 while on a business trip to the State in the early part of last month, paid the University a visit. Though formerly of Silivana, Washington, he is now situated at Rudy Scholz ' s home town, Medford, Oregon, where he is engaged in the fruit business. Mr. Conner, by the way, is not less of an Oregonian enthu- siast than Rudy himself. The Boys of the late Nineties will well remember the enviable athletic record made by the Conner brothers. In baseball Guy was not equalled for years at difficult third; while Frank Conner, his brother, excelled in track, running ten flat and defeating all com- ers. James D. Phelan, Ph. D. ' 03 ' 03 — has come out successful in one of the most closely con- tested of the recent November elec- tions. On the 3rd of that month he was accorded the unique honor of be- ing the first United States Senator ever elected by the people of the State of California. Senator-elect Phelan is a man of ability and influence, who in the past has served his State well and his political record is an enviable one. It is generally conceded that San Fran- cisco has never had a better Mayor. ' 06 Alex. J. Cody, S. J. ex. ' 06, is one of the Old Boys who has joined the ranks of his Santa Clara teachers. He has recently paid us a visit. Mr. Cody, will in June next com- plete his three-year course in Philoso- phy at the Jesuit Scholasticate in Spo- kane, Washington. With him there are many others who have during their younger days bewailed the existence of the old rising bell, which formerly graced the Refrectory Entrance, but is now located at the corner of what was Second Division Gymnasium. The ex- uberance of Mr. Cody ' s reminiscences was a revelation as well as a source of 145 146 THE REDWOOD. abashment to the Editor of this Depart- ment. He pictured vividly high fences, heavy courses of study, fistic combats and characters and faces innumerable. Mr. Cody has returned North to re- sume his studies. His father, whose serious illness caused the Southern so- journ, has now recovered. ' 08 Ivan G. Bogan, ' 08, returned to school September last with the avowed purpose of becoming a lawyer. To all appearances he was progressing nicely in his legal studies when, suddenly, to the surprise of everyone, Ivan took a vacation. We have an inkling that it is going to be a long vacation though, for he started it with a honeymoon. Yes, Ivo too, is married. His wife was Miss Louise Co- lumbet, the daughter of one of the prominent families of San Jose. Ivo is from Tucson, Arizona, of which State his father is Treasurer. In his former days at Santa Clara, he was a Varsity football man and enjoyed considerable popularity in the yard. He had the honor of delivering the val- edictory for his class. Among the new generation, Ivo has made many friends during his short stay. May every blessing of wedded life descend upon yourself and Mrs. Bogan, Ivo. Hardin Barry, ' 11, whose ' 11 accomplishments in football, baseball and track, as well as in the class room are still matters of pretty general knowledge around the yard, was seen about the Campus accompanied by his former classmate, Robert Murphy, Ex. ' 11. Both " Tan- glefoot " Murphy and " Rancher " Bar- ry have taken to the agrarian life. They have bought a large ranch near Susanville, California, which they op- erate jointly. Their report is that everything is getting along nicely on the farm. Hardin has not lost all his athletic inclinations, for the well-known " spit- ter, " whic h took him back to the Phil- adelphia Americans, is still keeping Su- sanville on the map. It is with very great diffi- ' 12 culty that we persuade our- selves to believe the month is not June when confronted on every side with tidings of Alumni weddings. Paul R. Leake, ' 12, is just one other, and not the latest, who has laiuiched on his marital career. The wedding took place in San Fi ancisco. Mrs. Leake formerly was Miss Aileen Mc- Fadden of that place. In chronicling the event the daily papers have imparted to it a romantic tinge by touching on a summer i-esort acquaintance, but we feel constrained to profess our scepticism in this re- gard. Paul was nearly, if not the most pop- ular man in the yard, during his Senior year. He was connected in a high po- sition with the " Redwood " . He was THE REDWOOD. 147 a trackman of ability, scoring repeat- edly against St. Mary ' s. In fine, there were few regrets when the name of Paul R. Leake was announced as win- ner of the Senior Nobili medal in 1912. Our best wishes go out to the Leakes. fornia. June. Fred will finish his course in One of the very attractive ' 12, ' 17 features of the vaudeville show, given under the aus- pices of the Senior Dramatic Club on Tuesday, November 24th, was that number in which two of the foot-light stars of former days participated. With Fred 0. Hoedt, ' 12, at the piano, Louis Jennings, Ex. ' 17, received a vol- ume of applause for the beautiful ren- dition of his vocal solos. He was en- cored again and again. Louis is now located in San Fran- cisco. Fred Hoedt is also in the me- tropolis. He is attending the Dental Department of the University of Cali- ■ ? The engagement of Bert M. ' 14 Hardy, ' 14, to Miss Ethel Viola Eaton of Santa Clara, has been announced. It would seem that the phenomenal speed of our for- mer crack sprinter and track captain would have enabled him to evade the darts of Cupid. Apparently, though, evasion of the Love God was not Bert ' s choice. The marriage will take place in Santa Clara. To the general regret of the yard, the time selected is during our Xmas Vacation. Surely nothing would suit the students better than to give Mr. and Mrs. Hardy a fitting start on their honeymoon, but we must eon- tent ourselves with expressing our sin- cere wish for their future happiness. IPS Santa Clarans Represented on Both AU- American and All-British Teams. Among the choice selections of foot- ball stars, who were to represent the ' ' All- American and All-British Teams ' ' in their initial rugby contest, since rugby was organized in California, we find former Santa Clara stars, as well as present ones, still upholding the hon- or of their " Alma Mater. " Captain Kiely, ex-Captain Voight, Momson and Quill greatly aided the " All- American " team to victory and special encomiums were given each by the press and spectators. Voight and Momsom, the two pride breakaways of the Pacific Coast on re- peated occasions, won merited ap- plause for their speedy footwork, and their unison in blocking the opposing half-back. On one particular occasion Voight secured the ball in the line-out and breaking through the " British " forwards, passed with rapidity to Momsom, who scored for the " Ail- Americans ' ' . Capt. Kiely, as usual, proved a tower of strength in holding the scrum to- gether, and, besides had his famous backward kick working for long gains. To Archie Quill, who hooked against our present ' Varsity hooker, is due his share of praise ; though the hooking ranked about equal. Besides being a valuable hooker, Archie is a keen drib- bler and punter. To Bate and Bernie Higgins, our representatives on the " All-British Team " , I can only say, that their knowledge derived from the game in 148 Ul H • 71 C G) DD - THE REDWOOD. 149 Australia was thoroughly displayed against the " All- Americans " . Bate ' s splendid manner in breaking up rushes and commencing them alone was very conspicuous throughout the entire game. Bernie Higgins, with his speed and accuracy in finding touch made him a very useful player. JUNIOR FOOTBALL NOTES. Reviewing the past football season, the numerous successes of our 1914 Junior Team are deserving of much praise. Not only for the masterly way in which they overcame their much heavier opponents are they to be con- gratulated; but also for the share they had in the development of the ' Varsity. Night after night they would pit their nerve and speed in scrimmage against the best fifteen of the University and force Coach Higgin ' s men to the limit in the endeavor to cross their goal line. Were it not for the grit and cleverness of these youths, our Varsity fifteen would not have shown the brand of rugby displayed against Stanford, which brought them so much praise from the press and spectators. Their own victories were aga inst teams far heavier than themselves, but accustomed by their daily workouts to oppose heavier opponents, their knowl- edge, speed and aggressiveness stood them in good stead. Five times they opposed an enemy; four times they re- turned victors; and once they brought cheer upon cheer from the Stanford bleachers, when they held the " Cardi- nal Freshman " to a " 0-0 " tie. Begin- ning with Centerville High School they swept everything before them, meet- ing champions of several divisions and always with the same result. Center- ville was disposed of, 17 to 0; San Ma- teo High School, a contender for the Peninsular championship, was swamp- ed, 27 to ; Belmont Military Academy acknowledged their inferiority, when defeated 19 to 0. Then came the Stan- ford Freshman tie. Outweighed from 10 to 15 pounds to the man, against a team drilled by past masters of rugby ; the dash, grit, and fight displayed, brought them to the top of their heap of glory. They did not succeed in win- ning, but did hold the " Freshman " to a tie in the face of all odds. This was victory enough for any team. Against Santa Cruz, the Central State Cham- pions, the team seemed demoralized at the opening of the contest, for the Santa Cruz players succeeded in cross- ing their line for the first time this sea- son and shortly after crossed it once more, annexing a 6 to lead over the Juniors in the first half. The dash, so characteristic to them, returned in the second half, when partly to let the Santa Cruz fans see how rugby should be played, and partly as a farewell to each other, the team opening up with dribbling and passing rushes, coupled by such speed as was hitherto unknown in Santa Cruz, romped away with a 17 to 9 victory, closing one of the most successful seasons. To Mr. Gianera, the Athletic Moder- 150 THE REDWOOD. ator of the Juniors, every member of the Student Body expresses his grati- tude for the many advantages and fa- vors lent the Juniors throughout the entire season. Accepting this respon- sibility immediately after the Juniors organized, Mr. Gianera ' s esteem and love for his team was manifested on every occasion. Too much credit for the Junior Team ' s success cannot be given to Pat Higgins, our Varsity Coach, who gave considerable attention to the develop- ment of this future Varsity material. Coach Higgins ' untiring demands were listened to and each member responded nobly to his efforts. The result was a machine working as a unit with the knowledge and skill acquired by good coaching and continued practice. A fairly heavy pack with a fight, a fast and shifty backfield, many possessing a fine boot, was ably backed up at full by Capt. Harry Jackson, a good tack- ier, with a cool head and ability to find touch with his punts, seldom seen in one so young. Manager Eddie Amarel, also the star front ranker of the team, was the only one disabled during the season. Suffer- ing from a broken collar bone he gave all his attention to the schedule and gained the satisfaction and approbation of everyone. " With Amarel in the game the team would have been at least thir- ty per cent stronger. The serum con- tained men, many of whom will bear watching next year. Dodge, O ' Neil, Martin and Dana were a set of front rankers which combined skill with a dash that was difficult to overcome. In no game were these outplayed by any opponents in " hooking " the ball and " following up. " Korte and Christy were possessed of considerable strength and held together well, and in the line- outs were of great value. Donahue and Winston at breakaways and Ench at lock, rounded off an almost perfect scrum. Donahue and Winston, both tall and agile, were exceptionally well versed in the science of protecting their back field, as well as showing a dash and speed, which seemed to put them always on the offensive. Ench pos- sessed of great strength, held the serum together at all times, while his long reach made him most feared in all line- outs. As a whole, the scrum showed remarkable ability in dribbling, com- bined with a fight and pluck which was hard to beat. The backfield was composed of men, Avho, for speed and skill, surpassed any- thing of their size ever on a Junior Team before. At half back Aurreco- echea was all that could be asked ; cool and heady he kept his scrum together remarkably well and had his backs ever on the alert and jump. Diaz and Giannoehio, at five-eights, were " class " in swerving; using the dummy passes to great advantage and opening the rushes. Shipsey, Kearns, Trabucco and Emerson were good hoot- ers, swervers, and fast runners. Cun- ningham was a good second to Aurre- coechea, as well as a most valuable and THE REDWOOD. 151 all-around back. He and Allen could be called upon to fill any position in the backfield in a most excellent fash- ion, and both were capable to get away to good advantage. In the Santa Cruz game the work of the backs, especially in the second half, was most sensational. As a whole the team was a credit to the reputation biiilt by the Juniors of former years and repaid fully by the work of Mr. Gianera, Coach Higgins, Assistant Coach Tommy Ybarrondo and Captain Harry Jackson. Santa Clara Juniors 17. Santa Cruz Hig-h 9, Celebrating their final victory of the 1914 season, the Juniors managed to earn a hard-fought victory from the Santa Cruz High School fifteen by a score of 17 to 9. The score little indicates the close- ness of the final result, as at the end of the first half the " Sand Crabs " came from the field with a 6 to lead. During the first half the " Mission- ites " were off color and the back-field men were continuously fumbling as well as failing to use their signals. After ten minutes of play the Santa Cruz forwards broke through in a fierce dribbling rush and finally Pat- tie, of last year ' s All-Star Northern Team, scored the first try. Jensen fail- ed to convert. Soon after the back- field of the high school started a pass- ing rush and forward Manhilde secur- ing the ball, swerved through the back- field and scored. Again the attempt at conversion failed. Immediatey after the opening of the second half the Missionites secured the ball from the scrum, where Aurreco- echea passed to Diaz, who in turn transferred it to Giannochio, who scored. Jackson converted from a dif- ficult angle. Continuing their snappy playing, which is so characteristic of the Juni- ors, Aurrecoechea secured the ball from the ruck and fell over the line for the second try. From a line-out Dodge punted high into the air, and Winston receiving the ball, passed to Shipsey, who quickly passed to Leonard, who scored. At this stage of the game the Juniors were playing in form and they won the ap- plause of the many spectators for their clever and snappy plays. From a scrum Martin dribbled the ball for fifteen yards, and aided by Donahue, Christy, Trabucco and Korte, they brought the play within ten yards of their opponent ' s line. Here scrum was formed and Aurrecoechea passed to Diaz, who scored after a beautiful run on the blind side. The game throughout was noted for conspicuous plays on both sides, and the combined unison of the Juniors, coupled with the long and accurate booting to touch, and clever dribbling added much from a spectator ' s view- point. For Santa Clara, Captain Jackson, Winston, Dodge, Leonard, Trabucco, 152 THE REDWOOD. Diaz and Giannochio starred, while Pattie, Manilde and Pease, were the pick of the " Surf " fifteen. Assistant Coach Tommy Ybarrondo refereed the game and his decisions met with hearty approvals from both teams. The teams lined up as follows : Santa Clara Juniors Santa Cruz High Position Martin Forward Pattie O ' Neil Forward Manilde (capt.) Dana Forward Pease Christy Forward West Korte Forward Trembling Donohue Forward Brain Winston Breakaway Scotts Leonard Breakaway Adams Dodge, Allen Wing For. Wilberson Aurrecoechea Half Cardiff Shipsey 1st Five Bartly Diaz 2nd Five Boone Trabucco Wing Bradit Cunningham Center Three Stafflen Emerson, Kearns Wing Jensen Jackson Full Thomas BASE BALL NOTES. Owing to the Thanksgiving vaca- tion and the inclement weather, the baseball team has been unable to en- gage in any hard practice during this month. Under the able tutorship of Coach Harry Wolters, whose world-wide rep- utation as one of the headiest and clev- erest ball players who ever donned a uniform, prospects were never brighter for a banner year. At the present writing such familiar men as Captain Sheehan, Ex-Captain Ramage, Ybarrondo, McGinnis, B. Fitz- patrick, Casey, Stewart, Leonard and Voight are striving for their old posi- tions. Among the new material, which bids fair to land positions on the ' Varsity are Reppie and Hickey, two noted twirlers, who possess a great variety of curves, coupled with dazzling speed, which baffles a batsman to oppose. Mulholland, a former " Gonzaga " star, will greatly aid in strengthening the in-field department ; while Schultz, Coyle, Desmond, Aurrecoechea, Emer- son, Deterick, Zapeda and J. Fitzpat- rick are men, whom Coach Wolters ex- pects to hear from before the final se- lection is made. BASKET BALL NOTES. Basket ball has entered the realm at Santa Clara, and is at present holding the attention of those interested in the welfare of this popular indoor sport. The prospects for a successful sea- son are very bright and by the acquisi- tion of many new stars the competition for positions will be very keen. Owing to energizing efforts displayed by the various members of the team, and the closeness of the players ' ability, no se- lection has yet been made. Looking over the list of names com- prising the squad, we recognize such names as Voight, Leonard, Schultz, Diaz and Amarel, each having earned a position on last year ' s quintet. THE REDWOOD. 153 Among the new faces we perceive one in particular, who has brought with him a record of being the fastest guard in the Northwest, namely Eddie Mulholland. His proficiency has giv- en him the honor of being selected coach, a result of which will undoubt- edly make the " Red and White " quin- tet, a strong contender for the State championship. Captain Voight has shown his ability as a captain in past years, and will en- deavor to select the best man for his position. It was through his untiring efforts that the 1912 quintet made such a fine record. So, relying upon the experience of many season ' s diligent work, a superior team is anticipated. Among the new men out for posi- tions are Donahue, Kelly, McLaughlin and Winston, all of whom have been showing great proficiency in practice. SECOND DIVISION LEAGUE NOTES. With the close of the football season, it was not long before base balls were in evidence in the Second Division, and as the weather promised to remain fair, the " Midgets " set about organ- izing their league. The elections for captains resulted in Frank Conneally, Frank Doud and Benny Williams, three able members of last year ' s All Star Team, being chosen. Nearly a dozen games were played before the Thanksgiving holidays. with the result that Captain Conneal- Ij ' s team has a good lead at present, owing to the superior staff of twirlers. Capt. Doud ' s men, however, have struck their batting stride and in the last two game hammered out victories for themselves. Captain Williams ' team seems to be the class of the league, when it comes to " inside " baseball and though at the present writing they occupy the cellar, their pep and brains will make them dangerous contenders. The batting thus far has been of the early season variety, with several hitting well above 400, but with the pitchers in better trim these figures will soon be cut down considerably. Those leading at present are : Edinger 538, Wilson 444, Heafey 433, Doud 400, Connealley 370 and Dieringer 360. The fielders have all managed to get into the error column, the following, however, have kept above the 900 mark: Foster 946, Heafey 914, Casey 913, Williams, B., 911; Williams, R., 900. If the fielding has not been the best, baserunning has been good, to say the least. Official figures are not at hand ; the last published showed that in this department Conneally, R. Williams, Doud, R. Wilson, B. Amarel and L. Trabucco are topping the list. To Mr. Watson the " Migdets " are indebted for his earnest coaching and interest he shows each and every indi- vidual member of their respective teams. THE REDWOOD. : Before Getting That Suit or Overcoat come and see the largest line of timely shades and cuts. There is sure to be just the one you are looking for We make suits to order from $20 to $45 BILLY HOBSON 24 South First Street San Jose, CaL The Kinney Co. PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND Makers of College Jewelry THIS TRADE MARK ' STANDS FOR QUALITY And is stamped on all of our Jewelry When purchasing college jewelry de- mand from your dealer goods that bear this trade mark Our goods are on sale at the Co-Op Store of Santa Clara University THE REDWOOD. i Z r xossel T..„ .... ( ( There ' s a Clever New English Last The class of the season ' s productions. It is shown in gun metal with blind eyelets to the top ; custom throughout 74-76 South First Street, San Jose A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS ¥1 Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara THE REDWOOD Young Men ' s Full Dress Many a young man who would otherwise have bought a full dress suit long ago, has not done so because of the price. We have succeeded at last in securing a beauty, that any young man can feel proud of. to sell at 35.00. Come in and look at it - »4 4 -i r» ry " i We know youl ' ll like it. pilUy f SXXt. Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes Santa Clara and Market Streets E. L. REIDING JEWELER, WATCHMAKER, ENGRAVER 15 West Santa Clara Street Phone, San Jose 4027 SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SUIT CASES PURSES ' of q ' - ' Ty .0 S. LEATHER NOVELTIES 63-91 South First St, San Josk.Cai i SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT " HOME OF STETSON HATS " bZ SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON THE REDWOOD. ijrr2,I12.Cl9,Il MADE IN SANTA CLARA Of California Figs, Walnuts Almonds and Raisins HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards DRIFTED SNOW FLOUR For Sixty Years The Standard p. Montmayeur E. Lamolle j. Orlglia Lamolle Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS •K THE REDWOOD. General Picnic Hauling - m tMh f Parties m NickelTs Transfer Co. 16 North First Street, San Jose Tel. San Jose 460 _ , . (Kearny 5811 Telephones: ]s j 3 g FRED W. SALTER, P roprietor THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. MET HOFF KAYSER yet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR • ■i THE REDWOOD. On or about January 1st, 1915 The Royal Cafeteria will be at its NEW LOCATION Next to Arcade 79-81 South Flrst Street Established 1868 All Our Work Guaranteed Phone Kearny 1868 GOLDSTEIN ' S Formerly Goldstein Cohn, Phelan Building Hair Dressing, Manicuring, Face Massaging, Shampooing and Hair Cutting. Fine Wigs and Toupees. All kinds of HAIR WORK made to order. Surgeons and Chiropodists. 251-253 Powell Street, San Francisco. Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR S CATERS TO THE THIS (l i W| OST TRADE MARK -— W - " " FASTIDIOUS Ice Cream -™ ; ™- --™--™» - :, -- Wholesale AND hp AND Candies Telephones, c. sr Retail 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara : THE REDWOOD. Don ' t Wear Glasses Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recummended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists SOc; by mail 65c Eetablished 20 Yeare Opposite the Empress Theater Wm. McCarthy Sons QOFFEE TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California Vargas Bros. Co. GENT ' S FURNISHINGS MADE-TO-ORDER AND READY-MADE SUITS, MEN ' S AND BOYS ' SHOES, GENERAL HARDWARE, PAINTS Give US your next suit order. Lafayette and Franklin Streets Phone S. C. 120 ji THE REDWOOD. : ::. The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60; Santa Clara 99J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose V. Salberg E. Gaddl ire Santa Clara, Cal. We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c P ,, c. ' ' ' ° ' ' - " " ' y " ' MADDEN ' S PHARMACY rranklin St. Santa Clara CONTAIN MANY= Christmas Suggestions — Look in at our stock and prices University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. THE IDEAL BILLIARD PARLOR THE LARGEST AND BEST EQUIPPED POOL AND BILLIARD PARLOR IN SAN Under New Management JOSE. 81 South Second Street, opposite Jose Theater. Eat Rhine ' s bars and chews Sold at Co-Op and all Candy Stores . San Jose Safe Deposit Bank COMMERCIAL SAVINGS Safe Deposit Boxes Corner First and Santa Clara Sts. San Jose, California _ THE REDWOOD. ►« ' -■ Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Ravenna Paste Company (11 Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C.70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sa llows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R When in San Jose, Visit . CHARGINS ' Ttestaarant, Grill and Oyster House 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " The Farmers Union San Jose, California Santa Clara County ' s Largest General Merchandise Store Carry an especially large line of CROCKERY HAVILAND CHINA, Plain White for Decorating, Etc. Largest line of Canned Foods, Lunch Goods, Imported and Domestic Fancy Groceries. Mail Orders Given Especial Attention Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps F THE REDWOOD. - IrP MANUEL MELLO Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Enterprise laiiiiiry Co. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice SANTA CLARA Z Franklin St. Santa Clara Barber Shop Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2 Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara Ji THE REDWOOD. The Hastings a ?? New Styles in Young Men ' s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grand Ave., San Francisco, Cal. Z h z THE REDWOOD. ACCOUNT Christmas and New Year Fare and one-third for Round Trip Tickets sold December 21st to 25th inc. and Dec. 28th to Jan. 1st, 1915, inc. Return limit January 4th, 1915 A. A. HAPGOOD City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Passenger Agent 40 E. SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE outhern Pacific -— — ji TMC RCDWOOD February, 1915 freshman number THE REDWOOD. : University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) A ' lechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD. For all ffl|4( ,§ The Standard Sports A c M vH Goods A. G. SPALDING BROS. 156 Geary Street, San Francisco San Jose Typewriter Company 24 South Second Street WE RENT SELL Special Rates to Students lll ljy EXCLUSIVE SERVICE EXCHANGE J O f ALL MAKES 1 ypewntcrs and Supplies Phone. San Jose 349 SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery.? BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: 4J pj 3 SAN FRANCISCO . „ , OAKLAND ban Jose, Lai. hZ THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies Hotel Sutter SUTTER AND KEARNY STREETS San ' Francisco, California. New, Central, Fireproof, Comfortable, Reasonable The One Place in San Francisco We Cater Especially to College to Meet Your Friends Trade DIRECT CARLINE TO BOTH DEPOTS THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara Journa PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ? Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. eDame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under tlie direction of tlie Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wisliing to secure for their ciiiidren an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Piione S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL THE REDWOOD. Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara Going to Sacramento? Ride in comfort A SCENIC TRIP Observation cars (fy Fast Electric Trains Safety Block Signals all the Way Oakland, Antioch Eastern Ry. San Francisco Depot: Key Route Ferry THE REDWOOD. " rP A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 74-76 K Market St. San Jose, Cal. PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilientlial Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4tli Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. Phone. San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288 290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA American Fish Market Phone S. J. 3570 Residence Phone S. J. 2378 Y Wholesale and Retail Dealers In FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. 1 lie Hastings ■ New Styles in Young Men ' s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. ■■ " " " " " CONTENTS THE EVENING STAR - - - BONHOMME . _ _ THE AFTERMATH INDIAN JUSTICE THE FEATHER RIVER IN THE SHADOW OF THE POLE PEACE - - _ - Hamlet - . - - immortality _ - .. the quest his heaven _ _ _ THE Pan-California exposition - " STABAT mater " OF PARGOLESI THE MYSTERY OF SKELETON TUNNEL SCOTT - - - - FORESTS - _ - A DOG OF FLANDERS A MOUNTAIN SUNRISE EDITORIAL _ - - EXCHANGES - - _ UNIVERSITY NOTES ALUMNI - . - - ATHLETICS - - - Rudolph L. Scholz C. Murphy Ed. L. Nicholson Jolin V. Morris Thomas Mulvaney Ed L. Nicholson Frank McCabe Kendrick Johnson Andrew Ginocchio Rudolph L. Scholz J. Charles Murphy Ernest VV. Schween Ed. L. Nicholson James C. Martin J. Charles Murphy John H. Burke F. B. Quinn N. G. B. 155 156 158 159 161 162 167 168 170 171 17 5 176 178 180 183 184 186 187 188 192 195 19.S 202 tt. li t- U _l IL -I u z I (fl liJ o: L. Sanctuary Society PHOTO BY BUSHNELL 1. I,. Powell. 2, M. Detels. 3. C. Cennedv 4 p q- , - 21. J. Cos ,-ave, " " !, ' " :■ " •7 ' ° " - ' " ■ - ' on.ra. 17. S. White 18 M " rick f ° ' ' ' ' " ■ ' ° ' - ' ' ■ H- ' " ' - .e,. 3 . Ban-y. 24, E. Raborj,. 25. J. Thoma... " ' " • McGowan. 20. R. Boland. v_ i . " v.__ • I T c. T5« 6 «wt, Entered Dec. 18. 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., FEBRUARY, 1915 NO. ®{j Eumttg S tar TKe sun Kas set, and fades away TKe last dim light of ebbing day ; And all is still save Kere and there, Where chirping birds disturb the air. A light is twinkling o ' er the beach, Beyond the earth ' s base, sullen reach. Its beauty is of twinkling white. And puts to flight the gloom of night. O ' er where the ocean laps the shore, O ' er where at times the billows roar, Faithful to mark the hidden bar, In glory shines the Evening Star. RUDOLPH L. SCHOLZ, ' 15 THE BONHOMME " OFTLY, musically the Mission bell was tell- ing of the dying day. The great new moon flooded the turf field with its effulgent rays. The chimes rang out peacefully, sadly as they echo thi ' ough the sighing zephyrs and are lost in the hush of evening. " Hear that bell, " said the Goal Post to his new friend, the Turf Field, who lay stretched out at his feet, " Maybe it sounds sti-ange and out of place to you, but I ' ve learned to listen for that bell every evening well nigh unto fifty years. It ' s one of the consolations of my declining days. How lonesome I ' d be after the football season if it wasn ' t for that bell. I tell you what, after you ' ve been here half a century you ' ll learn to listen for it too. " But during the autumn months when the boys are out every night for practice I am never lonesome. You see I ' ve made it my lifework, this foot- ball game ; to know every angle of the game is my greatest ambition since I found the " Bonhomme. " But I guess you, being a newcomer, don ' t know Avho the " Bonhomme " is. The Turf Field looked up in interest and replied, " Wy, old chap, Hi don ' t believe Hi do, " for the Turf, being im- ported from Australia, had not yet lost its English accent. " Well, " said the Goal Post, " since v.e ' re to be neighbors for some time to come, I ' 11 tell you all about it. ' ' Then he scratched some splinters off his head and began: " In the first place I ' m French, French cedar. My stock has been known during generations for its strength and durability. Now down through the ages a secret has descended from cedar to cedar until it has reached me. The secret is this. Way back in the days when the earth was young, a rich man lay dying, alone and unat- tended beneath a giant cedar. As his life ebbed away he looked back upon his past and cried out in agony, " Oh, that it might be given me to do one charitable act before I die. I have gathered together riches and lands without end, but never once in my career did I perform an act which was not for my own benefit. And what have all my riches availed me. Noth- ing! Nothing! Nothing! " Then a mighty voice rang out from above, it seemed from the sky, ' In all your lifetime of greed and pursuit of riches you did perform one charita- ble act. Remember you not the day when I was near you in the form of a cripple. I sought aid to cross the swift flowing river. And you, for once for- getful of self, helped me, knowing not that I was your Master. ' " ' For this one kind act I give to 156 THE REDWOOD. 157 you the power of transmitting, before you die, the Word of Peace, which, when repeated to a man who is in this one moment of his life perfect, physi- cally, mentally and morally, shall have the power to save that man ' s future life from certain ruin. ' " Then the all powerful Word was given him, and in his exultation the dy- ing man cried out, ' 0 great tree, under Avhom I recline, I do give thee, the only living thing about, the Word, in sacred trust. And if you find during your lifetime a man who in one moment of his life is perfect in every way, I bid you give to him the word which shall save his future life from certain ruin. Then he transmitted the Word to the ancient cedar and died in peace. " A " Bonhomme " or perfect man was never found by that great tree. But the Word was transmitted through generations of cedars until it reached me. I was cut down, brought from France and made into a goal-post. Then and there I despaired of ever finding a perfect man, but I knew not the life of a goal-post. For I was destined to be the cedar that should find the man wholly perfect in one mo- ment of his life, and the one that should give him the Word which would save him from ruin. " It was just ten years ago on a bright Sunday morning on the very ground on which you are growing, pretty turf, that I found him. It was the greatest moment in my life. " The boys came prancing out, kick- ing the ball high into the air as they are wont to do. A great crowd slowly assembled and another team of play- ers ran upon the field. Before long the referee ' s whistle blew and the two teams clashed. But down near me was a quiet lad in football togs, whom T had not noticed before. I gazed long at him as he bounded back and forth over the ground. Then he tiirned and I looked full into his eyes. Here was my perfect man! Foi ' , that moment, I could see as plainly as though it v ere written in bold letters, that he was perfect mentally, morally and physi- cally. All excitement, I whispered the Word to him as he drcAv near with the ball. He heard, for his face lighted up as with heavenly light and he smiled. But only for a moment, for now the wliole team was piled upon him. Whis- tle, and he was carried off unconscious. ' ' The next time I saw him, he was in a wheel-chair, crippled for life. Hov glad I was then, that I had given the Word while he was yet perfect in body. The peace of the Word was in his eyes. That peace is still there, for I see him often now, and you too, little turf field will see him, many times. " Why, " gasped the turf in amaze- ment, " is that the chap they call Bob? " " It is, " echoed back the goal-post in a faraway voice. — C. Murphy, ' 18. " 01j Aft rmalli Deep is the roar of tKe cannon, FiendisK tKe sKriek of the shells ; While soldiers lie in the trenches deep, Dying for food and longing for sleep, Praying for loved ones who wail ana weep — ' Tis worse than a thousand hells. Dark are the days and dreary, Soul-rending, the dying moans Of the torn and shattered, deep midst the slime And blood of the Nation ' s hope in their prime ; While the War-gods sing to the Devil ' s rhyme And dance o ' er the Empires ' bones. Ah, when the fight is finished, And counted the fallen slain, Kin for kin, seeking far and wide. Shall search on the field v;here their loved ones died. Or know that deep ' neath the ocean ' s tide They lie, and the search is vain. The soldier with tear-stained visage. Shall wring the hand of his friend ; Glance at his comrade ' s grave once more. Longing, with love, for his native shore; His home is wrecked, and his heart is sore — Tea, this is the battle ' s end. ED. L. NICHOLSON ' 1? 158 INDIAN JUSTICE Being a part of tKe peroration of an original speech supposed to be delivered in tKe BritisK Parliament NDIA, the bii ' tliplace of Eastern civilization. The land of the vener- able Sanskrit epic of the Mahabarata. The home of the Sage Vi- yasa. The land where bloomed a mag- nificent literature five thousand years ago. A nation that was at the height of worldly power before Western Greece, the mother of European refine- ment, had built her first temple. An Eastern clime where splendid temples and palaces towered to the skies in all the richness of Bengalie Dravidian and Chalukya styles of architecture, won- derful creations and monuments of hu- man ingenuity. The splendor and mag- nitude of which to this day has never been equaled in artistic correctness, beauty and proportion. A nation that was, at the zenith of its literature, arts and sciences, when the rude European Boor was then content to lounge in the shelter of his thatched tent. A nation that nourishes on its bosom three hun- dred and fifty millions of peoples. A territory that encompasses within its borders nearly two million square miles. This ancient and r iowned land lies servile at your feet. The individuals of this nation must make a low salaam at the slightest nod of the most de- praved soldier of the English army. A once famous country whose inhabitants must raise opium against their will and to the degradation of their own citizens — and Avhy? — merely to enrich the treasuries of Europe. A now conquered people, who must surrender their man- hood, — yea, and even their womanhood to the cruel, relentless armed authority of Great Britain! Whose citizens are encouraged in the pursuit of ignorance. For as, Wilberforce has said when an increase in the Indian budget for 1792 Avas contemplated for the purpose of editcation : " We have lost America through education, and I believe we should see, that the mistake is not re- peated in our Indian possissions, " and this has ever since been the policy of England towards India, seeing, that the Hindoo is not given too strong a dose of education. Three words are suffi- cient for the summing up of the British policy. They are : Ignorance, Extor- tion, Suppression. Encouraged ignor- ance of the inhabitants and the giving of no adequate means of learning; ex- tortion of the residents, and, the con- sequent enrichening of the English cof- fers ; sttppression of the spirit of demo- 159 160 THE REDWOOD. eraey and national feeling. These aims, in fine, to be accomplished through any means possible, no matter how selfish or unjust. We demand justice and freedom from England. We do not ask home rule for India, on the grounds of ab- stract theory. We do not wildly de- mand immediate freedom for the down- trodden population of that former great Eastern empire. We do not prey upon your sympathies and emotions by describing vividly and dramatically the horrible atrocities perpetrated by the English troops upon the humble inhab- itants of the Hindustan Peninsula. No, my Lords ; we do none of the above enumerated actions, but we do appeal to you on that great principle of hu- manity common to all. We do implore and urge that the residents of the In- dus be ti-eated as nothing greater than human beings. We beg you to con- sider them as a people common to one Ruler. We want them to be treated as you would demand to be treated by your own Government. We ask you to accord them justice, in your own inter- pretation of what justice should mean among your Western fellowmen, not the interpretation your government places upon the word when used in connection with a subjugated Asiatic Empire, an Empire that was at the height of its civilization when your an- cestors were roaming in the wilds of Europe. A nation whose very mention in those bygone days of Genoese mara- time supremacy was sufficient to in- spire your forefathers with thoughts of immense and incomprehensible wealth ; why even the streets were paved with gold in their imagination. But now in you, all those former thoughts of mag- nificence are gone. Now that renowned and wonderful nation lies practically ruined at your feet, ruined by your modern system of extortion. You are now the victors. You have conquered them with their own troops. You have now risen to the dizzy heights where no nation long has stood ; you have ris- en to the heights of the oppressors of millions. When the deeds of today are en- tombed in the histories of the past, let not England be remembered as the op- pressor of millions, thrown from her giddy eminence by the concerted rising of an aggrieved multitude ; but as Eng- land, the Just, the protectoress of In- dia, the guardian angel of liberty. —John Vincent Morris, ' 18. ®I|0 3F?atI|Fr Itiirr Flow swiftly, mighty Feather, By your steep and rocky shore; May your foaming, rippling eddies Roll along for evermore; While I wander, ever dreary, As I ponder, never weary. On your legends and your lore. The Redmen in their wand ' rings Through the Northland sought your flow; Built a village with their wigwams, Lit your depths with campjire ' s glow; ' Till the Paleface came to pillage. Burnt their wigwams, wrecked their village: Filled their haughty hearts with woe. Here the chieftain ' s spirit haunts me There I see a peaceful scene. As the visions of your valley Seem to mingle with my dream; And when in peaceful slumber, With forgotten dead I number, May I sleep beside your stream. THOMAS MULVANEY, ' U 161 162 THE REDWOOD. IN THE SHADOW OF THE POLE A 1 ND it ' s gold, men, gold. Pure virgin gold. Nuggets as big as my finger-tips. It ' s there on the ground, and in the chinks be- tween tlie rocks. High on the cliffs you can see it shining back the light of the noonday sun. " You think it ' s queer I ' m telling you two. But listen: I ' m an old man, I ' ve made my stake and younger blood than mine is deserving of this chance. I never thought of it so much until I heard of the rush to start in the morn- ing. The claim is just over the South Pass. You can see the pine tree that overlooks the place from yonder hill, on a bright day. Tonight, on such a night as this, you couldn ' t see your hand before your eyes; and such a night is fearsome there, too. But for this weather the rush would have started two hours ago. But you two, or whichever of you is the best can beat them to it. Start tonight and camp in the lea of the rocks from that old glacier until morning. Now go. " Old John Hansen sat before the log fire in his little cabin long after the two had gone forth into the night, pon- dering on the days when he was just their age and just as ambitious. He realized that they were not friends. One, Jake Bonnet was a faro dealer in one of the many saloons in Nome. The other, Bill Rainey, bought and sold dogs for a living. Jake Bonnet had lent Old John enough money for a grub stake, and Bill Rainey had taken his conditional note for a dog team. The note stated that if John was alive one year from date he was to pay Rainey for the dogs, if not — . As far as Old John could see back into the fast dimming channels of his memory these two were the only men who had ever given anything but a harsh " No " to his humble request. True, he had paid for the dogs, for he had made enough from the claim prospected on that last trip to keep him in luxury for the rest of his life, even if he had been twenty years younger, but the kind act was still there. True, he had returned Bon- net ' s money, but he could not for- get the spirit in which Jake had given it. So the good deeds had been done, and so he was about to repay. Late that night Bonnet and Rainey started. At half past eleven Jake Bonnet snapped his whip over the back of the leader of his team and called softly, ' ' Gee ! HaAV ! Mush ! ' ' An hour later l ill Rainey did the same. Before morning the rock heap shel- tered the tAvo. As Rainey ' s huskies rushed under the shelter, Bonnet ' s leader, a powerful brute, sprang at the 162 THE REDWOOD. 163 driver. Bonnet grunted, but said noth- ing, until a second later came a flash and a report and the gaunt wolf hound lay quivering in the snow. Then Jake lept to his feet and reached toward his belt, but from the semi-darkness came in low tones, " Don ' t move, or you lose your chance of ever getting back to Nome. " Both sat down then, until the grey dawn of the coming day crept over the cold hills. Then Bonnet rose sofety, for Bill ' s steady breathing told of utter exhaustion. Silently he stole to where Rainey ' s dogs lay in their harness ; silently he unhitched the leader and hitched him in the place of his own leader, and in an instant was off. Five minutes later, as if from a dream of revenge, Rainey awoke with a start. He took the situation in a glance.. His rifle lay at his side, and on the slope of a hill, two hundred yards away, Bon- net mushed through the soft snow. He reached for the rifle, rubbed the snow from the rear sight and took careful- aim at the back of the retreating man. The man that stood between himself and a fortune. The man, who if he gained that for- tune, would have done it by the help of his (Rainey ' s) property; necessary property to himself at tliat moment. But he lowered his gun. " Some other time, " he muttered, as he lashed the dogs up and on. The loss of his leader made the going slower, but then he knew the way better than the man before him. At noon Bonnet and his team were barely a speck on the distant hills, and Bill choked back a half sob as he thought how his dreams of a joyful meeting with his mother the next summer would not be realized unless he caught up v ith and passed that disappearing speck. But he dealt the hungry huskies their dried salmon and mushed on, chewing a piece of ba- con as he went. Far into the night he drove the tired dogs along, over hum- mocks of soft snow, in and out bleak white canyons. It was well past midnight when his whip fell for the last time and he checked the dogs for a short rest. He did not sleep, but an hour before the dim sun would have risen, kicked the team from their rest, and after feeding til em, mushed on. He figured that by last night ' s driving he must be ahead, but Bonnet and his team were nowhere in sight. Also he figured by hard driv- ing to reach the canyon late that night, and ahead of Jake. The dogs ran slower, for the air was warmer and tlie snow softer. Then too, the huskies had had but little rest. Late that afternoon he saw Bonnet come over a hill to the right of the course he was talring. Also he noticed that Bonnet ' s team was mimis a dog and running slowly. Jake Avas holding his dogs to a course well in towards the river, and evidently meant to make his way back on the ice. Before him, rising al)ove the sur- rounding snov f-covered hills, Rainey could see a small mountain, and be- hind this mountain he knew lay Old Jolm ' s bonanza. 164 THE REDWOOD. Bonnet disappeared into a sharp val- ley before Bill could notice more par- ticulars. He halted the dogs for an instant, unpacked the salmon, and fed them. The dried fish seemed to infuse new life into the huskies and they strained against the breastplates. The going was slow, until from a sudden descent they struck the river. Bill saw, and was thankful, that there were no fresh tracks before him through the thin snow that covered the ice. The way was easier now, and the sjDurt ended aboixt four hours after the darkness fell. Close behind, for the last two miles, Rainey could hear the crack of Bonnet ' s whip, and the creak of the sled runners on the ice. The last hundred yards he could hear the deep breathing of Jake ' s huskies. As he ran beside the sled he loosened the pack holding the stakes, and running under the cliff beneath which Old John had said lay the claim, he tore a loos- ened rock from the steep side. Calling to the leaders to stop he squatted on the snow and drove the stake. He had won ! Bonnet, coming up a minute later, cursed as he saw Rainey staking the claim that might have been his, had not one of his best huskies failed him. " But it is not yours yet, you white- livered Yankee. You can ' t prove that you staked it. I ' ve got to rest, and you have got to rest, but the one of us that gets back first records the claim. All ' s fair in this kind of dealing. " Rainey turned white with anger as the cowardly words struck his ears. Words that were the lowest, meanest, that a man could utter under the cir- cumstances. " But I ' ll go you to a finish, you sneak, " he muttered, " and may the best deserving man win. " He fed his dogs and noticed that the supply of fish was getting very low. " His pack ' s no heavier than mine though, " he thought. He realized that, in order not to let Bonnet get another start on him, he must sleep with one eye open. So, after digging the snow out from between his huskies ' toes, he rolled up in his blankets for a short rest, but he did not close his eyes. After what seemed to him an eternity of sleepiness, he saw Jake rise and stretch himself, and in a minute he too was on his feet. He fed the dogs again from the small supply, and as before chewed a piece of raw bacon, as he marched out just ahead of Jake. Rainey struck a strong steady pace over the ice, and stuck well to the middle of the river. Half a mile out Bonnet passed him, driving like mad. Several hundred yards before them, as they drew together was a sharp bend in the river. Rainey did not change his pace or speak as Bonnet passed, but he saw something in the latter ' s eyes that should have warned him. He realized his mistake a few minutes later. The wheeler ' s trace came loose and Bill called sharply to the team. They stopped, and he knelt to fasten the strap. As he was about THE R EDWOOD. 165 to rise, he heard a sharp report from ahead, then felt a stinging sensation in his left leg. " The coward, " he sobbed, as he reached for his rifle, " the dii ' ty cow- ard. " He did not get a shot for Bon- net had made the turn just as he fired and was out of sight. Bill sank back on the ice and examined the wound. The bullet had entered the lower part of the calf and had torn through, leav- ing a nasty wound for a man with fifty miles of ice between himself and the nearest place of refuge, and in the dead of winter. From as little as he knew of bullet wounds, Rainey saw that by stopping the blood and by traveling slowly, he could probably reach Nome safely. Even during the short time in which the blood flowed from the wound, he could feel the chill of the loss. After applying a rude bandage he rose slowly to his feet, walked about looking at the sled strappings, and then called " Mush! " Holding to the gee-pole from time to time to make going slower, and nurs- ing his strength for a final spurt, if, by chance, Bonnet could yet be passed, Rainey drove the huskies on for prob- ably five hours past the dimmest day- light. He would have rested sooner but for the fact that he knew of an old cabin on the left bank of the river. As they came abreast of it, he called to the leader, unhitched, and dragged the light sled within the stolid structure. He could afford to sleep now, he thought, so after building a warm fire in the crude fireplace he set about get- ting something warm to eat and drink for the first time in three days. Bill spent little time in thinking, but immediately after eating, unrolled his blankets on the floor and in a twink- ling was asleep. Again that night he dreamed of the little home down in Flo- rida, that had been mortgaged to pay his father ' s funeral debt. The gerani- ums along the fence about the front yard were in bloom and in the gate- way stood his mother. ' ' Don ' t forget your old mother, ' ' she had said, " nor that there is a God above you; and, " here her fast dim- ming eyes had filled with tears, " come back some day, my boy. Even if I am in the little churchyard, kneel and say a prayer for me. " Then he had gone. Yesterday he had felt that soon he should make her old heart glad, and hear again that sweet voice say, " My boy. " But now — now — , Bill found himself awake and in a sitting posture. Why not try once more? Even with his wounded leg he could at least make one more try. Tf he fell exhausted by the way — . His reveries were cut short l)y the yelping of dog teams and the yelling of their drivers. He walked stiffly to the door and looked out. Then he realized that the rush had begun. Stepping back into the cabin he unpacked the last bit of salmon and fed his dogs. Five minutes later found Rainey and his pack on a swinging trot towards Nome. His leg was inflamed and hurt considerably, but he trotted on, hold- 166 THE REDWOOD. ing onto the gee-pole partly for sup- port, partly to hold the team in cheek. Mile after mile they swung behind them. An occasional dog team passed them towards Old John ' s claim, and Rainey smiled throug h his pain as he thought what would be their surprise upon finding the short narrow gulley already staked out, and little or no chance of pay-dust beyond, for the highlands all about had long ago been prospected. At noon Bill was feverish. He had no fish for the dogs, so he gave them the last of his bacon and bread, eating nothing himself. They had stopped just before a bend in the river, and as Rainey was feed- ing, he heard someone cursing his dogs around the turn. " More rush, " he thought, " poor fools. " When his huskies had snapped up the last piece of bacon and bread, Bill cracked his whij:), called to the leader and was off. Slowly, to be sure, for his leg was beginnig to feel numb, but nevertheless, onward. As they took the bend Rainey started back in surprise and clutched at the air. There was Bonnet, just swinging out from his noonday stop, not fifty yards ahead. Rainey forgot the pain in his leg, and yelling to his dogs, started anew the race of days before. For half a mile neither gained, then Jake swung in to- ward the bank of the river, where the snow was thinner and forged ahead. Again Bill felt the pain in his leg. The numbness was gone now and in it ' s place was a red hot pain. Again the dizziness crept over him, and suddenly, as in a nightmare he saw Bonnet and his team disappear through the thin ice that hung to the river bank. Rainey sprang forward, and in an in- stant was beside the hole, below which, in the dark water, struggled Bonnet. The dogs had already been swept un- der, and Jake was clinging to a slight bush that overhung the bank. Suddenly Rainey stopped. Again he seemed to see his mother standing be- fore the little cottage down in the States. Here was his chance. Drive on and let Bonnet sink to his justly de- served end and only the gaping hole above the dark waters would tell the tale. Then his hopes would be realized. But as an echo from the past came his mother ' s words, " And remember that there is a God above you. ' ' In an instant he was on his knees. " Let go the bush and swim this way, " he cried. There was the look of a hunted ani- mal in Bonnet ' s eyes as he let go. As he swept within reach, Rainey clutched his mackinaw and with his remaining strength drew him from the water. Then Bill saw lights before his eyes ; strange lights that danced and spun — spun — danced — Ah — he heard his moth- er ' s voice. She held a great light high above her head and was searching for him. " My boy, my boy, " she cried, " Willie, are you coming back to me? " He tried to answer, but words would not come, so he laid his head on a THE REDWOOD. 167 strangely hard snow white pillow and slept. A stinging in his throat and the smell of brandy called him back from a swift, smooth journey to the Great Be- yond, and slowly Rainey opened his eyes. " Thank God, " he heard someone ex- claim. " He ' s coming to. " " Where ' s Bonnet? " he asked weak- ly. " He left this morning for England, " answered a voice which Rainey recog- nized as Old John ' s. " He told me where to find you, and said to give you this as soon as you were well. " Hansen drew a package from his pocket and held it before Bill ' s eyes. " What is it? " whispered Rainey. " It seems to be a record of that claim I told you two about, made out in your name, " answered the old man softly. — E. L. Nicholson, ' 18. PEACE " Is peace a nxytK ? " I asked m37self, and Lo : A wKisper coming softly answered " No " ; Yet sordid struggle caused the dove to go, Lest blood snould blignt ner wings of virgin snow. In golden times wnen sweet peace reigned supreme, WKen strife was naugnt and fear lurked low, unseen, As cow-slips niding in tKe meadow green, Strive in obscurity, joyful witK modest mien. But tKen tKe minds of monarcKs grasping grew, TKe peaceful scenes God loved, tKey overthrew; WitK cowards ' Kands and craven Kearts tKey slew, ' Till peace, in terror rose and from tKem flew. FRANK McCABE, ' 18 FORBES-ROBERTSON ' S " HAMLET " HE theatre-going pub- lic of San Francisco recently thronged to tlie Cort Playhouse to see the celebrated Forbes-Robertson in his farewell appearance in that city. It was my good fortune, during the Christmas holidays to witness this emi- nent English actor ' s presentation of ' ' Hamlet ' ' . If, with the play of ' ' Ham- let " , Shakespeare had also painted a portrait of Hamlet and given it a liv- ing form and voice, I believe, that he would have handed down to us a dupli- cate of Sir Johnston Forbes-Robert- son. For in addition to possessing a classic face, a figure such as doubtless Hamlet had in Shakespeare ' s mind, he is gifted with a wonderfully flexible and melodious voice. His genius is in- definable. It is, as Hamlet himself says ; " that something within me which passeth show. " Forbes-Robertson ' s portrayal of this celebrated chracter is a combination of the thoughtful Hamlet of Robert Man- tell, with the nervous Hamlet of E. H. Southern, combined with a warm sin- cerity and human tenderness, all his own. He is, therefore, more than emo- tional, he is an intellectual actor also. Every pose, every gesture, every sjoeech shows his deep insight into the character of the melancholy Dane. But his intellectualism is no bar to his emotion. His misery and despair is epic, grand, and effective, withal skill- fully tempered, so that not once did a false note mar the harmony of the tragedy. Unfortunately Forbes-Robertson did not have as strong supiDort as Robert Mantell. His comi any did not seem to gain anything by their contact with him. Almost to a character his troupe was mediocre. Polonius did not mani- fest that consummate wisdom which is supi osed to overflow in the play. The strong roles of the king and queen were lost in the hands of the players, and it seems to me that the queen con- tinued to languish overlong off stage while Hamlet bemoaned Polonius. But the graveyard scene — did not Shakespeare mean this to be extremely humorous in contrast to the rest of the grewsome tragedy? Alas, it was utterly missed by the players who took the part of the grave-diggers, for they wholly neglected to bring out the comedy in the dialogue, which the grave-diggers in other presentations have done. All these minor imperfections, how- ever, are forgotten when the greatest of Danes makes his entrance. His won- derful personality overshadows the rest of the characters. Much discussion has been raised as to whether Hamlet was in reality or only feignedly insane. It seems to me that 168 THE REDWOOD. 169 one has but to see the thoughtful and simple, yet clever Hamlet of Forbes- Robertson! One has but to hear his clever evading replies to Polonius ' questionings, in Act II, when that fawning old counsellor endeavors to draw Hamlet out. I think Forbes-Rob- ertson makes Hamlet as sane a man as, in truth, he would have to be in order to bring about unaided the re- venge urged by his father ' s ghost. The final curtain does not fall as is customary in productions of Hamlet, after the Prince of Norway, Fortin- bras, instructs the captains to bear Hamlet away. But, instead, a tableau is staged which lasted some minutes. After the duel, Hamlet falls on the throne steps, his dead body is then made to sit on the royal chair, the crown is placed upon his drooping head and the sceptre in his hand. After the courtiers have paid their homage, they carry out in state their dead king, amid the solemn peal of trumpets. This artistic touch adds an unusually im- pressive finish to the play. The excellent and distinctive music of the production was written by the famous Russian composer Tschai- kowsky. It is to be regretted that this tour of Forbes-Robertson is his farewell. I doubt that any of us, ' ' Shall look upon his like again. ' ' — Kendrick Johnson, ' 18. 3lmm0rtalttg I saw a flower Lend, To earth its petals fell; MetKougKt its spirit fled From out its peifumed cell. And wept I, tKen a child, Upon its chill}? bed, " Life ' s pleasures now are gone, Poor flower ! thou art dead. " With break of golden dawn, I hastened on m}? way, To see where yester eve Wiy flower had pa ssed away. When Lo! my flower to life, Was born again midst dew ; Its beauty, now for joy, My tears once more renew. And so when out this earth. My prisoned soul will fly, While o ' er my lifeless form, Beloved ones sad will cry. There shall I silent rest. When life ' s short day is done, To wait until the blessed dawn Of the eternal sun. ANDREW GINOCCHIO, Jr., ' 18 170 THE QUEST T was on one of those hot days in early April that Jack Jennings, Joe Sieberts and George Nickson lay lazily in the room of Roy Saberton at Saint Clarton Univer- sity. Jack and Joe lounged on the bed and thought of frozen ice packs and joining expeditions to the two poles, while George lolled on a seat near the window smoking a particularly venom- ous pipe and dreamt of romance. At the study desk sat Ray, unconsciously drawing figures and thinking of the twenty-four dollars he had lost. He felt angry at himself for placing so much confidence in his own judgment of the merit of California as against Saint Clarton. Jack finally broke the silence by ris- ing up, adjusting his pillow and yawn- ing. " I wish I had a Clark ' s ' Special. ' " he remarked. " Say, but girls are funny people, " contributed George abstractly, under the impression perhaps, that he had said something original. " Have you just found that out? " in- quired Roy shortly, as he went on fig- uring what he could have done with twenty-four dollars during Easter va- cation. " But some girls are funnier than others, especially a certain girl in this town. She collects things, " mused George. " They all collect something, some- times different things, but as a rule they collect — male goats, " answered Joe. " She ' s a very unusual girl, " contin- ued George, " and the things she col- lects are antique flags of different na- tionalities. But there is a flag that she has been trying for a long time to get, however without any success, and I, like a plain idiot, promised to get it for her. What do you suppose she wants ? ' ' " An ancient Japanese flag, " said Joe without moving from his comfort- able place on the bed. George gasped, ' ' Why — why — how did you know ? ' ' " It is very simple, " grinned Joe. " You are not the only person that worships at the shrine of a certain lit- tle beauty from Hoquiam, Washing- ton, and as soon as you mentioned col- lection, I knew whom you were talk- ing about — and I too, promised her I would procure the much desired flag. " " Well, anyway, " broke in George, " believe me, I am going to find that flag, if I have to search the whole country, for she wants it very much and she is sure worth pleasing. Then again I said I would get it for her and I ' m going to be as good as my word. So 171 172 THE REDWOOD. ' nough said, fellows, I might as well go down and get one right now. Want to come along, Joe? " Joe glanced at the sun-baked streets and hesitated. " The answer is no, " he finally stated. " Weir, yon come along Jack, and I ' ll treat at O ' Brien ' s. " ' ' Gladly, ' ' answered Jack, ' ' for I am thinking of getting one myself. " " And thou too, Brutus, " groaned George. " I wonder how much they cost? " " Oh, about ten bucks, I imagine, " said Roy. ' ' Ouch ! what a lovely imagination you have, " murmured Joe. " Well, let ' s go, " said Jack, reach- ing for his cap. A minute later the door slammed be- hind the retreating forms of Jack and George Hardly had they disappeared when Joe grabbed his hat and left the room, leaving Roy thinking very hard. Arriving at First street Jack got off and strolled into a Japanese store, where he expected to find all kinds of Japanese flags. He did — but the flag he was looking for was not there. " Never heard of that kind, " said the clerk when Jack had finished de- scribing it. " You had better go to a novelty store. " He went down the heated street to Hale ' s. Here he had no better suc- cess. Three more stores were visited, but all seemed never to have heard of the flag. He then went to Arts and Crafts store, but after being shown every- thing else he was informed that they didn ' t possess such a flag. Turning to go, he bumped into Joe, who looked very warm and uncomfortable. " Did you find it? " he asked. " Not yet, did you get yours? " ans- wered Jack, expressing no surprise at seeing Joe searching for the flag. " No such luck, and I have chased all over the city ; however, across the street I see a portal that beckons to me. So let us go ! " After a banana " Special " had brought down their temperatures to normal and an iced milk-shake was or- dered and half finished, the w orld once more assumed its natural bright outlook. " I wonder where George is? " said Jack as he sij j ed. It worries me con- siderable that we have not seen him. " As he spoke, in walked Nickson, his face flushed, collar wilted and a weary look on his face. " I thought I would see you fellows here, " he said, as he sank into a chair. " I almost hope you fellows have found it, for I must confess it is beyond me. Ye gods, I have walked until I feel like a physical wreck. " " It ' s beyond us too, " answered Joe. " Hurry up with your drink and we will go home. I ' m all in. " So finish- ing the drink they left, but didn ' t pro- ceed far, when George bui ' st out. " Here ' s a novelty shop and I saw it first. " " The deuce you did, " shrieked Joe THE REDWOOD. 173 and Jack together, as all three made a dive for the shop. Side by side they entered the door and in nnion they de- manded an antiqne Yokohama Japan- ese flag. The clerk was obliging and finally made them understand that he had not the flag they desired although he could supply them anything else they wanted in the line of flags. Before he had finished they were out in the street. At the corner Joe hesitated. " Say, fellows, " he remarked, " I have cov- ered every department store, Japanese and novelty place in the city and I AM GOING HOME. " " And I too, " answered Jack. While George nodded wearily. On the car bound for the University, Jack broke the silence. " The regret I have, " he remarked, " is that we couldn ' t have roped Roy in on this. He ' s put it over on us several times and I would have liked to get even with him. " The only response he received was grunts, for the others were too weary to answer. Arriving at the University, they climbed up to their rooms and languidly peeled off their clothes, ar- rayed themselves in gaudj bathrobes and started for the showers. Jack was just finishing ' dressing when Roy wandered into the room and sat on the table. " What h;ck, old man? " he inquired. " Rank, " was the answer. " Nobody ever seemed to have heard of the an- cient flag of Yokohama. " ' " Was it anything like this? " asked Roy, showing a gaudy piece of silk. " Roy! you wonder, " shouted Jack. " Where did you get it? What do you want for it? Sell it to me, you have no use for it. " " Well, I thought— " began Roy. " Oh come on. You don ' t want it. What is the price? ' " It is expensive. Jack, but — Avell there is that poker debt of eleven bucks I owe you. " " Give it to me, " exclaimed Jack, as he grabbed the tiny silk flag, " and we will call the debt squared. Gee, Avon ' t Joe and George be sore when they find out I have the precious little thing. " " You bet they will, " agreed Roy, as he hastily departed. That evening after dinner the three flag-hunters strolled arm-in-arm in the cool air of the April evening. Very little was said for each was busy with his own thoughts and all seemed to be perfectly satisfied. " I have a date tonight, " said Jack, finally, " but before I go, let ' s go down to Clark ' s and get something to eat. ' ' " I have a date too, but have time to eat something, " admitted George. " Gee! so have I and I don ' t care for anything but I shall walk down with you, " burst out Joe. They turned the corner of the cam- pus when Joe suddenly stopped. " Do my eyes deceive me? " he gasped. " Right under our noses. For in front of them was a tiny Japanese store, and in the window hung several 174 THE REDWOOD. of the flags they had searched so hard for. Attached to them was a small card informing the reader that the price of one of the flags was one dollar. " The thief; " blurted out Jack, as he thought of the eleven dollar debt he had can- celed. " The — the — robber, " stuttered Joe, as he pulled out the flag he had ex- changed for a thirteen dollar I. 0. U. " Lobster, " gritted George, as he fin- gered the flag Roy had sold him for ten dollars. " Still I will beat you fel- lows yet, " he added, as he made a jump for a passing car, followed by Joe, which, they, excepting Jack, suc- ceeded in catching. However, catching a taxi-cab a few minutes later, he also sped to the home of the lovely Wash- ingtonian. All three arrived within a few sec- onds of each other. Miss Brown, on answering the bell, found three hands extended, each bearing a small Japanese flag. " Oh my! " said she, breathlessly. " How perfectly sweet of you — but oh! what a shame. You see Mr. Saberton found one early this morning and sent it up by a special messenger. It is a darling. I am so sorry that you had all the trouble for nothing. ' ' Making their adieus as best as they could, they hurried back to the Uni- versity ancl up to Roy ' s room. He had however, prepared for them and the door was locked. So they had to con- tent themselves with using (and abus- ing) their whole vocabularies on him. Even this slight pleasure was soon de- nied, for Roy took down his guitar and added insult to injury by playing, " Fools We Are. " —Rudolph L. Scholz, 18. i XB dM n TKou nas hidden tKese things from the wise and prudent, and hath revealed them to the httle ones.— Luke x, 21. We tired of romping on the green, My little friend and I, And he, " witK e3?es of dream}? blue, Was gazing at tKe sky. Where piles of clouds, all snowy wnite, SKone, gilded -witK rejlected ligkt. He told me in a guileless tone, That, just above those clouds. The gates of heaven, vast and white. Hid behind misty shrouds. I mused while he expressed with ease. His own beliefs and theories. He told me when he had been good. That looking at the sky, • Sometimes he ' d hear the angels sing. I answered naught ; for I Was not so near to heaven ' s door. As was that little lad of four. J. CHARLES MURPHY, ' 13 175 THE PAN-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION TIROUGHOUT t li e whole year, San Diego, the city by the harbor of the Silver Sun, will greet the world at her gayly decorated por- tals. To one and all the birds will sing out glad carols of welcome, from their homes in the trees, in the foliage of a dozen hues whose fragrance fills the canyons and arroyas between the Expo- sition palaces. And the same sun will smile on the bright colored flowers as it did when the Exposition opened the first of the year. For you must know that each month will have its attire of roses, its own perfume and its special wealth of blooms. And every month the grass will be green and the air soft and cool; the welcome just as hearty. As one steps from the main entrance into the vast tropical garden he is amazed to see grouped before him num- erous white, massive structures, each fashioned after a palace of sunny Spain. Moorish architects and crafts- men of the early centuries used their ut- most skill in designing palaces which even now are the admiration of archi- tects the world over. Their ornamen- tation is superb ; their f)roportions, sub- lime. But these ideas have been car- ried further, and today in our Golden State, where this style of architecture prevails, the imitation has in many in- stances surpassed the originals of the mother country. Thus it was decided that this wonderful style of building should be tlie dominant feature of the San Diego Exposition. The castles, mansions and cathedrals of far-away Spain were selected as models and re- produced among the vast gardens on the Balboa ridge that overlooks the city, the shimmering bay and the azure sea. Each building is surouncled by a spa- cious, tropical garden. Some are re- served for tlie counties of the State, oth- ers for industries, while others are for special exhi1)its. Not all are grouped to- gether, but rather scattered here and there in the most advantageous spots. In keeping with the entire richness of ornamentation, they are set in a wealth of verdure and year-long blooms of which creators of i:iast expositions never dreamed, so that it may be truly said that San Diego has selected the archi- tectural jewels which were in vogue during the most sumptuous epoch of Spanish prosperity when she was mis- tress of the Christian world. These jewels she has set amidst a garden of tropical luxuriance. We now pass to the mining and sci- ence buildings. These are replete with displays from this State and those of South America. They are all well l)uilt lip and show that much care and 176 THE REDWOOD. 177 interest has been used in their arrange- ment. They are not only uniqiie, but very practical. Indeed, this exhibit gives a person quite an insight into the doings of our sister country. The edu- cation and art buildings folloAV in close succession. Each of these has a profu- sion of exhibits. The ornamentation about the buildings is purely Califor- nian and one easily realizes it is a true California exposition. But let us advance. We are now in one of the beautiful palm courts. It is a shady spot. On all sides massive tow- ers pierce the clouds. These stand as so many sentinels to protect this beaii- ty-hallowed place. Then too, all the patios and cloisters lead from the buildings into it. Against the sides of the buildings are sharply silhouetted the drooping branches of some tropical palm. You breathe in the very atmo- sphere, the fragrance of some sacred spell hovering over the place ; all exer- cise over you some indescribable charm. You feel as if you are in the " forbidden garden " of some Francis- can monastery. And you long to see some brown-robed friar issue from a sheltered spot into the sunlight. Then in spirit, you seem to hear the foot- steps of some padre, and in fancy you look — it is the good Padre Junipero Serra and with him his venerable as- sistant. Padre Palou. And as they walk slowly from the vine-clad cloister into a more sheltered nook, their faces seem to light up with a smile as they gaze into the wonderland about them. You muse foi ' a moment. The ear hearkens involuntarily for the brazen call of the bells. For it is now noon. Then list ! The bells ring out the Ange- lus. Today the friars, who really dwell in the grounds, wander to a grander chapel than did their brother Franciscans. This handsome chapel has been constructed for them by the Exposition Committee. The bells swing in a more majestic tower. But the same silver strains mingle in the air and the same procession winds its way to say noonday Office. And as the prayer for the Angelus rings oiit, one may see the Indians in a nearby pueblo stopping their work and returning to their homes. So does it seem more realistic to have them together — the brown-robed friar and his first Califor- nia pupil, the Indian. But we must reluctantly leave this sacred spot teeming with the beauties of art and nature. We must pass along to some of the other buildings. There are many of them, some of coui ' se are California county buildings with a South American country for a neigh- bor. For it is well to know that this exposition means as much for these countries as it does for our own Golden State. They have stood in line with the Exposition managei ' s and have always extended to them a helping hand. Their showing is most remarkable. Each country is represented by a building containing a fine exhibit. These are very extensive and have been selected Avith much care and thought. They are in charge of competent persons -who are ■well acquainted with that special line 178 THE REDWOOD. of work. These displays are bound to reflect much credit on the countries which they represent. The gay ban- ners of red and yellow flash out as well for Chile as they do for California. Still with all this, harmony reigns su- preme. The architecture of the build- ings is the same. Everywhere music is in the air. Now and again you hear the soft strains of a mandolin or a guitar and you think of the sweet music of Spain and Mex- ico. Occasionally the visitor sees a few senoritas and their escorts gi-ace- fully dancing in a near-by pavilion or a vine-clad pergola; on the outside is stationed a guard clad with a costume similar to those worn centuries ago by the guards in Spain. Through an ave- nue of gay blossoms and we stand be- fore another California building. As there are so many of these I shall de- sei ' ibe this one briefly. It is intended to show the replicas of the Missions and the relics of the pioneer days. The dome and tower are lofty land- marks of the Exposition. The many- storied tower is boldly ornamented with tiles of blue, black and yellow and girdled with balconies of glistening bronze. The tiled dome is so vivid in color that its hues are discernible for many miles around — even from the dis- tant bay. The massive walls of the building, like unto the paraj et of a city, rise out of fragrant groves of golden acacia and rose-red oleanders. with the purple bougainvilla scaling the beleaguered heights. Above the en- trance to the building stands a magni- ficent statue of the venerable Father Junipero Serra. The good Franciscan wears a cheery smile, his hand raised izi benediction. Underneath this statue and to one side is Cabrillo and on the other Viscaya — two early discoverers. Below them are two Franciscan friars of early days. This entrance is one of the most noteworthy ornaments of the San Diego Exijosition, uniting wonder- fully its history and art. The displays inside are perfect even though the lofty proportions of this vast building make it a difficult one for the artist to beautify. So throughout the structures and the grounds the people of San Diego have eari ' ied into reality the true spirit of California, which has come to us from distant Spain. They have fashioned their buildings from those of the moth- er country, the ornamentations from the more magnificent palaces and cas- tles, the flower gardens from the " for- bidden cloister " of the early Califor- nia missons. Thus this place, which was the beginning of Father Serra ' s work in this state, is a true California Exposition. San Diego, the City by the Harbor of the Southern Sun, bids a hearty welcome to the nations of the globe and offers them true California hospitality. — Ernest W. Schween, ' 18. tabat iial r " of f rgnlFBl Have you Keard tKe oldtime story, Sweet and simple, almost cnilalike, Ho w a young Italian singer Wooed tKe daughter of a prince? Oft Ke sang to Ker at twilight, WKen tKe sun beKind tKe Killtops Sank to slumber, wKile tKe great moon Softly rose to claim its realm. But one day tKe young musician SougKt Ker fatKer; in tKe answer. All Kis builded Kopes were sKattered, All Kis golden dreams were dust. " Stabat Mater dolorosa, " Softly as tKe East wind ' s zepKyr, . Sweetly as tKe breatK of Summer, To Kis wearied soul, tKe tKeme. And Ke seemed to Kear tKe music, Of an angel cKoir, ascending, TKougKt Ke Keard tKeir saddened voices: " Dum pendebat Filius. " So Ke sat alone and listened To tKe voices from tKe darkness, And Kis Kand was moved to writing. Music of tKe angels ' song. So Ke sat alone and pondered Ev ' ry evening after sunset. On Kis life; an empty darkness. He recalled from out tKe darkness. And in rytKm witK Kis sorrows — GKoirs of angels, softly singing, ' Twas as if an angel sang — And eacK time Ke added more, ' Till one nigKt, ' twas almost finisKed, But tKe beauty of tKe poem Drew Kis soul from Kim to answer To tKe angels ' last " Amen. " EDWD. L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 Note — TKe verses above tell tKe romantic and patKetic story of tKe inspired composi- tion of tKe music of tKe " Stabat Mater " by tKe celebrated young musician Pergolesi. Hav- ing fallen in love witK a very weatlKy Neapolitan noble maiden, Ke applied to Ker fatKer, in keeping witK tKe custom in Italy, for Ker Kand. TKe young artist was unconditionally refus- ed. He tKen pined away witK disappointment, and to seek solace in Kis grief, Ke began to compose musjc for tKe beautiful old Catholic poem " Stabat Mater. " TKe tKeme was so con- genial to Kis depressed state of mind that Ke tKrew himself into it witK all tKe ardor of Kis passionate genius. In fact, working upon its completion day and nigKt, Ke neglected to take even tKe necessary nourisKment and repose, so tKat Ke became tKe victim of an attack of galloping consumption. In consequence, Ke yielded to its deadly grasp, and died 1736 at tKe immature age of 26 years - even before Ke could complete tKe music for tKe " Amen. " 179 THE MYSTERY OF SKELETON TUNNEL P M W ir 1 a I IM i K f l [miBLj m] JUMPED from the stage which I had been riding in for the past twelve hours and sur- veyed my surround- ings at Gold Hill, Ne- vada, with a sinking heart. In front of me stretched the desert. Not the desert the eastern people imagine, one of flat sand and without life, but a slop- ing country cut by innumerable gullies and broken here and there by the hills, which eastern people called mountains : a desert brown in clayey spots, and a peculiar parched color where the vege- tation had been burned by the scorching rays of the smi. Behind me was Ele- phant Hill, on which I saw the mine I now had charge of. There were five saloons, one bunk house, one boarding hangout, a few family residences, a couple of " shacks " , one street, and a corral. After I had taken an in- ventory of my surroundings, I was greeted, by, " Howdy, stranger! " The words came from a long, slim looking man, with a black mustache curled at both ends. " Be you the new superin- tendent, Mr. Tenderham ? ' ' " Yes, " I answered. " I suppose that is the Lopez mine? " " Wal, yes, I reckon it is, " was his droll reply. " Overlooking a few hole that always spring around a large mine, that is the only mine here, as far as I know. " After arranging my few belongings in a room which I had secured at a very reasonable price (ten dollars a day), in the rooming house, run by a Mrs. Soakemhard, known to the men as " the Mrs. " , I went on a tour of inspec- tion, which took up the remainder of the afternoon. That evening, the long, slim fellow, who had addressed me on my arrival (whose name I found out to be Ben- jaman Franklin), introduced me to sev- eral of the men gathered around the eating " jjalace " . He seemed to be a very entertaining chap, so I sat down on the bench with him. Naturally, I wanted to learn more of the country, so he said, " Did you ever hear the story about Skeleton Tunnel? " I had not, so I asked him to tell me the mysteri- ous tale. " Well, " he began, " about ten years ago when Lopez was a small mine, I was shift-boss. There was a Mexican by the name of Herrera Francisco Fer- dinad, or just plain " Jack " , as the bunch used to call him, and a fellow who was half Mexican and half Indian, named Unita Tomas, under me. Those two were as good friends as a bull snake and a rattler. " Of course the trouble was over the root of all evil, a girl. The girl ' s name 180 THE REDWOOD. 181 was Dolores Zapata. Like some young Mexican girls she was pretty, and she knew it too. She just teased the life out of those two miserable greasers, until they looked daggers at each other. I knew trouble was coming, but tried to put it off as long as I could. " One June night there was a dance over at the corral. For weeks and weeks beforehand the men had been busy packing and thumping the ground hard so as to have a smooth " ball room " floor. " Dolores and Tomas, or " Texas " , had a fuss the day before the dance, so she spent all her charms on Jack that evening. Poor Texas was all worked up about the fuss and wanted to make up, but she shook her shoulder, winked at him shyly, bantered him and laughed, which is saying a lot, because the Mexicans are very superstitious and Texas had some Indian blood, too. " Texas stayed until the next to the last dance and then went out. I would have followed him, but I was having a streak of luck at poker, and, of course, I didn ' t want to stop. Dolores and Jack were gone home before I remem- bered about telling them that Texas was drunk. Dolores lived up on the side of a mountain and you had to pass a tunnel to get to the house. It is a very lonely walk, even in day time. " The next morning old Zapata, Do- lores ' father, pulled me out of bed and began jabbering in Mexican at the rate of two hundred words a minute. I couldn ' t savvy the stuff, so I threw a bucket of water in his face, and as water is poison to all the Mexicans, he slowed down. Finally I learned that Dolores was missing. " I told the superintendent and he sent out a searching party. When my shift came to work two were missing, Jack and Texas. The weather was sure hot and the searching party didn ' t stay out very long. Of course they didn ' t find anyone, but they did find out that three horses were miss- ing. " " About five years later, Lopez struck it rich and some eastern men bought it. They sent a German man named Munsterberg to take charge. " Munsterberg had an idea that there was something in the old tunnel on the road up the mountains, so he sent a bunch of Mexicans to work it. They hadn ' t been gone five minutes when they came out as fast as if they Avere trying to outrace the shell of a Krupp gun. " I asked what the matter was sev- eral times, but it was thirty minutes before I got a suitable answer. At last one of them said, " There ' re lots devils in tunnel. They scratch on face and scream. One say these words, " Who dei-e, who dere, who dere? " An- other one, he says, " Blood, blood, eat, eat, we eat blood, you give us our eats. Blood, BLOOD, B-L-0-O-D ! we eat. " The big devil he lay on floor all white, he raise up and point finger at us and say, " I am the devil ' s son, from down below, below, down, down. Exchange place with me. I want fun. Obey 182 THE REDWOOD. me? " I answer " NO. " He says, " Get em, get em. " and they did. Me run then. ' ' " His last statement I didn ' t contra- dict, but I disbelieved the devil stuff. The Mexicans were scared stiff and I knew it wasn ' t any use to send them back, so I made them sack ore while I went to investigate. I took with me an electric flash light, (a scarce thing around a new mining camp), a revol- ver and a Winchester rifle. I didn ' t expect trouble, but I certainly was l repared for it if it came my way. " I went in rather quiet, and pretty soon I came to a turn in the tunnel. Just as I went around the turn into the black passage, I felt hundreds of hands grab me and I heard as many voices yelling and shrieking in my ears. " I yelled and fired three shots, which made more noise than ever. I ran back a little distance and began to feel up and down my body to see if any- thing was missing. I looked down on my pant ' s leg, and, believe me, I pretty near jumped out of my skin at the sight. There, hanging on for dear life was a bat. " Well, I can tell you I was pretty mad. I marched straight out and got a big stick and returned to clear out the whole mess of bats and owls. But in the midst of my warfare on the rats and cats with wings, I stumbled against something that rattled. I looked down and this time I got so scared that I came near fainting, although that job is usually filled by a beautiful young girl, when some strong masculine, young man is nearby. Right near me on the ground was a skeleton of a man. ' ' When my thinking powers returned to their right place, I began to search the skeleton for marks of identifica- tion. All I found was a watch, which I took to the superintendent. " Engraved on the back of the watch was ' Herrera Francisco Ferdinad, August 4, 1896. ' There was a piece of paper folded up that had some Span- ish writing on it, that said, ' Dolores loves me now. We are going to Mex- ico. Good-bye. ' That surely did clear up the mystery in a way, but — " Just then the dinner bell rang with the infuriated tones of the " Mrs. " twanging above it. ' ' Say ! you miners, this is the third time I ' ve rang — the stew ' s getting cold on the table — why don ' t you come in the dining room? " We answered the imperious call, and all filed in as meek as little children, but I couldn ' t help thinking through all the courses — from mountain mutton stew ' till the Valley stewed prunes — whether " Texas " and Dolores were living happily or not. Fames C. Martin, ' 18. Olaptatn ISobt 3. tm Far to tKe SoutK wKere tKe glaciers glide, And tKe crystal ice pack far and wide Covers tKe eartK and tKe sea below, A Kero sleeps in a sKroud of snow. TKe penguin ' s plaint was Kis funeral song, Grim DeatK stalked beKind, as Ke marcKed along ; But piercing tKe deptlis of a frozen Kell, He did Kis duty and did it well. On Ke trudged tKrougK tKe blizzard and Kail, Into tKe teetK of tKe Kowling gale. Cutting tKrougK rock and glacier rare, Singing a song in tKe frozen air. « » « « Great WKite Silence ! pearl beyond price, Tou Kold in your bosom of snow and ice ; Sing ! for Kis Keart was strong and bold, Sing ! for Kis story will never grow old. J. C. MURPHY, ' 18 183 CONSERVATION OF FORESTS UTHORITIES on the subject of conserva- tion claim that at the present rate of de- struction, the forests of this country cannot possibly last more than fifty years. Even this, they say, is a very conserva- tive estimate. In many places, where dense forests mightily stood seven or eight years ago, only charred stumps now remain as a sad indication that trees ever existed there. It is the opinion of the vast major- ity of onr people that they who advo- cate conservation are merely cranks, fanatics or faddists on this subject; but a little reflection clearly shows us that these men have the future of our country at heart. It is not these crit- ics, nor the generation of today who will suffer from the outgrowth of this destructive evil, but we, the younger generation will be the ones to bear the brunt. We shall meet this question face to face in a few years, and it is going to l)e a far more difficult prob- lem to solve than is the case now. So we should encourage those who take an interest in this matter, for, after all, its not their fight, but our own. Speaking of the large numbers who think so little of our forest champions, let us see their views on this question. In the first place many have no view at 184 all — they are totally ignorant of the gravity of the situation, else they would not talk as they do. If they were to be broached upon this ques- tion they would likely say: " Oh, yes, conservation — that means to save the forests, doesn ' t it? But from what are we to save them? There are just as many and as dense forests today as there ever were. " The reason they hold this opinion is because they do not take the time to enlighten themselves. There is absolutely no excuse for any person of ordinary intelligence to be ignorant of this problem. Good, au- thentic statistics may be had at our libraries and reading rooms. Besides, there are many good speakers on this question who can be heard from time to time. The two greatest destructive agents of the forests are : the lumber industry and fire. I am not going to criticize the lumber industry so much for the rate they are cutting down the forests, but for the way they waste timber after cutting. In one of our northern counties there are nearly fifty large saw-mills run- ning day and night, and the combined cutting capacity of these per day goes into the millions of feet. This doesn ' t seem much at first sight, but if we ponder long enough to bring ourselves to the realization that this is only one THE REDWOOD. 185 day ' s cut in one county, we realize the enormity of the question. True, the public is benefited by this out-put. But we complain that the lum- ber these greedy corporations waste might be easily saved ; thus, in the log- ging camps and in the mills conserva- tion could be put into practice. Let us see what this waste in the log- ging camp and mill amounts to : There has been some dispute over this, and for the fact that no way exists to compile definite statistics, I will use the loAvest I have found. The general opinion is that about one-fifth of the tree is wast- ed in logging and milling. In logging, the trees are cut and the limbs hewn off and left in the forest to rot. In this way a great deal of timber that could be sawed into lumber by a little extra labor and expense, is wasted. Not only are these limbs wasted, but they become the greatest cause of for- est fires. A careless woodsman with a lighted pipe and the rotten limbs of a tree cause the most of our forest fires. Hence, besides being a waste, these rot- ting limbs are a menace to the remain- ing forest. Another place in the manufacture of lumber, where waste creeps in, is the saw-mill. The corporation hasn ' t time to bother with a thin cut on the trunk of a big tree. They want board feet at the greatest possible speed and to that end they square up a big log in four trips of the carriage. All the rest falls ui)on an elevator and passing out, drops into a pit of fire, where it is soon consumed. No attempt is made to save these remnants, even for firewood, though there are many people who would be glad to get them. Many conservatists say that a more careful use of lumber would remedy this state of affairs. It would undoubt- edly help to do so, but that would not reach the corporations, and if this thing is to be stopped we must reach them. They know that they are the ones who are making conservation a necessity, and it is high time that we let them understand that we also know it. These corporations can surely be stopped in their wastefulness by legis- lation. We laymen, of course, cannot be expected to know the nature of a law that would meet this need, but our legislative body could frame one that would suit. The railroad question was solved by legislation, yet here is an evil which goes unchecked, far greater than was the railroad question. I have shown you why conservation of forests is a necessity, and have en- deavored to show you that if we are to save one of our greatest natural re- sources, we must do so by legislation against those who are making conser- vation a necessity. I appeal to you, the younger generation of today, to give your assistance in any possible way, if called upon to do so. Mean- while let us learn something of the magnitude of this pi " oblem, by posting ourselves upon it, for action is bound to follow education, and conservation will become a reality before an actual crisis is reached. —John H. Burke, ' 18. A DOG OF FLANDERS S far back as history records, the dog has been the companion and friend of man. Devotion to his mas- ter and willingness to endure for him are proverbial. ' ' Faithful as a dog, ' ' is well said ; for go where you Avill, from ice-clad Greenland to the wild plains of Argen- tina, the dog is man ' s friend and helper. In these times of polished barbarism man has not siich wide need of his can- ine servant in most of the ordinary oc- cupations in life ; but in Belgium, where the dog is still used as a beast of bur- den, his strength and sagacity have been put to good use in the army. By their work here the dogs have given new proof of their value to man, and the men of the Belgian army have nothing but praise for their canine comrades. The following is an example of how they merited that praise. Lulu was a dog in the Belgian army who recently helped drag a light ma- chine gun in the siege of AntAverp. His master, Francois, v as fii ' st sergeant in the company. There was a strong bond of understanding and affection between man and dog. Indeed Francois had raised Lulu from puppyhood and trained him in his duties, so that now, in his own Avay, he was helping to drive out the hated invaders, as every good Belgian, man or dog, should do. Lulu ' s company formed a part of the main Belgian army and had taken part iji most of the engagements up to the siege of Antwerp. They had been very fortunate in not being hurt, and Lulu, with his mate, had always succeeded in hauling the gun safely out of the ever- advancing German ' s path. When the Belgians retreated into Antwerp Francois ' company went with them and remained all through the siege, helping to hurl back the human wave that never seemed to recede. During the evacuation of the city everything was in confusion and the light machine gun companies were or- dered to the rear to check pursuit. Towards evening the rearguard be- gan to give way, finally fleeing in utter rout. True to their training, Lulu and his mate brought their piece safely into camp. After the dog companies had been collected Lulu noticed that a stranger cared for his team ; also that Francois was not to be seen. He wandered round the camp looking for his loved master. But in vain ! Nowhere was he to be found. At last, following the lead of his canine instinct, he began to rxm along the route traversed during the day. Sniffing the air as he went he finally 186 THE REDWOOD. 187 found Francois in a ditch by the road, cois towards camp. badly wounded and hardly able to move. Manifesting his joy by low whines and barks, Lulu induced his master, who was rather a small man, to put his arms around his neck and pro- ceeded to half drag, half carry Fran- After much hard work Lulu suc- ceeded in getting Francois to an out- post, where the Red Cross took charge of man and dog, both of whom were badly in need of well deserved care. — F. B. Quinn, ' 18. A iJSoitutain Suitrts TKe pale eastern sk}? is flusning WitK tke gold of tne coming dawn And tKe oaks tKat crest 37on mountain Are fast lightening into tawn. TKe meadow larks are singing As from busk to dusK tney go — In tKe trees no wind is sigKing And tKe morning mists Kang low WKile from tKe sKrouded valley Comes tKe wakening wKistle ' s olast, And from oeKind 3?on mountain Bounds tKe fier}? sun at last, N. G. B. ijdAs bdU PUBLISHED BY THH STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS ALUMNI UNIVERSITY NOTES ATHLETICS EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITORS EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' IS JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 HOWARD E. CRANE, IS P. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' 15 EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, $1.00 a year; single copies 15 cents EDITORIAL Freshman " Redwood " The greatest show of literary interest around the campus for some time was manifested by the Freshman Class of Letters when they requested the privilege of issuing the February number of " The Redwood " . Not since the first-year men in 1910 put out an edition of this magazine, has a similar feat been undertaken, and it is gratify- ing to see that all the organized spirit has not disappeared from our Student Body. To be sure, individual effort is not to be scorned, or even discouraged, rather is it to be fostered, for this has been our only dependable source of sup- ply since our first publication. Indeed, we would commit a grave injustice in disregarding such endeavor. However, a special appreciation is here merited, for, although the regu- lar staff has retained the departmental work, the one class has taken the issue in hand and is solely responsible for all the literary contributions. Instru- 188 THE REDWOOD. 189 mental in this iindevtaking, was Rev. Father George Golden Fox, S. J., Pro- fessor of English, to whom is due much credit for both originating and execut- ing the plan. He has taken up the work with earnest interest and zeal and to him is largely due the satisfying result. We must not overlook the officers of the class, nor even the individuals therein. Each and every one lent the best that was in him in order to insure a success. Such unity of action is worthy of the highest praise, and we trust that other classes of men interested in literary work will be encouraged and even spurred on to imitation. _. ,r» . With the greatest expo- Panama-Paci- . . ,, , ' _ ,,, sition the world has nc Exposition , i. . . ever known, about to open in San Francisco, there is a ques- tion of universal interest which de- mands an answer, namely, " Will the war in Europe interfere with the suc- cess of the World ' s Fair? " At first blush it would seem obvious that the European struggle Avould mar this event, and indeed many without fur- ther consideration have answered this query in the affirmative. But let us see if this conclusion is justified. The first sign of a decrease of inter- est of the Foreign Powers would natur- ally be the withdrawal of their prof- fered exhibitions. Now not one of the nations has done so, or even announced an intention of so doing. In fact all of the European countries, especially Bel- gium, France, Ireland, England and Spain have gone steadily ahead with their displays, and already a large por- tion of their exhibitions has been re- ceived and displayed in their respective buildings. This is shown in the procla- mation issued by President Charles C. Moore not long ago, in which he an- nounced that the Fair was already more than ninety-five per cent finished, and would be complete on the opening day. He added that of the forty na- tions participating, not one has with- drawn. On the contrary, appropria- tions have been increased by the Neth- erlands, China and Argentina. Even our sister states have developed their plans, and now, in many instances, count on more extensive displays. As regards attendance, to be sure we can not hope for the entire number of Europeans who originally intended to visit. But even in the event that all of them should be deterred by the war, the number expected to attend from Europe was so small in proportion that it comes close to the proverbial " drop in the bucket. " On the other hand our American pa- tronage will outnumber previous ex- pectations. Our travelers abroad have returned home perforce since the begin- ning of the European trouble, and will now be able to attend in person, where before they would have been with us only in spirit. Again, with the en- trance of the present prosperous era in our country, there is no reason why we should not draw a record-breaking crowd from all parts of the United States. 190 THE REDWOOD. Thus the war will have no detri- mental effect on the Fair; and rather may we look forward to it with assur- ance of the greatest success. Federal Reserve Act Without doubt one of the greatest economic measures ever under- taken by our Congress, was enacted when the House and Senate voted the " Federal Reserve Act " providing for twelve Regional banks throughout the nation. Although in effect but little over two months, this law has already proved its worth even to its opponents. The Federal Reserve system has been so often discussed and explained that even the general public is familiar with the subject, and probably at no time in the past century has there been such a general diffusion of correct knowledge of financial affairs. Out of the unsatisfactory old state bank, which was responsible for the prevailing chaos before the Civil War, grew the National Bank, which, although a great improvement, was un- suited and inadequate for the needs of the United States. Finally the perfec- tions of these two discarded systems have been delicately interwoven by the greatest brains of the country into the Federal Reserve Act. By this Act Congress established twelve Federal Reserve Banks in dif- ferent cities, and every National Bank is compelled to become affiliated with the Federal Bank in its district, and must subscribe for an amount of the Federal Reserve Bank ' s capital stock equal to six per cent of its own capital and surplus. These Federal establish- ments will not accept deposits from the public at all, but are banks for other banks only. In a sense the organiza- tion may be considered as a Union of Banks. Any state bank or Trust Com- pany may become a member of the Fed- eral Reserve Bank on the same terms as the National Banks, if not forbidden by its state ' s laws. The provisions of this Act demand that each Federal Reserve Bank have a capital stock of not less than $4,000,- 000, and if this amount is not sub- scribed by the banks, then the stock may be offered to the public at par, with a limitation of -$25,000 to any per- son or corporation. As a final resort, if the entire four millions are not sub- scribed, the government will itself take up the balance. These Federal Banks may pay divi- dends of six per cent and no more, the balance of its earnings going half to the government and half to the crea- tion of a surplus fund, until that equals 40 per cent of its capital, when all the profits in excess of 6 per cent go to the Government as a tax. While in a sense the Federal Reserve Banks belong to the banks in their dis- tricts, they are so completely under the control of the Government through the limitations of the law and Federal Reserve Board in Washington (a pure- ly Federal body) that these are prac- tically Government Banks, correspond- ing in many ways to the Bank of Eng- THE REDWOOD. 191 laud, the Bank of France, and many other European Government Banks. Besides the advantage of controlling to a large extent the idle surplus money of the country, the Federal Reserve Banks have been granted power to issue their own bank notes against the notes, drafts, and commercial paper of their member banks, which will circu- late the same as all bank notes (paper money), the law making these notes an obligation of the United States. There is no specific legal limit to the amount of such notes. This is its greatest feature, namely, its elasticity, for there must be no limit to the elas- tic currency when needed. Otherwise, in case of a possible shortage of money, it would merely lessen and not elim- inate the danger of a money panic. On the other hand, this note issuing power is restricted to cases of necessity, and provision is made for the retirement of the increased amount of currency when it is no longer needed. Other restrictions prevent issuance of notes against any notes, drafts, or bills of exchange, excepting those aris- ing from legitimate trade transactions, and such notes must not have more than ninety days to run, when re-dis- counted, unless given for agricultural purposes, when they may have a matur- ity of six months. Thus the new law creates an elastic currency, based on commercial paper, (the amount of which will fluctuate with the activity of business, but which is not limited in amount) ; and the gold reserve ordinarily required. This gold reserve can be dispensed with tempor- arally, under the pressure of necessity, but only in conjunction with a tax so heavy as to offer every inducement to a speedy return to reserve conditions. The whole is under the control of the Federal organization. Thus under this new institution, no matter what business or financial con- ditions may arise, a bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve Sys- tem, will always have an unfailing re- source for meeting any unusual with- drawal of deposits, or for making loans on those forms of commercial paper ac- ceptable for re-discount with the Fed- eral Reserve Bank. Such a perfect system is truly a marked step toward commercial eman- cipation. It was on the tip of our pen to dis- course to some extent on one of the evils of college journals ; namely, typo- graphical errors, which, as our brother scribes well know, are ever lamented, and still ever present. But when it recurred to us that in our own pet col- umn of last month ' s Redwood we foimd " judiciously " disguised as " in- judicious " and " grinds " masquerad- ing as " grins " , we slipped our ham- mer quietly back into its case. In spite of this lost opportunity, we have still another vein to pursue. This was brought to mind especially by a notice in the Exchange column of " The Magazine " , from the University of Texas. In this the editor expresses opinions in regard to exchange columns that are decidedly " con " . (Not in the popular sense, of course.) Instead of the customary exchange column, he proposes to run in its stead a few of the more meritorious selections from the contemporaries of each month. The idea in itself is an excellent one, but we regret exceedingly to see another magazine doing away with this estab- lished means of communication between editors. That the majority of such col- ximns contain criticism that are more destructive in nature than construct- ive we do not attempt to deny ; but is that same type of " destructive " re- view wholly without benefit? We think not. We note that some of the college books have relegated their exchange columns to the discard as being some- thing in the nature of an antiqije. Be- cause they are a time-honored feature is but one reason why they should be retained. In some of our contempora- ries we find that in place of an ex- change column they run a review of some of the late jilays. In our humble opinion it would be difficult in the ex- treme for a college man to improve on the reviews of the metropolitan critics, and it seems as though there ought to be a sufficient number of out- side publications to convey their work to the theatre-goers. But of course these progressive ed- itors are fully alive to what they are doing. It was only our intention to raise our small voice in defense of the old Exchange column. 192 THE REDWOOD. 193 " The Magazine Since we have already referred to the book from the University of Texas, we may as well continue, and give it a well-merited write-up. " The English Hills " is a bit of verse that is symmetrical and harmonious, and con- sequently attractive. The other verses, — " The Crimson Cup " and " The Trait- or " — are also good. There is a humor- ous sketch — it is difficult to place it exactly — called " A Fog in Austin " (and some more in the nature of a pun) which is very good or else not quite up to the average. We are not too strongly inclined toward the first classification. The editorials are espe- cially good. The first of these is of little interest to out-side readers, relat- ing as it does to some in ter-collegiate controversy; but the second, headed " The Psychology of Football " is good reading for any one. The cover design on the last number is especially attrac- tive. St. Peter ' s College Journal The first feature of this book that struck us as affording an op- portunity for possible improvement was the headings that are employed for the various departments. While as a generality, they are well drav n, they are a trifle too ornate to be appro- priate. We would recommend that the one at present employed for " College Notes " be shelved as quickly as possi- ble. With this exception, there is very lit- tle about the book that calls for any- thing save congratulations. " Jimmie Quigg ' s ' Beat ' " is a really readable story, and were it not for the fact that it appears among the contributions from the prep, departments, we would readily take it for the v. ork of some one much farther advanced. There are some good verses, and an essay called " Morality; Its Species and Its Norm " , that are most commendable. In " The Dial, " from " The Dial " St. Mary ' s, Kansas, we found the following : an attractive and appropriate cover ; artistic make-up, and plenty of the proper atmosphere to make it a real ' ' Christmassy ' ' number ; a breezy story entitled " A Christmas Tide Romance " which is really good, despite the fact that the hero buys his gloves in a de- partment store ; a number of others, in- cluding some sketches that surely de- serve the caption " prize " with which they are labelled; several Christmas poems that live up to the name ; and some well-written editorials that serve to enhance the substantial atmosphere with which the " Dial " is prevaded. Univ. of Ten. Magazine There is something about this little book from the University of Tennessee that gives it a " tone " that is seldom encountered among college peri- odicals. Perhaps it is the make-up, 194 THE REDWOOD. which is dignified without being se- vere ; perhaps it is the literary worth of its contents. More probably it is both. The fact remains, however, that this book takes its place, quite unos- tentatiously, and as though confident because conscious of its worth, among those of our exchanges that we have come to regard as the aristocracy. In regard to the stories, it is difficult to determine which of the three con- tained is the most meritorious. " Blue Pete " loses to some extent because of its brevity and not too startlingly original plot. The choice lies, then, be- tween " That Base Ball Boy " and " Nickerson; Failure " , and in our opinion it is only a matter of taste that makes the latter more preferable to us. The verse partakes to a great extent of a melancholy strain, but is none the less " good stuff " . On the whole, the Uni- versity of Tennessee Magazine elicits a great deal of admiration, and quite a bit of respect, and is, moreover, one of our most welcome exchanges. The last is an expression that is truly hack- neyed, but none the less it is a genuine sentiment. The Christmas spirit that all our ex- changes reflect seems to bring a wel- come after-glow of the season ' s friend- ly warmth. Many are to be compli- mented on their unique and appropri- ate covers. We gratefully acknowledge the following : Marquette University Journal ; The Holy Cross Purple, The Canisius Monthly, The Fordham Monthly, Wil- liams Literary Monthly, The Acame- dia. The Laurel, The Campion, The Creighton Chronicle, The University of North Carolina Magazine, The Xaveri- an. The Villa Marian, The Mercerian, The Fleur-de-Lis, The College Stu- dent, The Exponent, The Young Eagle, The Amherst Monthly, Gonzaga, The Viatorian, Georgetown College Jour- nal, The Boston College Stylus, The Springhillian, St. Thomas Purple and Grey, The William Mary Literary Mag- azine, The Loyola University Magazine, The Solanian, St. Anselm ' s College Monthly, The Mountaineer, Blue And White, The Ignatian, St. Joseph ' s Lilies, The Stanford Sequoia, The Tatt- ler, The Niagara Rainbow, The Nassau Lit. : and others. f Basket and Baseball The Basket and Base- ball teams have start- ed their respective seasons and are off with several scalps already hanging at their belts. The men of last year ' s team are back, and reinforced with new material fit to add conviction to the already awe-in- spiring arguments of the best teams that the University has put forth for some years. Coach Mulholland predicts a bright future for his baslLctball team, while Captain Sheehan foretells a road to victory, equally smooth, for his heavy- hitting followers of the National Pas- time. Football Banquet The ' Varsity football team of the University recently held their an- nual banquet at the Hotel Vendome. Every member of the team anticipated a good time, and was certainly present- ed with a spread that would have struck envy to the heart of the most exacting of epicin eans. Speeches, disproving the ancient pro- verb of the weak mind accompanying a strong back, were heard from the foot- ball satelites; after which, the mem- bers made the first advancement to- ward a record-breaking fifteen for next year, by electing Bennie Fitzpatrick captain of the team. We unite in our approval of their choice, and in wish- ing Bennie every success. Any one visiting the Improvements baseball field will note the distinction added by the new fence, and as he enters the field will be struck by the smooth- ness of the diamond, and will deem the outfielders very artistocratic that they must needs gambol on such a green. That officials have spared no ex- pense in the arrangement of the field, can be seen in the fact that the cottage standing to the right of the entrance was torn down and the space smoothed off to enlarge the grounds. Each and everyone of the students should show their appreciation of these changes by attending the games. Freshman At the last meeting of the Freshmen, a debat- ing team was decided iipon, and tryouts held. John Jacob Morris, well known in 195 196 THE REDWOOD. debating circles about Seattle, and far- famed for his knack of subduing the ferocious Ford, is the Manager, Cap- tain, and First Speaker of the affirma- tive, being humbly assisted by Clar- ence Canelo and Ed. Nicholson. Manager Morris has arranged an excellent schedule and sees, far in the West, beyond the glimmering Isunset, the Ladder of Fame, all of its rungs solid, and comfortably padded with alligator hide. With several days ' pro- visions, and mounted on his trusty Ford, reinforced with a gallon of gas- ence Canelo and Ed. Nicholson. Holidays The 1 Christmas holi- days are over and everyone is back at the grind and with their faculties as eager for the Mid Term Ex ' s as a run- ner at the tape. Each fellow has a different tale to weave of New Year ' s Eve, but every- one ushered in the young representa- tive of Old Father Time with a spirit that spoke not of the ills of 1914, what- ever they might have been, but of a willingness to take a flying chance at the prospects held forth by the Expo- sition Year. Born to the Third Literary Pligh: a much needed vent for latent wit, humor, and literary talents. The lov- ing parents have called their offspring " DOPE " . Its first appearance last month caused quite a disturbance amongst the Third Highers, some of whom were surprised to see it so fully developed. A spirit of joyful antici- pation is noticeable as regards its next appearance. " DOPE " is to be published twice every once in a while. The officers are : Loofbourrow, Editor ; Irwin, Assistant Editor; O ' Neil, Soci- ety Notes ; Dana, Sports ; Enright, Magazine Section ; Special Reporters are : War, Kavanagh ; San Jose, Roach ; Campus, Conneally. Let us hope for the best, prepare for the worst, and manfully bear whatever happens. ., . . The Mountain League Mountain „ i • . • , 01 prehistoric tame, and of whose legends (such as Hall ' s home run in the six- teenth inning, and Gaffey ' s base run- ning), mothers will no doubt tell their little sons in days to come, has cele- brated the opening of their second year. Large crowds are in attendance at each game, for which, sad to say, there is no admission charged. Last year, the Mountain League made a name for itself at several occu- pations, (amongst which was baseball), which will not soon be forgotten in the annals of history. Just why the three aggregations call themselves Mountain Leaguers, when the teams were originally named after ships, is not understood by the public. The only answer Captain Kavanagh will give is a wise shake of his head, and a whispered warning " That ' s in- side baseball " . THE REDWOOD. 197 House of Philhistorians The House of Philhis- toinans held their first meeting of the New Year, Tuesday evening, Jan. 14. The eritie of the evening, Thomas Hickey was absent, but with afore- thought as becomes every dutiful mem- ber of the House, had his remarks ready and in the hands of the clerk to be read, that is, metaphorically speak- ing. Jensen, as essayist, and Nicholson, as reader, filled their parts well. Jen- sen ' s essay on " Bone " , was agreed to be one of the most humorous pieces of literature ever read in the House. The debate of the evening, " Re- solved: That Government Ownership of Public Utilities is Beneficial to the Public " , was excellently prepared; Ken Johnson, and Thomas Mulvaney upholding the affirmative, with Joey Oliver, and Edward McLaughlin op- posing. The discussion was won over the affirmative by a narrow margin. The Ways and Means Committee reported the medley of the House well under way, then adjourned. Trips for Engineers The engineering stu- dents are looking for- ward, with anticipa- tions of much pleasure, to the trips that they will make to the Exposition. Each trip will be made to study a defi- nite exhibit and regular credit will be given for the work. The exhibits to be studied on a certain day will be described beforehand in order to ob- tain the maximum benefit. The very latest developments in engineering will be shown at the Expo- sition. The exhibits have been selected and ai ' ranged especially for their edu- cational value ; complicated machines will be shown in cross-section ; one of the new Diesel engines Avill be in oper- ation ; a complete cement mill will man- ufacture cement ; the U. S. government has installed an ideal mine under one of the buildings and countless other details of interest to engineers will be shown. Literary Professor Sullivan has an article on Calculat- ing the Slippage of Reciprocating Pumps in the December 29th issue of " Power " . Rings for Seniors Tlie Seniors have re- ceived their rings and are certainly to be complimented on their choice. The stately guardians of the Nation ' s laws may be seen, free of charge, strutting around the Campus with their fingers extended to the public eye. The rings bear the time-honored S. C. supported in all humbleness on each side by the Senior numeral ' 15. The last sad rites over the 75 remains of James A. Kearny ' 75, were performed by Rev. Jerome Ricard, S. J., at Hollister, on January 13th. Mr. Kearny had been in poor health for some time, but the end was hastened by a severe cold recently contracted Avhich his ema- ciated constitution could not with- stand. Our departed Alumnus was one of those rare gems of upright manhood, who are always sources of pride to the communities in which they are sit- uated. His life was a useful one. Its dominant trait was fidelity to duty and to friends. Mr. Kearny served the County of San Benito in the capacity of sheriff as well as in several other public trusts. A number of our Alumni were pres- ent at the funeral, among them his cousin, Hon. M. T. Dooling, Ph. D. ' 03. The masterful address by Fr. Ricard was expressive of our feelings of sor- row. ' 03 Ex. ' 89 Two Santa Clara men were accoi ' ded the honor of bear- ing to their last resting place the remains of our late and be- loved Archbishop. The Young Men ' s Institute of the Archdiocese was repre- sented at the funeral of Archbishop Riordan by James A. Bacigalupi, ' 03, who is considered by good authority to be the most successful lawyer in San Francisco of his years of practice. The Catholic Union was represented by Samuel M. Haskins, Ex. ' 89, Avho, at Santa Clara is reputed to have carried away the largest number of medals ever won during a single school year. Mr. Haskins now holds a very high position with the Government Custom Service. Than these two gentlemen few are more fit to typify the respective Cath- olic organizations for which they stood. We are proud that the distinction was conferred on them. 198 THE REDWOOD. 199 Ex. ' 04 Ex. ' lO Two former students of Santa Clara, John G. Hub- bard, Ex. ' 04, and Bei nard Hubbard, S. J., Ex. 10 — have lately- been bereft of their father. The loss they have sustained though not untimely, for Mr. Hubbard was a man well along in years, has come as a great sorrow to them. The deceased was a convert to Catholicism, being formei ' ly an Anglican Minister. He was a man of deep sincerity in reli- gion, and of extensive leai ' ning. Bernard Hubbard, S. J., who arrived at the home in San Francisco, shortly before his father ' s death, is now teach- ing at Los Angeles College. On his way back to Los Angeles to resume his duties he remained here a few days. Nicholas C. Whealon, Com. ' 06 ' 06, started the New Year by getting married. Ja nu- ary 1st witnessed a very pretty wed- ding in San Francisco, at the home of the bride, who was a Miss Adams. The couple will reside in San Jose, where " Nick " is engaged in the grain and feed business. It will be remembered that the head of this new family was a varsity foot- ball man in the days when the old game was in vogue here. Among those who dropped around to see the produc- tion of " Sowing Wild Oats " given by the Senior Dramatic ' 06 ' 08 Club before Christmas, were Clephan Fortune, Ex. ' 06, and Marcel Lohse, Ex. ' 08. They motored down from Oakland in Fortune ' s car. Later they asserted that the trip was well repaid by the admirable exhibition given by Fr. Fox ' s theatrical talent. After the play they were the guests at Senior Hall, of their old school-mate, Mr. William Gianera, S. J. Needless t o say yarns were the order of the evening. Marcel Lohse is now with the Pacific Electric Company in Oakland, and For- tune is still in the southern oil fields. He spent the holidays in Oakland. ■ ' 08 The most touching incident we have to chronicle is that cruel stroke of Fate which left Devereaux Peters, ' 08, a widoAver. The sadness of death is dependent upon the attendant circumstances, and here we surely have such a conjunction of them as to make it sorrowful in the ex- treme. In the pretty little town of Chico, a bright young lawyer of unimpeachable integrity, and a most likeable disposi- tion, was striving to build up a legal practice, and was fast succeeding. With his young wife and infant daugh- ter he was happy. Death, like a thief in the night, bereaved him of his love and left the pride of his heart an or- phan. Truly this is sad. To Devereaux Peters on the occasion of the demise of his wife we extend our heartfelt sympathy. 200 THE REDWOOD. J. Morrill McDonnell, Ex. ' 11 ' 11, who, during his college days was connected in dif- ferent capacities with the publication of the " Redwood " , has recently been married. The lady of his choice is from his home city, Portland, Oregon. Morrill, it seems, did not take pat- tern after the vocation of his brother Ed, another Ex. ' 11 man, — who has for the past two years been wearing the white robe of the Dominican order. To Mr. and Mrs. McDonnell we ex- tend our wish for a long duration of bliss and hapiiiness. Without claiming clairvoy- ' 11 ant powers, or the least familiarity with any such intricate cause and effect theory as that of Fr. Rieard ' s on Sun Spots, but merely basing our prognostication on the old adage " As a thing begins so shall it end " , we prophesy that the Ex- position Year will be most prolific in its production of newly-weds among Santa Clara ' s Alumni. Already they are many in the 1915 Matrimonial Class. On January 12th, Irvin Kant- leliner, Ex. ' 11, had his name added to that list. On that date he was married in San Jose, the home of his bride, to Miss Maybelle Shields. Irvin says, however, that the contract newly entered into will not interfere Avith his l)aseball contract. In Spring he Avill return to the Smoky City to pitch for the " Pittsburg Pirates. " From Bakersfield we hear ' 12 that Harry Hogan, Ex. ' 12, is another victim of that omnipresent marksman, Cupid. He has latelj taken to himself one of the fair maidens of the Valley town. If ever a joy of wedded bliss escapes him, or rather them, it is certainly not of our wishing. All happiness to you, Harry. ' 13 One of the very many of the matrimonial surprises which the month of December had in store for us was the union " until death doth them i art " of John Bar- nard, ' 13, and Miss Louise McClellan, both of Los Angeles. John, — we nearly called our old friend by his nickname, and that might have disastrously given the false impression that he was of Mongolian extraction, — but as we were going to say, John surprised not only us away up here, who can hardly keep in touch with the ' ' City of the Jitney Buss ' ' , but also some of his most intimate friends. Congratulations, John. Attorney Frank Boone, L. ' 14 B. ' 14, one of the young practitioners of Modesto, paid us a short visit a few days since. Frank was in San Jose for a day or so attending to legal and other affairs, as to the precise nature of which we are not well informed. Nevertheless the proclivity towards THE REDWOOD. 201 matrimony on the part of our Alumni generally has made us very apprehen- sive of even Frank ' s behavior, — may- hap unduly so. Lloyd Snook, Ex. 17, of Ex. ' 17 Sacramento, who in baseball was the mainstay of our pitching staff two years ago, is also a married man now. Many of his friends were appraised of the fact on being in- vited to a house warming party and there receiving an introduction to Mrs. Lloyd Snook, who formerly was Miss Elsie Freyer. Lloyd, though a lad of 135 pounds, was an artful twirler. He generally managed to puzzle even the most exper- ienced batters. While at Sacramento High he attained fame by defeating the Oroville High School team, with the now world-renowned Bill James of the Boston Browns on the mound. Even at that time, 1911, it was no easy task to outpitch James. In college ball Lloyd ' s success continued. Such teams as Stanford and California Varsities fell his victims. To the Snooks we wish every happi- ness and success. BASEBALL SCHEDULE 1915. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Stan- ford, Wednesday, Jan. 20. Santa Clara vs. Richmond Athletic Club at Santa Clara, Sunday, Jan. 24. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Santa Clara, Saturday, Jan. 30. Santa Clara vs. Ambrose at Santa Clara, Jan. 31. Santa Clara vs. Olympic at San Fran- cisco, Saturday, Feb. 6. Santa Clara vs. United Railroads at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 7. Santa Clara vs. Lowenberg ' s Wie- lands at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 14. Santa Clara vs. Dreier and Nevis at Santa Clara, Saturday, Feb. 20. Santa Clara vs. Olympic Club at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 21. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Stan- ford, Wednesday, Feb. 24. Santa Clara vs. Ambrose at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 28. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Stan- ford, Wednesday, March 3. Santa Clara vs. California at Berke- ley, Saturday, March 6. Santa Clara vs. Ireland Independents at Santa Clara, Sunday, March 7. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Santa Clara, Tuesday, March 9. Santa Clara vs. Califoi ' nia at Berke- ley, Wednesday, March 10. Santa Clara vs. Olympics at San Francisco, Saturday, March 13. Santa Clara vs. Wielands at Santa Clara, Sunday, March 14. Santa Clara vs. California at Berke- ley, Wednesday, March 17. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Stan- ford, Wednesday, March 24. Santa Clara vs. St. Ignatius at Santa 202 THE REDWOOD. 203 Clara, Sunday, March 28. Santa Clara vs. Stanford at Stan- ford, " Wednesday, March 31. Santa Clara vs. California at Santa Clara, Saturday, April 3. Santa Clara vs. Clarions at Santa Clara, Sunday, April 4. Santa Clara vs. St. Ignatius at San Francisco, Saturday, April 10. Santa Clara vs. United Railroads at Santa Clara, Sunday, April 11. Games are also arranged with the va- rious Coast League Clubs, including Portland and Venice, and the series that is causing particular interest is the games with the stalwart Police Force of San Francisco. BASE BALL NOTES. Owing to the inclement weather and the recent return from our holiday vacation, the various branches of ath- lectics have made little or no progress. Continuing his third successive year as base-ball coach, Harry Wolters is quickly rounding the team into condi- tion for their heavy schedule of games. Besides possessing the gameness and re- sourcefulness which are among his most conspicuous characteristics, Har- ry uses excellent judgment in placing the right man in the right position at the most opportune time. Under his able direction, the team and Student Body will faithfully co-operate to lend every available effort for a victorious season. Practice commenced in earnest on January fifteenth and responding to Captain Sheehan ' s call thirty likely performers could be seen, enjoying their initial practice by slowly work- ing the stiffness out of their well- gripped muscles. Leslie Sheehan, who has been chosen to lead this formidable team, and en- deavor to uphold the time-honored tra- dition of our Alma Mater on the dia- mond, is one of her redoubtable and tremendously long sluggers, and his efficiency in handling the ball makes him a likely performer on the initial sack. Sheehan is rather reticent in his remarks about himself, doubtless pre- ferring to let his deeds speak for him. Incidentally these deeds do actually relieve him of the responsibility as their stox-y is by no means meagre or uncertain ! At second base the Avork of Mulhol- land is proving most satisfactory and his keen eye makes him a profitable batter. At short, the work of McGinnis is of excellent quality. For all-around play- ing he is one of the most finished, easy and graceful fielders in the club and his batting comes up to the .300 margin. At third base Bennie Fitzpatrick is looming up in his new surroundings and his proficiency and agility unques- tionably make him the best base run- ner of the league and his stick work adds much to his ability to score. First choice for the outfielders is by no means an easy task to select, but at the present writing Schultz is most en- titled to mention. He fields brilliantly, covers a great deal of ground and dem- onstrates that he is a sure hitter. 204 THE REDWOOD. Next in merit are Emerson, Coyle, Martin, Trabucco, Desmond, Herlihy, Canelo, Bothwell and Pradere. The pitching problem on the ' Varsity is one of unusual difficulty. Stewart ' s performance during the last season was startling, and his size, coupled with speed and curves makes him a reliable twirler. Reppey is a pitcher without weak- ness, possessing a large amount of nat- ural ability. He has splendid control and excellent judgment. Hickey has particularly distin- guished himself Avith the St. Ignatius club. With an erratic club behind him he has proved a consistent winner, one of the hardest and uniformly best pitchers of the season. His present work has been consistently good and his natural gifts should make him one of the Varsity ' s dependable pitchers. Leonard with all his craft and me- chanical ability makes him nearly an equal to these three. Last year he made his debut on the Varsity and dis- played a uniformly high standard of pitching skill and presented a com- manding figure. Among his victims were the " Chicago White Sox " , Ire- land ' s Independents and Stanford. Voight, likewise, made a commenda- ble record for the second Varsity, and with more experience will prove a con- sistent winner. Of the Varsity ' s catchers, Ex-Cap- tain Ramage is undoubtedly supreme. In addition to his fine all-around catch- iDg his deadly throwing arm, hitting and aggressiveness on the field add much to his accustomed merit. BASKET BALL NOTES. Under the able leadership of Captain Voight the basket ball team has been diligently practising every evening, and prospects for a banner year are in evidence. Eddie Mulholland, as coach, is quickly instructing the quintet the hidden secrets of the game, and from the combination and unity displayed recently we can hope for victories. In the games already played this sea- son the record established is well de- sei-ving of credit, and a new era of " life and pejj " is being entered upon by the students in behalf of the team. On the evening of Monday, January 19th, the Varsity won a well-earned victory from the " Young Men ' s Chris- tian Association " , at the " Armory Hall " in San Jose by a score of 29 to 22. Immediately after Referee Leland blew the whistle, fouls were tallied very numerously, and a great part of the game was consumed in throwing free goals. In this aspect, Schultz ex- hibited accuracy time and again, in all throwing fourteen free goals. On the contrary, the opponents were given more opportunities than the Mission- ites to throw free goals, but failed. Having taken the lead, the Associa- tion players maintained it to the end of the first half, when the score stood 18 to 15 in their favor. THE REDWOOD. 205 The second half witnessed dazzling dodges and clever passing by Ciirtin, Korte, Sholtz, Mulholland and Voight, and on repeated occasions their oppon- ents were helpless in defending their goal. It was the consistent passing of Mulholland and Voight that enabled Schultz to throw field goals continu- ously. The importance of a victory here was fully realized, as the victor is entitled to meet the winner of the Watsonville- Santa Cruz game, early next month. It is of interest to note that the final con- tests will be played in San Francisco. The teams lined up as follows : Santa Clara : Diaz, Mulholland and Schultz, forwards; Voight, center; Korte and Curtin, guards. Y. M. C. A. : Ham and Beckstrom, forwards ; Meese, center ; Wells and Wideman, guards. Among the remainder of defeats the Varsity inflicted upon her rivals were : Santa Clara University, 39 ; Y. M. C. A. of S. J., 28. Santa Clara University, 57 ; S. J. H. S. 10. Santa Clara University, 39 ; Co. B, N. G. of San Jose, 19. Santa Clara University, 60; Fort Baker of S. F., 14. THE REDWOOD. Vargas Bros. Co. GENT ' S FURNISHINGS MADE-TO-ORDER AND READY-MADE SUITS, MEN ' S AND BOYS ' SHOES, GENERAL MERCHANDISE, HARDWARE, PAINTS Give US your next suit order. Lafayette and Franklin Streets Phone S. C. 120 We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c . M =. 3b« ' - 0 " " yat MADDEN ' S PHARMACY Franl Iin St. Santa Clara And everything else for COUGHS and COLDS ersity Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60 ; Santa Clara 99 J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose V. Salberg E. Gaddi HEMBERT ' A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. : h THE REDWOOD. : It takes lots of it to fill an opening like this, but " WALK-OVER " Shees are filled with oodles of it. as well as styles that are correct in every de- tail. COLLEGE MEN are Good Judges of Style. WE ARE receiving a nice business from the men of this University. Get in the Lime-Light Wear Walk-Overs WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP 41-43 South First Street : : : San Jose, Calif. nUl TSnthntut San Jose, California U THE REDWOOD. u - " ■ " Phone, San Jose 824 Del Rey Billiard Parlor A Place for Gentlemen J. W. POOLE, Prop. 39 N. First Street San Jose, Cal. University Barbers Main Street. Santa Clara Phones : Office S. C. 151J Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p m. Franck Building Santa Clara F. 0. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara GEO. UN CO. Chop Suey and Noodles Site of old Postoffice Main Street Santa Clara Santa Clara Valley Creamery Butter, Eggs, Cheese Milk and Cream S. C. 57 R 1050 Franklin Street EVERYBODY IS WELCOME to the SantaClara Coffee Club Come and enjoy its privileges. It ' s a public place, and a place for the public. They all enjoy a visit to the Club. M. R. GLEASON, A anager. Imperial Dry Cleaning and Dye Works A. Arsalanian, Proprietor An Up-to-date Cleaning and Dye Works Ladies ' and Gents ' Work by Latest French Improved Process. All Work Guaranteed All kinds of Silks Cleaned. Ladies ' Garments French Dry Cleaned. Repairing Tailoring and Dressmaking Phone S. C. 1.U J 1021 Franklin Street Santa Clara, Calif. THE REDWOOD. ►! : Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists 50c; by mall 65c Establighed 20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara California smess men REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE MARK CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS Ice Cream AND Candies Colonica ' s m Telephone S. C. 35 R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Wholesale AND Retail : THE REDWOOD. ►« ■ " ■■ ■ Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-lJl N. Market Street San Jose Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clar a (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS! Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C.70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Mestaurant, Grill and Oyster House ■VfA 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First an J Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " E. Urbani TAILOR CLEANING AND REPAIRING A SPECIALTY Main Street Santa Clara Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps THE REDWOOD. iC MANUEL MELLO Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE i. ,eF 0. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Booi s, Etc. Cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice SANTA CLARA Globe Barber Shop Franklin St. Santa Clara Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2% Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara We believe the College Man who smokes Fatima ought to be able to write a good Fatima ad. He knows from experience that Fatima is of satisfying excellence — that for its superlative quality it is moder- ately priced. He of all Fatima smokers, should be able to write of Fatima con- vincingly. So we are going to pay $500 to the student who prepares and sends to us the best original advertisement for Fatima Cigarettes before June 1, 1915. of any college may compete lor this $500 ILLUSTRATE your ad. ifyoa can but if you can ' l draw, then use your kodak or describe your idea. There are no restrictions, whatever, no strings of any kind, on this offer, other than this — every contestant must be a regularly enrolled Etudent in an American College. We want a student — not a profes- sional ad writer — to benefit from this offer. Three prominent professional advertising men, whose names will be announced later, will act as judges. $5 for every ad published $500 for tlie best one submitted The $500 will be awarded June 1. 1915. In the meantime, some of the ads sub- mitted will be published each month in college publications, together with the name and photograph of the writer — provided the writer will give permis- sion for such publication, For each ad so published we will pay the writer $5. But, the publication of any ad must not be taken to signify that it stands any better chance to win the I than the ads that are not published. Those who try to earn this $500 should remember that the supreme test of any advertisement is its selling power. Whether your ad consists of only ten words — or runs toa thousand — it should be interesting, truthful, convincing — it should give to the reader the buying impulse. To write such advertise ments, that will pass the test of performance, the writer must believe in the product he is writing about. Some facts that may help you Made of Pure Tobacoo. Fatimacigarettes were first made famous by college men. The Turkish Tobacco used in Fatima Cigarettes is sel- ected by expert native buy- ers stationed at Xanthi, Samsoun, Cavalla and Smyrna. Fatima is five to one the biggest selling fifteen-cent cigarette in the country. Simple, inexpensive pack- age, but no finer tobacco is used than in Fatima. Fatima Cigarettes are " Distinctively Individual " They are 20 for 15c t s ! jf cH 3i;c0 Ct, 212 Fifth Ave., New York PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION PALACE OF HORTICULTURE SECTION OF NORTHERN ENTRANCE TRANSPORTATION PALACE i PALACE OF LIBERAL ARTS WEST FACADE. PALACE OF EDUCATION THE REDWOOD. Remember ! ,4. mat ever37tKing in tKe Sporting Goods line is sold b}? us. TKis is tKe time to get a new bat or glove, and maybe a pair of sKoes for baseball season. Our stock includes only tbe best, Kaving been selected from tke largest manufacturer ' s samples. To inspect our line will be to 3)our advantage. See us before you de- cide. Our store Kas been renovated, and we are established for tke new year in more commodious quarters, where every cour- tesy will be sKown our many friends. We will be pleased to Kave any one call on us during tKe new term and look over our stock, wKicK is one of tKe most com- plete ever sKown The Co-Operative Store University of Santa Clara J THE REDWOOD. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards TPif nhonP !- i Kearny 5811 FRED W. SALTER, Proprietor lelepnones. - 5 3718 THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. P. Montmayeur E. Lamolle J. Origlia Lamolle Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD. : YOllNIl MAN ' S SUIT from a young mans store IUUI1II mnil U Uyil m enable you to get every feature in a suit that young men want. Our Spring Suits in young men ' s models were selected with but one thought, " to give you young men snap and pleasure combined. " Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes spring 0, Santa Clara and Market Streets MET HOFF KAYSER vet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. SUIT CASES PURSES Cor -rs ' 83-91 South First St, San Jose. Cal. LEATHER NOVELTIES SEE THAT McCabe EXCLUSIVE HATTER IS IN YOUR HAT ' HOME OF STETSON HATS " SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON r THE REDWOOD. Z Low Round Trip Rates to ACCOUNT OF Truckee Winter Carnival Tobogganing — Skating Sleighing— Skiing Tickets Sold February 5, 6, 12, 13, 19, 20, 26, 27 Return Limit the following Tuesday L. R. Dains, E. Shillingsburg, Agent Santa Clara Dist. Pass. Agent, San Jose Southern Pacific THE REDWOOD. T " fT; Write to your Friends in the East and tell them that California ' s Q.y Expositions At San Francisco and San Diego will open on schedule time THERE WILL BE NO POSTPONEMENT Ask each of them to mail a Postal to Some One Else, and the Mail Man will spread the news OPENING DATES AND DURATION OF EXPOSITION: Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco February 20 to December 4, 1915 Panama-California Exposition at San Diego January 1 to December 31, 1915 Here are some convincing facts concerning the great Exposition at San Francisco : Not one of the 52 exhibiting foreign nations has withdrawn, while three of them have increased their participation. Seven nation ' s involved in war and five neutral European nations will have tlieir own buildings. Exhibits from eleven foreign countries have already arrived. Forty-three of our States and one city are making individual exhibits. Finally, these exhibitors are spending more money than previously expended in any two other Expositions. Southern Pacific The Exposition Line — 1915 — First in Safety Tnc RCDWOOD March, 1915 THE REDWOOD i Z l!? " of bantauara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and presupposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD. New Styles in Young Men ' s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. zz: f THE REDWOOD FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Worl men ' s Compensation in the Best Companies San Francisco Office Oakland Office 177 STEVENSON STREET 486 TENTH STREET Phone, Kearny 3530 Phone, Oakland 7898 Pacific Manufacturing Co. Manufacturers of and Dealers in Doors, Windows and Mouldings General Millwork FACTORY AND MAIN OFFICE : SANTA CLARA, CAL Phone Santa Clara 40 SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA :•! THE REDWOOD : I-i- la four] PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company PHOTO ENGRAVING ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ! Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA : THE REDWOOD : : Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under tlie direction of tiie Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD : Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara ,._, _, . T T 7 Low Round Trip Rates for Ihe hleCtriC Way week-ends and Holidays THROUGH THE oacramento swift-safe-service Valley Oakland, Antioch and Eastern Railway Between San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Calusa, Oroville, Chico, Marysville, Woodland and Valley points Observation Cars Automatic Blocl Signals TICKET OFFICES : Convenient Train Sctiedules San Francisco, Oaliland, Prompt and Reliable Key Route Ferry Fortieth and Shatter Ave. Freight Service Phone Sutter 2339 Phone Piedmont 870 THE REDWOOD WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 74-76 N. Market St. San Jose, CaL Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton ►i : THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS reitwieser oai QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA American Fish Market Residence Phots ' j. ' zaT " ? Wholesale and Retail Dealers In FISH, POULTRY aod GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. 4„ infuriaud Step-Ladder " Defendini Its Young . ,r. the above picture; HEKE is no sense to . | . d et both are fully J p„, instance . Some Sngs people do every laV- „p ,„ a ° ' =:!:ra d ay-«rF ryC ' rry a f ZTM J 20 or i5c. This ad. published in the $500 Fatima Ad- vertising Contest, is the work of MCr. J. P. Watson, Cornell, University. $500 will be paid to the college student who sends to us the best original advertisement for Fatima Cigarettes before June 1, 1915. In the meantime for each ad. we publish we will pay the writer $5. Illustrate your ad. if you can, but if you can ' t drew, then use your kodak or describe ycvur idea. Prize will be Gwavded by a committee of three prominent advertis- ina men L. B. Jones, Adv.Mgr Eastman Kodak Co , F. R. Davis Adv. Dept General Electric Co , and J. George Frederick, Editor of Advertising and Selling ' 212 Fifth Ave., New York City THE TURSaSH BLEND CIGARETTE CONTENTS HEROES _ - _ PATRIOTISM La PALOMA THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY THOUGHTS THE GOOD THIEF REPENTANCE THE CONVERSION THE SEA DOC, EDITORIAL - . - EXCHANGES UNIVERSITY NOTES ALUMNI _ - - ATHLETICS J. Chas. Murphy 207 Percy O ' Conner 208 F. Buckley McGurrin 210 Louis Giaraud 216 James Enright 222 E. Ward Roller 223 E. L. Nicholson 227 Oscar Oliver 228 J. Chas. Murphy 2.U 235 237 241 244 248 « 1 Shz i j- -jj?, J. R. AURRECOECHEA. MANAGER L. T. MILBURN. athletics W. T. SHIPSEY. ALUMNI A. B. CANELO. JR.. editor F. B. McGURRIN. EXCHANGES J. F. CURTIN, ASST, MANAGER E. L. NICHOLSON. UNiv. notes H. E. crane, city editor pdta Entered Dec. 18. 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., MARCH, 1915 No. 5 THE HEROES Ha rk ! O ' er the roar of tKe surge and tKe breakers, Tne footsteps of tnousanas ! Dim pKantom shapes in tne mist, marching on, Tou can see them at twilight, Spirits of heroes who gave up their lives In the fierce heat of conflict ; Marching on, marching on to their home. Ana behola ! An angel is leading. But, alas ! marching on there are spirits as olack As the lowering night clouds. Weighted down with their sins, in despair trusting still, In their Heavenly Father, Down swing the mountainous portals, and heaven Bursts forth in sweet music ; But those heavy souls that are olackened by sin, Are fearing and trembling. See ! the good angel leads in with delight, Those souls that are guiltless. Then from His throne on a cloud He speaks. And His voice is like thunder, " Enter, ye souls that are darkened by crime, Tour sins are forgiven ; Enter the land of eternal delight, Te died for your country! " J. CHARLES MURPHY. PATRIOTISM VERY action prompted another fate that awaits them ex- by the human intellect has its purpose. And to this purpose there is likewise an incent- ive. I speak now of the most sublime motive which stirs the soul of man, the realization of his filial obligation to his country. Such an obligation, when properly fulfilled, may be termed patriotism. Patriotism in the words of Johnson " is the last refuge of a scoundrel " . But let it be well understood that he did not mean a sincere and genuine love of country, but rather that pre- tended patriotism which so many men in all ages and countries have made a cloak for the covering of self interest. There are many people in our own country today — who on a certain patri- otic event array themselves with gor- geous colors of red, white and blue, — pretended patriots who shout and cheer when the flag is raised, but who at election time are not to be found at the polls, who consider it too much trouble to cast their ballot, who care not whether their next President or Con- gressman is a good man or not, who, in short, do not care for the welfare of their country. Is this patriotism? In- deed it is not. Men of this type can- not be punished by law, but there is pressed so clearly by Scott : Breathes there a man with soul so dead Who never to himself hath said, This is my own, my native land. Whose heart has ne ' er with him burned. As home his footsteps he hath turned. From wandering on a foreign strand? If such there breathes, go, mark him well ! For him no minstrel rapture swell. High though his title, proud his name, Boundless his wealth as wish can claim, Despite those titles, power and pelf. The wretch, concentered all in self, Living shall forfeit fair renown, And doubly dying shall go down To the vile dust from whence he sprung. Unwept, unhonored and unsung. These few lines are a story in them- selves. No man, no matter what may be his position in life, or what the ex- tent of his wealth, if he does not love his country from the bottom of his heart, is no patriot. History has many characters of this kind. 208 THE REDWOOD 209 Perhaps no better example can be given than the great Napoleon. True, he rose to be the Emperor of the French, but he loved himself better than his country, and he shared the fate of others of his kind and died an exile at St. Helena. Wherever there is liberty there is patriotism. Wherever there is patriot- ism, there is liberty. And so it may be generalized that the patriotism of a nation may be measured in proportion to its liberty, and its liberty to its ac- complishments. A glimpse into His- tory will instruct us in these condi- tions. Let us turn to Greece — the Hellas of old. As we survey the magnificent temples, the architectural masterpieces, the gigantic colonnades, the vronderful statues representing her immortal he- roes, we cannot resist the sublimity of our thought in reflecting on mortal man ' s accomplishments. Such are the results of the fruition of liberty prompted by patriotism. Though it is an undeniable fact that Greece was under the sway of Imper- ialism, nevertheless she accomplished great things. But what, what would she have attained had she an utterly free government ? It is beyond imagin- ation. Let us now go to Rome — militant Rome, upon her seven hills — the Rome of the purple-robed Caesar. Here we find ourselves on the Capitoline, view- ing the majesty and grandeur of the eternal city, — the city that witnessed three hundred victorious armies learn- ing her name. During the opening period of the second empire dissipation and vice are rife. The only interest of her people is centered upon the circus and the games. Rome ' s patriotism is rapidly wan- ing. The Caesars are gradually absorb- ing the powers and rights of the peo- ple. Finally the barbarians from be- yond the Rhine sweep down upon her, and Rome is no more. Here people were in the beginning patriotic, during which time her armies triumphed no less than three hundred times. But when the power was ab- sorbed by the greedy Caesars and pa- tricians, then was patriotism absorbed. The inevitable had come. What little patriotism remained wavered, then came the crash, Almighty Rome fell. But we need not turn to classic story to find all that is great in human ac- tion ; we find it in our own times and in the history of our own country. Which of us, even in the nursery, has not felt his patriotic impulse stir with- in him, when with childlike wonder he has listened to the story of George Washington? And, although the words of the narrative were scarcely intelligi- ble, yet the young soul kindled at the thought of one man ' s working out the deliverance of a nation. And as our understanding was de- veloped by age, and we were able to grasp the detail of this event, we saw that our childish conceptions had not fallen short of its grandeur. 210 THE REDWOOD — if an American citizen ever ex- sults in the contemplation of all that is patriotic, it is when bringing to mind the men who first conceived the idea of this nation ' s independence. He sees them as one of her citizens, he sees them in their collected might set this nation free and through the long years of trial that have followed never swerving from their purpose, but freely redeem- ing the pledge which they had given, to consecrate to it, " their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor. " It will not be doubted that in such actions as these, there is much that may be rightly termed, True Patriotism. If then we should tentatively consider them, we might perhaps ascertain what must be the nature of that enterprise, which lays claim to this high name. The meed of patriotism has been awarded enterprises of which the ob- ject was vast, the accomplishment ardu- ous, and the means to be employed, simple, but efficient. Were not the object vast, it could not arrest our at- tention. Were not its accomplishment arduous, none of the nobler energies of man tasked in its execution, we should see nothing to admire. Were not its means to that accomplishment simple, our whole conception being vague, the impression would be feeble. But were not these efficient, the most intense exertion could only terminate in failure and disgrace. And here we may remark that wher- ever these elements have combined in any undertaking, public sentiment gen- erally has united in pronouncing it pa- triotism, and history has recorded its achievements among the noblest proofs of the dignity of man. Malice, for a while, may have frowned and the patriotically great may have been ridiculed. But all this has soon passed away. Human nature is not to be changed by the opposition of interest or the laugh of folly. There is still enough grandeur in man to re- spect what is patriotic and venerate what is benevolent. The cause of man has at last gained the approval of man. It has advanced steadily onward and left ridicule to wonder at the impotence of its shaft and malice to weep over the inefficacy of its hate. And we thank God that it is so. It is cheering to observe that amidst so much that is debasing there is still something ennobling in the character of man. It is delightful to know that there are times when his morally be- dimmed eye beams keen with honor, that there is yet a redeeming spirit within which exults in the enterprise of great pith and moment. We love our race the better for every such fact we discover concerning it and bow with more reverence to the dignity of human nature. What country could have come through the maelstrom of contentions for existence unscathed, without the development of patriotism. Mighty Rome, — once the mistress of the whole world fell because of the pre- valence of vices and disloyalty. The same is the story of Babylon, and of Egypt, the home of the Pharoahs. Perhaps our own country is drifting THE REDWOOD 211 towards this end. It is a sad fate, but perhaps our country will some time or other, follow the examples of these na- tions of antiquity. May God grant that it shall never be said of her, once she was great, once noble, once free. The most valuable aid that an Amer- ican can give his eounti-y then, is to prolong her usefulness as far as possi- ble. To accomplish this he must be at the polls at voting time, vote for the man whom he thinks is the right man for the office, and obey and love his country. These are his tasks when his country is at peace, but if his country should be at war — her honor at stake — let him shoulder a musket and go to the front, to give up his life if neces- sary with the spirit of a Nathan Hale, who said, " I am only sorry that I have but one life to give up for my country. ' ' Percy O ' Connor. LA PALOMA ' SABLE sky, pierced by countless twinkling pin-points, hung veil- like over the far- spreading city. From high in mid-air, crown- ing a lofty hotel building, the lights of a roof-garden beckoned alkiringly. In a canyon below the young writer with the glistening neck-band who is occasionally thrust into the lime-light in a tale of this sort, (something of an 0. Henry-Bagdad-on-the-Subway at- mosphere prevailing,), stood somewhat apart from his hurrying brothers and sisters, prepared to seize Avithout scru- ple or preamble any mite of adventure that Chance should present. Down through the haze of the incandescents stole the summons from the hotel roof, and prompted him to turn his steps to- wards this glittering meeea. His dis- guise lay solely in his name and ap- pearance : the former was Henry Hig- gle, and the latter — well, he looked cap- able of it. Arriving after a breath-snatching moment in an express elevator, he fol- lowed meekly a haughty lieutenant to a small table, perched precariously near the edge of the dance-floor. Tingling with anticipation, he sank into his chair, and commenced avidly to de- vour the gay scene before him. (V hich is indeed a trite phrase, but a truthful one.) His eyes roved appraisingly over the creamy lattice-work of which the place was constructed, the masses of gorge- ous bloom with their green background, and paused for a moment to pierce the orchestra ' s leafy covert and then pass- ed through an archway to the roof- garden proper. Here were throngs of attractively gowned women with well- groomed escorts at closely-placed ta- bles, with a scurrying sprinkle of tray- ladened waiters. When Henry ' s observations had reached this stage, the orchestra launched recklessly into a spirited one- step. Immediately there was a bustle and a scraping of chairs, and the dan- cers came forth prepared to do their duty. The ensuing moments were most pro- fitable ones for our hero. From his vantage point he drank in the scene to his heart ' s content, and fired by its potent inspiration he mentally resolved to become the author of a " clever " sketch concerning the Modern Dances and their effects on their exponents — or victims. (The last being a conces- sion to one ' s personal opinion.) From an impartial general survey he soon descended to pai ' tieulars. Quickly his observant eye singled out individ- ual couples who he felt sure would later afford him valuable material for the pursuit of his theme. The immacu- lately-attired professional society man, 212 THE REDWOOD 213 with sleek, glistening hair and politely- bored expression, was of course pres- ent, and danced without apparent ef- fort with his equally modish and equal- ly blase feminine counter-part. Here and there was an elderly couple strug- gling bravely, but still pathetically, to re-call a long-past youth and its accom- panying agility. Occasionally he spied a wide-eyed and painfully self-consci- ous pair whose attire and movements blatantly proclaimed the visitors from an adjacent small town, who, having parted with scarcely a tremor from their share of the requisite, were by no means minded to allow this golden op- portunity of showing their accomplish- ments to slip by unchallenged. Here a couple moved with conscientious pre- cision, faces set, and their whole minds concentrated on the task before them. Now and then their lips moved, but it was only to chant in a stage-whisper, " One, two, three — kick, " and kindred ritualistic sayings. There glided two of the younger set ; a smiling, clean-cut youth, his face a trifle flushed with the realization of his proficiency, with his vivacious partner, the gushing debu- tante, who " simply adored to dance " , and who really performed very cred- itably. The encore ended with a crash. Re- luctantly the dancers dispersed. Hen- ry ' s busy eyes quickly traversed the now clear floor. Then for the first time he discerned a table, partially screened by a number of large palms, directly opposite his own. Henry allowed himself a gasp of ad- miration, and at the same time upset a tumbler of water. The damage being quickly repaired, Henry, not a whit de- terred, but this time more cautiously, again glanced toward the opposite ta- ble. At it was seated in meditative ab- straction a woman whom Henry de- clares to have been a flawless example of the Spanish type of beauty. His conception of this particular type was, it must be admitted, a trifle hazy. None the less his declaration is to that effect, and we intend to stand by whatever Henry may say. Her oval face, resting on a pair of perfectly rounded and tapered arms, (so Henry avers), was of a rare olive tint. Crimson lips that parted slightly so as to reveal the firm white teeth were close beneath a slender nose with long, delicate nostrils edged with coral. Under sweeping eye-brows swam a pair of dark brown eyes, the largest — need we say the most beautiful ?— that Hen- ry had ever seen. A low, smooth fore- head, then a living mass of intensely black hair coiled high in a heavy roll, and glistening with purple lights. From the tips of the delicate ears dangled large jet earrings. Henry sat and feasted in wrapt ador- ation. We have already advised the reader that Henry is of a literary bent. Being also both young and impression- able, it follows that romance — the kind that is usually spelled with a capital — is not lacking in his make-up. Conse- quently he lost no time in immersing himself in a maze of pleasant conject- 214 THE REDWOOD ures as to her past, identity, state of life, and so on. He demanded first a reason for the incongruity of her pres- ence here. It was due, no doubt, to some intestinal trouble of a Latin re- public to the south. He pictured the sun-splashed hacienda nestling among its pepper-trees, dozing quietly Avhile the bees hummed in its garden. Then he saw the straggling, unwashed, non- descript column that jogged down into the valley, guns gleaming fitfully through the long-lived dust cloud; heard the startled cry of the peon, whose scurrying brown legs bore him with unwonted celerity into the patio. Then the tramping and jingling and cursing as the swarthy brigands, brist- ling with innumerable bands of car- tridges, swaggered about or squatting on piles of plunder, pushed sombreros back from glistening foreheads and deftly contrived the brown paper cig- arillos. He saw the surly commandante with his bedraggled staff as he brushed the white-haired ranchero imperiously aside, or stood making eyes at the radi- ant creature whom Henry had instant- ly styled " La Paloma " . (Henry ' s stock of Spanish words then consisted of this, and one or two others, notably ' ' tamale ' ' and ' ' caballero ' ' . ) Then the young man pictured a whirl-wind es- cape through the canyon that night and later embarkation for a sphere unvexed by the atrocities of discontented serfs. Thus it pleased Henry to muse and to explain the far-av ay look that clouded the wonderful senorita ' s eyes. She was musing, no doubt, of those lazy. sun-kissed days before her exile, and of her ardent, hot-headed lovers — Hen- ry was sure there must have been a host of them ; musing, perhaps, of the cool, fragrant nights. There was a moon-lit garden, heavy with the voluptuous fragrance of trop- ical bloom ; a low, tile-roofed building, gleaming ghostly white ; the sobbing, soulful melody of a guitar, accompany- ing a high pitched, passionate voice that stole softly through the still air ; a small black square against the white wall; a little stir, then a face— it was hers, of course. A round arm, bathed in moon-light ; a rose, dropping lightly into an eager hand ; a sigh ; a low whis- per, and a little laugh. Then silence, until a nightingale poured out his witching song. Henry started from his reverie. Some one — a man — was crossing the floor. Surely he could not be going to stop at her table? For Henry had seen him step down from the orches- tra ' s bower, where he had been en- gaged in enticing syncopation from the piano. Yes, it was true. This alto- gether prosaic individual (Henry had expected a resplendant caballero in tight velvet trousers and gold filigreed sombrero, at the least) was undoubt- edly steering his course toward her. The sacrilege was about to be commit- ted. Henry, be it said, had not a doubt that his senorita would crush the beast with a glance. Still he felt that invol- untary wave of anger that one experi- ences toward the pale youths on the street who eye one ' s companion. THE REDWOOD 215 Without removing the cigarette that dangled from his lip he stopped and greeted her. To Henry ' s astonishment she neither froze him or looked for as- sistance. Instead she smiled. (Henry had not seen her smile up to this point, which accounts for this story ' s having been written.) The man dropped into a chair drawn very close to hers. Glasses appeared, and during a lull Henry heard her say: " Here ' s to the rube across the way. My soul, how that man can rubber ! ' ' Henry sank weakly back into his chair. " ' La Paloma ' , " said he, " Rot! Waiter — get me another stein! " F. Buckley McGurrin. THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY S the automobile in its infancy was an object of ridicule and of scei ticism, so also was the Motion Picture in- dustry a few years ago. From the very moment of its in- ception dt has been laboring against almost overwhelming odds. But, hav- ing passed successfully the ordeal set for it, the motion picture has, on its merits alone, risen to its present posi- tion among the leading industries of the United States. When it first made its appearance it was loudly denounced by all as the cre- ation of the devil and a sure and safe means of perdition. All the bitter ani- mosity it encountered has directly re- sulted in increased efforts on the part of the producers to lift the pictures to a higher plane. Keeping pace with the vast improvement attained in all lines of industry, the motion picture enjoys the distinction of rising from an ob- scure position to the foremost rank of the great industries. This is the more remarkable because, where it has taken the silent drama but a quarter of a cen- tury to accomplish this gigantic task, the other industries are the result of years and years of concentrated effort. When one considers the fact that at least thirty million people visit motion- picture theatres daily, one may obtain a very faint idea of the immensity of this business. In the United States, there are about twenty-five thousand theatres devoted to this form of enter- tainment, and the number is increasing by leaps and bounds. These theatres comprise some of the finest that have ever been built, notably, the Strand, and the Vitagraph, in New York, and many others scattered in all the large cities of the Union. The Strand is known as the Million Dollar Theatre, and is devoted solely to motion pic- tures. The Vitagraph is owned by the motion picture company of the same name, and serves as a means of show- ing that company ' s best pictures. In San Francisco, as everyone knows, there is a theatre that was built ex- pressly for grand opera, but which is now a motion picture house. To supply the demand occasioned by such a large number of theatres, there have been organized several syndicates to distribute the products of the differ- ent manufacturers under their control. There are two distinct ends for which the manufacturers produce, either for a regular weekly program or for a feat- ure program. Of those releasing under a definite weekly program there are three large syndicates, the General, Universal, and Mutual Film Corpora- tions. These corporations have about forty brands, the trade name under 216 THE REDWOOD 217 wliich a manufacturer releases his pro- duct, under their control, distributed as follows : General, 11 ; Universal, 16 ; Mutual, 13. This is only the number of brands registered under each syndi- cate, and is not the number of com- panies Avorldng. Many have as high as ten companies working at the same time. Including the stray feature com- panies, the regular feature companies, and those just mentioned, there are about three hundred and fifty compa- nies in existence today. The General Film Company is known as the " Licensed " and the others as " Independents. " These names grew out of litigation about 1912. The Mo- tion Picture Patents Company, which had been formed some years previously and was the forerunner of the present General Company, claimed the rights to all the patents used for the taking of Motion Pictures, basing their claim on the Edison Patent. This company granted licenses to other corporations to use their camera, and thus had full control of the field. But soon other cameras appeared on the market and some of the dissatisfied companies took them up, left the Patents Com- pany, and organized independent com- panies. One of the first of these was the Independent Motion Picture Com- pany, under the brand name of " IMP " . Several of the independent concerns combined and called themselves the Motion Picture Distributing and Sales Company. A bitter struggle was waged between them and the Licensed Com- panies, which had its culmination in a suit for infringement of patents brought by the Patents Company. Be- tween appeals and new trials, j ost- ponements and delays of all kinds, the suit hung fire till about two years ago, when the courts decided that the Pat- ents Company was not acting in re- straint of trade, but ordered that they should allow the others to use their camera. Previous to this decision, a picture produced by the Licensed could not be shown in an Independent house, and vice versa. If it was shown, the exhibitor was liable to a fine. Now all is different. The pictures can be mixed indiscriminately, though the wise exhibitor sticks to one program. Soon after the decision of the courts in favor of the Licensed Companies, a split occurred in the ranks of the Inde- pendents, the dissatisfied forming oth- er corporations called the Film Supply Company and the Mutual Film Corpor- ation, the former producing the pic- tures and the latter distributing them. The remaining companies formed the nucleus of the most powerful film or- ganization in existence today, The Uni- versal Film Corporation. In 1910 the Motion Picture Patents Company licensed the General Film Company to conduct exchanges for the handling of the Licensed product. Soon tins company was in control of most of the exchanges, and then took up the distributing end while the Patents Company went out of existence. At the present time, these three combines are still in existence, having withstood all the buffeting and sneers that have 218 THE REDWOOD been hurled at them by an envious com- petitor, the legitimate stage, and are today, the foremost among the produc- ers of the whole world. The second great division of motion pictures in regard to their manner of production is the feature picture. This term is now generally applied to those productions of over three reels or parts. It is wonderful to look back and see the development of the feature picture. In the early days of the motion picture industry an ordinary picture was about one hundred feet in length, while a feature was a picture of about five hundred feet. Today there are very few pictures of the five hundred foot length, while the feature is a picture varying from three to six parts. The average length of a picture is one reel, about one thousand feet of film. In the early days, when a two-reel picture made its appearance, it was eagerly sought after by the exhibitors. Three- reel pictures, too, were even more scarce, while one very seldom heard of a four reel production. In those days, methods were crude and much valua- ble time was lost, and thus it usually took weeks to produce a three reel feat- ure. Today everything is changed. The vast improvement attained by con- centration of effort and economy of production has facilitated the making of pictures to such an extent that it is not an uncommon occurrence for a company to finish a picture in five or six days. There are two classes of feature pro- ducing companies, those which make a specialty of producing only features, and those which are affiliated with some definite program. The separate feature company is the natural out- growth of the regular program. There were men, who, quick to see the possi- bilities of the feature, organized sepa- rate companies for the making of feat- ures only. Soon others followed and the feature business was a reality. Of these single companies several pro- grams which deal in feature produc- tions only have recently been organ- ized. These are : The Paramount Pro- gram, comprising Famous Players, Lasky, and Bosworth ; the Alliance Program ; the World Film Corpoi a- tion ' s Program; Sawyer, Inc.; The Box Office Attraction Company ' s Program; and the Aleo Program. Besides these there are numerous small concerns which produce a picture now and then. What helped the feature business most was the coalition of the producers of the legitimate drama with different motion picture companies. The Para- mount program is associated with Dan- iel Frohman, Chas. Frohman, Henry W. Savage, David Belasco, and the Lieb- ler Co. The World Film Corporation is affiliated with William A. Brady and the Schuberts, while the Biograph Company is connected with Klaw Erlanger, and the Vitagraph is also combined with Liebler. These alliances have opened a vast new field for mo- tion pictures. They have made possible what seemed only a dream. They have enabled the motion picture to repro- duce the old classics of the stage in a THE REDWOOD 219 manner that has reflected credit upon those in charge of the work. They have made the preservation of these famous plays possible because the neg- atives are stored away for the use of future generations. The industry employs thousands of people in all capacities, whether as actors, helijers, laboratory men, car- penters, clerks or in a host of other oc- cupations. Some people think that it does not cost much to produce pictures. Let them take into account all the royalties that have to be paid inventors, the cost of keeping several companies at work, the cost of film and chemicals, and the expensive properties that must be kept, and then they will realize the tremendous expense that the manufac- turers are put to in order to obtain pic- tures of merit. The actors are paid from five to twelve hundred dollars per week. The raw film costs from two to four cents per foot, and as many thousands of feet are ruined in the tak- ing of pictures, it is easy to see what a large item this waste amounts to on the expense bill. And then there are the commissions that must be j aid to ex- changes who handle the product. The manufacturers do not care to what ex- pense they go if they secure the proper realism. They will wreck a wagon and an automobile with equal impunity, and a train as quickly as a steamer. Many of the highest salaried actors and actresses have forsaken the legiti- mate stage for the pictures. The rea- son for this is that many of them are married, and in working for pictures they are enabled to live at home. The hours are better than on the stage. Every evening will find them snugly ensconced by their firesides enjoying the comforts of home-life instead of ex- periencing the cold and dreariness of the one night stands. From this, one would be likely to conclude that acting in pictures is easy. The reverse is more often the truth. The actor has not the same part to take night after night, as in a stage production, but is called upon to take different parts almost every day. And then again, acting in pictures is not without its perils. When a company wants realism, it is usually the actors that suffer. Many stories are related concerning the dangers of motion picture acting. One is liable to be thrown off a ho rse, fall over a cliff, or from a train, or to be hurt in many other ways. Notwithstanding the wholesomeness of the average motion picture show, there are some, who, because once in a while a picture shows how a crime is committed, unjustly accuse it of being the means of spreading crime. If these persons would only observe the picture a little more closely, they would see that whenever a picture calls for a crime, the actual showing of the crime is eliminated by what is called the " cut-back " . This is merely the flash- ing of another scene at the moment the act is to be committed, reverting to the former scene after the deed has been done. Thus the actual showing of the 220 THE REDWOOD crime is done away with, without, how- ever, losing any of the force of the pic- ture. The subject of crime in motion pic- ture drama leads u naturally to cen- sorship. This is the question that is agitating the whole industry at the present time. Censorship is the bug- bear of the industry, not because the manufacturers are afraid to have their pictures inspected, but because of the harm that is done by local and even state boards. Every picture that is ex- hibited by a reputable exhibitor has been passed by the National Board of Censorship, which examines all pictures offered to it for inspection, and affixes an official stamp. There are 135 mem- bers on this board, who serve without pay, and are divided into a General Committee and a Censoring Commit- tee. For this reason the Board is purely a philanthropic one. Their ex- penses are met by the different manu- facturers Avho submit pictures to them. The Board is affiliated with over five hund red organizations all over the United States, and sends out a weekly bulletin to these, notifying them of the changes ordered in the films. " While the producers are not obliged to submit their pictures to the Board for the elim- ination of all objectionable matter, yet so great is their desire to raise the standard of the pictures, that they will- ingly accede to any demand that the Board may make. In case a manufac- turer does not comply with the de- mands of the Board and releases his product without omitting the censored parts, he is soon found out and put on the blacklist. Although the Board has no legal standing to compel the manu- facturer to accede to its demands, and nothing can be done to him, neverthe- less the knowledge that his name will be known throughout the land as a dis- obeyer of the orders of the Board will serve as a means of keeping the pro- ducers under control. During the year 1913-14 the Board inspected 5,740 subjects, out of which only 53 were condemned wholly, and changes ordered in 400. This is but 9-10 of one per cent totally condemned and only a trifle less than seven per cent in which changes were ordered. This speaks well for the wholesomeness of the films, especially when one con- siders that those making the changes have no axe to grind. The vast amount of work that was done in the year can be readily seen when the number of meetings of the Censoring committees was 988, and of the General Committee, 41. The Censoring committees inspect the films, and reserve those to be con- demned for the General committees to pass upon. The market value of the pictures kept out of circulation was close to $600,000. There are many who advocate state censorship of moving pictures, but it would mean a great loss to the thea- tres in California if this state should ever adopt as stringent a censorship law as some of our states have. The man M ho exhibits the pictures is the man who should censor. He knovv ' s what his audience likes best, and it is THE REDWOOD 221 his place to eliminate all objectionable matter from his films. He is allowed the right to do this by all companies, provided he replaces the parts in their proper places when he is finished with the picture. There are many states that have censorship laws now. But what are they? Nothing but hotbeds of strife. Always there is some dispute as to whether such and such a film should be barred. There is never any peace as in the states which accept the National Board and leave the decision to the exhibitor. These would-be cen- sors are usually people who do not know anything about moving pictures or dramatics at all. They attempt to censor films and the result is that we have a jerky, inconsistent, hodge-podge in place of the smooth and even photo- play as sent out by the manufactnurer. As is often the case with new inven- tions and industries in these days, the motion picture is looked upon as a fad. But slowly and surely it is laying such a foundation in the minds and hearts of the people that it will soon cease to be regarded as a mere whim. As a help to the educator, its possibilities have only as yet been touched upon. Many of the leading universities are using it as a means of illustrating the truths of science. In the future, as Edison says, people will be taught by the screen and not by books. That does sound foolish, but nevertheless, the motion picture will some day be a recognized factor in the educational side of life. If some of the manufacturers would produce pictures that could be used with college courses, long strides would be made to- wards the time when Edison ' s dream would come true. The system of distri- bution used today is not worked out enough to permit of schools having pic- tures often. The cost is excessive and the pictures are not what are needed. The time is coming when the picture and the text book will go hand in hand. With the right kind of pictures and a reasonable cost, wonders could be ac- complished. Yes, the motion picture has a great future before it. As yet it is only in its infancy, and a very healthy infancy at that. One cannot prophesy what its future will be, but that it will be a very rosy one is certain. Louis Gairaud. THOUGHTS Thoughts are like clouds in a wonderful sky ; Pendant they hang in the air. Sheened by the light of the great sun of Truth, Colored and shaped by the glare. Many are lost, as dissolving they fade Out of the light of the Truth ; Those that remain reveal colors enhanced — Armed with the vigor of youth. Slow to develop, they keep all they win ; Heavy and massive with gains ; ' Till the time comes when their products are loosed, Greening the hills and the plains. Sometimes a cloud can be seen in the blue, Crimsoned by twilight ' s last rays. Slowly it sinks, and dissolving it lies. Grounded, but only a haze. Solved on the flowers and the grasses on earth, Changed in the night, it appears Pearled by the moon, but when rising, the sun Changes the pearls into tears. JAMES ENRIGHT 222 THE GOOD THIEF other sound filled the air than the song of the birds in the high palm tree, " No bell rang, not even the Angelus was in- toned that day from the old belfry of the Santa Clara Mission. The work in the fields ceased and the noisy hum from the busy shops was stopped for the day. But why this stillness? Why this cessation of activities around the old mission? It was Good Friday, and both Indians and their teachers were spending the day in silence, prayer and religious ceremonies. A few of the padres, who were not engaged in looking after their flock, their eyes downcast in eontemi lation, were walking up and down in the shade of the old grape arbor. One of them, an old Spanish Brother, named Alphon- so, was seated in the center of the Mis- sion quadrangle. Old and gray and feeble, his steps have begun to lose their activity of late ; his face is drawn and thin from a life of austerity. He had been meditating on the events of another Good Friday ; he had passed in mind the fearful night his Lord and Master had spent at Gethsemane ; he had gone over in spirit the terrible or- deal of that last awful morning, — the scourging, the crowning with thorns, the painful journey to Calvary, the humiliating death on the cross. Turn- ing from this his thoughts reverted to himself — how he had been the cause of that suffering, how His Lord God had suffered it all for him. And as Brother Alphonso ' s eyes fill- ed with burning tears at this considera- tion, his thoughts turned as they in- variably did, to Good Friday, twenty- five years ago, when a striking exam- ple of God ' s goodness was enacted on that very ground. It was a beautiful day, he remem- bered distinctly, in early April. The valley was carpeted with green velvet from the recent rains. Those of the Indians, who did not live at the Mis- sion, had come in from all sides to take part in the ceremonies of Holy Week, and had encamped in front of the old church. With the natives came two Spani- ards, well mounted on shiny black horses. They were strangers to the Mission, having but recently, as they told the Padre who greeted and ex- tended to them the hospitality of the Mission, come from Santa Barbara, where they said they Avere very dear friends of Padre Salvatierra. " Well, Castillo, " said one, when they were left to themselves, " it looks pretty good. I guess Ave fooled the old man who took us in. " " Yes, " replied the other, " he must 223 224 THE REDWOOD surely think that we are on the high road to sanctity if we are very dear friends of old Padre Salvatierra. For myself, I ' ve never seen the man. " " Nor I; but the story worked al- right. " " But its rather mean, " said Castillo, the elder of the two, " to take advant- age of these poor padres ' hospitality by lying the way we did. Santa Clara, you know, is noted for its hospitality. " " So I hear; but what ' s the differ- ence; let ' s look the place over to see what we can get and when we can get it. " " Most likely, " said Castillo, " we ' ll not be able to get away with anything before night when they ' re all in bed. Some will surely be in the church all day. " " But, anyhow, let ' s look the place over. " With this they went out. The day passed quietly enough. Supper was served by the padre who had received them. After saying grace and bidding his guests be seated, he said: " You must be tired and hungry, my sons, after your long ride. It is Lent, but you must take a good supper. Those who travel, you know, do not have to fast, and you have traveled much. " The two needed no coaxing, and as they ate the good father entertained them with stories and experiences, to which he added a little salt of spiritual exhortation. " Ah, I forgot " — he sudenly broke off, and as suddenly left the room. He returned in a few minutes with a bot- tle of wine. " I forgot, " he said, on reappearing, " to offer you some of our best Mis- sion wine. It is made by one of our Brothers, who was an expert in Spain before he joined the order, one of the very best wine-makers in the country. And this wine is worthy of its maker. " So chatting, he poured them out brimming glass-fulls. Of the pair, Cas- tillo, was rather quiet. He looked up now and again at his host, who did most of the talking, but said little, even when he had the opportunity. The other did his share of the talking, and of the eating too, for that matter. Supper over they said grace, in ap- pearance devoutly enough. " Well, I must leave you now, my sons. I have to preach in the church tonight, and I must go to collect my thoughts. ' ' " We ' ll both be there to hear you. Padre, " said Castillo. " I ' m sur e you must be quite an orator. " " What do you say, mio amigo? I am but ' sounding brass and tinkling cymbal, ' as St. Paul says. " The two strolled together in the twi- light. And as the sun dropped behind the western hills, groups of Indians and Spaniards wended their way to the Mission to hear the sermon and follow the Way of the Cross. To these the two strangers joined themselves, and were soon almost at the very steps of the church. " We ' ll go in, and size things up on the inside, " said Castillo. THE REDWOOD 225 " Surely, " replied the othei " , " but I suppose the chalices and eiboriums must be kept under lock and key in the sacristy. Never mind, I think I ' m quite capable of forcing any lock these l adres or their sentimental converts can put on. ' ' A silence ensued, which was finally broken by Castillo. " Somehow or other, I don ' t like this business of robbing a church, especially on Good Friday. I was once a Catholic myself, and I know there isn ' t any luck in it. " ' ' Oh, don ' t you back out now ; ' ' sneered the other, " it won ' t be the first time you robbed a church. And as to this affair of Good Friday, is that an unlucky day? But come on, we had better go in like the rest have done ; and don ' t go out in the middle of the sermon, or you ' ll make those Indians suspicious. " When the congregation was seated in the crude pews with the men on one side and the women on the other, and a few moments of waiting had ensued, old Padre Castarenas came out on the altar, and read the Passion in Spanish. The Indians listened with rapt atten- tion. Putting down the book the good padre in a simple way explained the last words of our Saviour as He was dying on the cross. " And now, " the old man said in part, " the cross with its precious bur- den is raised, and with a jolt falls into the hole prepared for it. What tei ' ri- ble pain must not that shock have caused our Saviour! The wounds are stretched, the blood flows more copi- ously ; every movement causes pain. Should He try to ease His hands, the wounds in His feet are rent the more ; should He try to ease His feet. His nail-pierced hands bear all the burden of His body. " And during ail this what does our Saviour think? What does He feel? His own words tell us best. ' Father, ' he says, ' forgive them, for they know not what they do. ' He asks forgive- ness for His persecutors, for His tor- turers, for His murderei ' s. He uses that most tender name of Father ; He pleads in His quality of Son. " The dying Saviour hears a voice, it seems to be addressing Him. His senses are fast failing, but He turns His head as best He can and catches the words: ' Lord, remember me when Thou shalt come into Thy kingdom. ' They were spoken by one of the thieves who were crucified on each side of Him. The Saviour answers, He sj eaks slowly, for talking is now difficult : ' This day thou shalt be with me in Paradise. ' Even the thief, my brethren, after a life of wickedness, is forgiven at the very last moment. " The sermon ended, the padre left the pulpit. Castillo gazed with fixed at- tention at the figure of the crucifix ; the other glanced here and there about the church. The services were over, the people were leaving the church, Castillo dropped on his knees, and cov- ered his face with his hands. He was saying his first prayer in years. His companion nudged him. 226 THE REDWOOD " We shall wait till all the people are gone, and then — " the speaker was cut short, " No, we won ' t do anything of the sort; at least, I won ' t, " said Castillo in a firm tone. " I am going to tiirn over a new leaf now. " " So you are going to back out of it, " said the other angrily. " I thought you were a friend of mine. " With this he strode out of the church, leaving his companion to do as he pleased. Castillo still remained on his knees, looking intently on the crucifix, praying prayers he thought he had for- gotten. " Well, if God can forgive the thief on the cross, He can forgive me, " he muttered to himself. Long after he arose and went to his room; there was no sign of his friend or of his belongings ; he must have rid- den away. All night long the words the good old padre had explained kept repeating themselves in his mind : ' ' This day thou shalt be with me in Paradise. " ' ' Half past five ' ' — Brother Alphonso was recalled from his reveries. And obedient to the summons with the help of his cane he trudged to the refectory. " God pardoned the thief on the cross in one day, " he thought, " per- haps he has pardoned itie after twenty- five years of penance in religion. " Cyril R. Kavanagh. REPENTANCE I stood upon the Ocean ' s rugged sKore And Keard the breaking billows angry roar, ' Twas as an ecKo from across tne sea, WitK contrite Keart tKe Ocean spake to me : " TKou, Man wKo knowest naugKt save by thine ear ; Tea, gaze in awe and quake with fear. Though I, b}? many aeons be thy sire, I speak in deep contrition, not in ire. " i have in angy moments drawn the ships. The dreadnaughts of the world, as if but chips. Into my depths ; their crews beneath them sleep. My billows roll their death-knells o ' er the deep. Ah ! Still ye ask wherein my sorrows lie ? Know ye, my twin in birth was God ' s blue sky ; And kings have built their nations on my shore ; But now their hands are wet with bloody war. My heart is heavy, for with parents ' love I watch their progress, weep their graves above. And now in folly, God ' s great might they dare. " The Ocean ceased. Mo voice disturbed the air. E. L. NICHOLSON 227 THE CONVERSION 9 ft sV?sT ?w T f i wg D i l.I J.V.».M.A mMAV.-.» « M t .Aj HE night was black, soggy, thick as por- ridge, and when the wind came it was in hot, damp puffs, like the pant of an ex- hausted brute. Away off to the south- west, the lightning was licking the sky like the forked tongue of a serpent, and every now and then a big raindrop splattered on our hands. It was a good night for a raid, and that is what we were there for. We had crept up on the cattle as quietly as Apaches and, as luck would have it, found the herders had ridden over to the outfit wagon for a cup of coffee. Johnnie and I turned our horses and began working along opposite Mex and the rest, and it wasn ' t long before we had that herd tied up in a knot, wild- eyed, and ready to stampede at the sight of a jack-rabbit. Everything was ready, and we gripped our reins tight- er. " Bang " went Mex ' s gun, and at the signal we lit into that bunch, shooting and yelling, and the next second had them going full jump for the Rio Grande. It takes fast work to run off a bunch of cattle, and we had no more than started when we heard pistol shots in our rear. " Well, we knew what that meant. For half an hour we rode on, seeing nothing but the black plunging bodies around us ; hearing nothing but the dull pounding of their hoofs. Then all at once, a jagged splinter of lightning leaped down from the clouds, and for an instant stood quivering in the ground, like a spear thrown into a tar- get. By its light I saw one of the cow- boys galloping close alongside me, and I flattened myself out until my head was level with the saddle. Whether he had si otted me or not I didn ' t know, but he was a whole lot too close for comfort, so I yanked my cayuse in and fell back to the rear of the herd. Then I pulled my gun and waited for things to happen. They did in about three minutes. Thump ! boom ! came a crash of thun- der just overhead, and in the glare that came with it I saw the cow-boy ' s gun spit red at me. At the same instant something bit, and burned its way through my leg, and I went flying through the air. When I regained consciousness it was morning ; my cayuse, like a well- trained cow-pony, was grazing on the low grass a few yards away. I wormed my way over to him and crawled to the saddle. I rode in a sti;por — it was the worst trip I ever made. In about an hour I saw a ranch-house in the dis- tance. How I ever reached it I do not know. I stood dizzy and swaying, looking at 228 THE REDWOOD 229 It. The doors were open, and I heard dishes clinking inside, and my nose canght the smell of good cooking. Then all of a sudden someone came to the door, stopped short, and stood star- ing at me. She was tall and straight, and had a pretty face, and a kind one. The richness of a prairie rose was in her lips, and the prairie tan thick on her round forearms. Her eyes were brown and wide open, and looked at me like a startled boy ' s. I tried to take off my hat, but the strain was too great, and I fainted. It must have been three or four hours before I knew anything, for when I opened my eyes it was the middle of the forenoon. I was feeling very much better, only, of course, very stiff, tired, and hollow. Pretty soon she peeped in the door, and when she saw that my eyes were open she came right in. We had never said a word to each other, but now she spoke. " Better? " she asked, with a smile — the kind of a smile that makes any man better. I told her I was, and then asked for the men folk, for you will understand that I was considerably in- terested in the men folk about those parts. At this question the smile van- ished, and her eyes filled to the brim with trouble. " A gang of cattle thieves ran our herd off last night, and father and the meu are after them. I heard shooting when they went by, and, of course, I am very much worried, ' ' she said, with a quick glance at me. With that she turned and left the room. Of course, I understood it all well enough. Those were her father ' s cat- tle we had run off the night before, and she had wondered naturally enough, what I was doing there the next morning with a bullet in my leg. Still, when I had come hobbling up to the door she hadn ' t stopped for ques- tions, but had come to my assistance as quickly as if I had been her wounded brother. When a man, even if he has gone Avrong, and soured a great deal on the world, meets a woman like that, he feels so mean he would change places with a coyote, — and thank the coyote. Soon she came in again — she had a big bowl of milk, a loaf of fresh bread and a dish of preserves. I told her I was not hungiy, but she only smiled a little, braced me up with the pillows, and put the tray beside me. I choked a trifle at first, but when I had fin- ished I had made a tolerably complete job of it. As soon as she left I went to sleep and did not wake until evening. When I did awake three men were standing over me, and a lantern was glaring in my face. The older of the three I con- cluded was her father, and it was he who spoke. " Who are you? " " Ed- ward Hamilton. " " Where did you come from? " I did not answer at once. I could hear their deep breath- ing as they bent lower over me, and the smaller of the three dropped his hand to the butt of his pistol, but the older one saw the move and shoved him aside with the sweep of his arm as 230 THE REDWOOD he again raised his voice. " Hamilton, you had better talk out plain and dis- tinct. If you are an honest man you are among friends, but if you are one of those who ran my cattle off, you ' ll swing from the end of a lariat. " As 1 did not answer he turned on his heel, and, without another word, the three left the room. Its a long time between darkness and daylight, when remorse has you by the throttle and your conscience is get- ting back at you as only a mistreated conscience can. As tired as I was sleep refused to come, and I lay there thinking until the dawn came, co ' ld and grey again, with the drip, drij) of rain from the eaves. I heard the men leave the house with the remark that they were going out to look for strays. It was a long time before she came in, but when she did her presence seemed to light up the dim room. " Mr. Hamilton, " she began, " your silence forces us to believe that you have helped to wrong us cruelly, im- poverish us, leaving us with our years of labor unrewarded ; but even though all that is true, I would like to believe that yours was the act of a man driven into evil by evil fortune, and not the deed of one who was wrong at heart. " There was silence for a long while after that, no sound but the click-click of the clock, and the drip of the rain. For a few moments I lay fighting myself doggedly, as I gazed deep into her clear eyes. It was hard work to tell her that bitter story, but I man- aged to do it, and before I had finished her face was averted, and her fingers plucking at the arm of her chair. " Do you believe me? " I asked. " Yes, " she aaid simply, " I believe. " " Then I want you to believe this also — I have done one great wrong which I think I could undo with a week of liberty. It means much to me, for should I succeed I could go before my Maker with one black mark wiped from my record. " She arose quickly and went to the door, facing me from there with her troubled face. " One should risk much when a man ' s soul is at stake. You would come back? " she asked, probing my eyes deeply with her own. " Upon my — - " I stopped and then finished bit- terly, " Yes, upon my honor. " With the history of a hundred ages gone before her, the greatest miracle in the world to me is that woman can still pin her faith on man ; yet that day I rode away free, free on the parole of a condemned thief, my bond a rogue ' s word of honor. Three days later I was across the line. I didn ' t have such a bad time of it with Mes as I had anticipated. I gave him the three thousand dollars I had saved up, to run the bunch back. Three thousand dollars was only a frac- tion of what the herd was worth, but quick sales is the motto of a cattle thief. One month later, as I again rode up toward the house, I saw away off to the south a big bunch of cattle grazing. Mex had made good. I slept under their roof that night, and ate breakfast with them. The men THE REDWOOD 231 rode off to the range early, and I led my pony up to the house. " Goodby, " I said. She held out her hand, and I took it tightly, as I looked into her sweet face. " Where are you going? " she asked. " For the present I will only say that I am going among peo- ple whom no man would be ashamed to call his friends. I am going to work, and when I have proven that I can be, and am a man, I am coming back to tell you something, and that something will be— " " No, no, " she cried, trying to re- lease her hand, her face growing paler, " you must not tell me anything — you must not. " I let her go and crawled in(o the saddle. " But I will tell yoii when I return, and when I do no man will ever have spoken truer words. Will you listen to me then? " Her eyes drooped, and her cheeks turned color again, to red this time, but her silence was all the answer I want- ed. I put the spurs to my horse, and rode away, leaving her standing before the open door. A quarter of a mile away I turned. She was still standing there, and as I waved my hat she flut- tered her handkerchief for an instant, and then darted into the house. " jP " S- tP The soft warmth of the spring sun fell upon my shoulders ; the fragrance of the prairie filled my nostrils ; the breeze that fanned my cheek was al- most as sweet as her breath, and un- consciously I began to hum an old tune — the first humming I had done for years. Oscar L. Oliver. THE SEA DOG J-t M ' » ' " - tJ 1 HERE was a flash of cold steel in the moon- light and Duncan Gray lay weltering in his gore. And that is why the gruff fisherfolk looked fearfully at Captain Dan Gray and called him the " Sea Dog " . For he had sworn vengeance on his father ' s murderer and the fierce oath shone through his every look, word and act. The murder of his sire had frozen the warm young blood in the veins of the sailor lad and had molded him into a man sullen and dogged as the roaring ocean itself. Indirectly it was also the reason Samuel Stern found himself at fifty a lawyer v ith a nation-wide reputation. For his father in a fit of passionate anger had killed Duncan Gray. In the subsequent law proceedings young Samuel had delved deep into the mys- teries of offense and defense. Later, upon his father ' s death he had ventur- ed forth on his own account and had won his spurs. On a frowning day in late autumn Dan Gray bellowed to his men, " Up anchor " , and the heavy fishing schoon- er " Black Whale " pointed her nose to- ward the deep sea. Once beyond the harbor bar the cap- tain withdrew to his cabin. He touched a match to his full pipe and placed his bible on its shelf. This was the one book he had on board. " Take the Book whenever ye strike for deep water, Dannj ' , " were his mother ' s last words. And this son of the sea, this dog whose prime object in life was to avenge the murder of his father had never forgotten that last feeble request. A few days later a trim little steam yacht on pleasure bent, threaded her way through the various craft moving about Ncv York bay. Samuel Stern, tall, lean and square- jawed, stood on the deck and drew a deep breath of the salt sea air. " What do you think about making Sea Cove by next week, Kelly? " he questioned his engineer, standing near- " Well, I ' ll tell you what I think, " the other replied. " See that black cloud hanging low over there? That means a storm most likely. I think we had better lay to for a couple of days. ' ' The lawyer drew a long cigar from his vest pocket and cut off the tip. " Well, strike out anyhow, " he said, decisively. For Samuel Stern was one who see- ing obstacles ahead, promptly re- moved them. That was his formula 232 THE REDWOOD 233 for success. He had followed this rule all his life and now he had become too accustomed to the habit to change. Strong men who have wrested a name from the world, glory in finding a situation in which there is a chance of conflict. The hot fighting blood never cools. Such a man was Samuel Stern, and such were his reasons for throwing down the gauntlet to the surly tide. Captain Dan Gray clamped the wheel of his vessel in one vise-like hand and with the other as a protection against the driving sleet peered far out into the seething pitch of darkness. The Dog ' s enemy, the ocean, was gathering his forces in battle array. A struggle was imminent. From the ex- perience of a lifetime Dan Gray knew this. But he laughed to hear the deaf- ening roar of thunder and the rush of mountainous waves was sweet music to his ear. " Ahoy there, " he called, and the deck-watch hurried to his side. " All hands on deck. " Then the " Black Whale " rolled and pitched in the angry waters. Lightning flashed. Thunder pealed and echoed back along the trough of the sea. Waves rose mast high and tossed her about like a cork. But the " Black Whale " was built to float. And float she did. On the first signs of the approach- ing storm Samuel Stern saw it would be but suicide to face the fearful tem- pest. So the " Nancy Lee " turned from her course and made for the nearest harbor. But the gathering gale flew on the wings of the wind and the hungry waves lashed the defenseless " Nancy Lee " . Lashed her and cut her and toyed with her as a tiger might do with its prey. Lifted her high on the crest of a wave in mockery, then flung her far down in contempt. Washed her with spray, salted her with brine, then touched her off with a fleck of white foam and swallowed her whole. Samuel Stern came through the storm alive. How he did it he never knew, but when all was over he floated about clinging to a bit of wreckage, and scanned the broad sweep of ocean for a passing sail. Far in the distance he saw a speck. The speck grew into a ship. Nearer and nearer it drew until he could read on its battered hulk " Black Whale " . A row-boat bobbed away toward him and strong arms pulled him in. There he lay on the deck water- logged and cruelly bruised. Captain Dan Gray strode up. " My God, " he gasped. Wild eyed, with the cry of an en- raged bull he sprang at his victim ' s throat. By main force his men pulled him away, still struggling like a madman. Samuel Stern half rose on his elbow. 234 THE REDWOOD For the flick of an eye-lash the two men faced each other. Then, cursing like a pirate the Dog tore loose and rushed to his cabin. The half drowned man sank back into the sleep of exhaustion. The ship moved on. Samuel Stern slept on. But down in the cabin a strong man was fighting his battle. The deck hands could hear him rag- ing and storming. But none dared venture to his cabin. For hours the ship rolled on over the trackless ocean. Below all had grown quiet. In the heat of his fiercest conflict the Dog ' s eye fell on the Book of Peace. Then, for the first time in his life he thought, threw himself on the cabin floor and thought deep and hard. The men on deck were startled by a harsh voice from below, " Bring down the captive. " They gathered together in whisper- ing consultation. Then forming them- selves in a circle about the outstretch- ed form of Samuel Stern, they carried him slowly into the cabin. The Dog sat there immovable. The open bible lay on the table before him. " Samuel Stern, " he said in his thundering voice, " on this Book I swore to murder you. Come closer. ' ' " Watchfully guarded the exhausted man was carried quite near. The fishermen stood about, ready for action. But their precautions were un- necessary, for the Dog ' s crooked thole pin of a finger was moving slowly across the page of the open bible before him. And looking, Samuel Stern read : " You know my dearest brethren; and let every man be swift to hear, but slow to speak and slow to anger. For the anger of man worketh not the justice of God. " J. Charles Murphy. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS ALUMNI UNIVERSITY NOTES ATHLETICS EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITORS EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' IS JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 HOWARD E. CRANE, IS F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' IS EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription. Si. 00 a year; single copies 15 cents EDITORIAL The Exposition is at Pluck last opened. The dream of four years ago is now a living reality. There is something of the artist ' s satisfaction in the completion of a great work in the reflection that every one in Cali- fornia has helped to the completion of this work of wonder. But more than all others San Franciscans may feel proud of what has been done. They had known adversity ; now they have conquered fate. The unique blend of the national characteristics of all the nations that form her cosmopolitan population will hereafter be remarka- ble for its pluck and determination rather than for anything else. The warmth of the South and the vigor of the North have met and helped each other in the accomplishment of this wonderful work. What machinery did at Panama men ' s souls have done at San Francisco in rebuilding the city and finishing the Exposition. The same spirit will make California all 235 236 THE REDWOOD that nature meant her to be, — the land par excellence of opportunity. A New Trend Education bent on im- proving others often changes itself for the better. In nothing has this been more marked than in Engineering. With Armour Tech prescribing English and General History for Freshmen, and Recent History for Sophomores, and with Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology prescribing, English, History, Political Economy, one was prepared for the new Johns Hopkins program of English, History, Political Economy and Philosophy prescribed for all stu- dents and the delaying of all special work until Senior year. Is this a step in the right direction? Evidently so, if one will view the engineer not as a narrowed specialist, but as a broadly developed man of action with every power ready for all calls that may be made upon it. It is only by the so- called cultural studies that this devel- opment may be fully had. Santa Clara can congratulate herself as having the seal of these leaders of our engineer- ing schools set upon her prescribed program of two years of Philosophy, and two years of English and other cultural work. Now that the first steps have been taken by the leaders, we may expect a change of plan in the work of the less important schools. Our present mood is not the proper one in which to review our contempora- ries. The reasons are sundry. The " main and simple " one, as our little friend Penrod Schofield puts it, is that the mail man was a bit stingy with us this month and we miss a number of the visitors who are wont to accumu- late on our desk and give us an oppor- tunity of perplexing ourself as to a choice. The other reasons are not of great consequence to others. Despite this unfavorable attitude, which is due to no fault of our own, we will do our best to review the following with unbiased judgement as has been our endeavor in the past. " We take this occasion to apologize for anything that our contemporaries may consider to resemble undue harshness. Having made known the cause of our ill-nature we will proceed to glance over The Magazine, from the University of Vir- ginia. It would take considerably more peevishness than that with which we are at present per- plexed to deny that this book presents Univ. of Vir- ginia Magazine claims for favorable comment. The claims are numerous and not to be gainsaid. Following a bit of verse called " A Real Bird Sings ' ' — which is more truth than poetry — is a story entitled " Eter- nal Comradeship " . Despite the tax it imposes upon the credulity the manner of telling and the theme itself make its grip unusually strong. It possesses numerous good qualities. A powerful climax is not the least of these. " A Garland to Columbine " (verse) is useful in counteracting the rather depressing feeling that follows the first story. " A Toast to Lincoln " — a story of un- usual length for a college book — has a prevailing atmosphere of civil war days that is well done. As might have been expected, the sympathies of the tale are strongly pro-southern. By a clever denoument the writer rescues his hero from the slightly dishonorable attitude in which the action places him. A bit of verse called " Folk Lore " has little of poetry, but considerable optimistic philosophy. It is followed 237 238 THE REDWOOD by " An Appreciation of Dr. Alder- man " that is well done. " Sold — A Bald Head " has a novel plot that fails in ef- fect through lack of consideration in handling. If the writer feels impelled to utilize a theme of that nature, he should employ great care in this re- gard. More attention to the selection of details would have been a further improvement. As a story it is well enough, though inferior to the other tAvo contained in the issue. The one editorial escapes criticism by possessing the qualities required for that form of writing. When one seeks for a verdict to cov- er the book as a whole the first one that springs to mind is : " Good — all over. ' ' And subsequent mental springs serve only to confirm the original im- pression. " The Viatorian " We liked the first thing we read in " The Viatorian ' ' immensely. It was an unpretentious little sketch that had our faithful boyhood allies for its subject. " Some of the Dogs of Our Town " was the title. As we said, we liked it — so well, in fact, that we must repeat it. The verses that graced " The Univer- sity of Virginia Magazine " were, as above mentioned, somewhat lacking in poetic qualities. Still if we are to be perfectly candid, we preferred them to the more pretentious efforts in the " Viatorian " , that are seriously intend- ed for poetry and seem determined never to allow the fact to escape the reader. We were glad to run across " If You Can " in these pages. We had not seen it for quite awhile, and hardly looked for it among the contents of this book. The acknowledgement attached is rather an unusual one. The lack of short stories in ' ' The Via- torian " is keenly felt. There are sev- eral good essays, but not a single short story. The editors should look to this, as a book that is lacking in this respect is bound to be lacking in appeal. " The Mercerian " In " The Mercerian " there is a story called " The Return of Mar- garet De Loach " which features among other things a troupe of acrobatic an- cestors. The idea of the near-spinster who resolves to have her long deferred fling, but having sipped at the cujd of Life returns for ever and a day to the parrot and Tabby, is by no means a new one, but the mode of handling and development employed in this case makes it attractive and most readable. " The Way of a Woman " gives prom- ise at the outset that somehow fails to score. The verse and editorials are all of good quality. The make-up of " The Mercerian " has long since won for it a niche in our editorial heart, and although there are other magazines that have a greater ap- peal there are few that we welcome more warmly. THE REDWOOD 239 " The Ave Maria " In the " Ave Maria " one finds that which so many of the other Catholic periodicals unfortunately lack ; namely, good fiction written by capable authors and presented attract- ively. It must be admitted, however re- luctantly, that a prejudice exists, even in the minds of Catholics, toward maga- zines published by their own denomi- nation. This is due in part to the lack of that which " The Ave Maria " has in such abundance. In removing this pre- judice " The Ave Maria " has been most instrumental. We were made the grateful recipients of a number of our contemporaries, among them being the following: Williams Literary Monthly, The Columbiad, The Pacific Star, The Academia, The Tattler, Georgetown College Journal, The Canisius Monthly, The Villa Marian, University of Ten- nessee Magazine, The Gonzaga, Nassau Literary Magazine, The Morning Star, The Magazine (University of Texas), The Young Eagle, The Notre Dame Scholastic, The University of North Carolina Magazine, The Ave Maria, The Laurel, The Boston College Stylus, The Fordham Monthly, The Collegian, Mt. Angel Magazine, The Exponent. Popular Sermons On the Catechism — Bamberg-Thurston. — These sermons are well called popular. There is a di- rectness, an earnestness, a persuasive- ness in them that must have made the first hearing a real pleasure. Without any attemjit at rhetorical artifice, in spite of it, they win the attention and hold it. In this volume the Command- ments are explained with timely appli- cations to the life of every day. We must not omit to point out the real piety that pervades the whole series of sermons, and makes them live in a way that a merely doctrinal exposition would not have done. — Benziger Bros., $1.50. A Great Soul In Conflict— S. Black- more, S. J. — It is rather an unusual thing to find Saint Augustine, St. Am- brose and even Saint Ignatius, the founder of the Society of Jesus, quoted in a book of Shakesperean criticism. But the book itself is unusual, being a study of Macbeth as the typically tempted soul gradually led on to its fall. We do not remember anywhere to have seen the course of his tempta- tion studied with such minuteness and exact attention to its logical develop- ment. By other critics Shakespeare has been shown to be an adept in the law, in medicine, in heraldry and what not besides ; it has remained for Father Blackmore to study him as one fully acquainted with all the shoals where great enterprises and great men go to spiritual death. The work is excellent- ly well done, except, perhaps, for an occasional insistence on the obvious. The second part of the book is a run- ning commentary on the play, partly in justification of the thesis of the first part, (that Shakespeare meant 240 THE REDWOOD Macbeth to be the exemplar of the folly of not opposing the predominant pas- sion), and partly in showing the dra- matic development of the plot and the unfolding of the characters. If we may be allowed to express a preference, this second part is the better half of the book. The excursus on equivocation and miracle-plays are excellent and throw light on the play and its work- ing-plan. The author is fully read in the Shakespearean criticism and the work is never dull. — Scott, Foresman Co., $1.25. The Holy Viaticum of Life As of Death— The Revd. D. Dever.— This book is a devotional treatise on Holy Communion as the life of the soul in life and at the great passage out of life. It is woven beautifully around the life of Saint Stanislaus Kostka, the young Polish saint of noble blood, to whom the angels and St. Barbara brought the Divine Food to strengthen him in his difficulties. There is a flavor of de- votion and earnest piety all through the book such as one often finds in clients of this loveable saint. We can recommend it unhesitatingly as a book of pious reading that suggests excellent thoughts for the thanksgiving after Holy Communion. — Benziger Bros., 25c. i I; Retreat The annual Retreat of the Students of the University ended Thursday morning, February 12, and in reparation, it may seem, for the excel- lent brand of unbroken silence kept during those three days, the students were seen and heard in noisy and joy- ous groups, boarding the train toward San Francisco for the great day of the opening of the Fair. Not a one of the fellows but has a kind word for the Sea Port City and her hospitality, and all are ready for another tussle with Cicero and Horace, and very grateful to Revd. F. O ' Reilly who gave such an excellent retreat. The Senate, mighty in The Senate law and order, has se- lected its officers for the current semester. Those honored with the elective positions and taking up their duties at the next meeting, are: Vice President, Jas. Fitzpatrick. Secretary, Louis T. Milburn. Treasurer, Edward Ford. Corresponding Secretary, Philip Mar- tin. Sergeant-at-Arms, Thomas Boone. On account of the excess of studies the Senate have not been holding regu- lar meetings for the past month, but will pursue the regular order of meet- ing nights from now on. Engineering Society The Engineering So- ciety of the University has made its first trip of inspection to the Exposition, and re- port the abstract and concrete, govern- mental and Ford engines in first rate order. This is but the first of a series of trips that they will make in their capa- city as coming engineers, and judging from the first trip, the series will prove very profitable to them. Many of the students deem it prob- able that in the next " World ' s Fair, their own engines will grace the dis- play of Nations. Freshmen Pins The Freshmen of the Letters and Science Course have received their 18 pins, and this at once explains to the mystified multitude just why, for the last two weeks, they have scarcely taken their hands out of their pockets to eat. They are offering the 241 THE REDWOOD public a view of their vest-fronts, or- namented by the little gold numeral, and S. C, which, let us hope, they will be proud to wear always, as members of the 18 Class. Athletic Diplomas Pins for Engineers The Engineering Soci- ety have received their pins and many of the members now grace their lapels with the emblem, the very wording of which, ' Engineering Society ' , backed by set jaws, and sinewy bodies forces the mind at once to built up railroads, perpendicular cliffs, and garden jiaths hewn through the tropic jungles. The pins have gained popularity through their beauty, and we expect shortly to see every member of the So- ciety wearing one. House of Philhistorians The House of Philhis- torians recently held their election of offi- cers for the ensuing term. The men elected to fill the various positions were: Clerk, Ignatius O ' Neill. Corresponding Secretary, Joseph R. Aurrecoechea. Treasurer, Alfred Kavanagh. Librarian, Andrew Ginnochio. Sergeant-at-Arms, Edward L. Nichol- son. The out-going officers are to be con- gratulated on their efficiency, which has brought the House to the standing it has. At the last Student Body meeting, held during the first part of January, many questions were brought up and discussed. The principal busi- ness to be decided was on the athletic acknoAvledgements or diplomas, and the committee, represented by James Curtin, reported that they were being made. Since then, the diplomas have been received, and the members of the com- mittee are certainly to be congratulated on their efficiency in design. The time-honored S. C. graces the top, and below is the acknowledged right of a member of the Student Body to wear a block emblem. The declara- tion is signed by the Student Body President, the Captain of the wearer ' s branch of athletics, and the Athletic Moderator. Below this is the University Seal, giving the parchment its awe-inspiring documental appearance. The Fourth Year of Resolution the Preparatory School at its last meeting adopted the following resolutions, in which the whole Student Body desires to join. Harry ' s great loss is felt by every one, for Harry is more than a friend to a great many of us : Whereas, Almighty God in His infi- nite wisdom has summoned from this life the beloved father of our classmate, Harry Jackson ; and Whereas, we, his classmates feel THE REDWOOD 243 keenly for him in his hour of trial, and desire to manifest, as far as in us lies, our participation in his sorrow ; there- fore be it Resolved, that we, the members of the Fourth Year Class of the High School of the University of Santa Clara tender our bereaved companion our heartfelt sympathy in the loss o± a lov- ing and devoted father; be it also Resolved that we shall be mindful of hiiji in our prayers and Holy Communi- ons ; and be it Resolved that a copy of these resolu- tions be forwarded to our classmate. G. L. DONAHUE, HUGH CUNNINGHAM, E. J. Mcknight, Committee. y,inl IlM»} JiJ ,) mlm uul }. }Ul JJ u J JVf]| mn, l. llM ,J l nrl .i ,,)tfv,f ., liJ, n nf l )n) ,n ,i .y f e lgyV f ' mi}i " ,r ij}ii}ii iiir .j.in.-iin.i i «„,,„,,,,, ,„, ,,i ,,,•• i, ,»ii ,,„,,.,, rm. The Panama Pacific Expo- ' 71 sition has brought to our notice one of the most inter- esting and eminently successful of our Old Boys. He is Alfred J. Deck, who was a student here in the early seven- ties. He comes to the Fair as an honor- ary member of the commission of the Argentine Republic. When Mr. Deck ' s school days came to a close, he sailed before the mast and wandered far from his native Califor- nia. He sailed the Pacific, sought for- tune and adventure in Chile, Peru, and later, in that prosperous republic of the southern continent, which now sends him to the World ' s Fair. At its capital, Buenos Aires, our youthful adventurer settled and seized an opportunity to enter the real estate business. His sub- sequently acquired fortune amply shows the sagacity of this step. Today he is known the length and breadth of Argentina, not by his American name, Alfred J. Deck, but as " Don Alfredo " . Although Mr. Deck has not set foot on soil belonging to the United States since 1872, he has in the long interval ever retained his American citizenship and a devotion for his native state. In a recent interview he said, " During the past four years I have been the Pan- am,i Pacific International Exposition ' s unofficial booster in South America. " His very heart and soul are in the Ex- position. ,- ' ■- " Don Alfredo " , as he laughingly in- sists that he be called, attended Santa Clara with the late Senator Stephen M. White, James F. Smith, ex-Governor General of the Philippines, and many others who have since become famous in their chosen careers. Mr. and Mrs. Deck will remain in San Francisco during the entire Expo- sition aud we hope to welcome them to Santa Clara. ' 08 Francis M. Heffernan, ' 08, is now enjoying an extend- ed honeymoon throughout the eastern states. On the 3rd of Feb- ruary he was married in St. Agnes Church, in San Francisco, to Miss Flor- ence Elizabeth Warren. The bride is from one of the best 244 THE REDWOOD 245 fainilies of the Exposition City, and is a direct descendant of General Warren, the martyr of Bunker Hill. In few, if any former weddings, have the parties contracting and officiating, been so intimately connected with San- ta Clara. Rev. Robert O ' Connor, ' 08, a classmate of the groom, celebrated the nuptial mass. Still another alumnus, John H. Riordan, ' 05, served as best man, and Frank Warren, Ex. ' 13, a brother of the bride, was in attendance. Both the bride and her sister. Miss Ger- trude Warren, who acted as brides- maid, are graduates of the Santa Clara Academy of Notre Dame. The matron of honor, Mrs. John H. Riordan, is the wife of an alumnus. And besides, the young couple have the hearty congratulations and best wishes of the University ' s faculty, alumni and students. The Heffernans intend to spend six weeks or more on their wedding trip. On returning Frank will resume con- trol of the building and contracting firm of Heffernan, Mattonavich Co., which he is leaving in the hands of his partner. ' 11 Another ' s heart strings have been touched by the God Hymen. This recent bene- dict is John Irilarry, ' 11. His wedding, too, will bring memories of his Alma Mater, for the union between himself and Miss Margaret Patterson Doolit- tle, was performed here in Saint Claire ' s Parish by Rev. R. H. Brainard, S. J., who was John ' s teacher in his un- dergraduate days. The ceremony took place on St. Valentine ' s Day. The bride is from Connecticut, and has been residing in San Francisco, where her father is cashier of the First National Bank. Jack has been in the banking business since leaving school. He now holds a responsible position with the French Bank in the Metropo- lis. Arthur Watson, Ex. ' 12, re- Ex. ' 12 cently dropped in to visit his brother, Ernest Watson, S. J., Ex. ' 11, who is now a teacher in our preparatory department and Mod- erator of Second Division Athletics. Arthur is following Civil and Hydro- Electric Engineering. Plis home is in Quincy, Plumas County, which offers ample opportunities in Engineering. Before returning north Arthur intends to see both the San Francisco and the San Diego Fairs. The State Legislature is Ex. ' 12 now in session at Olympia, Washington, and William M. Connor, a Santa Clara student of 1900 and thereabouts, is Speaker of its House. Mr. Connor was elected almost unanimously. He is very popular and gives promise of being one of the best Speakers the State has ever had. Speaker Connor is a brother of Guy W. Connor, A. B. 1900, whose visit to 246 THE REDWOOD the University we have recently noted in these columns. Two other brothers, Frank and Louis, also received their early training here. ' 13 Few of our recent gradu- ates have preserved such a consistent interest in Santa Clara and all her activities, athletic and otherwise, as Robert J. Flood, of the class of 1913. Bob manages very frequently to get away from his busi- ness in San Francisco, and give us a taste of his genial disposition. One Sunday in the middle of February, he and a party of friends motored down to see the Varsity Base Ball Team in ac- tion. They also spent a portion of the day at the Sacred Heart Novitiate at Los Gatos, Avhere a number of Bob ' s old schoolmates are pursuing ecclesias- tical studies. Our former Rugby star is now in the real estate business with Jas. R. Keith Co., of San Francisco, and doing well. " We admire Bob ' s tact in choos- ing an avocation so well suited to his talents. recognition of meritorious work with the Barbarian team, that club has awarded him a very attractive minia- ture gold foot ball, which, by the way, we notice suspended from a Block S. C. watchfob. Harry always did hold Santa Clara above all else. Harry Curry, ' 13, was ' 13 among the visitors to the University within the month. He is now residing with his mother in Point Richmond, where he is employed by the Standard Oil Com- pany in his chosen field of engineering. Our plucky little wing of the 1912 team has had two very successful sea- sons at Rugby since leaving school. In ' 14 At a late meeting of the As- sociated Students it was de- cided to award certificates to all Varsity men desiring them. This applies to those who have left Santa Clara, as well as those now in attend- ance, and to a ll who have been award- ed first team emblems, irrespective of the particular branch of their endeav- ors. The committee in charge has de- signed and had printed a very artistic certificate which, on every hand, has called forth praise for the aesthetic taste of the committeemen. A nominal fee of fifty cents is being charged to help defray the cost of the parchment. It seems worthy of mention that there was not a Varsity man about the cam- pus without one of these beauties the second day after they became obtain- able. Those wishing to secure one of these remembrances can do so by writing to Student Body President Milburn, stat- ing the department or departments of athletics in which the Block S. C. was awarded, the year of award, and where l ossible, the names of captain of the team. Moderator of Athletics, and Stu- dent Body President at the time. BASE BALL NOTES. Owing to unusually inclement weather, the base ball team has had little or no opportunity of showing its ability against its rivals, and although two games are defeats, we can hardly recognize them as such. On Wednesday, January the twen- tieth, the Varsity journeyed to Palo Alto, where they met the Stanford Var- city. Hover of Stanford opposed Stew- art of Santa Clara, but errors at criti- cal moments proved disastrous for the varsity and Stanford was the victor by six to one. The varsity ' s only score came in the third inning, when B. Fitzpatrick reached first on a walk. Sheehan sac- rificed him safely to second and Mont- gomery scored him on a terrific drive to center field. Owing to the lateness of the hour at which the game com- menced the umpire was forced to call it at the end of the fifth inning, on account of darkness. Eichmond Athletics 5. Santa Clara 4. In a poor exhibition of base ball, the Richmond Athletics defeated the var- sity by a score of 5 to 4. During the first seven innings Pitch- ers Hickey and Manouch did well, and the opposing batsmen were helpless. In the second half of the second in- ning Hawkes successfully earned a walk, was saci-ificed to second by Coyle; he scored on B. Fitzpatrick ' s hard hit drive into left center. The game progressed nicely until the eighth inning, when poor playing de- feated the varsity. Laird walked. Iredale sacrificed 247 248 THE REDWOOD Laird to second. Hickey threw to sec- ond, but Laird had reached there safely before the throw. McHenry walked, filling the bases. Here Brown hit safe- ly to left field, scoring three runs, and Brown scored on Benn ' s sacrifice. The varsity had an excellent oppor- tunity to score in their half of the eighth inning, when Sheehan hit safely and Montgomery walked; but inability to hit safely resulted in no score. The real excitement arrived in the final half of the ninth inning, when Hawkes walked and Joe Fitzatriek, batting for Hickey, was also walked. Then Coyle walked too, filling the bases. Here McGinnis hit to Brown, who let the ball go through him scor- ing two runs. Schultz was hit by a pitched ball. Montgomery sent a high fly into center, scoring Coyle, but Mc- Ginnis was caught stealing third. Ram- age ended the game by hitting into left field. The features of the contest was the clever fielding of McGinnis and Mont- gomery, Avhile B. Pitzpatrick and Hawkes hit well. Santa Clara Second Varsity 4. Stanford Second Varsity 5. In a rather ragged game, in which but little hitting was done, the Second Varsity went down to defeat, being beaten by the Stanford Seconds by a score of 5-4. Stanford scored two runs in the first inning and the S. C. Sec- onds succeeded in bringing in a run on a hit by Joe Fitzpatriek, and a three- base hit by Coyle. In the fifth the score stood 2-1 in favor of Stanford, when Desmond singled and then Weeks who relieved Anderson in the box, in the fifth, walked four men in succes- sion. Before the inning was over three runs had scored, a passed ball by the catcher letting in one run. Hennessy, for the S. C. Seconds, pitched a good game, and all went well until the fatal seventh, when two Stanford men sin- gled and Hennessy filled the bases by a walk. Then, at this psychological moment, a hard hit ball managed to pass through Coyle, (vi ' ho had been changed from first to short in the fifth to let Desmond get into the game). As a seven inning game had been agreed upon, the game was over. Desmond carried away the batting honors for the S. C. Seconds, getting a hit the two times he was at bat. Mul- ford, for Stanford, hit two safeties. Score H R B S. C. 2nd 4 4 4 Stanford 2nd 7 5 2 JUNIOR BASS BALL NOTES. Reviving their past successes in Rug- by, the Juniors have again been for- tunate in securing Mr. Gianera as their Moderator in Base Ball. He is an earn- est and zealous worker and has already taken up his new office with vim. The team organized February eigh- teenth and is looking forward to a very prosperous seas on under the guidance of " Pete " Cunningham, who was re- cently elected captain. Owing to a new ruling in the school by which the Juniors will be a strictly THE REDWOOD 249 High School team several veterans will be lost, amongst others Ginnochio, last year ' s captain. However, with eight veterans as a nucleus, and several new men, who are showing up well, it looks as though the heavy schedule that is being arranged will be well taken care of. " Joe " Bush of last year ' s team will find a worthy opponent in young Pitz- patriek, who comes from Redwood with a high reputation. Berg and Samani- ego will again bear the burden in the box. Of last year ' s infield Captain Cunningham at short and Geha at first look good. Diaz, Dietrick, Pradere and Heafey are very promising among the new material, to say nothing of pos- sible dark horses. In the outfield we find two of last year ' s standbys, How- ard and Amaral. Among the new ma- terial, Gallagher, Dodge and Dana show up well. In all the team appears to be one of great capabilities, and many surprises are in store before the final line-up is announced. BASKET BALL NOTES. Though in previous years a sport not calling forth much enthusiasm or spirit basket ball this season has created a new interest among the students. Every game played on our court found the entire seating capacity well filled. To Student-Manager Nicholson every one feels greatly indebted for his arranging so complete a schedule with the best teams of California. Taught by Coach Mulholland, the team has diligently labored, and at present displays perfect harmony in passing rushes and accurate -throws. Though defeated by the Olympic Club for the championship of California b y a score of 35 to 30, the press writers thought our quintet excellent. Santa Clara 35. Stanford 27. The first intercollegiate basket ball game in which the varsity engaged this season resulted in a victory over Stan- ford by a score of 35 to 27. From the first whistle until the last the game was hard fought and the spectators claim it the fastest and best game ever played here. The old spirit of rivalry was unusually keen, and though every minute was a strenuous one and both teams were busy, there was no rough play. Immediately after the game began, Schultz threw a basket from a very difficult angle. Play continued for five minutes, with no scoring owing chiefly to the fact that both teams were overly anxious and somewhat nervous. Stanford ' s forwards, " Worthy and Dutton, each successfully scored two baskets before the varsity scored their fourth point. Here Byler threw two baskets, and Voight won the applause of the spectators by throwing three baskets from exceedingly difficult po- sitions and from a great distance. The combined harmony of Curtin, Voight and Byler in passing, coupled with Mulholland ' s clever dodging and Schultz ' s accurate throwing greatly pleased the onlookers. 250 THE REDWOOD The teams lined up as follows: Sauta Clara : Mulhollaud and Cur- tin, guards; Voight, center; Byler, Schultz. Stanford: Regonalds, Dolan, gtiards ; Blodgett, Caughey, guards; Worthy, Button, forwards. Referee, Don Walker. Olympic Club 35. Santa Clara 31. In one of the fastest and hardest fought games ever played on the Oak- land Y. M. C. A. court, the Olympic Club, the present champions of Califor- nia defeated the varsity by the narrow margin of four points. From the blowing of the whistle the varsity pressed the champions at every stage of the game. Kemp and Gilbert, two veterans of basket ball fame, were excellent for the champions, while Korte and Curtin cleverly intercepted many passes and worked well together. Voight, Mul- holland and Schultz played their usual heady game and A ere responsible for the points made. Santa Clara 42. Stanford 21. In our final game of the intercolle- giate series with Stanford, the varsity took an overwhelming victory by the proud score of 42 to 21. The first half was hard fought and both teams proved very inaccurate in scoring. Mulhollaud proved the first to score and Stanford " came back " when Worthy and Button added eight points. After a lead of eight to two, Voight added six points and Schultz four. The end of the half found Stanford leading by a score of 13 to 12. At the opening of the second half Mulhollaud and Schultz threw eight baskets in four minutes. The combined team work of Korte and Curtin as guards, with Voight ' at rtenter, was perfect, and the snappy passes received by Mulhollaud and Schultz enabled them to add nuiny points to our score. The lineup : Santa Clara — Mulhol- laud, Curtin, guards ; Voight, center ; Bjder, Schultz, forwards. Stanford — Regonalds, Dolan, guards; Blodgett, Caughey, center; Worthy, Button, for- wards. Referee — Bon Walker. Other victories easilj won by the var- sity were: Santa Clara 48, Watson- ville 17 ; Sauta Clara 49, S. F. All Stars 14. TRACK PROSPECTS. Immediately after our return from tlie holidays Captain Jim Fitzpatrick nuide his first call for track athletics and a good number responded. Among the new men who bid well to establish new records for the Univer- sity are Johnson, Hawkes, Wallace, and Keene Fitzpatrick. Johnson, the individual star of last year ' s " Interscholastic Field Meet " captured the 100 yard dash and 220 yard dash easily, and tied the record in the latter event. From his present condition of speed, we all expect a ban- ner year from him. " Bullet " Hawkes, as he is known among his admirers from Oakland, was THE REDWOOD 251 Johnson ' s nearest competitor last year. With these men competing, Santa Clara will have two formidable contenders. " Wallace is particularly noted for his versatile agility in the sprints, broad jump, pole vault and high jump, and he will undoubtedly be the best point mak- er on the team. Keene Fitzpatrick, with his record in the 880 yard run and mile run, expects to lower the present record consider- ably. To judge from his records estab- lished at Notre Dame, the feat will be accomplished. Among the veterans. Captain Fitz- patrick is undoubtedly supreme as a hurdler. Although he established a new record in the Santa Clara-Nevada annual track meet last year, Fitz ex- pects to lower that record this year. Gianella was the sudden surprise in the 880 yard dash last year and with coaching and experience this year. Bill will be among the varsity ' s best com- petitors. McLaughlin also is a man worth watching in this event. In the weights Kiely, the amateur world ' s record holder in the 56-pound shot for height, has been earnestly training for several months in the shot and hammer as Mike is anxious to be selected as a member of All-American Track Team. Coschina, as a hammer thrower is the best man who ever represented the Uni- versity. Among the pole vaulters, George Don- ahue looms up as the strongest contend- er for championship honors, if his last year ' s performers can be taken as a criterion, when he cleared eleven feet six inches the day he made his debut in intercollegiate circles. George Al- len, another of last year ' s novices in the pole vault, has also been making phenomenal strides in his favorite event. Jimmy Curtin, of football fame, is expected to be a sure point winner in the dash events. Curtin, while attend- ing the University of Nevada, Avas ' ' the class " of the sagebrush state. The old and reliable Crane is again bedecked in the abbreviated costume and any evening he may be found pounding on the track in veteran style. NOTES FROM THE PIONEER MOUNTAIN LEAGUE. Immediately after the holidays Fr. Moi ' ton ' s famous Mountain League was revived. From the " pep " already manifested it would appear that last year ' s record will be surpassed. As last year, the league is composed of three teams, the " Mudhens " led by " Pinkie " Kavanagh, the " Dead Ones " managed by Marinovich, and the Hicks driven by " Moose " Korte, in the absence of Avoirdupois Gaffey. Already eleven games have been play- ed and at the present Avriting the " Mudhens lead, followed closely by the Hicks, with the " Dead Ones " an easy contender for the position their name calls for. However, to encourage his men, Gaf- fey has sent a wireless promising that as soon as he returns and takes charge 252 THE REDWOOD his Hicks will be assured of the trip to Villa Maria at the end of the season. To date " King " Diaz leads the stick- ers, with Bud O ' Neil hot on his trail. The only cloud on the league ' s hori- zon, is the difficulty " Tony " Boone is experiencing in settling the various unfair charges brought against Pinkie Kavanagh by the rival managers. But, relying upon the authority of " Rex vs. Regina " cited in the Roman reports, Tony assures Pinkie no injury will be inflicted and no fine imposed. Dana, Ed Nicholson and Ench are three invincible pitchers, who, by their fast breaking curves hold the opposing teams to small scores. MIDGET LEAGUE. The Midget League was organized soon after the new semester began. Frank Doud was elected to manage the Monterey club, while the pennant hopes of Vernon will be taken care of by Capt. Frank Conneally, and Oxnard is to be managed by Capt. Benny Wil- liams. Owing to the long continued rains since Christmas, the league is rather be- hind its schedule of forty-five games, but with one week of good weather and a few hours of play between storms nine games have been played up to the present. The race this season promises to be the closest in years, for the teams are as closely grouped as they can be with- out a tie. Oxnard has a slight lead at present with Vernon and Monterey tied. So after the Exposition holidays there is going to be a lively race for the pennant. A marked improvement has taken place in the fielding of most of the players and the same is true of the pitching. Amaral, Borchard, Wilson, Doud and Conneally have all pitched three-hit games. As a consequence of this only a few players have a very good batting average. Dieringer has been the most consistent, his average being .416, then follow Gomez .391, Borchard .333, Doud .292 and B. Wil- liams .286. Among the fielders Conneally leads with an excellent average of .973, next is Gomez .937, Amaral .935, R. Williams .929, Borchard .924. Most of the games have been close and interesting. The last played re- sulted in an eleven inning, one to one, tie, between Monterey and Vernon. Monterey scored first, in the fourth in- ning on a walk and Doud ' s two-bagger, Vernon saved themselves from defeat in the eighth when Kavanagh singled, and stole and scored on Dieringer ' s hit. Doud and Amaral allowed only four hits, and the fielding was first-class, with the result that the eleven innings were played in the short time of an hour and thirty-five minutes. The good material in the league makes the outlook for a fast All Star team bright. The old members of last year ' s team elected Doud, captain, and Wil- son, manager; these, together with B. Williams, Conneally and Dieringer will go far towards making another suc- cessful team this year. THE REDWOOD : % ! AH Leathers The New OSSETTS FOR SPRING Are here— Tans and Black — in both high and low cuts. The new spring heel tan. English leads these clever new styles All Styles 1 -16 S. First Street San Jose, Cal. And everything else for COUGHS and COLDS S Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60 ; Santa Clara 99J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose V. Salberg E. Gaddl Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. : THE REDWOOD : T iJLI — £5 u — I When you buy WALK-OVER SHOES you get 40 years of experi- ence done up in tliem. Wliy try stioes ttiat you do not know, wfien you can buy WALK-OVERS in any part of the globe. Universally Popular. " Don ' t get discouraged, get Walk-Overs " The " Critic " AT THE Opposite O ' Brien ' s 41-43 South First Street San Jose, Cal. feOVEFL Age " s for WALK-OVER and HURLEY SHOES Franklin St. Santa Clara We promise you relief from ail Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box Only at |v £)£)e|sj ' 3 PHARMACY GENT ' S FURNISHINGS MADE-TO-ORDER AND READY-MADE SUITS, MEN ' S AND BOYS ' SHOES, GENERAL MERCHANDISE, HARDWARE, PAINTS Give US your next suit order. Lafayette and Franklin Streets Phone S. C. 120 : z THE REDWOOD. See the Spring Clothing At Billy Hobson ' s — fine new line of English cuts just from the East. Latest neckwear and hats 24 SOUTH FIRST ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. BILLY HOBSON San Jose Typewriter Company 24 South Second Street Special Rates to Students EXCLUSIVE SERVICE Typewriters and Supplies WE RENT SELL REPAIR REBUILD EXCHANGE ALL MAKES Phone. San Jose 349 SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery.? RATES TO STUDENTS USHNEL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. z THE REDWOOD CAN ' S AL S 615 Phelan Bldg., San Francisco Special facilities for Fine Presentation Medals Phones : Office S. C. 151 J Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara GEO. UN CO. Chop Suey and Noodles Site of old Postoffice Main Street Santa Clara EVERYBODY IS WELCOME to the SantaClara Coffee Club Come and enjoy its privileges. It ' s a public place, and a place for the public. They all enjoy a visit to the Club. M. R. GLEASON, Manager. Barbers Main Street, Santa Clara F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara DROWN Shave Shop GIVE US A TRIAL Room 512 Clock Building Take Elevator to 5th floor Wrist Watches Diamond Pendants A full assortment of Nice Goods at Geo. W. Ryder Son THE REDWOOD K Don ' t Wear Glasses Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect P o MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists 50c; by mail 65c Established 20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latlgo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara California Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE MARK CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS T r Colonica s Ice Cream i Wholesale AND Candies Telephone S. C. 35 R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara AND Retail : THE REDWOOD +. ■ .+. Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' JHestaurant, Grill and Oyster Souse 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " K. L rbani Son TAILORS CLEANING AND REPAIRING A SPECIALTY Main Street Santa Clara Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps THE REDWOOD Z Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice SANTA CLARA iC Franl lin St. Santa Clara Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. Billiard Parlor GEO. E. MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2% Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara Z h THE REDWOOD Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Cliildren Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards TPlPnhnnPs- ' ' ■ " y 5 FRED W. SALTER, Proprietor lelepnones. . THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. P. Montmayeur E. Lamolle J. Orlglia Lamoile Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD : We Have the Greatest Exclusive Line of strictly YOUNG MEN ' S CLOTHES in this part of the country, and if smart dashy models and colors corres- pondingly clever count with you, then it ' s our Young Men ' s Clothes you should wear. $15, $20, $25 and $30 Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes Spring 0, inr. Santa Clara and Market Streets MET HOFF KAYSER vet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. SUIT CASES PURSES fu(At " freooos of 9i Ai ry 83-61 South First St, San Jose, Cal; LEATHER NOVELTIES SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT ' HOME OF STETSON HATS " SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON THE REDWOOD When oing Go via the " The Sunset Route J } --Oti= THE SUNSET LIMITED THE IDEAL TRIP FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR Through Standard Sleepers Through Personally Conducted Tourist Sleepers Take a trip by sea from New Or- leans to New York, with no addi- tional expense. Meals and berth on steamer without extra cost Rail and Steamship Tickets Sold to all Points A. A. HAPGOOD E. SHILLINGSBURG City Ticket Agent Dis. Pass. Agent 40— East Santa Clara Street — 40 s : TtIC RCDWOOD April, 1915 THE REDWOOD : University of Santa SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD : The Co-Operative Store of tKe University of Santa Clara invites its friends to inspect tkeir complete line of College Novelties ana Jewelry v?nicn will be on display during the montk of May SANTA CLARA PENNANTS PILLOWS PLACQUES THE REDWOOD. ii The Hastings ?? New Styles in Young Men ' s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies Di, -. Sutter 4220 P ' ' ' » " n Sutter 4221 Smith, Lynden Co. WHOLESALE GROCERS BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER CUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co. WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD — ft; Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara _, _, , , _ . Low Round Trip Rates for Ine bleCtriC Way week-ends and Holidays THROUGH THE oacramento swift-safe-service Valley Oakland, Antioch and Eastern Railway Between San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Colusa, Oroville, Chico, Marysville, Woodland and Valley points Observation Cars Automatic Block Signals TICKET OFFICES : Convenient Train Schedules San Francisco, Oakland, Prompt and Reliable Key Route Ferry Fortieth and Shafter Ave. Freight Service Phone Sutter 2339 Phone Piedmont 870 ' ■ .... ' 1 THE REDWOOD Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company PHOTO ENGRAVING ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ! Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD I beg to inform the students that I have opened a first-class Tailoring Establishment with a complete line of woolens. Suits from $25.00 up A. BROCKM AN (Late cutter for leading college tailors in San Francisco) Rooms 5-6-7 Safe Deposit Bank Bldg. First and Santa Clara Streets SAN JOSE, CAL. ANNOUCNEMENT The Walk-Over Boot Shop Wishes to announce to the men of this University and their friends that they have out-grown their rnimmmn ' mmm present location, and after APRIL FIRST, will conduct a much larger and up-to-date bootery in their new location 125 South First Street (Next to Prussia ' s Cloak and Suit House) Thanking you for the past favors and trusting you will honor us with your valued patronage in our new home. THE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA American Fish Market R«.dencePhon " eVjV7y? Wholesale and Retail Dealers In FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market f. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 74-76 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocl er, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilientlial Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4tii Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton Z THE REDWOOD •ij: Get Your SDring S at The White House 16 -22 - VVCBA NT £ L A R A STiR EE T; SOLE AGENTS FOR CLOTHES $15.00 to $35.00 See the New Self-conforming Straw Hats Admission 10 cents; Cliildren 5 cents At all times March 31 and April 1, " Neptune ' s Daughter " April 2 and 3. " The Quest " April 4, 5 and 6. " Stop Thief " April 7 8. " Hearts and Flowers " April 9 and 10. " The Battle of the Sexes, or Th@ Single Standard " April 11, 12 and 13. " The Nigger " April 14 and 15. " The Lost House " April 16 and 17. " The Devil " April 18, 19 and 20. " From the Val- ley of the Missing " April 21 and 22. " A Fool There Was " April 23 and 24. " The Truth Waffon " April 25, 26 and 27. " Anna Kare- nina " April 28 and 29. " The Hound of the Baekerville ' s " A Keystone Comedy with each change of program CONTENTS EASTER - - - - - - E. C. THE JESUIT REDUCTIONS OF PARAGUAY EdiTiLind F. Bradley THE LAST PRAYER IN THE FOG THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA SPRING - _ - THE WALLED CITY IN SILENCE AND ALONE EDITORIALS EXCHANGES UNIVERSITY NOTES ALUMNI ATHLETICS Edward L, Nicholson F. Buckley McGurrin L. Louis Gairaud J. C. Murphy Walter P. Howard Victor Cresalia 25J 2S4 260 2til 266 271 272 284 285 288 292 295 297 LU K J _l m u ( ) m - H Entered Dec. 18. 1902. at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., APRIL, 1915 NO. 6 EASTER Bees on tKe buds of clover, Butterflies snunning tne aew ; Lenten season is over--- WKat is over witK you ? Birdlings Kave fledged and fluttered, Gleaned is tne winnowed snow ; Gone is tKe prayer we uttered— WKitKer ; say, do you know? Service is over, and still is Tne voice in the leaping bells ; But tke voice on tKe lip of tKe lilies- Can you Kear wKat it tells ? Is a joy once over forgotten ? Is summer tKe end of rain? Is a birtKday over and ended TKougK it comes again? Did you ever bury a sorrow WKen tKe stars ' dead face was gone? WKen tKe dusk grays into a morrow, Is it really done? Into tKe silent places Comes nigKt witK a kindly Kand, To lift tKe face of tKe daisies- Do you understand ? E. C. THE JESUIT REDUCTIONS OF PARAQUAY HE Jesuit Reductions of South America were missions and set- tlements combined, not unlike those found- ed in California by the early Franciscans. The Settlements were situated throughout the Spanish possessions and on part of the territory of Portugal. The Jesuits first came to South Am- erica on the invitation of the Bishop of Tucuman, a Dominican, who, though his labors had been ceaseless, could ac- complish little in his tropical diocese. The great reputation and remarkable success of the Jesuits in Europe and other missions, without doubt influ- neced him to make this appeal. The difficulties were truly formid- able ; the native Indians were ignor- ant and barbarous to an astonishing degree, some tribes were devourers of human flesh, all roamed through the forest like beasts without a home and subsisted on the game they captured. Many tribes Avere victims of most de- grading vices ; intoxication from a liquor of their own manufacture was most common. Though the tribes were closely related to one another, they spoke over thirty distinct dialects, a fact which made their conversion a Herculean task. When the Spaniards founded planta- tions they seized as many of these sav- ages as they needed and forced them into a condition equivalent to slavery. The evil example of the Europeans sadly corrupted the Indians, and the ill treatment received made them suspi- cious and wary so that they plunged still deeper into the forests. It was not long before the Jesuits realized how hopeless was the task of converting the Indians if they should live in slavery, and model their lives after the shameless masters. They per- ceived that colonies (generally termed Reductions) afforded the best, and in truth the only means, of really con- verting the Indians and preserving them in the faith. Here they would be shielded from the attacks of slave hunt- ers, ignorant of the foreigner ' s vices, and under the best of guidance. For- tunately Philip III of Spain was really zealous for the conversion of the na- tives, and from Ms decree that the In- dians who became Christians could not be made slaves the Reductions derived their first and most substantial aid. In 1602, it was decided that an attempt should be made to induce the Indians to cease their nomadic habits and set- tle down to a regular existence. Fath- ers Maceta and Cataldina founded the first Reduction in Northwestern Para- 254 THE REDWOOD 255 guay in 1609. By 1630 six others had been established in the adjacent ter- ritory. From the first this project of tlie Jes- uits was most strenuously opiiosed by the Spaniards, who profited from the labor of Indians, by those who carried on a slave trade and even by worldly minded ecclesiastics. Biit since the Pope, and the King of Spain supported the missionaries, the opposition availed little. In reaching the natives, learning their language, the fathers had a task worthy of their zeal, and not a few lost their lives. The climate was new, hot, and in many places unhealthful. Dis- agre eable and noxious insects filled the air. The Indians themselves, their only knowledge of white men having been gained through intercourse with the Spaniards, whose characters were not exemplary, grew treacherous and dis- trustful. The Reductions were found on high, healthful situations where the land was fertile, and if possible near a naviga- ble river. All the streets of the town lay at right angles to one another. The converted Indians ' dwellings consisted of long, one story buildings, made from adobe or stone. Wickerwork separated them into compartments for each fam- ily. These houses surrounded a large yard, or plaza, in front of which stood the church, fathers ' house and also a structure lodging the sick and those without support. Mills, workshops and buildings of a similar nature were sit- uated a short distance out of the vil- lage. As might be expected, the chief occu- pation was agriculture. But the Indi- ans did not fall into a peaceful pastoral life at once. They were the most indo- lent creatures imaginable, without the slightest knowledge of anything per- taining to farming, and their lives in the forests had no trace of regularity. The fathers themselves had to plow, harvest the crops, and care for herds of cattle, while the Indians looked on, never thinking at first of offering as- sistance. The neophytes (as the con- verted Indians were called) were at length persuaded to exert themselves. The fathers did this without any harshness or show of authority. In all dealings with the natives mildness and charity had been shown to be wonder- fully effective, and force woefully futile. Property, for the most part, was held in common. However, each Indian re- ceived a tract more than sufficient to supply himself and his family with maize, vegetables and the cotton from which gai ' ments were made. The maize and other cereals were ground at a common mill. The draught cattle, and agricultural implements used were communal prop- erty. In addition there was a large field called Tupamba or God Land, the prod;ice of Avhich supported the needy, supplied provisions to be stored away against the possibility of a famine, and furnished seed for the ensuing year. 256 THE REDWOOD To its cultivation each man, except the artisans, devoted two days of labor a vi eek. The richness of the plains in grass made possible the possession of magnificent herds of cattle. Bees they had in abundance, and the forests con- tained treasures of aromatic resins and valuable woods. From this it can be seen that the material prosperity of the Reductions was indeed enviable. The women did domestic woi ' k, and spun the cloth for the clothes of the family. Since many of the Reductions were inhabited by over 6000 neophytes, mechanics and artisans were quite a necessity. The natives filled these po- sitions capably. Though they pos- sessed little or no originality, they were perfect imitators. The buildings con- structed were really excellent, as some of the ruins indicate. The artisans and mechanics drew their support from the common field above mentioned. Meat, supplied from the common slaughter-house several times a week, was the chief article of food. The fathers at first had difficulty in pre- venting the Indians from devouring their allowance the day they received it. To meat was added, of course, what each individual raised on his plot, so that one ' s fare depended, to some ex- tent, on his industry. Necessity de- manded that intoxicants should be strictly prohibited. The beverage of greatest use was Paraguay tea, brewed from a native herb. It is said to have been quite tasty. The neophytes wore simple garments, ustially white in color. In some locali- ties, where the use of dyes was known, colored garments were used for festal occasions. The Indians were, at best, no more than grown-up children. To maintain the remarkably good order which char- acterized the Reductions, the strictest routine had to be observed. But they were never treated as inferiors or with contempt. Neither Europeans nor In- dians corrupted by their lives on plan- tations were allowed to come in contact with the neophytes. From this external source came the chief dangers to the morality of the Reductions. At day- break each morning the children as- sembled and received instructions in Christian doctrine. The whole popula- tion attended Mass at sunrise, and then dispersed to their respective employ- ments, the majority going to the fields. The more responsible Indians went to outlying plantations, reported any cases of idleness and the general state of affairs. During the day the sexes were segregated. At regular hours the neophytes enjoyed a period of recrea- tion, which was often supervised by the fathers. Gambling never found a place in the Reductions. At evening the children again came for catechism, which was followed by Rosary and prayers participated in by all. The division of labor was most just. None were idle and none overburdened with labor. On the whole the Indians con- ducted themselves admirably, especial- ly in view of their former environment. Penalties for slight transgression (gen- erally idleness), were fasting, or, if THE REDWOOD 257 something at all grievous had been committed, a short period of imprison- ment. For even the most serious crimes capital punishment was never invoked. Criminals were banished or handed over to secular authority. Sunday saw the church decoi-ated beautifully. The Indians displayed re- markable musical ability. Visitors said the music at Mass in these tropical mis- sions would not have been out of place in the grandest cathedrals of Spain. The great feasts of the church occa- sioned large celebrations. Flowers were everywhere, the Indians attired them- selves in colored apparel, and marched in procession to the church for celebi a- tion of High Mass. Later, they held games at which the fathers acted as umpires to prevent ill feeling. Each Reduction was a small republic. The election of the chief official, known as the Corregidor, who acted as the representative of the King ' s viceroy in South America, along with the elections of minor officers, took place annually. But the fathers were the real regulators of the village. Nothing of any import- ance took place without their approval and assistance. They were at once spiritual fathers, legislators, doctors, and protectors to the Indians. Their mildness and charity made them the objects of universal affections. No gold or silver circulated in the Reduction, and consequently greed and avarice found no place. The father bought the necessary agricultural im- plements and articles manufactured in Europe with the produce of the plan- tation. The most remarkable thing about the missions was the behavior of the neo- phytes. They had been taken from a life of continual warfare, nevertheless they became models of Christian char- ity. Though all had some idea of a Deity, and a few performed superstiti- ous rites, there were none, to whom the practice of religion was not completely new. They accustomed themselves to a regular routine of labor, such as they could never have conceived in the sav- age state. Their submission to the fathers was complete, their obedience well nigh perfect, though they had not previously known restraint of any kind. This was probably in no small share due to the fact that authority did not array itself with human dignity or arrogance, all was made the sweet will of God. In a short time, the savages, condemned by most men as hopelessly ignorant and vicious, attained an almost incredible degree of civilization. The converted Indians showed great eagerness to persuade their brothers in the forest to take up their abode in the Reductions. When a father started into the wilderness to find and convert new tribes, twenty or thirty Indians accom- panied him who did their utmost to in- duce the savages to become Christians. In 1635, after many flourishing colo- nies had been destroyed, permission Avas obtained for the use of arms in the Reductions. Fierce bands of Mamel- ukes, sprung from a mixture of the 258 THE REDWOOD Portuguese and Indian races, often in league with the slave-traders and bands of savages from the forest, had swarm- ed upon the prosperous settlements, jjillaging, and putting to the sword the neophytes whom they did not sell into slavery. In 1630 six Reductions were burned, and altogether 80,000 Christian Indians suffered death or slavery. The constant peril of such a fate made it necessary to train the Indians in the use of arms until they could repel at- tacks upon their homes. Moreover, on several occasions, signal services to the Spanish army against the Mamelukes were rendered by the neophytes. And now we come to a most regret- able chapter in history of the Reduc- tions. They had existed one hundred and fifty years and at the end of that time sheltered many thousands of hap- py Indians. A s might be expected, the slave traders and plantation owners en- tertained a rancorous hatred for the Jesuits. Most unbelievable calumnies were circulated in Europe, and in the colonies. It was rumored that the Jesuits intended to revolt against the authority of Spain and Portugal and found an Empire for themselves, that the neophytes were in a most miserable condition of slavery, toiling to increase the wealth of their persecutors. The Society also had powerful and active enemies in the courts of Spain and Por- tugal, to whose interest it was that these reports should gain credence. There was a particularly persistent rumor that gold mines were operated in the Reductions. This report was be- lieved to a considerable extent in Por- tugal, and to gain the gold mines the enemies of the Jesuits engineered a treaty, w hereby Spain should cede to Portugal a strip of territory contain- ing seven Reductions (and also the mines) in exchange for a rich tract of land which had long been a source of dispute. When the affair w-as consum- mated, Portugal, whose government was administered by a bitter enemy of the Jesuits, ordered the Indians to withdraw from the territory acquired by the treaty. When the fathers told the Indians they must leave the Reductions, the only homes they ever had, all the sav- age traits seemed to return. They be- came furious and refused to leave. When the fathers pleaded with them to submit to the inevitable, the Indians be- came suspicious of their protectors and even rebelled. In several missions the fathers suf- fered violence at the hand of their charges. To augment the difficulty the Portuguese officials insisted that the Reductions should be vacated at once. To lead 30,000 Indians, includ- ing women, children, aged, and infirm, from their homes, i nto a tropical wil- derness, and there to start anew, the work of clearing forests, building, and planting, was indeed a task which re- quired a preparation of several years, and for which three months were granted. Once the Indians of several Reduc- tions had been induced to start out, but the difficulties disheartejied them, and THE REDWOOD 259 in spite of the entreaties of the fathers they returned to the Reductions. At last the Indians decided to offer resistance to the gross injustice. De- spite the opposition of the fathers 700 men were gathered. They invited the Indians of the other mission to assist them. It may be remarked, that had the missionaries desired, they could have put fifty thousand men in the field against their persecutors. How- ever the band was easily scattered by the Europeans, and the Indians were forced to return to the forests. Now that the Reductions were de- serted, the agents of Portugal searched everywhere for the gold mines, which existed only in the brains of the ene- mies of the Indians. This migration occurred in 1750. From that time the Jesuits were the victims of most malicious slander at home and in Europe. It was quite ap- parent that the powerful opponents would sooner or later succeed in bring- ing disaster upon them. The calamity occurred in 1767, when the feeble- minded King of Spain, Charles III, was persuaded to banish the missionaries from the colonies. By this decree the greatest fruit of Christian missionaries was completely destroyed. The peace- ful unoffending Indians were rendered homeless. Since then the absurd charges have been repeatedly disproven, and have not been believed by any unprejudiced person capable of a generous judge- ment. Later generations have recognized and given some measure of the praise due to the genius and labor which raised thousands of Indians from bar- barism and the most degrading vices to a state of innocence and happiness quite without example. A bishop on visiting the Reductions, impressed with their order and piety, said it was his be- lief that no grievous sin was committed throughout the whole year. The ma- terial prosperity of the people, their perfect contentment and freedom from care, made one think the golden age had again returned. The investigations of fair-minded historians and philosophers, without exception, have brought praise to the Reductions. The poet Southey declared it was the nearest approach to an Uto- pia. Voltaire and Montesquieun, who cannot be accused of partiality, ex- pressed warm admiration. These most famous of all Missions founded, as it were, with the Gospel as a constitution elevated the Indians from the lowest idolatry to a fervour and Christian charity resembling that of the primitive Christians. They have amply demonstrated the ability of Re- ligion to civilize, as armed attempt to coerce and conquer the Indians have shown the futility of other methods when unaided by Religion. Edward Bradley. THE LAST PRATER Where tne swirling Rappanannock Long neatn mossy banks nas run, Wnere the low-nung, dripping brancnes Sweet their leaves like avalanches, Bent as wearied oak, stood Mannoch, Last of Mohawk ' s stalwart sons. Clasped he held his wrinkled fingers, High his aged eyes were turned ; " Pity on me, Great, Good Spirit, And Thy answer, grant I hear it ; May it light the spark that lingers Ere the smouldering coals have burned. " May my spirit, tired of roaming. Rest within Thy hunting ground ; By the river ' s mossy edges. Where the trout lurk neath its ledges ; As a hunted pigeon homing— Now I seek my resting mound. " Thou, our haughty pride has bounded ; Silent is the warrior ' s call ; Far away the waters glisten On the dripping paddle ; listen— ' Tis our last dim echo sounded— On the canyon ' s farthest wall " EDWARD L. NICHOLSON 260 IN THE FOG HE shade of Sophocles seated itself upon a dark, moss-grown pile that over-hung the gloomy Styx. ' ' Beyond the shadow of a doubt, " remarked the venerable shade, " I shall contract a horrible cold from sitting here. The unhealthy air in the vicinity of the river is in itself sufficient; but when one takes into consideration the saturated condition of this out-of-date pile — " he sighed wearily, " If Charon would only insist upon having a concrete dock! " It had been his custom for a thous- and years or so to station himself from time to time upon this very pile, and from it observe the new-comers on en- tering Hades. On this particular occa- sion the ferry was some time over-due, and his spirits were otherwise unusual- ly low, owing to a slight cold in the head which was already causing him some inconvenience. Philosophical re- flection he felt to be out of the ques- tion, and he was inclined to flaunt his time-honored custom, and retire to his villa and a hot toddy in the Greek col- ony. Inwardly debating the point, he was about to decide for an immediate adjournment when Charon ' s antiquat- ed craft nosed up to the soggy landing place. Sophocles reluctantly reversed his decision, and without evincing any par- ticular interest began an inspection of the new arrivals. " Kankakee, III, " he muttered, label- ling a shade who tripped awkwardly on the edge of the boat in alighting, fum- bled with its hand-baggage, neglected to tip the ferry-man, and surveyed his surroundings in open-mouthed wonder. " Los Angeles, beyond a doubt, " as- serted the venerable sage, referring to a brisk, dapper shade who, with a slight cough, extended his hand to Cha- ron, and quickly engaged him in con- vex ' sation. After a Avord or two the old man ' s flowing whiskers began to sag weakly, and a moment later he was staggering beneath a mass of pamph- lets, papers, circular letters, and so on, ad infinitum. At both of these specimens Sopho- cles sniffed derisively. " If those Kankakee-ites could only bear in mind that they are out in the world at large, " he muttered petulant- ly, " and these Los Angeles boosters enter and remain peaceably, without going into tantrums over the Break- water, and San Pedro Harbor, and the Climate, and the Population, and their immeasurable superiority over their neighbors farther up the coast. Hades would be a really likeable place — al- though it ' s confoundedly damp. " For a few minutes longer Sophocles 261 262 THE REDWOOD contemplated the hurrying throng about him. Evidently there was little of interest there, for shortly he turned his back on the dock, and began to gaze into the world beyond the dark, slow- moving river. A little while he sat thus. Then he straightened up, read- justed his toga, swallowed two large black pills as preventative of rheuma- tism, and settled back with an air of expectation. And this is what he saw : There was a huge, fog-mantled city ; a mountainous tenement building, with innumerable sickly yellow eyes striving to pierce the surrounding gloom; a dimly lighted room high in its musty interior; a man and a woman. The room was plainly — almost shab- bily furnished. The man was pale, thin- featured, with glowing, deep-set eyes, and heavy rumpled hair. The woman was also pale, and trembled as she grasped the edge of a table to steady herself. She passed a thin, white hand over her moist fore-head as the man, savagely pacing the length of the worn carpet, hurled forth his angry words. " And I ' m through with you! " he was saying in heated, brutal tones, " through with you, and your helpless, clinging ways, and the pinching and scraping, and all this. " He flung an arm furiously at the room about them, and continued: " For one thing, I was never appreciated here. My dreams, my aspirations, my art— what did they mean to you ? Nothing ! Absolutely nothing ! And now achievement has come to me — recognition — triumph ! I ' ve won it myself — single-handed and alone. And I ' ll enjoy it — without you. " His voice was lower now. Its tense tones drij ped hatred, " So I ' m going to leave you, Mary. I ' m going to leave you — tonight ! ' ' She seemed to wilt further, and again wiped her brow. " Very well, Henry, " she murmured almost inaudibly, " if you wish it. What you ' ve just said is true — I never appreciated you. I was not on your plane, intellectually, or — oh well, " she spoke very slowly, as though unaware that the sounds she heard issued from her own pale lips, ' ' I never appreciated you. She will, no doubt, as I never could. " Her lifeless hand dropped to her side. " Who mentioned her? " he demand- ed fiercely, turning quickly and fix- ing his burning eyes on her expression- less face. " Don ' t you suppose I know where you are going from here? " she asked and laughed, a trifle hysterically. " Perhaps you do, and perhaps yovi don ' t. " He looked around the room, found his hat, and turned again to- wards her. He crossed the room to where she stood, slowly and deliberate- ly. He seized her frail hands, snatched them from her face, and glared into the depths of her stricken eyes. Then he laughed brutally. " And to think that I once loved you! " He laughed again, the same demon in it rendering it hideous. Then thrusting his hat upon his head, he THE REDWOOD 263 hurried out. The door banged heavily after him. The woman stood motionless as his heavy tread rang through the empty hall. The unsteady light played about her marble throat and face. Slowly her eyes closed. Then a huge sob con- vulsed her, and she slid to the floor, where she lay huddled up in a sad lit- tle heap. Sophocles shook his grizzled head sympathetically, and fortified himself with another of the large black pills. Then he resumed his gazing. There was the same huge, fog-man- tled city. This time the seer saw an- other room, dimly lighted, like the first ; but in this case the dimness serv- ed only to enhance the oriental grand- eur of the furnishings, rather than mer- cifully to conceal their barrenness. A subtle, elusive, semi-odor of incense lurked in the air. Half reclining in a huge leather chair was a woman; tall, darkly, pas- sionately beautiful. By her side tow- ered a heavy-set, well-groomed figure. His rather coarse face was crimson. The accusing finger he pointed at the cringing woman trembled violently. " And this is the end of it for us! " he said, speaking in thick tones: " Do you think me blind, for Heaven ' s sake 1 Don ' t you suppose I ' ve been hearing of your affair with this young writer — Henry Hamilton? Why, the whole town knov s it! My friends all speak of it to me — in their insinuating, dam- nable asinine way! I ' ve stood for it as long as any man could stand for such a thing. I ' ve had faith in you — yes, it ' s true. I ' ve tried to overlook it; tried to believe that it was only the inti- macy that would naturally follow be- tween you, he having written that new play of yours. But that ' s nonsense — I saw that, long ago. I ' m capable of bearing a good deal from you — you know that. But this is absolutely the breaking-point. And I ' m not the man to put up with it ! " The woman cowered beneath the venom of his words as under a whip- lash. At length she found voice to ask: " What do you intend doing? " " Doing? " he repeated, " what is there for me to do? Do you think for one moment that I could continue to live with you now, with this — tliis — • well, I ' m going to leave you, right now. ' ' " A divorce, I suppose? " she asked faintly. " That may follow. But it ' s not my intention to give you an opportunity of marrying this fellow, now, at least. But for the present, " and he turned toward the door, " I ' ll leave you to the sweet companionship of your conscience. " And with that he departed. The dark woman remained in her chair, white arms lying listlessly along its arms, unseeing eyes staring into space. For some time she remained thus. Then a maid entered timidly. " Mr. Hamilton, " she announced. The woman started, and clutched her 264 THE REDWOOD round, smooth throat. Then r laxing again, she replied in a far-away oice : " I ' m not at home — now, or at any- time. " The maid withdrew. Scarcely had she done so when the portieres were thrown aside, and a man rushed in. His thin-featured face was very i ale, and his dark eyes burned ; but they burned with a different fire than in that other dimly lighted room. " Helen! " he cried, " what does this mean? A joke — a — why how pale you are dearest? " He started fearfully, " what is wrong? " The woman merely raised a gleaming Avhite arm. " Go ! " she murmured, ' ' I never want to see you again. " He stared at her blankly for a moment. Then he turned, crushed, and left the room. Then she sank again into her reverie. It lasted long. Outside the sounds of traffic grew fainter — finally they ceased altogether. The cold grey fog hurried through the empty street in ghostly processional. The woman stirred slightly. The room was growing cold. " I leave you to your conscience, " she muttered aloud. His parting words. And how they cut, — tore at her mangled heart. For her conscience was judging her. In place of his heavy, menacing figure stood its far more menacing shadow; pointing to her, and accusing ! And it would not be stilled. She shuddered convulsively. A great fear shot through her, chilling her blood. The room grew suddenly close, and she gasped for air. Unsteadily she rose to her feet. The horrible fear grew stronger — more menacing. It beat down the last barriers of her self-control. She ran to the window, and raising it, leaned far out, drinking in the air. It was cold, and damp — damp with the fog from the river. The river? She drew back at the thought, and closed the window quickly, lest its still voice impel her. The river ! The river ! She kept re- locating the words, involuntarily. Daz- edly she crossed the room, stumbled into her boudoir, and threw about her bare shoulders a fur-edged evening Avrap. The same dreadful, nameless terror convulsed her, and she fled through the silent halls, into the de- serted street — drawn irresistably to- ward the river. Sophocles stirred uneasily on his damp pile, and sniffed slightly. An- other large black pill disappeared. He shook his head, sadly, and resumed his gaze earthward. Docks, ramshackle buildings, ships at their moorings, an occasional wan- dering tug-boat — all were shrouded in the damp, chill fog. Here and there a harbor light straggled red or green through its oily folds ; out in the dark- ness a whistle sounded hoarsely. Through the unbroken silence that fol- lowed came the ceaseless lapping of the muddy waters around their rotting piles. Ceaseless, insistent, patient ; confident of their power. Chuckling damply, one might think, at the thought THE REDWOOD 265 of their siren call, not to be resisted; whispering to the rotting hulks grizzly tales of the still white faces beneath. Suddenly through the fog loomed a frail white figure. Its garments were loose, and flowed in the rapidity of its motion. It was almost running along the slippery wharves. From time to time it extended its arms toward the river, then hurried on. It drew nearer. A pale face, framed by a tumbled mass of dark hair, and great dark eyes, di- lated, peering into the gloom before. It traveled very swiftly — so swiftly that it seemed scarcely to touch the boards. Another dim form, lying beside a great damp hawser, looked up as the figure approached. It passed her, and she was speechless. But not for long. She ran after, crying out to stojj. The ghost-woman turned as this other seiz- ed her arm, and started violently, as though emerging from a trance. " Where was I going? " she asked vacantly. " Where was I going? The river? No, that ' s too cold — too cold and dark — " " For God ' s sake, " cried the other woman, ' ' speak to me. I ' m nearly mad! " " Speak to you? Why, what are you doing here? Who are you? You are not being jDushed into the river too, are you? " " Yes, yes, I was. But don ' t let it — don ' t let it. I ' m Mary Hamilton. He has— " " Mary Hamilton! " repeated the other, " are you his wife? " " I am — I was his wife. And you are—? " " The other woman, to you, I sup- pose. He thought I loved him — poor fool. He should have known that I couldn ' t. " Then the booming bass of a night- watchman rolled through the fog: " See here, youse — cut that strangle- hold stuff and go home to bed, see? " " What fool! What fools! " muttered Sophocles. He rose stiffly from his seat, and moved away with some effort. " Yes, " he reflected, " Charon certainly should have a concrete dock ! ' ' F. B. McGurrin. THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA iUCH has been written concerning the days of the Missions and their gradual decay, but how little has ever been written of the early missionaries, the Jesuits, who, knowing that no benefits could ever accrue to themselves, yet nevertheless, spent their energies and lifeblood sim- ply for the love of God. It was the Jesuit missionaries who made possible the Franciscan Missions. They laid the foundation on which the Franciscans built with such great success. To them, then, belongs the honor of being the first missionaries of California. The Californias had long been known to the Spanish Government as a land of great fertility, but it was not until persistent rumors of their wonderful productivity were brought to Spain, that the Spanish monarch conceived his plan of colonization. To add this ])eau- tiful stretch of country to his domain would be an achievement Avorth while. His plan was to have the Church and State work in unison, the Church to christianize the Indians and the State to protect them. In time the Missions might become large cities, and then they could be taken over by the gov- ernment. Funds were laclring to carry out the plans, so generous people subscribed enough money to insure the future of the missions. This fund, which became known as the " Pious Fund of the Am- ericas, " was to pay the expenses of the Missions while they were being be- gun and until they were able to sup- port themselves. Mexico at this time was under the dominion of Spain, and Mexico City was the basis from which the mission- aries worked. The country was ruled by a viceroy-general, residing at Mex- ico City, who was the supreme power. Permission had to be obtained from him before any work of colonization could be attempted. On receipt of or- ders from Spain, the viceroy gave per- mission for the work to be begun. Fathers Kino and Salvatierra led the first party to the coast, founding the Mission of Loreto, in Lower California, in 1697. The mission struggled through years of precarious existence, and at length, through lack of governmental support, the project was about to fail. Before this could happen. Father Ugarte succeeded in obtaining support and was sent to the rescue. It was ow- ing to the undying courage of Father Ugarte that new spirit Avas injected into the enterprise at the critical time, thus saving the Missions from ruin. In the next seventy years, fifteen missions Avere founded, all in LoAver California. In the year 1767, OAving to political 266 THE REDWOOD 267 machinations in Europe, the Jesuits were expelled from California. Ac- cused unjustly of conspiring against the King of Spain, Charles III decreed that they should be expelled from his domains. Thus, after a century of the hardest kind of pioneering in the deso- late region of Lower California, they were driven out of their homes, and the benefits of their work scattered to the winds. The Dominicans were given the control of the Missions in Lower California, and the Franciscans were entrusted with the work of founding new Missions in Alta California. Upper California, at this time, Avas inhabited only by Indians. Unlike their red brethren east of the Rockies, the Indians of California were inclined to be indolent. They were not followers of the chase, nor were they such great fighters. They were a peaceable, play- loving people. The aim of the Padres was to convert these Indians, and teach them the useful arts. And how well they succeeded is attested by the fine buildings which were erected, by the utensils still extant, and the many sto- ries that have come down to iis. There are many illustrious men con- nected with the history of the Missions, but there is one who stands out pre- eminently above all, Jimipero Serra. He it was who at the age of fifty-six be- gan the struggle for which he had been preparing his whole life. He was ap- pointed President of the California Mis- sions and accompanied the first party of friars and settlers to the coast. This party was divided into two land parties and one sea party. The land parties set out from Mexico City on March 24, 1769. After a terrible journey across Mexico, the first party reached San Diego on May 13, and the second, six weeks later. On the 16th of July the first Mission in California was dedi- cated. In the short space of fifteen years, Serra founded nine missions. These fifteen years were not years of play and recreation. On the contrary they were years of struggle, hardship, and heroic deeds. The consoling and cheei ' - ing light of it all was Junipero Serra. No disappointment seemed able to chill his faith or dim the ever-present cheer- ful smile upon his countenance. The Missions founded by Padre Ser- ra, nine in number, are as follows : San Diego, 1769 ; San Carlos de Monterey, (Carmel), June 3, 1770; San Antonio de Padua, July 14, 1771 ; San Gabriel, Sep- tember 8, 1771 ; San Luis Obispo, Sep- tember 1, 1772; San Francisco de As- sisi, October 9, 1776 ; San Juan Capis- trano, November 1, 1776 ; Santa Clara, January 18, 1777 ; and San Buena Ven- tura, March 3, 1782. Junipero Serra was the actual dis- coverer of the Bay of San Francisco, though he was unaware of it. He set out, with Portola, on an overland jour- ney from San Diego to lay out a land route to Monterey. After many hard- ships they came to a point where they thought Monterey ought to be. But instead of seeing a wide bay, they saw only land. They continued their jour- ney and passed forty leagues beyond 268 THE REDWOOD Monterey, and only knew it when they came in sight of another large body of water, but which was not the one they were looking for. Almost dishearten- ed, they retraced their weary way to San Diego. Father Serra was aging, and was unable to undertake another search for Monterey. He sent intrepid Father Crespi in charge of another band of searchers, and he himself went on a ship. Father Crespi ' s party ar- rived at Monterey fully seven days be- fore Serra. The next day, the 3rd of June, 1770, they met and took posses- sion in the name of the King of Spain. Father Serra now made the mission of San Carlos de Monterey his home. For many years following, he directed the work from his sick bed, and when well, traveled around insiDCcting the mis- sions. He died on the afternoon of Aug- ust 28, 1784, at the age of seventy-one. After Serra ' s death, new and ener- getic workers took up the task, push- ing it to completion. Twelve new mis- sions were founded. In order: Santa Barbara, December 4, 1786 ; La Purissi- ma Concepcion, December 8, 1787 ; Santa Cruz, September 25, 1791 ; Sole- dad, October 9, 1791 ; San Jose, June 11, 1797 ; San Juan Bautista, June 24, 1797; San Miguel, July 25, 1797; San Fernando Rey, September 8, 1797 ; San Luis Rey de Francia, June 18, 1798 ; Santa Inez, September 7, 1804; San Rafael Arcangel, December 14, 1817 ; and San Francisco Solano, July 4, 1823. The Missions were so situated as to be about a day ' s journey apart, mak- ing the long journey from San Diego to San Francisco an easy one for the traveler. The Missions were noted for their hospitality. The weary traveler always found a welcome at the Mission awaiting him, no matter what time he arrived. He was entertained royally by the people of the Mission, and next day was sent on his journey loaded down with good wishes. The Missions were now at the height of their power. Their wealth had been steadily increasing under the simple and energetic rule of the brown-robed Padres, until it is estimated that it reached over a million dollars at the time of their secularization. To fully understand the mode of secularizing the Missions, something must be known of the manner in which the Californias were governed. All power was cen- tered in the Viceroy at Mexico City, who appointed the governor and mili- tary commander for the Provinces. These two ruled California. The ter- ritory was divided into portions, each having representation in a body simi- lar to our assembly. This body was called the territorial deputation. They had power to propose measures and act upon them, leaving the final judgment with the governor. Clashes between- the Military commander and the Gover- nor were not unfrequent and were the cause of contimial unrest. The soldiers were there primarily for the protection of the Missions, but for many years the Missions had been practically support- ing them. The Spanish Cortes, seeing how THE REDWOOD 269 wealthy the missions wei ' e becoming, ordered, in September, 1813, that the Missions should be divided into cura- cies and the secular clergy placed over them in spiritual jurisdiction. However, this decree was but an idle declaration, for about this time the Mexican people severed their connec- tion with Spain. The scheme lay dor- mant for a few years until it was again proposed by Encheandia to the Mexi- can Congress of 1828, who passed on it favorably. A revolution broke out, En- cheandia Avas thrown out of office, and the plan failed. The Mexican Congress of August 17, 1833, passed a decree which named all the minute details of procedure, the salaries to be paid the curates, the manner of government of the districts into which the Missions were to be divided, and the mode of transportation of the new clergy into the country and of the old to their re- spective homes. This decree was but the plan of Encheandia fully devel- oped. Everything was now ready. The time was ripe for the actual spoiliation of the Missions. Figueroa, who was the political chief at the time, proposed a plan to the territorial depiitation Avhich met at Monterey. He stated in his plan that the government of Enche- andia had failed utterly in its purpose. For, instead of emancipating the Indi- ans they had stirred them up almost to open rebellion. He said that he, on coming to the head of the government, had put into effect a plan of emanci- pation. This plan had as its chief feat- ure, the formation of Indian Pueblos out of the Missions. He had established three pueblos according to his views, and expressed the conviction that if the Indians were properly emancipated, it would mean not only their preservation as a race, but also their elevation to the status of free people. But, he went on to say, circumstances were such that it was impossible to proceed with the work. In view of the condition of the Indians since Encheandia ' s plan had been put into effect, and the law of sec- ularization as it now stood, he did not know how to proceed, and therefore wished the deputation to work out a plan of action. But the deputation re- fused to act. In April, 1834, the Congress issued a new decree, substantially the same as the preceding one, but stating among other things, that the governors should fix the boundaries of the curacies. As soon as these instructions reached Fig- ueroa, he and the new deputation set to work on a plan. On July 31, a plan was adopted, which was as follows. The missionaries were to attend to the spiritual part of the missions only, while the state was to manage the dis- tribution of the temporal properties. Each head of a family was to receive a cultivable lot, and one-half of all the farm implements was to be distributed among them pro-rata. Figueroa an- nounced this plan in a proclamation on August 9, 1834. Under these laws the first thing to be done was to inventorize the prop- erty of the Missions. These inventories 270 THE REDWOOD were to form the basis for the distri- bution of the property. Commission- ers were to be appointed, one for each Mission. These commissioners were to distribute the projoerty to the natives. There is no doubt that many of the na- tives were defrauded of their lands by these commissioners. By helping them- selves to what they wanted, and buying the land which was distributed to the native for ridiculously small sums, the commissioners waxed rich. The Missions were in their most flourishing condition a few years pre- vious to the spoliation. Hunt gives the following table in comparison of the years 1834 and 1842, showing how the rule of the padres had increased the number of cattle, brought thousands of acres of land under cultivation, and harbored the Indians instead of kill- ing them off like animals, as was hap- pening beyond the Rockies. The table compares the years 1834 and 1842, showing the enormous decrease that oc- curred in the eight years following the secularization. 1834 1842 Indians 30,650 1,450 Neat Cattle 423,000 28,220 Horses, Mules and Asses 61,600 3,800 Sheep, Swine, Goats 3 ' 21,500 31,600 Acres cultivated 172,970 9,884 The income of the Missions for the year 1834 is estimated at over a mil- lion dollars. This is the stupendous amount of property which was appro- priated by unprincipled commissioners and which melted away like chaff be- fore the wind. This is the result of the secularization of the Missions. The In- dians were scattered, driven away from their kind and loving benefactors, and left to die beside the roadsides, starv- ing and wretched. To give the final touch, Pio Pico, governor in 1845, on receipt of orders from Mexico City to raise money for the prosecution of the war against the United States, ordered a sale by auction of the whole or parts of the Missions themselves. By these sales much more of the Mission prop- erty passed into private hands. On July 8, 1846, the Mission of San Diego was i ractically given away for alleged services rendered the government, but the transaction took place just one day too late, for on July 7, 1846, the coun- try had passed into the hands of the Americans. The Missions were held in abeyance for a few years by the Ameri- can government, but at length, they were restored into the inalienable pos- session of the Catholic Church. With the com ing of the American settlers the Missions ceased to exist in the old meaning of the word, and were now so only in name and history. To- day they are gradually crumbling away to dust, and unless some decisive step is taken, they will soon be lost forever. In our exposition at San Francisco, there are many structures built upon the lines of the old Missions. Thus something is being done to preserve the architecture of the Missions. The tourist, coming to California, expects to find the country dotted with quaint THE REDWOOD 271 Mission structures, but, how poignant brown-robed Padres taught the brutish is his feeling when he views only the Indians of California the simple arts piles of crumbling stone that remain to of agriculture, learning and reverence, mark the site of the busy little villages L. Louis Gairaud. where once the old white-haired, SPRING EverytKing ' s fresK and green today, Blooming ana brignt ana new, And day begun, tne wanton sun Kisses tne sKimmering dew, Who floats above into clouds of gold To nide from tne face of Ker lover told. Tne laugning trees in tKe valley ' s Keart Are covered witK blossomy snow. And the redbreast sings as Kis fligbt Ke wings Over tKe fields below, Wnere poppies are dancing like fairy folk, ' Round tne warted bole of tKe ancient oak. TKe sloping sides of tKe verdant Kills, Bask in tKe sun ' s brigKt ray ; We linger long, and we ecKo it strong, Singing adown tKe way " O tKat our Kearts may be born anew, And be sunny and brigKt, gentle spring like you. " J. C. MURPHY THE WALLED CITY ITH a horrible numb- ing fear clutching at his heart Avith icy fin- gers the boy prisoner, convicted of murder, watched the judge as he rose to pronounce sentence on him. " Charles Lee, " began the judge sol- emnly, " you have been fairly tried and convicted of murder in the second de- gree. In punishment for your crime I sentence you to be confined for the re- mainder of your natural life in the State Penitentiary! " Outside the lit- tle steel railing a gray-haired woman moaned faintly and collapsed. The boy swayed and fell back into his chair. " For life, " he muttered dazedly. " Oh, my God, for life. " Curious figures flitted before his eyes and prominent among them were groups of striped men. He saw their toil-bent shoulders and dull, despairing faces ; he breathed the stifling air of a narrow cell ; he heard the harsh clang of steel gates. " My mother, " he whispered softly, tears starting to his eyes, " what will she do? " He looked at her silently and a great lump rose in his throat. And then hardly knowing what he was doing, he was on his feet and striding toward the Judge ' s bench. In the sud- denly hushed room his voice sounded like the tolling of some bell as it echoed throughout the long, crowded cham- ber. " Judge, " he said brokenly, " be mercifiil. My mother — what will she do 1 If you send me away it will break her heart. I am all she has, Your Hon- or — Sir, think of your mother — think of how she loved you. I swear I am innocent. Judge, on my soul I swear it. You are sending me to a living grave. For pity ' s sake spare me— " He tried to go on, but the Avhite-haired old man on the bench stopped him with a ge s- ture. " My boy, " said he kindly, " I can do nothing. My duty is plain, and I must do it. " And something suspici- ously like a tear gathered in the old Judge ' s eye and his voice yas just a trifle husky as he ordered the pris- oner removed. As he came abreast of the door lead- ing to the cells he turned, and with brimming eyes Avatched his heart- broken mother drag herself out, sup- ported by sympathetic friends. " Oh, my God, " he moaned, his shoulders shaking with sobs, " for life, for life. " II The years pass — even in prison. For thirty-six months No. 4371 had toiled daily in the machine shops of the pen- itentiary, and in his few leisure hours he had occupied his time with books of Machinery and Mathematics. Often at 272 THE REDWOOD 273 night in the silence of his cell he would wonder what the future held for him. Outside he had been " Charles Lee " , but here in this walled city of striped inhabitants he was No. 4371. Would he always be a convict? Nameless? Just No. 4371? On his pallet at night he wrestled with the problem and some- times the moon ' s rays stealing through the iron bars of his stone home would rest lightly upon his boyish face and the mellow beams would reveal his troubled featxires. His cellmate ' s name was Bowman. " Before they sent me to the pen, " he boasted, " I was a ' con ' man, a sure- thing man, you know, and believe me, kid, no one was slicker ' n me at the game. " He soon discovered his cellmate ' s crime and often begged Lee to tell him more fully of it, but the boy always resisted his pleas, and thus far Bow- man ' s curiosity had not been satisfied. One day he was more tireless than be- fore and Lee fell before his entreaties. " Come on kid, tell me. It ain ' t goin ' to hurt you none. I ' ve got some years to serve yet, but when I get out I might run across somebody that knows some- thin ' about it. " " No danger, " said Lee with a shoi ' t laugh, but he looked at the professed ' con ' man with quickened interest. " It was an old fellow, " he began a bit hurriedly, " an old miser who held a mortgage on our place, a few acres of land, a few miles across the river from here. " " Oh, " broke in Bowman, " you have lived around here then? " ' ' Born in that town across the river, ' ' was the reply. " Many ' s the time I gazed at this gloomy prison and jDitied the poor devils shut up here. Little did I think that I would ever be one of them. But, to get back to my story. That man, the miser, Pendleton was his name, held a mortgage as I have said, on our little farm. He loved gold, I believe, better than anything else in the world. I honestly think he would throw a sick woman into the street in the dead of winter if she could not pay her rent. " A dull flush dyed Lee ' s sal- low cheeks and he clinched his hands. ' ' The wizened little tiger was grasping, miserly, and — we — we — couldn ' t pay the interest due on the mortgage. He foreclosed and came to the house and insulted mother. I kicked him out and unfortunately made some threatening remarks which were magnified ten times when the trial came off. That night as I was walking along the bank of the river that flows past the little town, trying to devise some way of sat- isfying old Pendleton, I heard a stifled cry. I stopped and listened closely and I heard it again, along with the choking, gasping sighs of a man being throt- tled ! I rushed forward and there I saw old Pendleton in the grasp of some tall, black-bearded fellow, who, seeing me released the miser and plunged into the river. I knelt at the old man ' s side and placed my hand over his heart. He was already dead. I remained there 274 THE REDWOOD dazed, till suddenly I felt myself jerked to my feet. I turned to face three men who had stumbled upon me in the dark- ness. ' Old Pendleton has been mur- dered, ' I gasped. They did not answer, though one laughed queerly and mut- tered something which I could not catch. The three marched me to the police station where I was booked for murder. Instantly there was a wave of excitement in the place and my trial commanded much attention throughout the whole State. Well, to make a long tale short, I was tried and convicted of the murder of Silas Pendleton and sentenced to life imprisonment for a crime of which I am innocent. " Bowman was silent for some time. When he looked up there was a mock- ing smile on his evil face. " Pendle- ton was a miser, you say, and such a man of course would be cordially hated in a small town. What was the opinion of the people? Did they believe you guilty or not? " " Not guilty, " was Lee ' s quick reply. " That is one thing I look back upon with pride, for nearly everyone thought me innocent. " " And yet, " resumed the ' con ' man, " with the weight of public opinion on your side you were convicted? " " Yes, but the case was so strong against me that the jurors could bring in no other verdict. I had hoped for a sentence of ten years or even twenty, but life imprisonment — I never expect- ed that. " " And, " said Bowman, with a nasty laugh, " you are innocent. " " I am, " replied Lee sharply, glanc- ing at the ' con ' man ' s sneering face, " believe me or not. " " Well, I don ' t, bo. It ' s a pretty nice story, I ' ll say that, but you can ' t make me see through it. " And he bared his teeth in a fiendish grin. " I ' m not trying to force you to be- lieve me, " said Lee, his anger flaming, ' ' but it wouldn ' t take me long, you cur, to decide what I would rather be, an innocent man with a life term before me or a dirty crook like you. with only a few years to serve. " " What do you mean? " snarled the professed ' con ' man, his face livid with rage. " Just what I said. There ' s nothing more despicable than those of your breed who prey on guileless and unsus- pecting people — swindle them — steal from them. You are wolves in sheep ' s clothing. " " Preachin ' now, ain ' t yuh? But that will be enough. Sometime you ' ll be sorry for them words. I ' ll pay you back. Remember that. I ' ll pay you back, and it will be worse than death. I never forget an enemy. " He trembled with anger and the lit- tle pig eyes under the black shaggy eyebrows glittered with hate. The round, bullet-shaped shaven head with the beady eyes, squat nose and sneer- ing mouth, seemed the very personifi- cation of cruelty. Lee shivered slight- ly and turned away. Some two months later, on a Sunday afternoon, No. 4371 was led away to the warden ' s office. When he returned THE REDWOOD 275 it was with additional responsibility and dignity. He had been elevated to the foremanship of the machine shops and the warden had brought the first flush of pleasure to his thin cheeks in three long years by his frank commend- ation of No. 4371 ' s record. Hitherto Bowman had been " boss " and Lee ' s gratification was dampened by the thought that his advancement would make his cellmate even more bit- ter than before, but to his great sur- prise Bowman gave no evidences of jealousy and congratulated him upon his promotion. In the long weeks that followed neither made any mention of their quarrel, and No. 4371 had almost for- gotten the whole affair. But not so Bow- man. Often the bitter words of Lee came back to torment him, and then the thick, bushy brows would overhang cruel eyes wherein deadly hate smoul- dered, and a cunning smile would hover about the heavy lips. One night, as Lee entered the cell, Bowman drew him aside and mysteri- ously whispered: " One o ' the honor men was in town today, kid, and he says your mother ' s a dying — " " Dying! " echoed Lee agahst, " good heavens, no. Why she was here to see me only last week. " " I know that, " acknowledged Bow- man, shrugging his shoulders, ' ' but it ' s what was told me. " " Well, I suppose it is true then, but I hardly believe it. Just think, she was here but a few days ago. ' ' He stumbled to the bed and threw himself face down upon it. " It ' s hard lines, bo, alright, " con- soled his cellmate, " but there ' s always hope, you know. " " Oh mother, " Lee moaned brokenly, " if I could only see you again. " " You can kid, " broke in Bowman quickly. " I gotta couple of saws stowed away; they ' re ditched in that there mattress. I ' ve been plannin ' to make a break for a month and now ' s the time ! Come on ! Brace up ! Why shouldn ' t you make a break if you ' re able? You say you ' re innocent of croakin ' the guy they sent you up for. Yuh gotta right to beat it, if you don ' t take a chance you ' ll rot in this here hole. Are yuh game? " Lee felt all his old time hatred of the " pen " well up in him and his blood boiled. He leaped to his feet with blaz- ing eyes and with a flush that hid the prison pallor beneath. " I ' m with you, " he panted, " come on, let ' s get started. " " Not too fast, pal, not too fa st, or Ave ' 11 blow our chance. Settle down now for a while. We can ' t do any- thing yet. " When Bowman finally gave the word Lee jumped up, unable to restrain him- self any longer. While the cool experi- enced ' con ' man worked at the bars, the restless Lee stood by to give warn- ing if anyone should approach. " All right, " whispered Bowman at last, " there she is and some job I tell you. " 276 THE REDWOOD " Come, " urged the impatient boy, " crawl through. " " No, kid, you take the first chance. There ' s somebody waitin ' for you on the outside, but nobody ' 11 Avant to see me. " Lee glanced at his cellmate in sur- prise, but he had turned away and was fumbling with something at the wash- stand. The boy prisoner ' s heart ex- panded with the professed swindler ' s first expression of good feeling. The old fellow wasn ' t so bad after all. Crusty exterior perhaps, but a warm heart for all that. As he clambered to the narrow open- ing fringed around with steel stubs, he could feel the mad beating of his blood. In a fcAv minutes he would be beyond the prison walls — a free man. He might go West and begin over again. Who could tell? He would find something to do. Then he felt himself being drawn back. What was the trouble with his pal? " Say, " he called cautiously, " what ' s the trouble? Help me up a bit, will you? " He heard his cellmate snarl something and felt Bowman ' s heavy hand tugging at his striped legs. With a flash he say through it all. He recognized Bowman ' s duplicity and treachery. He had not forgotten the boy ' s advancement at his cost or Lee ' s bitter words. " Let me go, you snake, ' . ' he grated, and squirmed through the window, dropping lightly to the slop- ing roof of a guardhouse that lay be- side the prison wall. In the eellhouse behind he could hear the ' con ' man crying, " Escaped lu ' isoner, escaped prisoner. " He heard the harsh grating clang of the iron gates and the dull ugly boom of the prison gun. He leaped to the high wall and fled desperately over the narrow path. With a sudden swish a giant rocker soared into the dark sky and cast a reddish glare over the walled prison. Lee heard a succession of cries and he knew that he had been discovered. Several bullets zipped past him and he leaped blindly into the night. He struck the ground with stunning force and rolled over and over, every muscle aching with the terrible shock. Rising to his feet he set out for his former home on an awkward shambl ing run, strangely like a hurried lockstep. As he neared the river lie heard the restless water lapping the pebbled shore. " Oh for a boat, " he exclaimed between gasps, and, as if in answer to his prayer there was one drawn up on the sand. With some trouble he drag- ged it to the water ' s edge, and, shoving off, bent to the oars in his dash for freedom. With an ugly purring sound another rocket hissed its way into the gloomy heavens and Lee, glancing back, could see his pursuers setting out from the shore ; and, as before, leaden bullets went whistling by. The leaden pellets striick nearer and nearer and finally with a vicious spat one bit into the thin hull of the boat, and immediately following it another. The fugitive changed his course and THE REDWOOD 277 pulled frantically for the falls. The boat was filling rapidly. With a ges- ture of despair Lee stood upright in the bow and cast the oars far out into the river. This done he perched him- self on the narrow combing and dove into the black waters. He rose quickly and swimming back to the abandoned boat skillfully capsized it, and then, drawing a deep breath, struck out for the opposite shore. Wet through and through and shak- ing he crawled into some bushes that flanked the shore, and listened closely for the sound of the guards. Suddenly his ear was rewarded with the noise of rattling oarlocks. Lee stiffened with fear and burrowed further into the scanty brush. Someone was speaking and he listened with wildly beating heart. " Well I guess he ' s with Davy Jones, " he heard a voice say. And then, " He ' s better off, I guess, poor young fellow. I always kind of pitied him. One of those wild shots must have got him, Hal. " " Maybe so, " was the dubious response, " but I ' ve got my doubts. There was no blood in the boat and that trick has been played before you know. " " Oh yes, " replied the first speaker. ' ' I am aware of that, but I don ' t think this fellow did it. We ' ll find out in the morning anyway or at least within the next few days, for I suppose they ' ll drag the river if they don ' t discover his whereabouts. " That was all, and they passed out of earshot. But it was enough to restore Lee ' s confidence. What a lucky thing it woiild be if the prison authorities would eventually come to believe him dead. He decided to pay a visit to his for- mer home in a few hours, and drawing the spare brush about him dropped off into a dreamless sleep. It was near dawn when he awoke, and as he clambered to his feet his eyes rested on the glory of the coming sun- shine. A tiny stream of golden light tinted the silvery clouds of the morning and slowly grew and grew until presently, like a great scarlet river racing to the sea, it flooded the eastern sky with gorgeous colors. Lee gazed enthralled. " How beautiful. " said he. " Please God, I hope it is a prophecy of my fu- ture ; the rosy dawning of my new life. " He crept through the undergrowth along the bank and emerged within a short distance of his home. What a flood of fond recollections crowded upon him as he cautiously ascended the well-worn steps and knocked softly on the door. He wait- ed with thumping heart until it was thrown open and then stepped forward with outstretched arms. " Oh mother, ' tis I, your boy, " he whispered husk- ily. And then his arms fell heavily to his sides and he started back in aston- ishment and terror, for it was not his mother, but a stern-faced female, who, armed with a blunt-nosed gun, showed no inclination to faint from the rude shock. 278 THE REDWOOD " Telegram, sir! " The diminutive, uniformed office boy laid the slip of paper on the littered desk and tiptoed softly out of the office of the Master Mechanic. Left alone, the Master Mechanic leaned back easily in his wide-armed chair and strummed nervously upon the arm-rests. Around the temples his hair was graying and the dark, deep-set eyes held a hint of long suffering. A brooding smile touched the corners of his lips and his eyes looked beyond the narrow confines of the room back, back to the years gone by. " Yes, " he mur- mured reminiscently, " five years ago tonight I was an outcast, a dreg of so- ciety, a convict with a number. How time flies. Can it be five years that I have been with this railroad? I well remember my first position. How proud and happy I was ! And now I am Mas- ter Mechanic. But it was a long strug- gle and a hard one. Little did I think that the engineering I studied while in the penitentiary would ever prove of such value as it has. I wonder what be- came of Bowman? His time must be up now. I pray that he will never dis- cover me. If he should — ■ " The sup- position seemed to make him recoil and he shivered with dread. Outside the darkness was falling and the purple shades seemed to cluster in the big office. Below in the huge, winding, steel-ribbed train yard the puffing engines snorted and whistled as they backed wp or rolled forward on the glistening rails. The Master Mechanic switched on the lights and in an instant the room was suffused with light. Opening the tele- gram he glanced at it carelessly and then, after a second curious glance, be- gan reading it with feverish haste. A wonderful smile transfigured his worn face. " Thank God, " sighed he, let- ting the message flutter to the floor, " fortune is smiling on me at last, mother is coming ! ' ' " Beg pardon, sir, " interrupted the office boy with an anxious look on his face as the Master Mechanic looked up in annoyance, " there ' s a guy outside that wants to see yuh. ' ' " Tell him it ' s after office hours, Tom, and for heaven ' s sake pay more attention to your grammar. That ' s about the tenth time I ' ve corrected you today. " " Yes sir, " gulped Tom, " I always forget. But this guy — gentleman — I mean, says he ' s got to see you. He said something about being an old friend. " " An old friend? " echoed the Master Mechanic in dismay. " Why, Tom, I haven ' t any — er — er — Alright lad, show him in and then you may go. " A moment later a hulking form loomed up in the dim light of the hall and lurched uncertainly to the Master Mechanic ' s desk. The man in the chair gazed at him sharply. " What do you want? " he demanded. " Why, " came the answer in an in- jured tone, " I want to see my friend, He ' s the Master Mechanic. " " I ' m he, ' ' said the official curiously. " I don ' t remember you. " " Why bless me, " tittered the in- THE REDWOOD 279 truder, " don ' t you remember me? Yes you do, No. 4371! " The Master Me- chanic gasped and fell back speechless in his chair. " Bowman, " he whispered hoarsely. " Bowman, is it you — my God, so it is — Bowman — come to find me out. ' ' He lay in his big chair para- lyzed with the unexpectedness and irony of it. " Yes, it ' s Bowman alright, " sneered the other, " the same one that used to be the cellmate of Charles Lee or num- ber four thousand three hundred and seventy-one, as he was called in the ' pen ' . I wonder what the people of this joint would say if they knew you was an ex-con? " " Don ' t, " groaned the discovered Lee, " don ' t talk like that. " " Why not? It ' s the truth, ain ' t it? But we ' ll let that pass. I ' ve got some questions to ask yuh. You know maybe that the prison authorities thought that you was drowned in the river when they found your overturned boat with the two bullet holes in the bottom. But I was wise. I knew you done that to throw the guards off your trail. But after giving them the slip how did you get away from your mother ' s house, because you went there, didn ' t you? " " Yes, " nodded Lee, " I couldn ' t re- sist the temptation. When I reached the shore after capsizing the boat I rested a short time and then hurried to my old home. I was struck dumb when the door was opened and I found myself looking into the barrel of a re- volver. I stammered something about thinking that mother was there and the woman — " " Woman! " ejaculated Bowman, in surprise, " was it your mother? " " No, a lady who had purchased our old home and mother had neglected to tell me anything about it when she came last to visit me. " " But where was your mother? " asked Bowman. ' ' Staying with some friends until she would have completed the arrange- ments regarding her future home, " re- plied Lee. " But to go on. This good woman took me in, concealed me for a few days, and then provided me with funds sufficient to make my way West. I landed here and I have been here since. " " Pretty soft, " said the intruder en- viously. " You sure fell in good. Here what ' s this? " He picked up the tele- gram of the Master Mechanic ' s mother. " Ah, a telegram, " he said, curiously. " Drop it! " commanded the man be- hind the desk. " Not so fast, bo. What ' s it say? Ah, here it is — ' dear son. Will arrive 11 :10 Friday night. — Mother. ' And it ' s ad- dressed to Mr. Charles Dixon. Changed your name, I see. So your mother ' s goin ' to blow in tomorroAv night, eh? " The Master Mechanic did not reply. " Oh, by the way, " continued the ' eon ' man carelessly, " did you know there was a reward for you? " ' ' What ! A reward — for me ? Why I thought they believed me dead. " " Yes, they did for a time, but in 280 THE REDWOOD some way they heard something about you which made them change their minds, and they offered the modest lit- tle sum of $1000 for your arrest. " " One thousand dollars, " said Lee slowly, and then, gazing straight at his former cellmate. " That ' s a big sum Bowman and a great temptation. ' ' The ' con ' man changed color and shifted uneasily from foot to foot. ' ' Aw say, " he muttered reproachfully, " you don ' t think I ' d squeal, do yuh? Slip me a hundred or so and I ' 11 beat it. ' ' As Bowman, fortified with the money disappeared in the dark hall without, the Master Mechanic buried his head in his arms and sobbed. " It ' s all up. He ' ll expose me if I refuse to give him more money. Once a convict, always hated and despised. " The next evening Lee sat at his desk awaiting the arrival of his mother, but his clean-cut face was overshadowed by the unexpected meeting with Bow- man the previous night. It seemed as if the struggles and labor of five years were going for naught. " Pardon me, sir, " said the loyal of- fice boy, " but the same guy — gentle- man — I mean, that was here last night wants to see you again, and he ' s awful drunk. Lee hesitated and nodded to the boy. " Send him in, boy. I suppose I ' ll have to see him. " " No you don ' t, Mr. Dixon. If you ain ' t feeling good I ' ll tell him you ' ve gone out. " The solicitous Thomas ad- vanced a step nearer the desk. " Say, do you know, " he added in a whisj er, " I don ' t like that guy ' s looks. " " No more than I, Tom, but show him in. " " Howdy cull, " lisped the intruder, staggering into the room. " Just come up to see my ol ' frien ' . " His breath was offensive with the fumes of alco- hol. " What do you want? " demanded Lee. Hurry up, now. " " Some money. Lost all yuh gave me — win it back alright. Come on — gota go. " " Very well, " said the Master Me- chanic, quietly, " you may go. I won ' t give you any more money. " " Won ' t give me any more, " mum- bled the ' con ' man, his face screwed up in a vain attempt to fathom this astounding bit of in formation. " What —what ' s that? " " Never mind. Get out now. I ' ve some work to do. " " Oh, you have, " the ' ex-con ' purred queerly, the mask of ignorance and drunkenness falling from him. " Well, I ' ve something to tell you. Do you know, " he went on, his voice vibrating with passion, his whole body shaking and beads of sweat standing out on his brow with the intensity of rage, " do you know that after your escape I lived in a hell? — do you know that I was thrown into a dungeon and lashed — yes lashed — for aiding you to escape ; aiding you to escape — ha — ha ! — do you know that for the last four years of my term not one person, either convict THE REDWOOD 281 or guard, ever spoke a single word to me, — they knew the truth. One thought though has held me up and cheered me through all those dismal hours and that was the thought of revenge ! The solitary confinement, the beatings, the insults and injuries I received, all this I owe to you, and you shall be paid ! ' ' " But, man, " protested Lee, " surely you — " " Shut up, you fool, " screamed the mad man, " in an hour the train bear- ing your beloved mother will be due. For seven years you have looked for- ward to seeing her, but you never shall — alive. That train — shall — never — reach — this — station ! I could kill you, but I want you to die — to die a slow, torturous death of agony. Then you will understand what I have suffered. " " Man, man, " choked the Master Me- chanic, a horrible fear clutching at his heart. " What do you mean? There are hundreds of souls aboard the ex- press. Think what you are doing. " " I have thought and you have had my answer. " He grappled with the Master Mechanic and his hands reach- ed out and out till his short, stumpy fingers closed like a steel trap upon the throat of Lee. As he felt the smooth throat between his fingers he gave a low gasp of satisfaction. Lee ' s face grew dark and purplish, and his eyes seemed to start from their sockets. He could feel the hot whis- key-scented breath of the mad man on his face and neck. Strange lights flit- ted before his eyes, and he felt him- self falling — falling. He closed his aching eyes and knew no more. With an insane leer the madman rushed to the door and plunged down the stairs. The tiny silver clock on the littered desk spoke melodiouslv eleven times. The man on the floor groaned and passing a shaking hand over his finger- marked throat, rose weakly. He tot- tered to the window and a low moan burst from his swollen lips, for, far down the winding, glistening rails, a tiny light flickered and Avavered uncer- tainly, and in the fitful glare he could see the crazed Bowman wrenching at a rail where the curve was sharpest. In the office the golden hand of the clock pointed to three minutes to the hour. In thirteen minutes the thun- dering express would be due, and Lee prayed, as he staggered down the steps, that he would be in time. There was a quick, suffocating beat, — beat, — beat in his throat ; a heavy pounding in his chest, and in his brain was such a numbness that he could not think of anything very clearly. He half stag- gered, half ran to the side of the main track where he lifted a light handcar to the rails and crawled aboard. His hands flew back and forth on the rough handle. The onrushing train was coming nearer and nearer and its great light flooded the winding tracks, show- ing Bowman but a few feet away. He passed him with a rush and bumped sickenly over the half removed rail. The palms of his hands burned like live 282 THE REDWOOD coals and his raw throat throbbed and bled. His breath came in short painful gasps, and he could feel in his breast the tumultuous beating of his strained heart. ' ' Just — a— few — more — yards, ' ' he panted. Strange lights flitted be- fore him. In his mind he could see himself digging and searching in the mass of Avreckage for the body of his mother and when he discovered it she was dead; crushed and burned. " Oh, God, " moaned he between set lips, " no, no, no. Not that. " The engine was almost upon him. He tried to scream a warning, but the words died in his throat. He released the flying handle and i lunged head- long from the swaying car. Amid the shrieking of whistles, the grinding, creaking and moaning of out- raged, tortured steel the mighty loco- motive came to a stop. The Master Mechanic quivered as something wet and cold was sprinkled on his face. Why couldn ' t they let a fellow rest ! There it was again. He stirred uneasily and opened his eyes. Some one was speaking. " Lord, but that was a close shave, " the voice said, and it sounded like the booming bass of Jack Sullivan, the sturdy, flame- topped pilot of the Overland Express, ' ' but what gets me, ' ' the voice went on, " is that we owe our lives to the Mas- ter Mechanic. I ' d like to be in his place when he is called up by the Board. What makes it better is that the President with a party of friends is in his private car coupled to this train. I ' m glad it ' s him though. He ' s the best liked boss on the road, and his department they say, is a model. Did they catch the nut, Joe? Oh, they did. That ' s good. He must surely be in- sane to attempt anything so cold- blooded. Thirty seconds more and I ' d hate to say what I think would have happened. Gee ! here comes the Presi- dent now! " What Jack was talking about puz- zled Lee. There must have been a wreck or something. And who was that crazy guy? Ah, now he remembered! Then he had reached there in time. Thank God for that. So Bowman was a captive. He would surely squeal now. It was all over and those years of labor had availed — nothing. He couldn ' t keep from crying a little. The warm tears trickled down his gaunt cheeks and burned like droits of molten lead on the swollen flesh. He was picked up gently and carried along. He closed his eyes and fainted away. When next he opened them he was in his office. Hist! What was that? Somebody was calling his name. It was a soft, sweet voice, and it put him in mind of his boyhood days with their petty trials and ti ' oubles. Opening his heavy lids he gazed up into the face of his mother. ' ' Mother ! " he whis- pered, and there was a world of love in that beautiful word, " mother. " " Thank God, you are safe. " " Yes, son, thanks to God and to your own bravery. " " And Bowman, mother, where is he? " THE REDWOOD 283 " They are going to take him back to prison, my boy; but now, rest your- self. I have wonderful news for you. ' ' A small stout man stepped forward, " Charles, " said Mrs. Lee, " this is Mr. Hauser, President of this railroad. He has something to tell you. " The lit- tle man cleared his throat several times. ' ' While in the East a few weeks ago, " he said, " I made the aeqauaint- ance of Mrs. Lee and learned your sad story, but at the time she did not men- tion anything about your being in our employ. So certain was I of your in- nocence that I went to the Governor of New York, a personal friend of mine, and sought to obtain a pardon for you, but imsuccessfully. A few days later I read of a terrible street battle in your birthplace between an escaped gunman and two guards from the penitentiary. The gunfighter was shot to death. " Lee shivered with dread. " Before he died, however, he confessed that he was guilty of the murder of old Pen- dleton, for which you were convicted. " " What! " said the Master Mechanic breathlessly, " oh are you sure? " " I am, but let me finish I hurried to the Governor ' s office in Albany and found your mother there before me. Your full pardon was soon signed and then I offered Mrs. Lee my private car, and together with my wife and my- self she has traveled westward. It was not until we were well on our way that she told me you were in our employ. I haven ' t had the opportunity yet of thinking you for your heroic deed to- night, but that will come later. You are worthier of better things than a mere Master Mechanicshii?. And now, goodbye, my boy; I ' ll see you again soon. " He wrung Lee ' s hand and strode away. Lee turned to his mother with the light of newborn hope shining in his eyes. " I am free! free at last, " he whispered softly. " My name is cleared. Thank God, mother. Surely His ways are wonderful. " And drawing his mother close to him he wept softly. Walter P. Howard. IN SILENCE AND ALONE As on I -wander tKrougK this world of His In dark and sunligKt, or tKe shades of dusk ; Past mountains shining in the light of noon, And meadows scented by the kiss of Spring, As lonely as the breeze which mounts the hill To die upon the plain or languid stream. As on I wander, past the vice of men. The scorn and insolence and cries of sin, Rising like a stench to dim the gleaming stars By Satan prompted and by him begot. I hear, as though the very land sea Had voice to call on God in one long loud cry. Begone ! Let humble virture enter in, Upon his checks and lips sweet purity. VICTOR CRESALIA 284 PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record Llniversity doinas and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS - - - ALUMNI - - - . UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ASSOCIATE EDITORS EDITOR EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' 15 JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 JAMES F. CURTIN, ' 16 HOWARD E. CRANE, ' 15 F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' IS EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 00 a year; single copies IS cents EDITORIAL Today is the day of Economy economy in every branch of indiistiy. Not only are the many by-products, which were formerly wasted, now made use of, but the energy expended in operation is now made to go twice as far as before. Let us take, for ex- ample, fuel, at present a very serious question to every nation. Since the in- vention of the steam engine, wind- mills and waterwheels have gradually gone out of use and the general tend- ency is toward everything being me- chanically driven. This immense out- let in fuel demands that the strictest economy be practised in the expendit- ure of our fuel capital, particularly wood, coal and petroleum. This problem has been taken in hand by our leading chemists, and with re- markable results. Let us look at the ordinary smoke that daily leaves the millions of chimneys. Only today are 285 286 THE REDWOOD we learning the truth of the proverb, " A smoking chimney is a thief. " At one time the heavy smoke from the large factories and plants served no other purpose than to destroy crops and ruin vegetation for miles around, and the operator considered himself lucky to continue unenjoined. Today the owner of the plant finds that no one can more profitably wage war against this evil than he. Modern science shows that visible unburned carbon as well as invisible hot and combustible gases thus escape. This gas may be regenerated Avith the result of a marked decrease in smoke and an immense increase and economy in heat. In order to show the practical appli- cation of this method we may turn to Ducktown, Tenn. There were several copper smelters in operation night and day, emitting continuously great quan- tities of black smoke, with the result that all the vegetation in the vicinity was being destroj ed by the fumes of sulphur dioxide. A plant is now in operation, at a very low cost, v hich pi ' oduces from the gases which were formerly disregarded, 300,000 tons of sulphuric acid per year, having a value of ten dollars per ton. This is but one of the many activities in which we can see the value derived from the application of the modern science of economy. Darkness paled and fled before the com- ing of the all eonqixer- ing light. The clouds became tinted to A Spring Lesson beautiful, radiant shades, as the first rays of the shimmering dawn broke over the eastern horizon, casting their dim, shadowy films of dancing sun- beams lightly down on the wonders of nature, gloriously alive in the awaken- ing of spring. Life stood preeminent. Even the rocks, centuries upon centuries old, took on a new appearance, with their fresh coating of green mosses, and sparkling dewdrops. The sap surging up through the tninks of the trees — still numb in the remembrance of days of cold and sleet, sent a thrill of new life through their bare branches. Little birds struggled valiantly to break through their tiny jackets into the sunshine, as if even they wanted to witness the beautiful scenes which only the God of nature may paint. The little brook bubbled, and broke over the rocks as it wended its warbling way far from its source in the high mountains above, hiding first behind some boulder or bend, only to appear suddenly babbling gleefully, like some mischievous youngster running away from its mother. In its deep, dark recesses the wary trout darted back and forth, as happy, and full of life as the frisking little cot- tontails, nibbling undisturbed at the fresh young shoots of the dew-covered grass on the banks above, as the voices of multitudes of tiny insects, just awakened to life, rose in varied chorus. The sleeping poppies in the fields be- low removed their tiny night-caps, and THE REDWOOD 287 drank in the glorious spring sunshine God so generously sends to all alike. Far above, the soaring eagle scream- ed his joy, as he looked down on the peaceful earth below, and the timid quail hidden in the ever-protecting tan- gles of the underbrush, plaintively whistled back their response. Slowly the sun rose higher and high- er into the heavens, sending down its ever-sharpening shafts of sunlight. Long after the creatures of the wild had been awake the humans in the cities below began to stir. In the soul of each one was a feeling of restless- ness, a love for the wild and a hatred for the city, the dull amusements, and cares of the work-a-day world in which man deigns to live. It was a day when one is more dis- posed to musing and reverie than ac- tion. Hidden far back from the sight of all his fellow creatures, a man slowly awoke from a disturbed sleep, and gazed about on the wonderful gifts of God, the all-giver, against whom he had sinned. A strange feeling came over him, a feeling he had not experienced since the time long ago when he used to offer up his prayers at his mother ' s knee. She had cai ' ed for him as no one else ever had. Perhaps if she had lived he would not have been the outcast he found himself that morning. Even as he thought, a low musical voice spoke, and the words found their way to his very soul. A peaceful smile broke over his now radiant counten- ance, and rising he went his way to- ward the city and those who waited him. As he went he breathed up a prayer, the prayer of a man who had met face to face, God, the Father of all. Slowly the sky took on a hazy, lan- guid aspect, and the drifting clouds gave way to the ruddy glow o f a rich, gorgeous sunset. The shrill voice of the whippoor-will succeeded the whistle of the quail, as the earth became enveloped in the rest- ful, purple shadows of the swift ap- proaching night. Even a greater variety of literary ef- fort than usual is to be found in our Exchanges of the month. The Martin Becks of college journalism have had more than their customary success in filling their bills with diver- sified talent. As far as variety is con- cerned, our Exchanges far surpass the usual bill found at the vaudevilles. As a headliner many show the European war. There are few, in fact, that do not touch upon it to some extent. The other attractions, however, are more varied ; so much so, in fact, that we cannot readily classify them. But to glance over a few of the " big time ' ' features : " Amherst Headlining in the Am- ., .i_i ,, herst Monthly is a se- Monthly - i ' ..rru ries or articles on The College Situation " , by members of the Senior class. Although a discussion of matters for the most part purely local in nature, they are well worth reading, partly because of their mechanical ex- cellence, and partly because some of the aspects of the question may be ap- plied to schools other than Amherst. The World War is represented by a story entitled " Tomori-ow " , and a let- ter ( " Experiences in Belgian Relief. " ) As regards the story . After reading it, we scarcely know how to take it. A second reading served to intensify the first effect. A third followed, and at last we arrived at a conclusion. It is a tale dealing with some startling changes of heart, some psychological observations — to which the first may be due — , and some unforeseen develop- ments of plot. It possesses considera- ble atmosphere, gloomy and a bit bizarre, in keeping Math the tale, and well done, withal ; a bit of incohereney, and at the same time some good narra- tive qualities. Which seems paradox- ical. The letter is interesting but not especially so, as it contains little that has not been already made known. The Editorials, Editor ' s Table, and the verse are all in keeping with the general local air that prevades the book. " The Gamblers " , a stoiy, which was the first thing in the Col- lege Student upon which we chanced, " College Student " 288 THE REDWOOD 289 left an impression which, we regret to say, was not favorable. This is due to several causes, among them being the improbability of the tale as a whole, some parts of the conversation which we thought a trifle stilted, its too great dependance upon coincidences, and one or two lesser matters. Then again we found ourself at variance with the writ- er in his somewhat low estimate of fem- inine intelligence. It seemed most im- probable to us that two girls, both in love with the same man, could be so badly mistaken as to his identity. The matter-of-fact tone with which the love element was handled seemed a bit ir- revelant. This was augmented by the method employed by both the men and the girls in deciding which was to mar- ry the other. That the tale lives up to its title is beyond question. Here again we found a letter dealing with the European War. In this ease it is called " A Letter— The War Con- ditions in Servia. " The editorial headed " Recognition " , dealing with the dearth of spontane- ous literary effort in Franklin and Marshall awoke a responsive note here at Santa Clara. The remedy proposed — that of giving credits for the work — seemed to us to be an excellent one. An essay called " The Origin and History of Family Life " , was exhaust- ive, scholarly, and well-written. On the whole the issue is more than above the average. That we note exception to some of its contents will not, we trust, be taken amiss. The jus- tification, if it is needed, is that it is the faulty work published in books of the kind that should, we believe, be accorded the weight of comment, since the book is published with a view other than the spreading of the school ' s name and fame, that is, the improvement of the literary work of the students, and a stimulus to greater effort on their part. It has never been our policy to handle our contemporaries with kid gloves — that is, to laud all of their con- tents, deserving or otherwise, to the skies. This is because we sincerely be- lieve such a method to be conducive in no way to the end for which the Ex- change column was instituted. Since we have been honored by being chosen for this position, we feel it incumbent upon us to fulfill its obligations to the best of our ability, and according to our lights, however dim these same lights may appear to others, Most attractive is the " The Stylus " cover of the Stylus from Boston College. Being attractive it is prepossessing — at least so it was in our case. From the first bit of verse — called " The Sea " — to the Athletic Notes, we found a fund of most agreeable reading. " Brains versus the Woman " is a clever and original tale, well written. The only point to which we could take exception was in the concluding line. It struck us as being a bit weak, coming as it did in a place where usage de- mands something quite the reverse. Again in the Stylus we find consid- 290 THE REDWOOD erable space devoted to the Avar. Thei ' e are an essay, a story, and another letter bearing on the subject. While the lat- ter is not specifically referred to as such, we took the style in which it is written as an indication that such was the intention. If it were otherwise, we congratulate the writer on the manner in which the letter style is simiilated. If, on the other hand, our surmise is correct, we nevertheless congratulate him on the article. " The Sunspot " Recently another pub- lication — not, however, undergraduate — made its appearance hereabouts It is called " The Sunspot " , and is the worlv of Rev. Jerome Sextus Ricard, S. J., the eminent scientist, whose weather prog- nostications have caused him to become widely known as " The Padre of the Rains " . This new book is de- voted to Fr. Ricard ' s favoi ' ite study. It contains, besides several articles, a complete list of the weather conditions to prevail during the current month, together with a verification of the pre- dictions for the month preceding. That the magazine is both profound and scholarly goes without saying for the many who have become acquainted with Father Ricard ' s wonderful work. It is evident that through " The Sun- spot " our observatory and its distin- guished head will materially advance toward the recognition due to both, and since this is true, " The Sunspot " should not lack the pro per support. The magazine is issued monthly. Sin- gle copies are ten cents, and yearly subscriptions one dollar. They may be obtained by addressing Father Ricard, Observatory, University of Santa Clara. Roma — By Rev. Albert Kuhn, 0. S. B., D. D. — We have received and read with much interest the eighth j art of this excellent work. The catacombs are the subject of this part, and they are illustrated with a fulness and uni- form excellence we had hardly exjiect- ed. The descriptions are accurate in detail, and in the way of placing the underground life of the Church before the reader we have seen few books on the Catacombs that may be said to equal them. Full notice has been taken of the recent discoveries and so the book is complete. The publishers have done well in placing such an excellent work before the public at so modest a price. Benziger, 18 parts, 35c each. The Psalms — A Commentory by The Revd. E. Sylvester Berry. This com- mentory is to be complete in three vol- umes, the present volume containing fifty psalms. We have found it simple and practical, free from too recondite discussion of a sort to weary rather than instruct, and as complete as one may well wish. Benziger, $2.00 (post- age extra). The Elder Miss Ainsboroug-h, by Mr- rion Ames Taggart, is a very well told THE REDWOOD 291 story of one sistei- ' s love repaid by gross ingratitude of another. Stated thus briefly it would not seem to prom- ise much in the way of entertainment, but Miss Taggart has contrived by the number and excellent painting of her characters, by her keen observation of their sayings and doings, to make a very readable book indeed. In particular we would single out for j raise her ren- dering of the somberness of the old Puritan village. Benziger, $1.25. itiTi rslty Noti B Basketball The University Basket- ball Team recently held their annual banquet, and a merry evening it was for them all. Eddie Mulholland was elected cap- tain of next year ' s quintet, and he thanked them in a quiet way tliat is all his own. Louis Milburn and Dutch Voight, captain of the past season ' s five, ad- dressed those present, though basket- ball was not the essence of their theme. The officers of the So- The Sodality dality of the Immacu- late Conception were recently chosen for the ensuing half- year. The out-going officers are to be congratulated on the interest they have shown in their duties, and on the up- right and manly way in which they have conducted the meetings, and have borne themselves as befits true lovers of the Blessed Virgin. Those elected were : Ad Canejo, Pre- fect; Nick Martin, Assistant; Joseph Christy, Assistant; Phil Martin, Secre- tary; Jas. Coyle, Treasurer; Edward Booth, Marshall; William Geha, Mar- shall; Louis Milburn, Consultor; Michael Leonard, Consultor ; William Shipse} ' , Consultor; Thomas Ybarando, Consultor ; James Fitzpatriek, Con- sultor; George Nicholson, Consultor. The Senate The Senate postponed their meeting until next Tuesday evening on ac- count of the power failing at a critical moment. This in no way overshadows the spirit the Senators have shown. They are all in training for the Ryland Debate which is not far off. The competition is keen for the po- sitions on the team, and that explains Avhy many of the Senators have been picking up useless arguments here and there. They ' re getting into form. We wish them all the success in the world. There has been a rumor A Game going about of a series of three games of base- ball to be played between the Juniors and Seniors. The Juniors, as every- body remembers, won the football game from the Seniors by a large score, and from existing circumstances we can well judge that they are hot after the Seniors ' baseball scalp. The Seniors, 292 THE REDWOOD 293 on the other hand, have the proud rec- ord of being victorious for the past three years, as Freshman, Sophomores and Juniors, and promise they will not lose this opportunity of winning their last series. A Holiday The morning of the great day of the open- ing of the Exposition found the majority of the students of the University mingled with the merry jostling crowd. It was a great day, sec- ond in importance to none, as we saw it, and it was with fond memories of the Jewel City, her hospitality and wonderful sights, that we returned Tuesday evening tired, but happy. At a recent meeting of Senior Class the Senior class, Arti- son Ramage was elect- ed to act as Sargeant-at-Arms. Louis Milburn, the old stand by, was chosen to captain the Senior Basketball Team, while Dutch Voight was handed the manager ' s reins. The Junior Dramatic Play The members of the Junior Dramatic are certainly to be congrat- ulated on their first showing as thespi- ans. From comment heard from those who were fortunate enough to have seen them in their two-act drama, " At the Sign of the Rose ' ' , they interpreted the piece as only men throwing their whole hearts and souls into a task can. There was no hitch in the acts, but everything flowed along as a much-drilled cast of professionals v ould have wished. John O ' Neil and Montgomeiy enter- tained between acts with beautifully rendered Irish ballads. The men taking part in the actual presentation, and those who did so much towards the success of the show are to be congratulated, and earnestly requested to repeat their success in the near future by an equally interesting program. The cast and promoters were : Peter Cunningham, Horace " Wilson, Louis Bergna, William Irwin, George Dona- hue, Bartley Oliver, Buckley McGurrin, John R. O ' Neill, Cyril Kavanaugh, James Enright, Demetrio Diaz, Norbert Korte. The business staff and promoters were William Lavell, Elisha Dana, J. Herman Fitzpatrick. Director, Mr. Edward J. Whelan, S. J. Associated Students At the last meeting of the Associated Stu- dents, took place Sun- day evening, March 7, 1915. After a heated debate the Juniors were awarded their numerals, for hav- ing won the inter-class football cham- pionship. Korte, Diaz, and Mulholland, were awarded small letters for basketball and are to be congratulated on their successful season. 294 THE REDWOOD The Treasurer ' s monthly report was read, and after a few well chosen words from Mr. White, S. J., the Moderator of Athletics, the meeting adjourned. The House The House recently held a debate on the question, ' ' Resolved : That An International Law Should Be Passed, Punishing All Bomb Throw- ers with Capital Punishment " . Harley Burke spoke very well in opposition to the measure was backed in his ar- guments by Daniel J. Ryan and Thomas Hickey, and was forcibly opposed in turn by A. Kavanagh in a very low voice, but all in all the evening was thoroughly enjoyed by all present. It has been noticed that Lent the men have passed through the Lenten Season with stoical good will, and much lingering over the letters from home, knowing that on the afternoon of March 31 they will be down at the sta- tion, suitcases packed, and waiting for the train that will take them for the Easter vacation. The holidays this year will last a week, and a week that has long been looked forward to, though Virgil and Cicero felt none of the slight, for human nature has ever been the same, and it is now, as it was in their time. Home, Sweet Home. Elocution Contest The annual Elocution Contest will take place in the University Audi- torium, March 30. Two prizes will be given, one for the best rendered selec- tion by a member of the Preparatory Department, and one for the University men. These medals were won last year by Ad. Canelo and Francis Schilling. There are a great many men in the pre- liminaries, and the competition will be keen. The year 1915 will be Alumni a banner year in many ways, but among the Alnmni it will be of special importance. Their banquet this year will bring to- gether more of the graduates than has any in the past. A special effort is be- ing made by each alumnus to attend. And to facilitate the attendance the coming reunion is to be set for a date a little in advance of the usual one so as not to conflict with siammer vacation plans. The exact date has not yet been determined. As usual the banquet will be strictly invitational. Arrangements are being supervised by Rev. Wm. Bo- land, S. J. He announces that it will be held in the Colonial Room of the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco. No one would expect a St. ' 91 Patrick ' s Day celebration of any importance to trans- pire within a wide scope of these parts without an ample representation from Santa Clara participating. The big Gaelic jollification at the Fair Grounds in San Francisco on the 17th ult., was no exception. Principal among our representatives there, Avas John J. Bar- rett, ' 91, the orator of the day. Mr. Barrett is one of the most talented and imjiressive speakers in the state. With- in sight of the Golden Gate and before an immense concourse of interested list- eners his true Celtic soul rose to its height and his eloquence thrilled the multitude. He more than thrilled them. Every auditor, and they were all of Irish birth or blood, Avas fired Avith en- thusiasm and inspired Avith a just pride that he or she was of the Emerald Isle. ' 92 Wm. F. Humphry, ' 92, has received aijpointment to a high position in connection Avitli the Exposition. He is chairman of the General Athletic Committee. This, of course, is a very important post and one demanding much executive ability, as athletics are to be a feature of the Fair. And Ave have no doubt 295 296 THE REDWOOD whatever that they will be, for Mr. Humphry, who by the way is also Pres- ident of the Olympic Club, is the right man to keep things going. Moreover, he has some very able committees un- der him. Just by way of illustration : Harry McKenzie, ' 08, is a member of the Intercollegiate Rugby Committee. Few are be tter fitted to act in such a capacity than Harry. He is thoroughly conversant with the game in all its phases. Dr. Geo. J. Hall, the very ' 08 successful medical adviser of the class of 1908, has lately moved from San Francisco on ac- count of the illness of his wife. The hope that a change of climate would benefit her has induced the Doctor to abandon a very lucrative practice in the metropolis and professional chairs in the Universities of California and St. Ignatius. Dr. Hall was one of the youngest lecturers in either of these schools. The Halls ' new home is in Yreka, in this state. The coming of the Hawaiian ' 10 Island Base Ball Team to the coast has brought word from James K. Jarrett, ' 10. The mana- ger of the insular ball team, Mr. Kau, is a personal friend of " Barney ' s " and he tells us tha t our Hawaiian rugby captain of the 1909 team is now practis- ing law in Honolulu. According to his countryman, " Barney ' s " genial dispo- sition is unchanged and his success in legal practice is assured. ' 10 One of the enterprising members of the class of 1910 is again in the liiiie-light. P. Arthur McHenry, whom we recently noted as a newly-wed and as joint man- ager with his brother of the Montgom- ery Hotel in San Jose, has launched out for himself in the hotel business. He has bought the Russ House, which is also in San Jose, and has assumed its active management. Richard V. Bressani, ' 13, ' 13 has accepted the position of Deputy County Clerk of Santa Clara County. Dick is still at- tending the Institute of Law here at the University and has been ever since his graduation. He will complete his course in June. It will be quite a task to attend to the duties of the clerkship and at the same time carry the Senior law course, but Bressani isn ' t the kind that is afraid of a big undertaking. Santa Clara 2. Stanford 1. After eight short innings of suspense the varsity emerged from a close and exciting ninth inning finish and defeat- ed Stanford by a score of 2 to 1. Hoever and Reppy pitched very cred- itable ball and errors by their respect- ive teammates account for the runs scored. Day ' s speed was the main factor in giving Stanford their first run, as the plucky leftfielder hit sharply to Shee- han, and on a high throw to Ramage was safe. McCloskey advanced Day to second on a sacrifice and two errors by the varsity resulted in his scoring. During their half of the sixth inning, the varsity evened up the score. Me- Ginnis beat out an infield hit and went to third on Hoever ' s wild pitch. He later scored on Hawk ' s out at first, Stafford to Workman. The game ran along smoothly until the ninth inning. Then Byler hit safe- ly through short, Montgomery ad- vanced him to second on a sacrifice hit and the runner scored, when Austin overran Sheehan ' s single to center field. The score : SANTA CLARA AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 4 12 3 4 Hawks, cf 4 10 Sheehan, 3b 4 2 1 Ramage, lb 4 10 1 Byler, e 4 113 10 Montgomery, 2b ._ 4 4 2 2 Fitzpatrick, If 4 2 10 Schultz, rf 3 12 Reppy, p 2 Total 33 2 4 27 10 4 297 298 THE REDWOOD STANFORD a walk, was sacrificed safely to second AB R II PO A E and scored when Montgomery hit a ter- Austin, cf 3 2 i-ific drive into center field. Here Ben- Stafford, 2b. 4 14 1 Fitzpatrick proved a hero, his sin- Workman, lb 4 19 1 j_ iVe, . - Noonan, rf 10 to left center winning the game. Day If 3 112 As the box score indicates, McGinnis, McCloskey, 2b 2 2 2 1 Ramage and Sheehan were excellent in Stevens, ss 4 2 2 the field, while Hawks, Ramage, Mont- Landers, c 2 10 1 gojj ery nd B. Fitzpatrick carried off Hoever, p 200000 ,, . Downing, rf 2 « ' " o ' - Uuniversity of California 3. Total 27 1 6 27 6 3 Santa Clara 7. Santa Clara Universitjr 3. Salt Lake 2. Though the University of California In a well earned game filled with ranks secon d in the number of students clever fielding and remarkable plays attending any state University of the the varsity surprised the San Jose lov- country, the Santa Clara varsity upheld ers of the National Game Avhen it de- its time-honored tradition by easily de- feated Salt Lake Coast Leaguers by f eating " The Blue and Gold " by the the close score of 3 to 2. score of 7 to 3. Leonard for the University opposed The Santa Clarans outfielded, outhit three of the Mormon veterans; and his and outclassed their opponents in every headwork, together Avith fast fielding part of the game ; but the keen rivalry and coolness at intense moments of the between the two universities caused un- game, was the principal cause of a usual excitement until the last batter " Red and White " victory. was retired. The varsity scored the first run in its The excitement began at the very half of the first inning, when McGinnis outset of the game, when McGinnis hit reached first safely on four pitched a Texas leaguer over short. Sheehan balls, was sacrificed safely to second sacrificed McGinnis to second and by Sheehan, and tallied the first run on Ramage scored the runner on a double Ramage ' s double to right field. to right field. Gregory replaced Arrelanes at the What possibly made the game most end of the third inning and his great interesting occurred in the second inn- variety of curves and speed proved too ing when O ' Hara tripled to right field- great an obstacle for the varsity, as not With none out Reppy pitched wonder- a member of the team hit safely. ful ball and with the aid of his team- Manager Blankenship removed Greg- mates prevented the opposing batsman ory at the end of the eighth inning and from scoring the runner, put Kremmer in as pitcher. He fared Run-getting was frequent during the very poorly as Ramage reached first on remaining innings of the game and the THE REDWOOD 299 varsity was virtually conceded a vie- Santa Clara 3. The Wielands 5. tory, when McGinnis reached first on ouie Lowenberg ' s fast ball players an error, went to second on Hawk ' s hit, jo,,rneyed down from San Francisco and scored on Sheehan ' s two-base g surprised the varsity drive. Ramage ' s double to left field . inning a well earned victory by scored two more runs. Byler hit safe- 3 ly and Montgomery made it impossible . , j. • - j? , ,, , , V, „ Apart from exciting moments of to lose the game when he scored Ram- , n m ,,t ■ ,, ■, .-, -, ■ , T-. T baseball, Louie kept the crowd in age and Byler- , , ,,••,, , , „, , ., , . „ „ good humor bv his witty remarks and The steady pitching of Reppy, to- , . , .,., " . r , -,1 ., I. J?- 1 T s ixT his ability as a coach On one occasion gether with the perfect fielding oi Mc- „ , . . . oil T-i-j . • 1 - T i one 01 his proteges hit a three-base Gmnis, bcholz, Fitzpatrick, Montgom- -, . t ■ -, ■ -, ■, • , T-, T .1 1 • .- n drive and Louie advised him to leave ery and Ramage, and the hitting or , . ., , , , „. n J. ■ c i 1 -r. 1 T-, 1 third base and re-touch first, as he Captain bheehan, Ramage and Byler, ,,,,,, , , ,, ■ o ■ • doubted whether the runner had touch- were the mam factors m an easy vie- . , . „, ed it squarely or not. Umpire Boone tory. The score : . -, -, i , , • . xTr„ . T . T . experienced a great deal of trouble in SANTA CLARA , . ,. , , i ..t, i AB R H PO A E deciding close plays, and thanks to McGinnis ss 5 2 2 2 5 " Louie " the town marshal was absent Hawks, cf 2 2 12 from the game. Nevertheless Louie is Sheehan, 3b 2 12 10 to be complimented on the kind of ball Ramage, lb 4 12 8 1 j j eam plays. Byler, c 3 12510 ,,r. , ,, - ■ ,n- Montgomery, 2b 4 14 2 " ® Danzig was the first batter Fitzpat rick, If 4 13 who reminded Hickey that Louie ' s Scholz, rf 2 3 team could bat, when he drove a long I eppy, p 3 hit into right field for three bases. Totals 2 n 2 1 ? " ' Hickey became somewhat erratic UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA T ' I S ? ' ' . ' " ' ' ' ' " f AB R H PO A F l.Y ' and when Hawks missed Ross s long ' Adair, cf 3 110 f y to center, three runners scored. Dodson, Ib-ss 2 7 10 But the varsity shoAved their hitting Granellar 4 2 ability, when Scholtz was walked, sac- O ' Hara, If 4 10 11 rificed to ' second by McGinnis. Shee- Young, rf 300100, iijj-r, Hayes 2b 4 112 5 ■ walked and Ramage scored Clark, ' ss 2 2 2 two runners on his single through the Sebastin, c 2 2 10 infield. Byler scored Ramage on a sin- Farland, c-lb 3 115 10 gie over second McMillan, p 2 10 110 mi i,-xx- j? r. i j oi Geffkin, p 1 The heavy hittmg of Byler and Shee- Dodge, p ■ ' ' ' " ' - especially of Ramage, showed . . that they could hit at opportune times. Totals 30 3 4 23 12 1 Apart from the heavy batting Scholtz, 300 THE REDWOOD Fitzpatrick and Hawks fielded an ex- cellent game. For the visitors, " Cy " Parkins, " Babe " Danzig, Jimmey Riorden and " Cy " Ross played excellently. SECOND VARSITY NOTES. The Second Varsity, or " Redwoods " organized a few weeks ago in a hurry after dinner. Mr. Whelan was selected by the faculty to have charge of the team, and judging from the efforts and enthusiasm he has given to his past un- dertakings, the team is looldng for- ward to a prosperous season. Eugene Trabucco was chosen manager, and Joe Aurrecoechea, captain- Within an hour after this organization the team played its first game against the Stan- ford Seconds. A great deal of atten- tion is being given the Second Varsity and High School teams this year, as it is from these teams that the varsity re- ceives its recruits. Tommy Ybarrando, who, owing to his crippled hand is not found in a varsity laniform this year, was asked to act as coach for the second string men. Tom- my will undoubtedly prove an excel- lent coach as he knows the game thor- oughly. Santa Clara Second Varsity 3. San Jose High School 1. On the afternoon of Monday, March the third the second varsity won a hard fought victory on the home field from the San Jose High School by a score of 3 to 1. With " Bill " Paull, perhaps the best amateur High School pitcher in the county, twirling for the High School, his team-mates fielded well behind him, and on several occasions his own field- ing and fast breaking curves prevent- ed several scores. In the second inning the High School by good base running and a two-base hit by Paull scored Moody. The sec- ond varsity scored when Herlihy reach- ed first on a single. Trabucco advanc- ed him to second base on a sacrifice hit, and a single by Aurrecoechea scor- ed the runner. The score remained tie nntil the seventh innig when hits by Desmond, Coyle and Voight scored two runs. With practically no practice this year the second varsity made several difficult plays. Voight pitched magnificently, while Trabucco, Aurrecoechea, Bothwell and Mulholland carried off the fielding hon- ors. The score : SANTA CLARA SECOND TEAM. AB R H PO A E Bothwel l, cf 4 2 2 1 Desmond, rf 3 10 Mulholland, ss 3 2 2 Coyle, lb 4 19 Herlihy, 2b 3 1110 Martin, If 4 Trabucco, 3b 3 12 3 1 Aurrecoechea, e 3 1 2 10 1 1 Voight, p 3 13 14 Totals 30 3 10 27 11 3 SAN JOSE HIGH SCHOOL. AB R H PO A E Phillips, ss 4 3 10 Thomas, 3b 3 3 10 THE REDWOOD 301 AB R H PO A E Brown, rf _ 8 10 Wayland, cf 3 Moody, If 4 12 2 Swank, lb 4 6 Petree, 2b 4 McArthur, e 4 2 10 3 1 Paull, p 3 2 4 Totals - 32 1 7 24 9 1 SUMMARY. Two-base hit — Voight. Struck out — • By Voight 10, by Paul 8. Base on balls — By Voight 1, by Paull 1- Umpire — Milburn. Santa Clara Second Varsity 2. Stanford Second Varsity 3. Stanford Second Varsity won a well played game from The Redwoods by the close score of 3 to 2. Stanford opened the initial inning by scoring two runs, due chiefly to sev- eral erratic plays and a two-base hit by Hayes. In the fifth inning Santa Clara com- menced its first counting by tieing the score when Bothwell singled to left and scored on Martin ' s terrific three-base drive into left center. He later scored on Mulholland ' s single to left field. In the opening of the fourth inning, Stanford again scored and The Red- woods determined efforts to add anoth- er victory to their list were nearly suc- cessful. Bothwell was walked. Then Martin bunted safely through the infield. Both- well advancing to third, and when Naster threw to catch Bothwell, the ball bounced beyond Mulford. Here the signals were crossed and Bothwell tried to score, but he was out at the home plate With Mulholland at the bat and Martin on second base the many Santa Clara fans felt confident a tie score would result, but a wonder- ful catch by Sanborn of Mulholland ' s line drive ended the game. The score : STANFORD SECOND TEAM. AB R H PO A E Mulford, 3b 4 14 Gates, cf „.... 110 Blunt, lb 3 115 10 Hayes, c 3 12 3 10 Sanborn, If 3 10 Naster, ss _ 3 2 10 Wilkins, rf 3 2 Fayborn, 2b 2 112 Hurley, Slade, p 2 Totals 24 3 6 12 10 SANTA CLARA SECOND TEAM. AB R H PO A E Mulholland, ss 4 2 12 1 Aurrecoechea, 2b 2 2 4 Desmond, rf 3 2 10 Casey, c 3 3 Voight, p 3 10 Coyle, lb 2 19 1 Herlihy, cf 3 10 Bothwell, 3b 2 1112 Martin, If 3 12 2 Totals 25 2 6 21 10 2 SUMMARY. Three-base hit — Martin. Two-base hits — Blunt, Hayes. Struck out — By Voight 3, by Hurley 3, by Slade 2. Base on balls — Hurley 1, Slade 2. Um- pire — Boone. JUNIOR NOTES. Through earnest practice and follow- ing the instructions of their Moderator, 302 THE REDWOOD Mr. Gianera, the Juniors have shoAvn remarkable improvement during the lest two weeks. Thoiagh only one of their scheduled games has been played up to date, their condition will soon warrant them to meet the choice of the high schools near us. Berg and Samaniego are two depend- able pitchers, and with " Joe " Bush and Eisert catching, form well balanc- ed batteries. Heafey, Diaz, Pradere and Captain Cunningham compose the infield and the way they play together makes the infield worthy of recognition. Gallagher, Korte, Howard and Berg- na are the four aspirants for outfield positions and their ability to bat well adds much strength to the team. THE SECOND DIVISION. Since last month ' s issiie of the " Red- wood " the positions of the teams in the Midget League have not changed. Oxnard ' s lead was increased three games during the month, while Vernon and Monterey are struggling along, sometimes one, sometimes two games separating them. The last two series have been close and hard-fought, the teams behind re- alizing that only a few victories are needed to put them in the lead, and the leaders knowing well that defeat now may ultimately cost them the honor of being champions. So far the pitching has been of big league order, each team having at least two dependable pitchers ; as a conse- quence batting averages are lower than in previous seasons, only four being in the select three hundred class. Benny Williams forged ahead of Deringer and is now batting .353. Cyril Kavanagh ' s big stick has been banging the ball to all corners of the lot recently, so that his average was soon boosted to .305. MIDGET ALL STARS- Three victories out of four games played speaks well for this year ' s All Star Team, and this success has been accomplished without the assistance of Captain Doud who has been out of the game a month owing to an operation. In the first game played the Day Scholars were defeated by a fifteen to five score. The hard hitting of the Midgets and the lack of team work among the day scholars was largely re- sponsible for their defeat, R. Williams hit safely the four times he went to bat, his efforts being well seconded by B. Williams and Borchard, who each made two hits Against the Juniors they were again victorious, defeating the High School team five to tAvo. The following have been chosen for the Midget ' s All Stars this year: Captain Doud and Amaral, pitchers ; Poster, catcher ; Borchard, 1st b. ; Wil- son, 2nd b. ; Conneally, 3rd b. ; B. Wil- liams, ss. ; Deringer, R. Williams, Moore and Butler, in the field. The standing of the clubs is as fol- lows : Won Lost Per Ct. Oxnard 8 4 -667 Vernon 5 6 .455 Monterey 4 7 .364 THE REDWOOD. : For Snappy at $15.00 and $20.00 Spring beauties in brindled tweeds, homespuns, tartan plaids, blue cheviots and serges, and those ultra smart Glen Urquhart plaids. All priced DOWN by our PRICE POLICY to and Corduroy Trousers at Three Stores at YOUR SERVICE Washington at 13th OAKLAND " The House of Courtesy " Market at Stockton SAN FRANCISCO Sole Agents ' EVERWEAR " HOSIERY Shattuck at Center BERKELEY »!-: THE REDWOOD •5: : H. MARTENSEN THE HOUSE OF BEATTY ...TAILOR... SUITS MADE TO ORDER $30.00 AND UP. 65 SOUTH MARKET STREET San Jose Typewriter Company 24 South Second Street Special Rates to Students EXCLUSIVE SERVICE Typewriters and Supplies WE RENT SELL REPAIR REBUILD EXCHANGE ALL MAKES Phone, San Jose 349 SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery.? RATES TO STUDENTS BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. : THE REDWOOD Phone S. J. 3636 [ " 8:30 to 6 Daily Hours Saturday until 8 p.m. I Sunday 10 a.m. to 12 m. Dr. D. H. ROSS DENTIST S. E. CORNER FIRST AND SANTA CLARA STREETS Safe Deposit Bank Building All Work Guaranteed Crown and Bridgework a Specialty SAN JOSE, CAL. We promise you relief from ail Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c p ,, .. " ox Only at jyiADDEN ' S PHARMACY Franklin St. Santa Clara The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60; Santa Clara 99 J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose V. Salbera E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. : And everything else for COUGHS and COLDS University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. THE REDWOOD - - ■ Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose " ST Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Restaurant, Grill and Oyster House 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " K. L rbani Son TAILORS CLEANING AND REPAIRING A SPECIALTY Main Street Santa Clara Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps THE REDWOOD MANUEL MELLO Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS " agency Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice SANTA CLARA 4 : Franlclin St. Santa Clara Barber Shop Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franl lin St. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2 Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles In Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara This ad. published inthe$500Fatima Advertising Con- test, is the work of Mr. Clayton R. Pallan, University of Michigan. $500 will be paid to the college student who sends to us the best original advertisement for Fatima cigarettes before June 1, 1915. In the meantime, for each ad. we publish we will pay the writer $5. Illustrate your ad. if you can, but if you can ' t draw, then use your kodak or descrioe your idea. Prize will be awarded by a committee of three prom- inent advertising men. L. B. Jones, Adv. Mgr. East- man Kodak Co., F. R. Davis, Adv. Dept. General Electric Co. , and J. George Frederick, Editor of Adver Using Selling. ' 4fa£ttfS .AwAtMjS ae«« Gr. 212 Fifth Ave.. New York City THE TURKISH ULENP CIGARETTE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION THE REDWOOD I The rtest Route TO Omaha, Kansas City and the East THE OGDEN ROUTE " The Overland Limited " An Extra Fare Train with observation car, valet, barber and bath. From San Francisco at 4 p.m. " The Pacific Limited " An elegant train with observation car, standard sleepers and one tourist car. From San Francisco at 10:20 a.m. ' The San Francisco Limited " With standard and tourist sleepers and through Four chair cars. From San Francisco at 2:00 p.m. Fast • Trains " The Atlantic Express " Daily With through standard and tourist sleepers, with chair cars. From San Francisco at 7 p .m. All Protected Throughout with Automatic Electric Block Signals Railroad and Steamship Tickets Sold To and From all Points A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, District Pass. Agent 40 — EAST SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE — 40 THE REDWOOD i MORGAN ' S CLASS PINS M h: D A L S Special facilities for Fine Presentation Medals 615 Plielan Bldg., San Francisco JJK - University Barbers Main Street, Santa Clara Phones ; Office S. C. ISl J Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to S p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara CASEY IS STILL WITH Sherry Freitas Co. SELLING Butter, Ice C ream, Etc. 262 S. First St., Masonic Bldg. " DROWN Shave Shop GIVE US A TRIAL Room 512 Clock Building Take Elevator to 5th floor EVERYBODY IS WELCOME to the SantaClara Coffee Club Come and enjoy its privileges. It ' s a public place, and a place for the public. They all enjoy a visit to the Club. M. R. GLEASON, Manager. Santa Clara Valley CREAMERY BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE, MILK and CREAM S.C. 57r 1050 franklin ST. THE REDWOOD Don ' t Wear Glasses Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect ' M MM MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery. Inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists SOc; by mail 65c Bfltabli8hed20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskln Santa Clara California Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE MARK ---- Jp--- CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS Ice Cream AND Candies Colonica ' s Telephone S. C. 3SR 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Wholesale AND Retail : THE REDWOOD : Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards ™.ph.„..:)|-7 ,»» FRED W. SALTER, Proprietor THE DEL MONTE (BUFFET) 105 POWELL STREET 112 ELLIS STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. Orlglla LamoUe Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD ANNOUNCEMENT The CLOTHES BEAUTIFUL designed and made especially for BILLY HOBSON for the SPRING SEASON are now on display. The new models are the most attractive ever shown. Drop in and try on a few of the new models. BILLY HOBSON 24 South First Street San Jose, CaL " BUY GOODS MADE IN CALIFORNIA. " By so doing you help to build up your State. American Biscuit Company Has 150 different kinds of Crackers and Cakes H. A. HARMS, San Jose Agent HERBERT S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. J. U. says: if you are tired of ill-fitting suits then call on J. U. WINNINGER " See that Fit " 121 N. First St. THE REDWOOD The Ellery Arms Company MANUFACTURERS AND OUTFITTERS For the SPORTSMAN, CAMPER AND ATHLETE EQUIPMENT AND APPARATUS For Every Need 583-585 MARKET STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Economy In Time and Money The Chef Himself Serves You A Pleasant Surprise for You Choose to Your Taste Royal Cafeteria No Delays FIRST IN SAN JOSE No Tips Telephone, San Jose 1692 79-81 SOUTH FIRST STREET TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS. FOBS, TOILET SETS, ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC.. ETC. FRED M. STERN ' The Leather Man 77 NORTH FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE, CAL. ? Vargas Bros. Co. GENT ' S FURNISHINGS MADE-TO-ORDER AND READY-MADE SUITS, MEN ' S AND BOYS ' SHOES, GENERAL MERCHANDISE. HARDWARE, PAINTS Give US your next suit order. Lafayette and Franklin Streets Phone S. C. 120 THE REDWOOD ihZ " varsity 55 " A NEW MODEL BY HART SCHAFFNER AND MARX You ' ll like the style; it ' s a good one for young men, and other men too; you ' ll like the way this suit is made, the way it fits and you ' ll like the price $20 to $35 Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes pnng ' 0, inr. Santa Clara and Market Streets MET HOFF KAYSER yet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. SUIT CASES PURSES i T az f e 83-91 South First St, San Jose, Cau. LEATHER NOVELTIES SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT " HOME OF STETSON HATS " SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON : THE REDWOOD By the Best Authors — Each Volume with Illustrated Jacket Copyright Books Neat Cloth Bindings Free by mail, 3S cents per volume LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO THE REV. CLERGY AND RELIGIOUS The Best Series of Catholic Story-Books Published The Ups and Downs of Marjorie. Mary T. Waggaman. In Quest of Adventure. Mary E. Mannix. Little Lady of the Hall. Nora Rye- man. Miralda. Mary Johnston. The Mad Knight. From the German of O. V. Schachjng. The Children of Cupa. Mary E. Manni.x. The Violin Maker. Adapted by Sara Trainer Smith. The Great Captain. Katharine Tynan Hinkson. The Young Color Guard. Mary G. Bonesteel. The Haldeman Children. Mary E. Mannix. Two Little Girls. Lillian Mack. Mary Tracy ' s Fortune. Anna T. Sadlier. The Berkleys. Emma Howard Wight. Bob O ' Link. Mary T. Waggaman. Bunt and Bill. Clara Mulholland. The Littfe Apostle on Crutches. Henriettc E. Delamare. Little Mis y. Mary T. Waggaman. Seven Li tie Marshalls. Mary F. Nixon-Roulet. As True as Gold. Mary E. Mannix. The Golden Lily. Katharine Tynan riinkson. For the White Rose. Katharine Tynan Hinkson. The Dollar Hunt. From the French by E. G. Martin. Recruit Tommy Collins. Mary G. Bonesteel. A Summer at Woodville. Anna T. Sadlier. The Mysterious Doorway. Anna T. Sadlier. Nan Nobody. Mary T. Waggaman. Old Charlmont ' s Seed-Bed. Sara Trainer Smith. Three Girls, and Especially One. Marion A. Taggart. Tom ' s Luck-Pot. Mary T. Waggaman. An Every-Day Girl. Mary C. Crowley. By Branscome River. Marion A. Taggart. The Madcap Set at St. Anne ' s. Marion J. Brunowe. The Blissylvania Post Office. Marion A. Taggart, An Heir of Dreams. S. M. O ' Malley. The Peril of Dionysio. Mary E. Mannix. Daddy Dan. Mary T. Waggaman. Jack. Relifrious of the Society of the Holy Child. Tooralladdy. Julia C. Walsh. The Little Girl From Back East. Isabel J. Roberts. The Bell Foundry. Otto von Schach- ing. Ths Queen ' s Page. Katharine Tynan Hinkson. The Sea-Gulls ' Rock. J. Sandeau. Jack-O ' -Lantern. Mary T. Waggaman. Pauline Archer. Anna T. Sadlier. Bistouri. A. Melandri. A Hostage of War. Mary G. Bone- steel. Fred ' s Little Daughter. Sara Trainer Smith. Dimpling ' s Success. Clara Mulhol- land. An Adventure With the Apaches. Gabriel Ferry. Pancho and Panchita. Mary E. Mannix. Cupa Revisited. Mary E. Mannix. A Pilgrim From Ireland. Rev. M. Carnot. Translated by M. E. Mannix. Any book sent postpaid on receipt of price •K : THC R E-DWOOD May, 1915 ENGINEERING NUMBER J V THE REDWOOD University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and presupposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD :►¥ FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies o, „ f Sutter 4220 ' " " n Sutter 4221 Smith, Lynden Co. WHOLESALE GROCERS BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street San Francisco, Cal. • THE REDWOOD 4 , , . -i " The Hastings " New Styles in Young Men ' s Suits in the Tar- tan plaids and hair- line effects are correct. Our Balmacaan Over- coats are the very latest $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. » i THE REDWOOD Academy of Notre Dame : Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER CUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS Phone S. J. 795 84 to 90 North Market Street SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company PHOTO ENGRAVING ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ? Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make It better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA American Fish Market Residence Phots ' j.V ? Wholesale and Retail Dealers In FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet. 1st and Market F. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a Suit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD Z A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 30Q 74-76 N. Market St San Jose, Cal. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. F. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougli, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara Admission 10 cents, Children 5 cents. At all times May 1. " Enoch Arden, " also Zu- dora. May 2, 3. 4. " From the Valley of the Missing. " Mon. and Tues., Expltjits of Elaine. May 5, 6. " A Man and His Mate. " May 7, 8. " On the Night Stage, " and Zudora. May 9. 10, 11. " Anna Karenenina. " Mon. and Tues., Exploits of Elaine. May 12, 13. " A Man ' s Perogative. " May 14, 15. " The Cup of Life, " also Zudora. May 16, 17, 18. " The Clemenceau Case. " May 18, 19, 20. " A Child of God. " May 21. 22. " The Absentee, " also Zudoia. May 23, 24, 25. " The Plunderer. " Mon Tues. Exploits of Elaine. May 26, 27. " The Victim. " A Keystone Comedy with each change of program THE REDWOOD Boys, put one over on them Buy your next Suit from Pomeroy ' s BECAUSE our assortment will meet the most popular demand, having that real Quality and Smartness, and best of all a Perfect Fit. We have the very latest styles of English cut coats, with or with- out patch pockets, and classy hanging trousers. All the newest Siiades and Colors. The Price ;j515.00 up. FINE HATS AND CAPS — We have one of the best lines in town JOHN B. STETSON Soft and Sti ff Hats in complete variety S4 and S5 Caps, the smartest procurable, 81.50 " THE STRAND " Our own exclusive shapes $3.00 " THE LEGHORN " Imported — a dandy straw $4.00 and $5.00 tnero 49 61 South First Street San Jose, Cal. fcMmfi ' i ' ijiiitii c-L ' ;::i ' JPrtiJ Patronize the Dealer Who Gives You What You Ask For ASK FOR " Walk-Overs " .tavtiauEaaan THE STORE SELLING STANDARD PRODUCTS IS THE STORE SOUGHT BY THE CAREFUL BUYER •WALK-OVERS " HAVE MADE GOOD FOR OVER 40 YEARS " TROT-MOC, " $4.00 and $4.50 The Back Toe Nature Shoe The " RESTOE " the English model with room for the toes; all leathers $4 to $6 THE Walk-Over BOOT SHOP 125 South First Street Opposite Hale ' s WALK akOVER THE REDWOOD Get Your Next Suit AT The White House 16-22 W. SANTA CHAR AX SlkREET. SOLE AGENTS FOR It CLOTHES $15.00 to $35.00 See the New Self-conforming Straw Hats NIXON ' S THE MEN ' S BOOTERIE This is tlie new exclusive men ' s store with a line of up-to- the-minute foot wear at popular prices. We carry every- thing in the very newest English models in button and lace Step in and ask to see our College Men ' s shoe — the best yet REMEMBER ! THIS IS A MAN ' S STORE 41-43 South First Street San Jose, California CONTENTS SPECIALIZATION _ - - ppof. J. L. Donovan 303 OIL ENi.INES - - . - Richard D. Fux ?(i7 Rate Making for public Service corporations W. E. Spengemanii .U3 PAN AMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION ILLUMINATION Paul C. Campbell 318 strength AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE William D. Lutz .?22 DIFFICULT PROBLEMS OVERCOME IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PANAMA PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Paul L. Beck ,529 ELECTRO-CHEMICAL PRODUCTS - Ralph J. Weyand 3.?8 AUTOGENOUS WELDING BY THE OXY-ACETYLENE PROCESS ----- Marshall T. Garlinger HI EDITORIAL ---_-_. .H5 EXCHANGES _..._. J4y UNIVERSITY NOTES ------ 351 ALUMNI ------- ,!S.S ATHLETICS - - - - - - - 357 Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal.. as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., MAY, 1915 No. 7 SPECIALIZATION HIS is an age of speci- alizing, and one in which professional his- tory is made by spe- cialists. Doctors spe- cialize from lunacy to ' the treatment of the least important organs. The place of the physician and surgeon who stood head and shoulders above his colleagues in general practice is now usurped by many experts in particular ailments of the human body. The family solicitor, who interpreted the law for the whole household, the staid and pompous old attorney whose word itself was law to an admiring community have been re- placed by the equity lawyer, the crim- inal specialist, the corporation counsel, and so on down through the ramifica- tions of the law to even the shyster who hounds the street cars in the hope of obtaining an accident damage suit. The same state of affairs exists in every profession. And this trend to specialism is more marked in the case of engineers than in possibly any other body of technically trained men. It has been said that an engineer, at some time in his career, may find use for any and all knowledge his brain has hither- to assimilated. But the scope of the profession has so grown by leaps and bounds that the engineer can scarcely hope to keep abreast of the progress in all the branches. The crying need for specialists however, gives the young en- gineer a vent for his energy, a goal for his efforts and a promise of reward for his conscientious, labor. For instance, the old condition in which an engineer was supposed to be conversant with all the minutia of railway construction from the preliminary survey to main- tenance of the road after completion has been superseded by the idea that each particular step toward the fin- ished plant should be taken by an ex- pert. Consequently we have, among others contributing to the finished sys- tem, the reconnaisance engineer, the construction engineer, the bridge en- 304 THE REDWOOD gineer and the engineer of mainten- ance. And it is tlius through all the scope of engineering. The vast field now covered by the engineering profession offers many ways along which the young engineer may si ecialize, and this, too, with the knowledge that persistent application and honest effort will be rewarded with sufficient emolument and honorable position. The introduction of concrete, its, adaptability to countless structures and its rapid advance in popularity, have given to the profession a new field in which to specialize. Though the substance is old, its application to en- gineering problems is comparatively new. Used alone it is replacing the old massive structures of stone and brick, being easier of construction, giving ad- ditional strength and adapting itself to beauty of outline. In combination with steel the possibilities of construction seem to be unlimited. With steel frames it forms lofty and massive buildings practically indestructible by the ele- ments, strong and beautiful. Reinforc- ed, it is adapted to the construction of any member or structui ' e sustaining a strain, from the longest beams to the stoutest columns, and from the small culvert to the longest arch bridge. It is a lasting and comparatively noise- less material for sidewalks and pave- ments, cheap and durable for highways and perhaps offers the best solution to the increased cost of construction and maintenance of railways. It has been but a few years that concrete has been a factor in construction. The science of its application is really forming. Great possibilities lie in a better knowl- edge of its properties, better methods of mixing and laying, more research in the phenomena of the chemical reac- tions, conditions ultimately affecting its life or strength, and more extended experiments with those two affinities of construction, steel and concrete. Here offers a field rich for the re- search and experiment of the young en- gineer. He can in a short space of time familiarize himself with the pres- ent status of concrete construction and then an unlimited vista of chance for progress opens before his further la- bors. He need fear no failure should he devote himself to the study of this successor to brick and stone and steel. The rapid settlement of the country leading to a congestion of population and consequent intensive farming to supply increased population, the settle- ment of what were formerly considered waste places and the struggle to make these arid sections productive have made the subject of irrigation a very important branch of engineering. The great demand for power made by the growth of manufactures, and the fact that water power is the cheapest in na- ture, the almost universal adoption of electricity for the lighting of cities, and even of rural homes, and the pro- duction of this light supply by hydro- electric plants, and the electrification of street and trunk railways, have made the power plant engineer a neces- sity. Towns, now cities, were careless in securing an adequate Avater system THE REDWOOD 305 and the additional population requires an increased supply involving not only a change in the present system but also creating a necessity for new sources and avenues of supply. All these phases of vi ater supply, involving as they do the problems of watershed, run- off, reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, pipe- lines and countless others, offer a fruitful field for specialization to the engineer. In railway engineering the tendency is more and more to specialize. The old way in which the route was selected, profiles, maps and estimates submit- ted, and finished work accepted by the engineer has given place to the special- ist in all items. Instead of the " eye and error " methods of the contractor or foreman the engineer is placed in actual charge of the men, work and material. Even in the maintenance of way many systems are employing men who not only understand the work at hand, but also the engineering prin- ciples upon which it is based. Hence we have the engineer in charge of tun- nel, grade, bridge and track construc- tion and maintenance of way. Here are many niches for the specialist to fill. The development of the country and the consequent need for agricultural products and their hasty marketing, the quickened social life, educational requirements and pursuit of pleasure have led to a demand for more and bet- ter highways. Cities, too, now are changing the old make-shift paving for pavements less ' noisy, more durable, better adapted to the traffic and more pleasing to the eye. This allows the engineer a wide range for action. In the city he has stone, brick, wood, con- crete, and asphalt ; on highways he has from the earth road through all the changes — clay, clay and sand, sand, macadam, concrete, asphalt macadam, the construction of none of which may be said to be perfect in the present state of our knowledge. There will al- ways be a demand for the engineer who is an expert in highway construction. For the topographical expert, call him map-maker if you will, there will always be an open position. He is needed on large irrigation projects, on all surveys for water supply, railway reconnoissance and highway changes or locations. While the design estimates and speci- fications of buildings are properly in the realm of the architect, the trend of present construction is toward tall and massive buildings embodying not only beauty but strength and durability, and these latter involve difficult engin- eering problems in rivet, steel and rein- forced concrete, and in beam and gir- der, slab and arch. So that besides the architect, a skilled construction engin- eer is needed and his eitiployment as such is increasing. Of all the branches of engineering probably the one most neglected in this country until the last few years has been that of sanitation. And because of its influence upon the health and well-being of a community, it is the one most in need of careful attention. 306 THE REDWOOD logical experiment and patient re- search. The care of storm waters, the treatment of sewage and the disposal of sewage are problems the solution of which is worth the lifetime of any in- tellect. To successfully cope with the problems presented, the combined skill of chemist, economist and engineer is required. These are a few of the roads the engineer may follow in specializing. Others exist, or will arise with the de- velopment of science and industry. What is said with reference to the Civil Engineer, applies with equal forces to the Mining, Mechanical and Electrical Engineer in his separate branch. Be a specialist to win marked success. Any man who devotes a few years to the study of a particular subject must necessarily become conversant with all its details. One of even mediocre abil- ity, by application, can become an ex- pert as compared with one of brilliant attainments Avho has given but little study to the subject in hand. Special- ize then, cling to your object with per- sistence, and success will reward your efforts, provided you keep in mind those tAvo cardinal principles which should guide the engineer, viz. : loyalty to your employer and conscientious dis- charge of duty. Professor Joseph L. Donovan, C. E. OIL ENGINES NTERNAL combustion engines may be divid- ed into two general classes : those intend- ed to be run on gaso- line, or the more vola- tile distillates ; and those which burn crude or " fuel " oils. Automobile motors and small marine and stationary engines, so familiar to us all, belong to the first class. In them, the fuel is first taken into some sort of mixing chamber, or carburetor, where it is vaporized and mixed with the proper quantity of air. After being compressed in the cylinder, this mixt- ure is ignited by an electric spark, which is usually generated by a high tension magneto in the automobile and marine engines, and, in the stationary, by a battery and coil or low tension magneto and coil. When gasoline engines first came into use, gasoline was plentiful and cheap. As they were gradually per- fected and the automobile and motor- boat appeared in ever-increasing num- bers, the demand for fuel grew, and the price steadily rose, until those who were using large gasoline engines for power purposes soon found them rath- er expensive to operate. Naturally, crude oil and the heavy residues left after the gasoline and distillate were removed from the crude product, were still cheap, but the ordinary carburetor could not vaporize these fuels. It was, therefore, for the purpose of cutting down the cost of operation for power plants and also to dispense with the complication of carburetor and electri- cal ignition (which were found imprac- tical in connection with heavy fuels) that the second class of engines was brought out. This second division in- cludes all those motors which operate on crude or residual oils — commonly known as heavy oil engines. They are built in three distinctive types : The Diesel, the semi-Diesel and the hot- bulb engines. The Diesel Engine. Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German me- chanical engineer, was the inventor of this motor. It was his idea to follow out as closely as possible, in practice, the theory of the Carnot heat-engine cycle. The number of Diesel engines in successful operation, both here and abroad, is ample evidence of the suc- cess of his work. The Diesel engine is today by far the most efficient prime mover built. It has a thermal effici- ency of 30% to 35% while a steam turbine or reciprocating engine ranges from 5% to 20%. The Diesel is built in both four- stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle types. In the four-stroke engine, as 307 308 THE REDWOOD Four -Sfroke Cycle jf stroke Make 2 j Stroke Comprcaioft ird Stroke Working Stroke -ftk Stroke A ' xhauit shown in the figure, the air valve opens at the top of the stroke and as the piston moves out, pure air is drawn into the cylinder. On the return stroke, this air is compressed to about 500 pounds pressure which raises its tem- perature to approximately 1000 deg. " Fahrenheit. About 5 deg. before cen- ter, the fuel valve opens and oil is sprayed into the cylinder by air under about 700 i ounds pressure. The high temperature immediately ignites the fuel and the piston is forced out on the power stroke. This valve is kept open for a portion of the stroke, maintain- ing a constant pressure on the piston, and is closed in time to let the gases expand to atmospheric pressure before the exhaust valve opens. On the fourth or scavenging stroke, the exhaust valve being open, the burned gases are blown out. This completes the cycle. On account of the intense heat gen- FlG, 2— Diesel Fuel Valve THE REDWOOD 309 erated, all the jjartieles of oil are thor- oughly burned, reducing the danger of carbonizing of the cylinder valves and piston head to a minimum. The fuel valve shown is the type used in the Diesel engine. The fuel is forced through the perforations by the air and through the point of the valve, thus thoroughly breaking up the oil into fine particles which are admitted into the cylinder in a spray. The two-stroke cycle is as follows : Air having been compressed in the cyl- inder, the fuel is admitted a few de- grees before center and the working stroke commences; near the end of the stroke, the piston uncovers a port in the cylinder wall; at the same time the scavenging valves in the head of the cylinder open and air under pressure is admitted to the cylinder. This air as- sists in thoroughly scavenging the cyl- inder by blowing all the burned gas out through the ports. As the return stroke begins, the scavenging valve closes and air is compressed in the cylinder, com- pleting the cycle. The advantages of the Diesel as a prime mover are evident. It occupies a small space compared to an equiva- lent steam plant. It has no boiler and consequently, no boiler troubles and ex- penses. The engine room crew is small since the main duty required of the op- erators is to watch oil and cooling- water cii ' culation. The efficiency of the engine and the low cost of fuel (2c to 5c per gallon) insure a low operat- ing expense, the Diesel burning about 0.5 pound of fuel per B. H. P. hour. 7ivo ' 5troK€ Cyc e it Stroke -A. Zntf Stroke ..A.. ■ — k ark i Stroke Kkaost FIG. 3 310 THE REDWOOD Where one of these motors is installed for emergencies, its quick-starting abilities are an advantage, since it can assume full load in less than three minutes. The speed variation is very small, making the engine well suited to generator service. The principal objection to Diesels is their high first cost, which is about 50% more than a steam plant of equal capacity. This, however, is not so im- portant in cases where the engine is to be run for long periods since the sav- ing effected in fuel and labor soon off- sets the difference in price. In general, it may be said that a Diesel will be a very economical and satisfactory installation wherever the power is required the greater part of the time and where the load fluctua- tion is not too violent. The Semi-Diesel. This type of oil engine is distinctive only in the fuel vaporizer which it em- ploys. These vaporizers work on the as- sumption that in all heavy oils there is at least a small percentage of light hydro-carbons. In the above figure is shown one of these devices. The fuel valve, 3, is acted on by a lever in the usual way. Slot 14, cut in the stem, communicates with the air through the passage, 13. The oil enters at 10 passing down through 15 and past needle valve 18 which, being acted on by the governor, regulates the amount of oil admitted. The oil passes through duct 16 and 17 and is stopped by the valve 3. At the proper time, valve 3 opens and oil flows down into the cast iron box 4. This box has holes, 5, drill- ed in the bottom. The oil vaiporizes slowly and passes through holes, 5, into I ,1 74r I FIG, 4— Fuel Valve and Vaporizer, Brons Oil Engine the main cylinder. The heat of com- pression, as in the Diesel, ignites the gas. It is probable that combustion be- gins in 4 since this is the hottest place and contains the richest mixture. What- ever particles of fuel still remain un- vaporized in 4 are blown out through THE REDWOOD 311 the holes, 5, into the main cylinder, where the combust ion is completed. In this, as in both the other types, governing is effected by varying the amount of fuel admitted. This is auto- matic, the needle valve being acted on by the governor, thus varying the mix- ture. Of course, a means of hand regu- lation is also provided in order to com- pensate for any difference in fuels. The Hot Bulb Engine. In the design of a Diesel or semi- Diesel engine, the most difficult prob- lem is to proportion the parts so that the intense heat generated will not re- sult in warped parts due to unequal heating. To do away with the trou- bles incident to the high temperatures, the hot bulb engine is built with low compression. This, however, necessi- tates a means of ignition, since lower- ing the compression does away with the automatic ignition of the Diesel type. Electrical ignition was found un- satisfactory with the heavy fuels, and a hot plate or bulb within the cylinder was the solution of the problem. Be- fore starting the hot bulb type of en- gine, the head of the cylinder is heated with a blow torch. The fuel is injected directly upon the red-hot surface and is immediately vaporized and ignited. After the first heating, the torch is no longer needed as the explosions of the engine maintain the plate at the proper heat. The two-stroke cycle appears to be the most widely used in this type of en- gine. The only variation from that de- scribed in connection with Diesels is the scavenging and fuel injection. The cylinder has two ports, one for the ex- haust, and another diameti ' ieally across the cylinder for the scavenging air. The crank case is air-tight, and as the piston moves out on the power stroke it compresses a charge of air in the crank case. A passage connects the crank-case with the scavenging port. As the piston moves out, it uncovers first, the exhaust port, and a little later, the scavenging port. The shape of the piston is such that it deflects the air toward the top of the cylinder, thus blowing out the burned gases. It is customary, in the two-stroke hot bulb engines, to admit water with the sca- venging air. Being admitted at the end of the stroke it does not take aAvay any heat during the power stroke. The advantage of this water injection is that being iiumediately made into steam, it expands and helps scavenge the cylinder. It helps cool the head of the piston, thus preventing too much heat in the cylinder which produces heavy premature explosions. It is also supposed to combine with any carbon (which, if present, is incandescent) forming CO+H (water gas). This gas burns to CO2 +H 2O. Whether or not this chemical action takes j lace is not known, but it is a fact that combustion is benefited by the injection of the water. In this construction, there is no air compressed sufficiently to serve for fuel injection. To avoid putting an air- compressor on the engine, the fuel is 312 THE REDWOOD injected by a pump, the stroke of which is adjustable to permit of governing the amount of oil pumped. The hot-bulb engine, however, is yet in its infancy, being a comparatively recent development in the oil engine field. Although some difficulty is occasionally encountered in securing proper scavenging, nevertheless, the en- gine is quite efficient, approximating the ga,s engine in this respect. Although these engines will run on any oil which will flow and is combust- ible, less trouble is experienced when fuel conforming to the following conditions is used. The oil should be mo- bile at deg. centigrade. It should not contain more than .4% of material in- soluble in xylene, nor shoidd the resi- due on coking be more than 3%. Sul- phur content should not exceed 0.75% on account of its pitting action on the cylinder walls. Free ammonia, alkalies and inineral acids have a like effect, and oil containing them should not be used. On account of the tendency to form coke or carbonize, the oil should not contain more than 0.05% of incom- bustible mineral matter nor more than a trace of free carbon and for the same reason the resin content should be low and the creosote content not above 12%. A paraffin content of 15% will give some trouble, and although en- gines to burn asphaltum oils are still in the experimental stage, an oil con- taining 21% asi haltum has been suc- cessfully burned. Because of the amount of heat it will absorb, the water present in the oil should not be above 1%. These, then, are the characteristics of the three types of oil engines. Their fields of operation are wide. All have sufficiently close speed regulation for generator service. All have been suc- cessfully used in stationary pumping and power installations. More and more ships are installing oil engines and, of late, Diesel oil engine locomo- tives have been successfully tried out. Despite their many advantages and the satisfaction which they are giving everywhere, no one would say that they are perfected. The two-stroke high- speed Diesel is still developing and we may reasonably expect still further de- velopments in the oil engine world — developments just as great as those we have already witnessed. Richard Fox, M. E. 17. RATE MAKING FOR PUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATIONS ATE making and regu- lation of Public Ser- vice Corporations in California, is, by vir- tue of the Police Pow- er of the State under the jurisdiction of the California Railroad Commission. When called upon by the proper authorities the Commission immediately proceeds to determine and adjust rates, which are fair and equitable for both the pub- lic and the corporation. In dealing with the various Water, Gas, Electinc and Railroad companies the same gen- eral principles are used. In order to ascertain a fair and reasonable rate it is necessary to establish with certainty the cost of service under two distinct heads — the cost of production and transmission and the cost of distribu- tion. Cost of Production and Trans- mission. To determine these important fac- tors it will be necessary to consider the various phases that enter into the cost of production and transmission. Basis of Return. The California Railroad Commission decided in the Antioch case, that a pub- lic utility corporation should be allow- ed to charge rates, which would give them a reasonable return on the total value of their property. The determi- nation of this total value is the most difficult problem the commission has to solve. It may be estimated from the total investment by subtracting the amount which the property has depre- ciated and adding the amount the prop- erty has increased in value. This is the most accurate method and the one pre- ferred by the Commission. When the accounts of the company do not give the total cost of construction, repairs, etc., as is usually the case, the engin- eers of the Commission make an esti- mate of the cost of producing the prop- erty when new. In calculating this total value, the Commission includes any losses due to causes, which could not be foreseen by a man of ordinary judgment, but does not allow for losses incurred by poor management or specu- lation. A reasonable allowance is made for increase in value, where such in- creases occur and likewise a reasonable depreciation of value is deducted. If the company lost money in becoming established, due to small amount of business during the first years, the Commission allows this loss to be added to the capital under the heading of ' ' going concern. ' It was also decided that property, which has been donated to the company in the shape of lands 313 314 THE REDWOOD or franchises, becomes the property of the company and may be used as a basis for higher rates to the public. Lands and Water Rig-hts. In estimating the vahie of h nd pos- sessed hy a corporation, the Commis- sion excludes all lands not apertinent to the production or maintenance of the plant, and bases its value on the origi- nal cost plus a moderate allowance for increased values. Land purchased on speculation for prospective water sites or for timber development is not count- ed in the total value, and due allow- ance is made for timber obtained from these lands by the said corporation for fiael purjioses. The Commissioners will not consider the valuation of this land by such prices as it would bring, should it be subdivided and sold for residence lots. Separate values cannot be computed for the land and the water, whether surface or subterranean, which it con- tains or collects. If land is valuable for the water it contains, the land without the water would be of small value. Such is the case with water sheds, their only value being the water they collect, due to timber and vegetation, which if de- stroyed would stop the supply of water or its use as a purifier. The value of the water shed cannot exceed the cost of building an artificial purifier, as used by many water companies. The water itself is valued at the price it will bi ' ing if sold for the use it is in- tended, namely, city supply, and not for irrigation purposes, for which use the water shed would not be needed. Overhead Charges. Overhead charges are expenses in- curred in developing, constructing and maintaining administrative depart- ments. The same basis of original cost, would rather be taken, but, as before, in finding basis of return, the compa- nies have not or will not furnish data regarding overhead charges. The most important item under construction is interest and insurance, both fire and casualty. The Commission finds 6% to be a fair amount and will not make al- lowances for casualties unless substan- tiated by evidence. Administrative ex- penses and contingencies cannot be charged to construction, thereby in- creasing the investment and rates to the people, but the cost of additions and improvements to the property of a company can be charged to construc- tion and demand a higher rate. If the Commission is compelled to regard de- veloi ment expenses by the reproduc- tion theory, for that is what they term it, consideration must be allowed re- garding the size and capitalization of a concern or corporation, and the cir- cumstances under which it has operat- ed. A large " going concern " would not be put to any disadvantage or losses in making improvements and ad- ditions, while on the other hand a smaller concern would be, because it has not every facility at their disposal, and consequently an allowance is made for such by the Commission. THE REDWOOD 315 Depreciation Annuity. The Commission lias been autliorized by the Supreme Court of California, by decision in the Knoxville vs. Knoxville Water Co. case, to compel every public utility concern to provide a deprecia- tion or sinking fund, the amount to be determined by the Commission perma- nently, or from time to time. Depreci- ation can be provided for by high rates to the people the first few years, or by a general percentage, of which the Com- mission generally prefers the latter. The fund is to be used as a resource for replacement of portions of the plant at the expiration of their life. If the de- teriorated property has any salvage or scrap value, the sum obtained from their disjiosal is to be deducted from the replacement cost and the remaining fund to be loaned out at 6% interest. The interest is to be added to the cap- ital fund, and under no circumstances can it be returned to stockholders as dividends. This provision protects the people as well as the corporation, for if the public sees fit to take over the in- dustry, it will be taken at a gain and not become a detriment. Bate of Return. There is no particular rate of com- pensation which can be regarded as suf- ficient for capital invested in public utilities, other than that which com- pares favorably with compensatory rates of other business operating under a like investment and risk in similar localities. The rate must be sufficiently generous so as to induce investors to furnish more capital from time to time, otherwise an established utility would remain in the same condition, unal)le in the future to enlarge its scope of op- eration. The capital for investment is derived from two sources, namely, the sale of bonds and stocks. The former comprises, however, the greater re- source by a majority of 75%. The Commission found, in the Antioch case, that in securing $100, .$75 from bonds and $25 from stock, $6,57 would cover a 6% rate of interest and also a selling price of 85% par face value on the bonds and a dividend of 13.7% on stock. In view of these facts the Com- mission decided that an 8% rate would be adequate, giving 1.5%, or $1,425 on $100 in excess to financial expenses. The 8% rate would not only furnish capital and gain, but also sufficient funds to comply with the provisions of the refunding mortgage, which calls for profits equal to one and one-half times the interest on outstanding bonds. In order to determine the cost of producing and transmitting energy by the Pacific Gas and Electric Co., which has lines extending to one-half the counties of the State, the Commission had to find the capital, depreciation annuity, and the cost of service in the hydro-electric and steam plants. In- cluding the exjDense of purchasing pow- er-energy, it was found that the com- pany could deliver electricity to a sub- station for $.0073 per kilowatt hour. Assuming that there would be an in- crease of 10% in business, the above 316 THE REDWOOD rate was expressed as a " two part rate, " based on the maximum simul- taneous demand of all stations and the energy cost. The demand cost was taken at $.2013 per kilowatt and ener- gy cost at $.0033 per kilowatt hour. Cost of Distribution. The city of Antioch receives its en- ergy from a 6,000 volt transmission line, from which the energy is transformed through the sub-station and distributed to commercial custom- ers, a municipal lighting system, mills and a 11 kilowatt suburban line. The cost of the station and transmission lines together with the cost of produc- ing and bringing current to the gates of the city, go to make up the rate to be charged consumers. After making proper corrections for local transform- er losses, the load factor and diversity factor, also an increase of 10% in busi- ness, it was found that 5.546c per kilo- watt hour would cover cost of commer- cial customers and 3.75c per kilowatt hour for street lighting. This was the average cost and it was therefore neces- sary to make segregations and establish rates for the different classes of ser- vice. All ' general lighting ' was to be charged $.07 per k. w. hr. for the first 20 k. w. hrs., and $.04 per k. w. hr. for the next 980 k. w. hrs. The minimum charge of $1.00 was to cover meter and other expenses. The rate of munici- pal lighting was 3%c per k. w. hr. delivered to street lighting circuits. Commercial and industrial concerns, users of electricity are charged for en- ergy according to the following sche- dule by order of the Commission : Per kilowatt hour First 50 kilowatt hours, per month : Less than 1 horse power $0.07 1 horse power and less than 3 horse power 05 3 horse power and less than 9 horse power 04 9 horse power and less than 27 horse power 03 27 horse power and less than 81 horse power 02 2 81 horse power and over 02 Next 50 kilowatt hours per horse power per month Oli Over 1000 kilowatt hours per horee power per month 01 Minimum charge : First 10 horse power, $1.00 per horse power per month ; over 10 horse power, $.75 per horse power per month. The minimum charges are to cover the expense of meters, lines and cost of maintaining the energy, even though not in use. The new rates show a de- crease in the cost to the small and large consumers, also a rate of 3%c per kilo- watt hour in place of a flat rate of $128 per month for street lighting, thus sav- ing the city $570 a year. Summary. This summary is taken from the deci- sions of judges, rendered in appeal cases by various companies. What the company is entitled to ask THE REDWOOD 317 is a fair return upon the value of that which it employs for the public con- venience. On the other hand, what the public is entitled to demand, is that no more be exacted from them for the use of a public service than the services rendered by it are reasonably worth. The cost of reproduction is one way of ascertaining the present value of a plant like that of a Water Company, but that test would lead to obviously incorrect results if the cost of repro- duction is not diminished by the depre- ciation, which has come from age and use. It is conceded that in addition to the value of the tangible property some allowance is properly made for the cost of building up the business, or the losses sustained before the property has been placed upon a paying basis. Be- fore considering the question of profit at all, the company is entitled to earn a sufficient sum annually to provide not only for current repairs, but also to cover depreciation and replacements of the property, at the expiration of their usefulness. From these earnings, the value of the property invested in is kept unimpaired, so that, at the end of any given term of years, the original investment remains as it was at the be- ginning. It is the right of a corpora- tion to make such provisions, because of its duty to its bond and stockhold- ers ; and in the ease of a public service corporation, at least, its plain duty to the public. There is no particular rate of compensation, which must in all cases and in all parts of the country be regarded as sufficient for capital in- vested in business enterprises. Such compensation must depend greatly upon circumstances and locality and, among other things, the amount of risk in the business is the most important factor. W. E. Spengemann, M. E. 18. PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION ILLUMINATION EVER before in the history of electrical illumination of exposi- tions have such re- markable and unique lighting effects been introduced with such distinctive and artistic beauty as the electrical illumination of the Panama- Pacific International Exposition. Through the generosity of the Paci- fic G-as Electric Company, which fur- nishes the power, the Exi osition com- pany has obtained the best class of ma- terial and construction at a minimum cost. The electrical lines enter the grounds to the east of the Machinery Hall, com- ing in from the Sierra and San Fran- cisco Power House which is situated just outside the exposition grounds. The Exposition Company ' s feeders con- sist of three conductor, lead-covered cables, with water-proof neutrals form- ing three phase, four wire, four thous- and volt feeders running underground in conduits to the various parts of the grounds. Owing to the number of earth cut s around them, these conduits had to be built with great care and flexi- bility. The boxing is made of wood with a filling of sand around the ca- bles. At intervals along the feeders conduits are wooden man-holes. These man-holes are designed with the idea of being an anchor for the cable and also to allow an easy method of laying the cable. They are made of Oregon pine and are set in concrete forms. The con- duit lines lead to the different main buildings where there are special trans- former stations. These stations, which are of concrete, are usually placed in a corner of the building and are only accessible from the outside. These sta- tions transform the power for the light- ing and other uses within the building. To generate the necessary direct cur- rent for the search-lights, situated on the different buildings, and at the scin- tillator, it wa s found necessary to in- stall, in the Liberal Arts and Manufac- tures Building and in the Scintillator House, two one thousand killowatt mo- tor generator sets and two two hun- dred and fifty kilowatt balance sets. The entire grounds, with the exception of the concessions district and the race track, are fed from these sets or from the underground system. In the con- cession district a feeder line running along back of the buildings, furnishes the necessary power. In the original plans of the exposi- tion it was agreed that a uniform color scheme should be followed. This caused the origination and carrying out of new ideas in the illumination. The outside of the main buildings are finished with an imitation of the Roman traver- 318 As viewed from the south gardens. The clear cut image reflected in the lake proves the effectiveness of direct lighting. The searchlights can be seen on the roofs of near by buildings, reflecting on the tower. o — i » s THE REDWOOD 319 tine marble, which, by daylight, is of cream color, and a stratified text- ure. It was found that a sys- tem of direct or outline lighting could not be advantageously used, so, instead a plan of indirect lighting was wox ' ked out. The faces of the main buildings are lighted by a series of standards running parallel to the buildings and spaced from sixty to seventy-five feet apart and from fifty to one hundred feet from the buildings. These stand- ards are about thirty feet in height and at the top are placed ornamental shields or banners. Within these shields are from three to five magne- tite arc lamps. The light from these lamps filters through the decorations on the standard and casts a dull but pleasing light upon the buildings. An insufficient amount of this light is re- flected from the buildings onto the ad- jacent roadways so to augment this re- flected light incandescent standards have been placed along the curbs. Bach of these standards carries an eighteen inch Beaux Arts glass ball and a two hundred and fifty watt lamp. The illumination of the various courts and gardens has been designed to carry out the architectural ideas and the artist ' s work in these places. The South Garden is of the French Renais- sance type and here we have a light- ing system which causes a perfect re- flection of the buildings in the large mirror pools, causing a perfect har- mony between the architectural treat- ment and the illumination. Two large shafts, which are the columns of large fountains, are the principle lighting features of the Court of the Universe. These columns are five feet in diam- eter and thirty feet high, each con- sisting of fluted shafts of glass. Each shaft contains ninety-six, fifteen hundred watt nitrogen-filled lamps, and the diffusion of the light is secured by sand-blast screens placed between the lamps and the glass form- ing the shaft. Such a great heat is generated by these lamps that fans are necessary to keep a cool air supply cir- culating, and in case of failure of the fans, the lights are automatically turn- ed off. The light from these shafts al- though covering an area of two hun- dred and forty-seven thousand square feet, is not so bright as to cause discom- fort. The colonnades and approaches of this court are lighted by lamps con- cealed in the flutes of each column. In the Court of Abundance a different method of lighting is in effect. To car- ry out the artists ' idea of torches, five gas torches, around which steam passes, have been used in place of the electri- cal effects. In the minor courts and gardens the architectural idea is fol- lowed out as closely as possible. The center attraction of the illumina- tion is the Tower of Jewels. This tow- er is four hundred and thirty-five feet high, and the upper part is trimmed with imitation jewels of various colors, of which there are one hundred thous- and. These jewels are suspended so as to swing with the air currents and reflect the light in all directions. The lighting of this tower is obtained from 320 THE REDWOOD fifty eighteen-incli, and four thirty- inch search-lights, mounted invisibly on roofs of nearby buildings. Their ar- rangement is so perfect that not a sha- dow is cast on the building. The use of colored screens in connection with these lamps makes it possible to vary this wonderful spectacle. Seventeen eighteen-inch projectors furnish the lighting for the Palace of Fine Arts. These lights are also placed on the roofs of the nearby buildings, and the only lamps on the building it- self are those along the colonnade. ■Porcelain Bussing SECTION L-L (Sho.ir.9 Method of Connecting ) StCTfOMAL PUM OF COLUMH FiG. 1— Detail of Column Lighting, Palace of Fine Arts These lights cause a perfect image of the north end to be produced in its mir- ror-like lagoon, giving us a picture hard to paint because of its beautiful colors. The lighting of the glass dome of the Horticulture Building is another feat- ure. This dome is one hundred and fif- ty feet in diameter and is lighted from within by a battery of twelve thirty- inch projectors. These lamps are ar- ranged in a circle on the floor directly beneath the dome and are tilted at an angle of forty-five degrees. The rays from these lights pass through revolv- ing series of diffusing lenses, producing a uniform lighting field upon the whole dome. By special arrangement the lighting effects and patterns may be varied. The lighting of the flags which line the parai et walls of the main group of buildings, which are illuminated by wide angle, five hundred watt incan- descent projectors, adds much to the color tone and effect. To further com- plete the picture a number of tungsten groups are suspended with diffusing re- flectors back of all clerestory windows and main entrances. These windows and doors are especially colored glass producing a beautiful effect of brilli- antly lighted buildings. Nor are the minor parts forgotten ; hidden lights play upon the statuary and mural paintings, making them ap- pear with a heightened effect, while in the corners of the courts will be found the tumbling fountains and waterfalls beautifully lighted from beneath. To complete the lighting system a batter of forty-eight thirty-six inch search-lights are placed on a promon- tory which jutts out into the San Fran- cisco Bay. This huge battery lights up THE REDWOOD 321 the entire grounds and the sky about and with the use of colored screens and steam for diffusing the light this won- derful picture can be varied. This bat- tery is used with great success during high fogs, when various colors can be thrown on the fog and reflected upon the exposition. The illumination is one of the exposi- tion ' s greatest attractions, peculiarly as it lends to many changes in color and light intensities, producing harmonies in every way artistic. It is an artistic triumph due to the cooperation of able engineers in charge. Paul C. Campbell, E. E. 16. THE STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE ONCRETE, due to the rapidity v ith which it is developing, both in quality and in use, de- serves greater study than any other striac- tural material. Be- cause of its permanence, strength, sim- plicity, the ease with which it can be cast into any shape, and its compara- tively low cost, it demands the atten- tion of all designers and builders, v hether lay or professional. Although it has attained widespread popularit} in the structural field, there is much room for improvement, even in the best of it. Every user should recognize its weaknesses and try to improve them, for it can be safely asserted that fail- ure, in almost every case, has been due to over-confidence or carelessness on the part of some one rather than to the materials themselves. As durability and strength are the chief qualifica- tions of good concrete, this paper is de- voted to the discussion of some of the factors influencing them. Strength. Concrete is capable of withstanding enormous compressive forces. Other strains, such as tension and shearing, must be provided for by the use of rein- forcement. Strength depends primari- ly upon the quality of the materials used and the density of the resulting concrete. It is obvious that the strength of the concrete will not exceed that of its strongest constituent and will, in al- most all cases, be governed by the strength of the weakest. From this, the necessity of studying thoroughly each of the materials which, when combined form concrete, can easily be seen. These are the aggregate, cement and water. While engineers and contractors have carried efficiency methods out to a nicety in handling men and machin- ery, a study of the following facts will convince even the most skeptic that there is room for tremendous improve- ment in their methods of making con- crete. The minimum crushing strength of stone ordinarily used in concrete is far above 7,000 lbs. per square inch, yet that of the average concrete is be- low 2,200 lbs. per square inch. The fault cannot be in the cement, for it should not crush below 8,500 lbs. per square inch, therefore the fault must lie in the proportioning and mixing. Cement. Although cement is the most import- ant factor in making a good concrete, entirely too much is expected of it by some users who seem to thin k that a good cement is all that is necessary in making concrete. A cement is any ma- terial which, under certain conditions, is plastic and under others develops 322 THE REDWOOD 323 tenacity and which is used for binding various materials together. The ce- menting materials used in concrete con- struction are mineral glues known as Portland, Natural and Puzzolan ce- ments. Of these, Portland is by far the most important. Its production in- creased 312 per cent in the decade be- tween 1903 and 1913, while the produc- tion of Natural and Puzzolan decreased 89 and 78 per cent, respectively during the same time. The output of the Unit- ed States for 1913 was : Portland Cement, 17,498,430 tons. Natural Cement, 96,667 tons. Puzzolan Cement, 17,707 tons. During 1914, due to the European war and the consequent tightening of the money market, the production of Portland cement decreased 4 per cent. This was the only decrease in its his- tory. Portland cement is made by burning a thoroughly mixed and finely pulver- ized mixture of lime-stone, chalk, or marl with a definite amount of clay, shale or blast-furnace slag, in long cyl- indrical kilns at a temperature of 3000 deg. F., which causes them to fuse, forming clinkers of the cement. To these clinkers is added a small amount of gypsum, which retards the set, and the resulting mixture is then ground to a very fine powder. Thorough grind- ing of this final product is of the great- est importance, for it is only the ex- ceedingly fine particles that possess cementing qualities. Chemists are neither agreed as to the exact composition of this cement, nor as to the reactions involved in those transformations by which its mortar is converted from a semi-liquid mass into its final rock-like state, known as set- ting and hardening. It contains from 60 to 65 per cent lime, 20 to 25 per cent silica, 5 to 12 per cent iron and alumi- num oxides, together with small amounts of magnesia and sulphur triox- ide, combined chiefly in the form of tri-silicates of calcium and various cal- cium aluminates. Although no agree- ment can be reached concerning the reactions which occur in setting, it is known to be due to the formation of su- persaturated solutions of the cement (principally the aluminates) which de- posit closely knit, interlacing crystals, thus causing the mortar to become somewhat friable. Hardening, al- though seemingly the same as setting, is a much slower process. It is due in part to the formation of crystals (prin- cipally silicates) as in setting, but chiefly to the formation of a colloidal glue of calcium hydrosilicate. Nearly all the older concrete struc- tures in this country, erected with Natural cement, bear testimony that it is a reliable construction material. It is made by burning a natural clay lime-stone, known as cement rock, at a temperature of 1200 deg. F. This ce- ment is in reality an impure lime, but as it will not slake by the ordinary means, it must be pulverized. It is evi- dent that this product will not be as uniform either in composition or in strength as the more carefully prepar- ed Portland cement. For this reason it 324 THE REDWOOD should be used only in those bulky structures, where mass rather than strength is required, while Portland should be used in reinforced construc- tion and in all work where strength is important. Natural cements are seriously injur- ed by freezing before they are set. Portland cement is not so affected, although the time of setting is greatly prolonged, thus requiring the use of forms for longer periods. It is the al- ternate thawing and freezing that has bad effects on Portland cement con- crete. This, together with the diffi- culties encountered in mixing and plac- ing, makes concreting in freezing weather inadvisable, although not ne- cessarily unsafe. Puzzolan, or Slag cement, is made by mixing slaked lime with pulverized volcanic ash or blast- furnace slag. It is weaker than either Portland or Natural cement and is better for use under water than in air. Although the Egyptians, forty centuries ago, made hydraulic limes, by the burning of impure lime- stones, Puzzolan possesses the distinction of being the first true hydraulic cement. The Rom- ans made it by mixing slaked lime with the scoria from Mount Vesuvius. It derives its name from the town of Poz- zuoli, where the scoria was first found. The Temple of Castor, constructed in 496 B. C, was the first building on which it was used. Many notable structures, erected by the Romans, in- cluding the Colosseum, were built with it. The Aggrgeate. The aggregate is generally consider- ed as being composed of two parts ; the stone, which may be either crushed rock or gravel, and sand or crushed rock screenings. Stone is defined as that portion of the aggregate which will be retained by a screen having quarter inch openings, while sand is that portion that passes through it. Sand is used in concrete because it increases the crushing strength, be- cause it prevents the excessive expan- sion and contraction which would oc- cur if cement alone was used, and be- cause it is more economical than pure cement. The sand used in concrete is seldom given the attention it deserves. It should be graded uniformly from fine to coarse, with the coarse grains predominating, and should be free from organic matter, or too much clay. The presence of five per cent of clay or loam, if finely divided, is not consider- ed injurious. The voids in good sand will usually range from 30 to 35 per cent, while in poor sands they will run as high as 45 per cent. Experiments show that the relatively coarse sands possess fewer voids and make strong- er mortars than those which are fine. If the choice lies between two sands, a decision can be reached by taking equal dry weights of each of them, adding cement in the proportions required for the work, and then wetting until the proper consistency is obtained. The mortar which occupies the smallest space contains the best sand. Sharpness of grain was once considered as a neces- THE REDWOOD 325 sary qualification of good sand, but it has since been demonstrated that it does not appreciably affect the strength. The same general laws which gov- ern the quality of the sand apply also to the stone. Granites, trap-rocks, lime- stones or any strong durable stone is suitable for making concrete. A rough estimate of the strength of different stones can be made by comparing their specific gravities; for the heavier rocks are usually strongest. It would seem that, so long as the strength of the stone equals that of the concrete, little or nothing could be gained by using extra strong stone. This is untrue, for experiments show that the strength of the resulting concrete is to a great ex- tent dependent upon the strength of the stone. Water. The amount of water used in concrete varies with the materials used and the conditions under which it is to be laid. Thus in reinforced or ornamental con- struction the concrete must be mixed to a wetter consistency than that used in massive work, so that it will come in closer contact with the reinforcing bars and the forms. For ordinary work enough water must be added to bring the mass to a jelly-like consistency for this has been found to make the strong- est concrete. A drier mix will develop high strength in short periods, but will ultimately form a weaker concrete, while a wet mix will show relatively low strengths in short time tests, and high strengths for longer periods. A lean mix — one in which the ratio of the cement to the aggregate is small — at- tains higher strengths when mixed comparatively dry, while the concretes containing a large amount of cement needs more water in order to develop maximum strength. Excessive moist- ure injures the cement by decomposing part of it, thus causing the formation of a light colored, powdery substance, with no setting properties known as laitance. This formation is considered to be somewhat injui ' ious, especially in lean mixes. Proportioning. The method of proportioning by arbitrary volumes as, for example, one part cement to two parts sand to four parts stone, commonly expressed as a 1 :2 :4 mix, will always be used in small work where tests as to the quality of the aggregate are impractical, but should never be employed where large quantities are to be used. Much better results can be obtained by basing the proportions upon the voids in the sand and stone. In this method the voids in the sand and stone are first determined. The ingredients are then proportioned so that the sand will fill all the voids in the stone and the cement will occupy all the voids in this amount of sand. An excess of cement usually 10 per cent of that necessary to fill the sand voids, is added in order to compensate for any error and to coat all the particles of the aggregate. Even this method can be improved 326 THE REDWOOD upon by means of mechanical analysis of the size of the particles, and the addition of cement as above. Inspec- tion of various natural rocks shows that their strength in almost every ease is dependent on their density. Other things being equal this also applies to concrete. Therefore, the object of pro- portioning should be to obtain the densest possible mixture. It has been found that if by analyzing the sizes of the particles in the aggregate, by means of various sized screens, and re- combi ning them so that when the per- centage by weight of the particles re- tained by each screen and the size of this screen are plotted as the abscissa and ordinate resi ectively, the resulting curve approaches a parabola, the dens- est and strongest concrete will result. This method is referred to, by some writers, as the ultra-scientific method, but it is not as impractical as it seems at first glance, for the extra cost of grading the aggregate is usually more than comiDensated for by the saving in cement. (See " Proportioning Concrete " by Wm. B. Puller in Concrete ; ' ' Plain and Reinforced " by Taylor and Thomp- son.) Mixing. The present methods of mixing are probably as effective as is possible by purely mechanical means, yet, as a pro- cess of hydrating the cement it is very inefficient. Basing his claims upon conclusions drawn from the mi- croscopic study of concrete, Nathan C. Johnson, Engineer of Tests for the Raymond Concrete Pile Co., states that less than twenty per cent of the cement in ordinary concrete is hydrated, the rest lying inert in the mass. (Eng. Rec. Mar. 13, 1915). It has long been known that it is i3ossible to regrind old mor- tars and, by the addition of water, cause it to set, but very few engineers suspected that only twenty per cent of the cement was developing strength. This should not be attributed to the mixing alone, for insufficient grinding of the cement would leave solid i arti- eles of the clinker upon which water could not act. Longer mixing would help a little, Init it would never be able to overcome the influence of surface tension in the water, which more than any other fac- tor prevents thorough hydration of the cement. This tension may be lowered by means of chemicals or by the use of hot water to such an extent that the strength of the resulting concrete will be doubled. Today, the use of hot water is the most practical, but it is inconvenient because it causes rapid setting. The chemical method is of experimental value only, but great ve- sults may be expected from it in the future. Durability. Causes of Disintegration. Deterioration of concrete exposed to the action of moisture is attracting much attention from all who are inter- ested in concrete construction. No con- crete is immune from the action of chemical bearing waters especially THE REDWOOD 327 those of the sea. As these waters, through capillary attraction, seep into the mass, they dissolve parts of the ce- ment, becoming more and more saturat- ed, until finally they crystallize, caus- ing powerful disruptive forces. This phenomenon can be clearly shown by the action of sulphuric acid upon the concrete. The acid attacks the calcium and aluminum compounds of the ce- ment, forming sulphates which occupy much more space. The resulting pres- sure causes cracks, thus allowing the acid to penetrate still further into the mass. It requires but little imagination to picture the final result of this ac- tion. A concrete sewer built at Osna- buick, Germany, which encountered ground water containing less than one part in ten thousand of free sulphuric acid, showed signs of deterioi ' ation in less than three years. The effect of freezing, accompanied by the subse- quent expansion and contraction of the water contained in the concrete is too well known to be dealt with. Prom the above facts it is easily seen that porosity, more than any other quality of the concrete, makes disin- tegration possible. If the concrete was impenetrable it is evident that disin- tegration would be exceedingly slow, for the decay would then be confined to the outside layer only, whereas, at present, due to its innumerable pores, this action takes place throughout the entire mass. These pores, or voids, range from 12 to 16 per cent of the total volume of the concrete. We can easily understand why sentiment is strong against the use of too much water when we consider that every 62.5 lbs. of water that remains in the con- crete after it begins to set occupies a cubic foot of space which, if not filled in by the expansion of the cement due to chemical combination with the water, will add to the percentage of voids, thus furnishing even greater op- portunities for the injurious chemical- laden waters to carry on their work of destruction. Preventive Methods As the decomposing agents cannot be . changed the remedy for disintegration must necessarily lie in making the con- crete impermeable. There are, in gen- eral, three methods of doing this. 1 : By apiDlying a surface coat of some water-proof material. 2 : By mixing foreign materials with the concrete. 3 : By increasing the density. All these methods are in use, but increasing the density is the best. As this has been discussed before, little need be said here except that the concrete should be rich in cement and that fine sands should never be used in structures which are exposed to the action of moisture. The use of water-proof surface coats is quite common in practical work. Plastering with rich mortars is some- times resorted to as a means of keeping out the water. This may be done if the structure is to be submerged, or if the mortar can be applied before the ce- ment has set, otherwise it is liable to crack and peel off due to differences in 328 THE REDWOOD temperature and moisture between it and the concrete. Heavy asphaltic oils or coal tars are also used. If these are employed they should be applied hot on a clean, dry, and warm surface. Good results can often be obtained by what is known as the Sylvester process. In this, several alternate washes of alum and soap are applied to the surface. The soap solution must be hot and each coat should be allowed to dry before another is applied. Lime, oil or Puzzolan cements are sometimes mixed with Portland cement concrete in order to make them less permeable. The addition of small amounts lime, or the substitution of an equal weight of it for small amounts of the cement often renders the con- crete less porous without lowering the strength to any appreciable extent. Great care must be taken that the lime used for this purpose is thoroughly slaked for if it is not the expansion due to slaking will develop powerful dis- ruptive stresses within the concrete. Many experiments have been conduct- ed for rendering concrete impermeable by the use of oil but the results were not as favorable as might be expected. Puzzolan cement, when added in the same manner as lime, has been found to be the best substance to mix with Port- land cement concrete in order to with- stand the action of water. It is espe- cially effective in resisting the action of sea water. Will Lotz, C. E. 17. SOME OF THE ENGINEERING DIFFICULTIES OVERCOME IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION ERE you to be stand- ing about 100 feet north of the Machin- ery building on the road to the North Gar- dens of the Panama- Pacific International Exposition admiring the beautiful view of landscape and stately archi- tecture, you would be surprised when told that the very spot you tread was, before the building of the Exposition, nothing but a dismal flat marsh swept by the high tide. Can your imagination picture that, in contrast to the beautiful panorama you now behold? It seems almost unbe- lievable, yet that is what these beauti- ful grounds once were, and this the re- sult which artificial means placed in the hands of capable engineers have accomplished. This large area of filled ground is composed of two sections, known as the Presidio and Harbor View Fills and ex- tends from the Race Track, situated to the west, directly below the Presidio Heights, and takes in the Yacht Harbor, just to your right, and the expansive lawns on the North Gar- dens directly in front of you, the sea wall that reaches to the Ferry Slip, and that part of the exposition bounded by an imaginary line beginning at the sea wall, then running south to the North- east corner of the Machinery building, and then diagonally through the Ma- chinery building, bisecting the West side 400 feet from the Southwest cor- ner; then on a direct line to the South- east corner of the Palace of Varied In- dustries; then bisecting the Avenue of Palms, the length of the Palace of Var- ied Industries ; then on the are of a cir- cle to the Southeast corner of the Pal- ace of Manufactures; then on a direct line to the center of the Court of Hon- or ; thence on an easy curve taking in a portion of the Agriculture building, to the Southeast corner of the Yacht Har- bor; thence northerly along the Yacht Harbor to the Sea Wall on the North Road ; thence along the Sea Wall to the point of beginning. Thisi s known as the " Harbor View Fill. " " The Presidio Fill begins at the Sea Wall directly in back of the California building, then runs south on a direct line to the Northeast corner of the In- side Inn at the foot of Baker Street; thence West along the building line of the Inside Inn to the foot of Lyon Street ; thence north on Lyon Street to the Northeast corner of the Japanese building; thence diagonally to the Southeast corner of the Denmark build- 329 330 THE REDWOOD ing ; thence along the AA enue on the South side of the Denmark, Italian and Brazilian l nildings to the Court in front of the Massachusetts building; thence bisecting the Massachusetts building and along the Northwest line of the Oklahoma building to the Southeast corner of the U. S. Army Hospital ; thence on a direct line to the Southeast corner of the Athletic Field ; thence following the South side, and West curve of the Race Track through an arc of 90 degrees ; thence directly to the U. S. Life Saving Sta- tion ; thence along the Sea Wall to the point of beginning in back of the Cali- fornia building. The amount of material required to produce one hundred and eighty-four acres of new-made ground, contained in the above described boundaries was one million, seven hundred thousand cubic yards. Hydraulic Fill. The Harbor View Hydraulic Fill, which was the largest in point of cu- bical contents, contains one million, three hundred thousand cubic yards of matei ' ial and produced 84 acres of Ex- position area, and is worthy of partic- ular mention, as the average depth of the fill was approximately 20 ft., and the maximum depth 35 ft. The mate- rial for the Har]}or View Fill was piimj ed from the Bay by hydraulic dredges from a depth of 30 to 50 ft. and forced through pipes varying from 600 to 2000 ft. in length, so placed that the discharged material pushed out the sludge at the bottom of the basin. This material when discharged from the pipes into the fill con- tained from 8 to 10% solid mat- ter and 90 to 92% of sea-water. This left in the fill, after draining off the Avater, approximately 70% sand and 30% sea mud. This proportioning of ingredients proved very satisfactory as the sand compacts very cpiickly and Avhen held moist by the sea mud, makes a firm material not easily disintegrat- ed. This fill cost $218,000. The fill in the Presidio was very shallow compared with the fill at Har- bor View, having only a maximum depth of 6 ft. This material proved to be mostly sand with a slight percentage of mud and frequently large boulders, and was pumped through pipes from 800 to 1500 ft. in length, the dredge at all tinies standing not less than 300 ft. from shore. This fill i roduced 104 acres of Exposition area and cost $84,- 000. The original ground is shown by an imaginary line in Fig. 1. As before noted the two fills proved entirely satisfactory as the founda- tions for the buildings, installation of the gardens and construction of the road, began immediately. In driving the piles for the founda- tion, this material showed a willingness to grip the piles and hold them tenaci- ously ,which is almost unprecedented in filled ground. As almost all this fill and original ground was composed of sand, 55,000 cubic yards of loam and 33,000 cubic THE REDWOOD 331 yards of fertilizer were used to create the gardens. This monster fill places the whole Exposition area at an eleva- tion of 3 to 6 ft. above high tide, and as a protection against extreme high tide, and a prevention against erosion of the filled in material, a sea wall of piles covered by boards, and painted to represent concrete is constructed along the entire length of the fill from the Presidio to the Ferry Slip. This sea wall is protected on the water side by rocks and boulders, to guard against the wearing of the Avaves. Sevs ers. The great difficulties encountered in designing and constructing the sewer system for the Panama-Pacific Interna- tional Exposition were that it lay at an elevation of from 3 to 6 ft. above high tide ; the settling of the material placed by hydraulic methods to fill in the tidal basin and marsh as above described ; and the decision to have but one sanitary outfall server for the entire 600 acre tract comprising the Exposi- tion grounds offered the most serious obstacles to the design and construc- tion of the Exposition sewer system. In all the work of the engineers, the San Francisco datura plane which lies at an elevation of plus 11.768 ft. above mean low tide was taken as zero and was used in all the computations that followed. This is also the datum taken by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- vey, the U. S. Army Engineers and the California State Harbor Commission. Much of the Exposition grounds was below this datum, so it was necessary 3Z2 THE REDWOOD in almost all of the work to deal with positive and negative elevations. From observations taken at the Presidio, cov- ering a period of 10 years, the lowest tide observed was minus 14.4 ft. below the city datum, and the highest tide ob- served was at elevation minus 3.6 ft. below city datum, and the mean high waters at elevation 6.6 ft. below city datum. At the time the Presidio and Har- bor View site was taken over by the Exposition Engineers, three city out- fall sewers existed in the Harbor View section; these three sewers paralleled each other, running from south to north. They comprise the Laguna Street sewer of Circular Section, six feet in diameter, emptying into a small cove in the bay ; the second was on Pierce Street, being also of Cir- cular Section and 6 ft. in diameter, and emptying into the Tidal Basin ; the third was a 5 ft. circular sewer on Baker Street, having its outlet directly into the bay. Besides these tnmk sew- ers there were many small sewers car- rying both sewage and storm water. After considerable deliberation and study the Pierce Street sewer was chosen to be the main trunk sewer and the dry weather flow of the Laguna Street and of the Baker Street sewer, was diverted into the Pierce Street sewer, and the other two sewers were retained to take care of the storm water flow. The reason for using the Pierce Street sewer as the main trunk sewer, was that its outfall is advantage- ously situated with respect to tidal cur- rents, the rise and ebb of the tide carrying the sewage out to the sea and rapidly decomposing it. Therefore, where any sanitary sewage had to be taken care of in the Exposition grounds it was delivered into the Pierce Street sewer either by gravity or by pumping. A great amount of the storm water was also taken care of by these three trunk sewers, but where their capacity was liable to be overtaxed the storm water was taken care of by separately con- structed storm-sewers, emptying di- rectly into the bay. In computing the dimensions of these sewers the rainfall rate table of the San Francisco Engineer ' s Office was used and a rainfall at the rate of 2.15 in. per hr. falling for a duration of five minutes, was selected as the maximum intensity of rainfall that might reason- ably be expected, and all calculations for run-off were made on this basis. The tide table constructed by the En- gineers giving the duration of the tide at the various elevations below datiun was consulted and after considerable study an elevation of minus 7 ft. below the city datum was taken, (this being assumed as the value of the mean high water), as the elevation of the outfall point of the Pierce Street trunk sewer (Fig. 1) being 200 ft. from the roadway north of the North Gardens, the eleva- tion of the roadway at this point is minus — 1.5 ft. below the city datum. In the design of the Pierce Street trunk sewer it was necessary to assume that the possibility of the extreme high tide at elevation — 3 ft. below city datum THE REDWOOD 333 and a heavy rainfall was exceedingly small and in any case could only prevail for a very short period, during which the temporary flood conditions would only flood the North Gardens and the roadways, as the buildings are situated on much higher ground. Consequently elevation — 7 ft. was taken as the point to start all calculations for grade and size of sewers that emptied into the bay and the inside top of the trunk sewer was used as the point for all cal- culations where other sewers emptied into it; this also held for all other sewers. The run-off for the large areas cov- ered by the large palaces with pave- ment surroiinding them, and entrances and paved roadways, was taken at 100% of the rainfall. For the other sections the run-off was proportioned to the amount of impermeable area, ranging between the limits of 25 and 70%. In designing this sewer system it was necessary to remember that it was different from any other municipal system in that it was only a temporary installation, its requisite length of use- fulness being until the closing of the Exposition in December, 1915. As much of the land was leased by the Exposi- tion Company, and by agreement the Exposition Company was to restore a great part of the land to its original condition, three factors had to be con- sidered in designing the sewers, name- ly: the more temporary the construc- tion of the sewers the easier to remove them ; secondly, the cheaper the materi- als the better; thirdly, the material, though cheap, must be made as water- tight as a permanent sewer to guard against the entrance of ground water and to prevent leakage. The materials selected were vitrified iron-stone pipe, fir wood stave pipe, continuous red- wood stave pipe and timber box cul- verts, and were placed to fit the im- posed conditions. The iron-stone pipes were used un- der all the buildings where any connec- tions had to be made. Wood stave pipe would have been cheaper, but the necessity of making so many direct con- nections and the difficulty of making the connections water-tight were so un- favorable that the vitrified iron-stone pipe was selected. Mostly all the large l)uildings are on filled ground and sup- ported on grillage and pile foundations and as the fill was liable to constant settlement, it was deemed advisable to carry all the pipes under the buildings constructed on filled ground on wooden brackets hung from the floor stringers of the buildings. These vitrified iron- stone pipe sewers range from 6 inches to 24 inches, the larger sizes being sometimes embedded in the firm ground not liable to settlement. There were very few instances where wood-stave pipe had been used for sew- er construction, and then only to a lim- ited extent. In selecting wood-stave pipe the engineers made an ingenious selection, as the wood-stave pipe ful- filled all the prescribed conditions, namely : cheapness, water-tightness and durability. The wood-stave pipe ranges 334 THE REDWOOD in size from 10 to 51 inches. Approx- imately 22,000 feet, almost 4 miles, of wood-stave pipe were used. Most of the wood-stave pipes have their connections made at the man-holes and catch-basins, but where this was impossible and a direct con- nection had to be made a concrete col- lar v as used to secure water-tight and permanent joints. Wood bos culverts were used to carry storm-water, and ranged in size from 2 ft. x 2 ft. to 2 ft. X 4 ft. In low and flat places the sewage is run by gravity to a water-tight sump constructed in the shape of a double man-hole, one side carrying storm- water and the other sewage. Centrifu- gal pumps operated by electricity are used to force the sewage to the Pierce Street sewer, the pumps being started and stopped automatically by the use of floats. As a safe-guard against pos- sible breakage of the motors or pumps a flap-gate was constructed near the top of the man-hole, so that when the sew- age rises to the elevation of the flap- gate it opens and allows the sewage to run into the storm-sewer, which emp- ties directly into the bay. The flap- gate works in only one direction, so that should a high tide and a heavy rain raise the water in the storm sewer, it will not back up into the sump. All pij es used for pumping are of wood- stave. Three types of man-holes were used ; the first, is all timber, construct- ed where ground water was negli- ble ; the second, a concrete invert and a wooden body, constructed where ground water was excessive ; the third is of concrete, and built where permanent structures were required. Those of concrete were used in the Presidio, as the U. S. Govern- ment required man-holes of permanent construction. All sewers in the Presi- dio were also of permanent construc- tion. To meet this requirement red- wood stave-pipe well wrapped with gal- vanized bands was used. These stoi ' m- sewers were 46 in. in diameter at the Presidio, and 51 in. at the outfall. Three types of catch-basins were ex- perimented with ; the first was an open man-hole of timber, protected by a grating, and connecting directly with the sewer; the second was the same construction as the first, but with an inverted pipe to trap the sewer gas. These two did not fulfill the implied conditions, as it was impossible to con- struct them economically and water-tight. The third was the eheai est and most satisfactoi ' y ; it consisted of an oil oak barrel or a liquor barrel, with a quar- ter bend of iron-stone pipe a third dis- tance from the top. This is illustrated thoroughly in Fig. 2. This proved Avater-tight and the cost complete, in- cluding placing was $7.75 as compared with $13.00 for the timber catch-basin, having a quarter of a turn of iron- stone pipe. Where the sewers of the filled ground connected with the Pierce Street and other city sewers, a flexible section was used, consisting of wood- stave pipe. The wood-stave pipe was THE REDWOOD 335 placed at a higher elevation than re- quired, so as to allow for possible uni- form settlement. Where the wood- stave pipe connected with the city sew- ers or the Exposition man-holes, the connections were made water-tight by thoroughly packing with rope oakum, which also provided against cracking the mortar, due to the expansion of the wood-stave pipe when wet. This was then covered with a lap of tar-paper to prevent absorption of grout in the mor- tar, and then the mortar tightly ram- med into place. This method was also used where a connection was made of wood-stave pipe and iron-stone pipe. This is shown in Fig. 3. The outlet pipes from the catch-basins were made water-tight by simply packing with oakum as shown in Fig. 2. The total length of the sewers constructed, in- cluding all connections, is approximate- ly 150,000 lineal ft. divided as follows: 54,500 ft. of combined sewer ; 20,000 ft. of sanitary sewer and 55,500 ft. of storm sewer, embracing 106,000 lineal ft. of vitrified iron-stone pipe of 4 in. to 24 in. in diameter, and 22,000 ft. of 10 in. to 51 in. wooden-stave pipe ; 2000 ft. of 2 in. X 2 in. and 2 in. x 4 in. wooden box culverts and about 18,000 ft. for Xvov-» t.o ne pips zzzuzzzznzza Lc O t-c U o? lo ' uniL- 336 THE REDWOOD connections to catch-basins. The total cost of this entire sewage and drainage system, including catch-basins, was ap- proximately $143,000. Fresh Walter Supply. It was originally contemplated to have the Spring Valley Water Compa- ny deliver to the Exposition from two to three and a half million gallons of fresh water per day, this being the pre- liminary estimate of the amount that would most likely be required in days of large and small attendance. The Spring Valley Water Company however, found it impossible to supply this large amount to the Exposition, as they felt the people of San Francisco would need over this amount during the Exposition period, and their facili- ties at pi ' esent were inadequate for a larger supply. Therefore, to meet this emergency, 1,000,000 gallons were secured from Lobos Creek, 1,500,000 gallons from the wells in Golden Gate Park, and the bal- ance from wells sunk in the Exposition grounds. There are five vertical wells, ranging in depth from 75 to 80 ft., and lined with a 16-inch inner easing and an out- er casing of 20 inches in diameter, with a gravel filling between the two cas- ings. In addition, there is a sump 14 ft. wide, 30 ft. deep, and 200 ft. long, lined with sheet piling. The water is pumped from these wells by Krogh ver- tical turbine pumps. On examination, the water from these wells was found to be normally pure, but tests made during the rainy season showed that some undesirable elements might be present, so it was decided to filter the water. The water is there- fore coagulated with sulphate of am- monia and clarified with hypochlorite of lime and then filtered through a fil- ter-basin designed for a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons per 24 hours, or at the rate of 2 gallons per square foot, of sand area per minute. The water is pumped to the Presidio reservoir which is at an elevation of 375 feet, and has a storage capacity of 6,000,000 gallons. It is concrete lined and divided into two compartments by a concrete wall and by an agreement with the Federal Government the Ex- position will have the use of one com- partment, having a storage capacity of 3,000,000 gallons. From the reservoir the water is led through a gravity pipe line to the Ex- position under a static head of 365 ft. To reduce this pressure to 80 lbs. per square inch in the distributing system, a pressure break, consisting of a stand- pipe, tank and automatic control valve, has been installed below the reservoir. The total cost of this entire system, including the equipment outside of the grounds, was $200,000. Roads. The most annoying problem that had to be met with in road building for the Exposition, was that the roads would be cut up and ground into mud or dust by the heavy trucks hauling construc- tion supplies during the i re-exposition period. THE REDWOOD 337 To obviate this difficulty at the Ex- position grounds, the Avater pipes, con- duits, and sewers, were first laid and then the roads graded to sub-grade. On the sub-grade was laid a red rock maca- dam base averaging 8V2 inches in thick- ness. This red rock was obtained from a quarry site directly opposite the Ex- position, on the other side of the bay. The red rocks contained a large per- centage of clay so that it was easily compacted by watering and rolling. After the macadam base was thor- oughly rolled it was covered over with a temporary plank road, thus enabling the road at once to be opened to heavy trucks hauling construction supplies. This system of planking was used on all the roads, thus keej ing them in good condition until it was expedient to remove the planks from a section and to bring the macadam base to its original grade, and surface with a wear- ing coat of % in. asphalt and sand mas- tic or sheet asphalt with a thickness of % in., 1 in. or IV2 in- After the wearing coat had been laid the temporary jilank road was again laid and not removed until a few days prior to the opening of the Exposition, when the construction materials had all been hauled. This method proved very satisfac- tory as the roads were constructed at the time when building operations were being rushed. All the roads are con- structed of a red rock macadam base except a few small strips on the filled ground, which were subject to heavy traffic and might sink. On these few sections a concrete base was laid with the above described asphalt wearing surface. The cost of the red rock macadam base, including quarrying and trans- portation on the barges across the bay to the Exposition was 8c per sq. ft. Asphalt mastic % in. thick, sheet as- phalt % in. 1 in. and II 2 in. thick, were laid at a cost of 1 1-9, 1.9, 2.9 and 3.77c per sq. ft., respectfully. Not including irregular areas, there are 15 miles of roads and paths vary- ing from 10 to 64 ft. in width. The total area of paved roads and paths outside of courts and buildings and charged to roads, is 3,278,000 sq. ft., and cost $445,000. This does not in- clude the cost of the temporary plank roads, but does include wooden curbs. Summary. Ideal exposition engineering should attain a low cost, speedy com- pletion, sufficient strength for a short life, a low working cost, and a high salvage value. This is what the Pana- ma-Pacific International Exposition engineers had to contend with and suc- ceeded in accomplishing, of which they may be well proud. It is not the least wonderful to state that the entire Exposition was com- pleted on time and within the pre- scribed budget, which was controlled by the firm hand of the Chief Engineer. P. L. Beck, C. E. 15. ELECTRO-CHEMICAL PRODUCTS NDUSTRIAL Electro- chemistry is, the appli- cation of electricity to the manufactiare of chemical compounds. The industry is by no means fully developed and one should reasonably expect to see some great strides taken, in the ad- vancement of this science, in the near future. The current used in the manufacture of chemical compounds can be utilized in two ways. First, by passing a direct current through solutions or molten baths, thereby decomposing the same and separating them into their constit- uents. These constituents may be of greater value commercially, or may be converted into valuable products. Such operations as these are known as elec- trolytic processes. Secondly, the cur- rent is used for producing the high temperatures necessary for certain re- actions. Such processes are termed electro thermal. Too numerous to mention are the commercial articles produced by elec- tro-chemical processes. The most im- portant are: caustic soda, pigments, calcium carbide, aluminum, nitric acid, artificial graphite and cyanamide. The last named is perhaps the most import- ant article produced electro-chemically today. Aluminum ranks second, and caustic soda third. There is no reason why the people on this coast should pay a minimum freight charge of two dollars per hun- dred pounds on articles produced by the electro-chemical industries of New York and other eastern states, when they could, if they would, have such products manufactured near at hand. The people of Washington and Ore- gon, who use commercial products manufactured in New York, pay a heavy freight rate of $2.00 per 100 lbs., on articles which could be manufac- tured in California for the same factory price (perhaps a few cents more per 100 lbs.), and in addition they would only have to pay a freight charge of sixty-seven cents per hundred. The power to operate an electro- chemical factory in California could easily be obtained, as the state pos- sesses much undeveloped hydro-electric energy in its mountain streams. If power companies were required to produce more power than they are at present, they woiild do so. Because by so doing they can, first, help them- selves ; second, help the consumer. The wholesale generation and utilization of power is the only means by which the rates can be appreciably diminished, and any jiower company operating in 338 THE REDWOOD 339 this state would not hesitate (provided they were able), to supply an industry with fifteen thousand horse power, twenty-four hours a day, and continual service. Now to return to tlie products. Caustic soda and aluminum can be produced economically, only when the raw material which is used in their manufacture are near the factory. The same applies to almost all commercial products manufactured. Since Califor- nia has not, to our knowledge, any ex- tensive deposits of aluminum ore, a plant of that kind is out of the ques- tion. Caustic soda could be manufac- tured, but since it is not of the greatest importance, we will not deal with it. This state is however a great agri- cultural district and many tons of ferti- lizers are used here annually. The same statement applies also to Oregon and Washington as well as to Hawaii and perhaps Australia. Therefore, a concern, owning and operating a ferti- lizer factory in this state, could supply the trade of these districts. We are much nearer to them than are the fac- tories of the eastern states. It would mean quick deliveries, as well as a not- able decrease in freight charges. As a fertilizer, calcium eyanamide is without a peer. It is the most agree- able to use and because of its high per- centage of niti ' ogen content, is perhaps the most economical. Cyanamide is formed by a combina- tion of the elements calcium (ea), car- bon (c), and nitrogen (n). The chemi- cal formula being, Ca C N2 . It is made by heating calcium carbide in an at- mosphere of nitrogen to about 1200 deg. centigrade. This temperature must be attained in an electric furnace, as the product will suffer contamination if other methods of heating are used. Calcium carbide is a product of the electric furnace and is made from lime and carbon. Limestone can be procur- ed from several districts in the state, and as far as the carbon is concerned, the by-products from illuminating gas plants, known as lamp black, which is almost pure cai bon, could be utilized for this purpose. Cyanamide can successfully compete in more than the fertilizing field. It can be easily converted into many de- rivatives which are even more valuable than the cyanamide. By heating with water to 100 deg. centigrade the di-cy- andiamide is formed, which has an ex- tensive application in the dye industry. Sodium and potassium cyanide can be made from cyanamide by heating the salts of these elements with it to i-edness. These products are used for the extraction of gold and other preci- ous metals from their ores. Ammonia can be made from it by treating it with steam under pressrire. This may readily be converted into liquid ammonia, which in turn can be used to produce such chemicals as am- monium sulphate, nitrate and phos- phate. All these find application in the arts. The above mentioned are nothing but derivatives of the first class and are formed by comparatively simple reac- 340 THE REDWOOD tions. Cyanamide is even more prominent from a standpoint of organ- ic chemistry, since its possibilities in that science are practically unlimited. It has come into such prominence of late because it is the cheapest source of organic nitrogen known, and because of the numerous uses to which it can be applied. Ralph J. Weyand, ' 17. AUTOGENIOUS WELDING BY THE OXY-ACETYLENE PROCESS UTOGENEOUS weld- ing is the process of uniting or welding metals by an intense localized heat, with- out hammering or compression. While this has been accomplished by employ- ing hydrogen and other gases, com- bined with oxygen, the higher temper- ature of the acetylene gas flame makes the oxy-acetylene by far the most effi- cient process. Oxy-acetylene flame welding and cutting have almost entirely supplanted the oxy-hydrogen and other similar methods, principally on account of its more intense localized heat. It has made possible the great increase in working temperature from 3600 deg. F. of the latter gases to 6300 deg. P. of the oxy-acetylene, which is by far the most intense solid fuel heat known. Acetylene gas was discovered in 1837 in Prance, where it was first recognized as a valuable illuminant and is used by hundreds of municipal plants at the present day. Prance is also foremost in oxy-acety- lene welding inventions, among the most important being those of Pouche. Acetylene can now be obtained com- mercially in two forms : stored acety- lene in steel cylinders under very high pressures, and calcium carbide, which produces acetylene when wet with water. The oxygen to be used can be bought in steel cylinders similar to those of acetylene, or it can be gener- ated by electrolysis of water, which is very expensive, or by heating mixtures of potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide. The oxygen as supplied in steel cylinders is far the most prefer- able to use, because of the cost and in- convenience of a generating plant, and, besides, of its greater purity. The two gases, oxygen and acetylene, are fed under pressure to the torch. The torch, as seen above, consists of a tip, a flash-back preventer (which is a small cylinder filled with fine gauze or asbestos, and works on the princi- ple of the Davy Safety Lamp), a mix- ing chamber, and suitable valves to control the flow of the gases. The entire apparatus, it will be seen, consists of the following: sources of oxygen and acetylene, pressure regula- tor, torch, table on which to work, and a pair of reddish amber glasses to pro- tect the eyes from the intense heat and flying sparks. To start operation the acetylene is allowed to flow through the torch and this is lighted, then the oxygen is regulated until there is a clearly defined single cone of blue flame. It is always safer to have too much acetylene, than too much oxygen, due to the fact that the excess of oxy- 341 342 THE REDWOOD UiTiZ ' Gi uges FIG. 1— Oxy-Acetylene Apparatus Pressure Reouhfcrs Torch WorK gen will burn and rust the metal ; ace- tylene will prevent it from burning. The working pressure of the gases va- ries with the kind of work, the pres- sures used being from five to fifty pounds in the acetylene and five to thirty in the oxygen. The hottest part of the flame is at the tip of the cone and a fraction beyond. If held too close the work will be l)urned. When the work is continuous, about 30 to 50 per cent of time and cost may be saved by pre-heating the metal with a coke, gas, or oil fire. After pre-heating the seam, the flame is circled about a small radius until the metal softens. Metal is added and worked in with a " melt bar " , and care is taken that the edges FIG 2— Oxy-Acetylcne Welding Torch THE REDWOOD 343 of the metal are melted and perfectly united. A flux is not always used ; al- though it is sometimes used with brass and cast-iron. Any factory producing or using metal goods, automobile repair shop, foundry, steel mill, tank factory, elec- trical shop, pipe-laying concern, etc., will find that the addition of an oxy- acetylene welding outfit, suitable to their needs, will be very advantageous. The gas pipe laid in the Panama-Paci- fic Exposition grounds is " autogen- ously " welded together so that there is practically one piece of pipe cover- ing the grounds. The tanks which hold the compressed acetylene gas carried on automobiles have been made by oxy- acetylene welding since 1908. The following instances of a boiler repair is given by L. L. Bernier, in his " Autogenous Welding of Metals " : " Repairing cracks in boilers of the ' Eugene Pereire ' of the French Line. " " The boiler furnaces of the mail steamer Eugene Pereire of the French line had numerous horizontal cracks above the grate bars. There were about 100 of these, and in two of the furnaces they extended from end to end of the corrugations. " It had been attempted to stop the worst of these by plugging ; but it would have been necessary to renew several furnaces, which would have de- tained the steamer for two months and caused great expense. " All the cracks were wedged open with chisels and welded ; all repaired parts were annealed with hand torches. In two spots where there were several adjoining cracks, a part of the fui-nace was cut out and replaced by a welded one. No leak was observed at any of the hundred places so repaired, at the hydro-static or steam tests. " Only the sweating of a few drops, caused by trifling laminations, were discovered, and a little calking restored the water-tightness at such spots. The work lasted three weeks and cost $300. The steamer was on the Algiers voy- age, which is very trying for boilers on account of its shortness, the fires being banked and boiler temperatures changed so frequently. No trouble has been experienced with any of the welded parts. " A defect in a 2200 pound lathe cast- ing was filled with six cubic inches of metal at a cost of $1.92, which saved $100. Breaks in aluminum crank cases of automobiles have been welded at a cost of $1.80, which saved the replacing of the broken member at a cost of $75. Teeth have been welded into gears at a trifling cost compared to the replac- ing cost. The approximate cost of oxy-acety- lene welding (Oxygen at three cents, and acetylene at one cent per cubic foot, labor at thirty cents per hour), is as follows: Metal one sixteenth inch thick, cost $.0087 per lin. foot. Metal one-half inch thick, cost $.37 per lin. foot. The above examples are given to show the great benefits which can be 344 THE REDWOOD obtained by the use of the oxy-aeety- lene process. Labor( is figured low because of the fact that skilled labor is not required. Oxy-Acetylene Cutting. With the addition of an extra tip svip- plying oxygen to the welding torch a cutting torch is made, which will cut metaJ to sixteen inches in thickness at a speed of four linear inches per min- ute. Lesser thicknesses can be cut with a corresponding increase in speed. When a great deal of metal cutting is done, the torch is driven by a small motor at a constant speed. This saves gas because the torch is moved more uniformly than by hand. The cut- ting torch is now used in the same place as the pencil is on a pantograph. By this method metal can be cut into many irregular forms by merely guiding the tracing wheel on the pattern which is to be made. The cutting apparatus is especially valuable when cutting up old iron or steel, such as will be encoun- tered in scrapping an old locomotive, steamship, steel frame building, etc. The edge of the cut look s as though it were planed, the surface being smooth. To Summarize. 1. For repair work, the cost is light and the results are satisfactory. 2. The apparatus is fairly light, easily portable, and can be installed permanently. 3. On account of the intense heat of the flame, any substance or metal can be melted locally at once. 4. With slight additions the appara- tus may be utilized to cut metals, which will more than double its usefulness. Marshall T. Garlinger, M. E. 17. iAld064 PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object af The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER CITY EDITOR REVIEWS ALUMNI - - - - UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ASSOCIATE EDITORS EDITOR EXECUTIVE BOARD BUSINESS MANAGER ADOLPH B. CANELO, JR., ' 15 JOS. R. AURRECOECHEA, ' 17 JAMES F. CURTIN, ' 16 HOWARD E. CRANE, ' 15 F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN, ' 18 WILLIAM T. SHIPSEY, ' 15 EDWARD L. NICHOLSON, ' 18 LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 50 a year; single copies 15 cents EDITORIAL Engineering Number Following the prece- dent established last year, we issue the sec- ond Engineering number of the Red- wood. It was with full realization of the importance of this subject, and of its intimate connection with our daily life, that we devoted an entire edition in May, 1914, to articles from the men in our College of Engineering. The success of that issue prompts our con- tinuance of the custom. We all are inclined to look upon en- gineering as a subtle topic, essentially so scientific that it offers no attrac- tions to the average layman. However, a moment ' s reflection will suffice to show that its value is not confined to those having a technical knowledge of the subject. " We all come into contact with and partake of the benefits of this unlimit- ed science every day of our lives, al- though we may not be conscious of the 345 346 THE REDWOOD fact on each occasion. We arise in steam-heated rooms, and eat meals pre- l ared on the latest gas or electric stoves; we are carried to work in an electric or steam ear, while we read a machine-edited paper. In commerce we enjoy the use of the telephone, wire- less-telegraph and cable, elevators, elec- tric lights, automobiles, and other com- forts. In these days we are just beginning to realize that this is truly the age of the engineer, and we owe it to ourselves as wide-awake citizens, and to these men, who cannot be over-encouraged, to take a rational interest in this work. In selecting these articles we have endeavored to choose those having the greatest practical value, and we trust for our readers ' sake that our efforts have not been in vain. For this issue the departments have been retained by the regular Redwood editors, while the special Engineering Staff is as follows : I. Alvin Oliver, M. E. 16, Editor; Roy Emerson, C. E. ' 16, Assistant Editor and Associate Editors, Richard Fox, M. E. ' 17, Mechanical Engineering; Paul Campbell, E. E. ' 16, Electrical Engineering ; Paul L. Beck, C. E. ' 15, Civil Engineering; Ralph J. Weyand, ' 17, Chemical Engineering. Engineering Society The Engineering Soci- ety of the University of Santa Clara is now completing its third year of activity, having been founded by Prof. Geo. L. Sullivan, from the members of the then Freshmen and Sophomore Classes. In the society there were but twenty members, but the spirit and interest which they displayed in furthering the organization would be difficult to ex- cel ; consequently, at the present time it is a thriving, wide-awake society, al- ways eager to obtain information which will prove of worth to its members. In the past several lectures have been given, and among the most inter- esting were by Fr. Bell, Professors Donovan, and Sullivan, Mr. Boyd of the General Electric Company, and Mr. Jones, of the Diesel Engine Company. Another great benefit to the society is their opportunity of visiting the P. P. I. E. to see demonstrated the various mechanical, electrical, and other engin- eering devices of the present day. The following year promises to be the most successful of all, and should the same spirit prevail in the future as at present, the Engineering Society will be one of the University ' s greatest as- sets. Progress of Engineering Engineering, akin to progressive civiliza- tion, always endeavor- ing to better man ' s social and econom- ical conditions, has in recent years taken a prominent place among the professions. The large number of engineering stu- dents who on graduating each year en- ter the professional ranks, is ample proof that the college graduate has be- come an essential factor in modern times. We are living in an age of evolution THE REDWOOD 347 and scientific research, and never be- fore have past achievements, in a prac- tical sense, amounted to so little. In the past it was man ' s immediate neces- sities which fostered invention, but the present day developments are princi- pally attributed to modern enterprise and commercialism. The professional engineer has be- come a necessity, striking examples of his work being in evidence every- where. He is the man to whom are sub- mitted most of our vital problems on the solution of which often depend our own welfare and safety. Accordingly the ideal engineer in accord with his important mission must in all virtues equal the highest type of citizen. To meet the increasing demand for this type of engineer, college students should be mindful of the splendid op- portunities at their disposal, especially where the engineering curriculum in- cludes true ethics and sound philoso- phy. The ability of an engineer to think while on his feet is a very im- portant accomplishment. His capacity for intelligently expressing himself and presenting his ideas and views in a tan- gible form often adds much to his suc- cess. On entering his actual duties, the young engineering graduate often finds himself confronted by many difficul- ties which he must surmount. First comes the handling of men, of all classes such as are encountered in en- gineering work, from the chief engineer down to the common laborer. Second- ly: the handling of inanimate things and circumstances. Thirdly: a full realization of one ' s own ignorance ; that his field, like life itself, is so vast that one can scarcely hope to complete- ly master even one branch of it. An engineer may study a life time and in the end learn something from an ordi- nary laborer. Having acquired at college the knowledge of the logical way of attack- ing a new subject, the trained man soon gives a good account of himself and in the end is not only a credit to himself but also to- his Alma Mater. I. Alvin Oliver, Eng ' r ' g. Editor. The Springhillian It has been very sel- dom indeed that we were so thoroughly pleased on completing the perusal of a contemporary as we were when we laid down the Easter number of The Spring- hillian. We might add that few of our contemporaries impel us to read them from cover to cover, as was the case in this instance. To be sure, our time is not of unusual value, and if offered for sale would, no doubt, bring but medi- ocre returns. However, The Spring- hillian may take the compliment at its face value. It may prove a slight disparagment to our intellectual profundity to admit that we are inclined to bestoAv on our contemporaries ' fiction the greater part of our attention. This is the case, how- ever, and as far as The Springhillian is concerned, we were not inclined to re- gret our preferance. " Predestined " was, in our opinion, the best bit of fic- tion in the issue. Its plot is inconse- quential, but the mode of handling more than compensates for the short- coming, if the brief extent of the defi- ciency may be termed such. The other story, " The Heir of Mar " , was a little too extravagant to be adequately devel- oped by its author. It proved, however, to be quite a readable yarn. Two sonnets were extremely credita- ble. " The Flight of the Buzzard " , Avhieh completed the quota of poetry, suffered a little from its length and loose structure. " The Temporal Power of the Pope " we found to be extremely interesting, a fact that was probably due to the writ- er ' s comprehensive view of the subject, and the attractive manner in which he presented it. We desire especially to compliment The Springhillian staff on their depart- ments. The Villa Marian The table of contents that prefaces The Villa Marian is of such scope and magnitude as to render any at- tempt at a comprehensive review futile at the outset. We will, perforce, be content to glance at but one or two of its contents selected more or less at random. " An Old Calendar " has little real reason for its existence. As a literary composition, it is rather difficult to 348 THE REDWOOD 349 classify. Certainly it lacks the requi- sites for a short story, while at the same time it has sufficient continuity of plot to distinguish it from the simple sketch. Given an idea that permitted of the proper development, its author could no doubt produce something really worth while. " We noticed quite a leaning toward the charming debutante as a subject. " The Coming Out of Mary Ann " seems at first glance to belong in this class. The writer, however, adroitly unde- ceives the reader in a simple but like- able tale. We were inclined to believe " Reve- ries " possessed of the greatest literary excellence among the numerous con- tents. Under the heading " Reveries " are three brief sketches that seemed to us to deserve the name of prose poems. Briefness seemed to be the watch- word in The Villa Marian. In many cases — a great majority, in fact — we wished that this had not been the case. The Academia One of the compara- tively few books from the hands of the frail- er sex is The Academia, from St. Mary ' s Academy and College, in Portland, Ore- gon. Our acknowledgment may be a trifle tardy, but we feel called upon, even at this late date, to compliment its fair editors on their work. The book ' s bulk, to be sure, is inconsiderable, but it is far better to put out a magazine lacking in this respect, while possess- ing the merits evinced in The Acade- mia ' s contents, than to devote perfectly good space, no matter of how great ex- tent, to matter of an inferior grade. One does not need to glance at the names of The Academia ' s editors and contributors to learn that it is a fem- inine product. For the whole book is markedly — and delightfully — so. From cover to cover their influence is felt. The first bit of verse — " My Friends " — is a light, charming thing. Not too serious, of course, but as bright and quick as the subject matter. We were quite taken with Virginia Cromwell, the " beautiful Southern girl " , in " How the Heavens were Startled " — a tiny story that is appealing. The num- erous bits of verse that abound throughout the issue are deserving of individual comment. We regret that our space forbids what our inclination dictates. " That Fatal Night " , " Bing- ham ' s Awakening " , and " Lucy Man- ette " furnish delightful reading, while a more substantial element that serves admirably for ballast is a pair of es- says, ' ' One of Nature ' s Noblemen ' ' and " Shakespeare ' s ' King Henry V. " After concluding his perusal of The Academia, the Exchange man was ready at a moment ' s notice to do battle with any of the unenlightened who ven- ture to cast aspersions on the versatili- ty of the fair sex as evinced in the jour- nalistic field. In The Morning Star M e found an article en- titled " Still on the Trail of the Serpent " Avhich was very The Morning Star 350 THE REDWOOD well written, and most timely, dealing as it did with the publication known as " The Menace " , whose libelous malignities have created such a wave of righteous indignation during recent years. The author seemed very well informed, and we would liked to have seen him go into the subject at greater length. " We were sorely disappointed in the two stories of the issue. The first, call- ed " A Midnight Visitor " , is extremely inconsequential in its subject matter, and is but a fair rehabilitation of an extremely ancient and time-worn idea. The other " The Lure of Fortune " , is only remarkable for its prosiness. The mechanical details are faulty in spots, but on the whole creditable. In regard to the remainder of the book ' s contents, we were greatly pleas- ed. It is very evident that " The Morn- ing Star ' s " contributors have a more pronounced knack for the writing of essays than for story telling. We would recommend greater attention to the last named feature. We were the grateful recipients of a large number of our usual Exchanges. MniiTs rQitg Noti s 4 o kU, It was indeed a tired Return yet happy congrega- tion of students that gathered in the dining-hall, Wednes- day evening after the Easter Holidays to discuss their amorous feeling to- ward vacation, and the gloom, antedi- luvian in origin, of the tAVO long months before the Summer with its prolonged rest. Still none, will ever, as they un- derstand themselves, begrudge the time spent at their books, but the joy of Summer will be keener after a two months ' tussle with the imp of studi- ousness. Our Lady ' s Month This month will be fit- tingly observed by special devotions to Our Blessed Lady, according to the time-honored custom of Santa Clara. Benediction will be given and a short instruction delivered in the chapel every evening. Following the practice prevalent among the Catholic Universities of the East and Europe, and so successfully adopted here last May, the students from the higher classes give the short evening talks. It is a grand work, and those taking such a lively interest in this devotion, are worthy of the great- est praise. The word banquet at Our Banquet first sight brings to the mind a number of people sitting about a table responding to a toast or longing for a motion to adjourn. Not so the Redwood Staff banquet held at the Lamolle House Sunday evening, April 11th. The tastefully arranged decorations would have overjoyed the heart of any Roman. Good fellowship abounded and the beautiful surroundings added much to the joy of the evening. In Fr. Buckley ' s absence, genial Fr. Pox presided, and added infinitely to the pleasure of the banqueters. Later in the evening the Staff re- paired to the theatre where seats had been secured for the " Clansman " . This, known as the greatest and strong- est of all moving pictures, was a great treat, and thoroughly enjoyed. The early rising next morning after an abbreviated sleep was begrudged by none, considering the pleasure of the night before. 351 352 THE REDWOOD Those present were: Fr. G. G. Fox, S. J., Louis T. Milburn, James A. Cur- tin, Joseph R. Aurreeoechea, Adolph B. Canelo, William T. Shipsey, Edwin S. Booth and Edward L. Nicholson. Class of ' 15 At a recent meeting of the Class of ' 15, the Seniors decided to at- tend in a body, the Alumni Banquet to be held in Old Faithful Inn, on the Fair grounds. May 4th. Through the kindness of Fr. Boland, S. J., chairman of the committee of arrangements, the class has secured a separate table at this conclave. The 15th of April was The " Pond " " Opening Day " for the University ' ' pond ' ' and since there has been a more or less constant parade of students toward this point of interest. From the num- ber of wet bathing suits hung around the camiDus, both the suits and the pond are being worked overtime. The Senate Debating Ryland Debate team for this year was chosen at the last meeting. The debate is to be held soon, and the men will have to spend their time diligently between now and then. The Senate has generously allowed the House to pick the question and the side, owing to the House having a large number of new members this year. Those selected to represent the Sen- ate tills year are : Harold McKinnon, Percy O ' Connor and George Nichol- son. " The Tempest " Tuesday evening, April 13, William Shakespeare was born anew to those who were fortunate enough to have been able to hear Mar- shall Darrach, greatest of all Shake- spearean interjDretors, act the numerous parts of the " Tempest " . James Montgomery, accompanied by Ray Hall, rendered the Prologue from " I ' Pagliacci " , so masterfully that it was not until he replied with " The Sweetest Story Ever Told " , and Tosti ' s " Good Bye " , that the audience allow- ed him to retire. Tuesday evening, April 20, Darrach gave " Julius Caesar " , and the follow- ing Tuesday evening, " Hamlet " . " The Sunspot " The Sunspot for the month of April, anxi- ously awaited by sun- spot enthusiasts, in particular, and every one who has read last month ' s edition, in general, has made its ap- pearance. Few, if any of the March disturbances were wrongly scheduled, and the Sunspot has proven its worth to the businessmen and farmers. The Sunspot is printed each month, and can be obtained either by single copy or by subscription. THE REDWOOD 353 Junior Dramatics Returning from Eas- ter vacation, the Juni- or Dramatic Society opened their last lap of weekly meet- ings for the year with an open house debate on the question, Resolved: " That a Boarding School Education Is More Advantageous, Mentally, Physi- cally and Morally, Than a Day School. " Many of the members responded, and advanced arguments for and against. In realization of their own advantage in a boarding school education, those argixing for that side won. After the debate, the question of the annual banquet was discussed, and will be gone into more deeply in later meet- ings. A committee was appointed to de- cide upon the medley of the J. D. S., and will act within the week. At their last meeting. The House the House of Philhis- torians selected six men from whom three will be picked to represent them in the Annual Ry- land Debate against the Senate, and three alternatives. The question has been left to the House, but they have not as yet se- lected it. The final tryout for the team will be held Saturday evening. The six first voted upon are excel- lent speakers and hard workers, and expect to make the debate close, in spite of their lack of experience, which will be well nigh eliminated before the night of the debate. On Monday, April 19, btudent j Associated Stu- dents of the Univei:- sity held their regular meeting for the month of April. In the absence of Ram- age, Edwin Booth was appointed secre- tary pro tem. It was stated, finally, that Basket Ball could not be recognized as a ma- jor sport, and accordingly, Korte, Diaz, Mulholland and Curtin were awarded their small blocks for having fulfilled the requirements in this sport. On account of the inconvenient date, Stanford Freshmen were not made our logical rivals in track, but block letters in that sport will be made this year in a five-cornered meet, in which Davis Farm, Cal. Freshmen, Nevada, St. Mary ' s and Santa Clara will compete. It was announced by Pres. Milburn that at the next meeting the vote would be cast on the gold watch, donated by Shreve Co. of San Francisco, through Chief of Police White, and to be awarded to the most popular and de- serving baseball player of our 1915 Varsity. As a mark of appreciation for their services during the past successful sea- son, the Midgets were voted their cus- tomary block M ' s. Engineering Lectures The Engineering Soci- ety was fortunate in securing two very in- structive lectures this month. On the evening of April 14, Mr. F. E. Boyd, of the General Electric Co., exhibited five reels showing the construction and op- 354 THE REDWOOD eration of the Panama Canal and the construction of electric motors at the factories of the General Electric Com- pany. All these pictures were taken at very close range and enabled those present to realize just how the opera- tions were performed. The San Jose branch of the National Association of Stationary Engineers adjourned and at- tended this meeting in a body. On the afternoon of April 16, Mr. H. S. Jones, the San Francisco representa- tive of the Busch-Sulzer-Diesel Engine Co., explained the construction and op- eration of the Diesel engine. Mr. Jones had some very good pictures and his explanations were particularly clear. The Diesel engine is the latest develop- ment in the field of power generation and at present is of much interest to all engineers. These lectures of the En- gineering Society are vei ' y interesting and their utility is shown by the num- ber of practical engineers who attend. Exposition Class April 17, the engineer- ing students made their second official visit to the Exposition. This time the Mechanical-Electricals spent their time studying the exhibits of the Century Electric Co., the Westinghouse Co., the Babcock-Wilcox Co., the Busch-Sulzer- Diesel Engine Co., the General Electric Co., and the United States Steel Corpor- ation. The Century Electric Co. show- ed some of their split phase and repul- sion type single phase motors. The Westinghouse Co. showed both the wound motor and the squirrel cage three phase induction motors, the mer- cury-arc rectifier and different types of transformers. The Babcock Wil- cox Co. has full sized boilers cut in two so the inside construction was visible. The Buseh-Sulzer had their engine open for inspection. The General Electric Co. has a large number of exhibits, the most interesting of which is their elec- tric railway equipment. The United States Steel Corporation shows the complete process of manufacture of steel and its products from the ore to the finished product. Their moving I icture illustrations are especially good. The Civil Engineers spent most of their time inspecting the exhibits of the Bureau of Standards. One of the exhibits here was the full sized steel columns tliat had been tested to failure in the 10,000,000 i ound testing machine which the Bureau operates at Pitts- burg. This is the largest testing ma- chine in the world. Alumni Banquet The event of the sea- son in Alumni activi- ties is about to take place. If you haven ' t your tickets to the Alumni Banquet on May 4th, at the Old Faithful Inn on the P. P. I. E. grounds, get it immediately. Invita- tions have been sent out to all the grad- uates and old students whose names are on the lists available here at the Uni- versity. It must be remembered, how- ever, that these lists are somewhat in- complete owing to the destruction of many records in the 1910 fire. If you, my reader, are an Alumnus or an Old Student and by any chance have not received an invitation, do as " Billy " Knightly, ' 89, recently did — write and find out the wherefore. That ' s the spirit we like to see when it comes to Alumni Reunions. Either Secretary Robert J. Flood, at 815 Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, or Moderator Rev. Wm. M. Boland, S. J., here at the Univer- sity, can furnish all particulars and ex- tend invitations. The responses already received from invitations sent out foretell a record- breaking attendance. From away back in 1857 down to the class to be gradu- ated in June, hearty acceptances have come. Thomas I. Bergin, A. B. 1857, the pioneer of western collegiate grad- uates, writes that he has been a little ill of late, but expects and sincerely hopes to be on hand. Hon. John M. Burnett, A. B. 1858, will be there. And so on, from men down through the succeeding classes responses have been received. The members of the 1915 Classes in Letters, Law and Engineer- ing, have all signified their delight in having the opportunity to attend. His Lordship Bishoj) Edward J. Hanna will be an honorary guest of the evening. Here we think it not at all inoppor- tune to thank those members who have spent time and energy in assisting Father Boland, S. J., to make the va- rious Alumni Booster meetings the suc- cess that they were. It is principally through the valuable work accomplish- 355 356 THE REDWOOD ed in these meetings that the undoubt- ed and splendid success of this year ' s Reunion was assured. The following men, all of whom have been kept in close touch with the do- ings of the Alumni Association, have been sub-committee chairmen for the districts set after their respective names: James P. Sex, San Jose " Tom " Norton, San Luis Obispo Otto Stoesser, Watsonville ; " Pat ' Morrissey, Santa Cruz; Hubert Quinn, Oakland ; Oeorge Casey, Sacramento ; Joseph Scott, Los Angeles. Both members of the promi- ' 88 06 nent San Jose law firm of Cassin Atteridge, are graduates of Santa Clara, Charles M. Cassin, formerly of Santa Cruz, be- longing to the Class of 1888, and Leo Atteridge registered from Watsonville, being a member of the 1906 Class. It was our pleasure recently to greet these two " Old Boys " , who still take a lively interest in the happenings in and about the University. Leo Atter- idge recently met a number of old ac- quaintances among our present faculty while attending a varsity ball game. Some of those Leo met, he knew here as schoolmates, others as teachers. Needless to say, very few of Mr. Cas- sin ' s instructors still remain in active service. called away from his Cvapertino parish for a few days. Urgent business af- fairs necessitated his short stay in San Francisco. Rev. Robert J. O ' Connor, ' 08, took charge of the parish during Fr. O ' Connell ' s absence. Father O ' Con- nor paid two visits to the University during his brief sojourn in these parts. He is regularly stationed at St. Fran- cis Assisi Church in San Francisco, in the capacity of curate. Some time back Senator A. ' 93 E. Campbell, Ex. ' 93, of San Luis Obispo, very kindly consented to deliver a lecture to the law students on " How a Law is Made " . A few days ago, when the setting of a date for the same was taken up with the Senator, it was found that, owing to the proximity of the year ' s end on our part and the urgency of legislative and private business on his, no date during the present school year remain- ed open. This very regrettable inci- dent deprives us of what we know Avould have proved to be an exceeding- ly interesting and instructive lecture. However we still retain hopes that the Senator will find an opportunity to ad- dress us when school reopens in the fall. ' 06 In the midst of his Holy ' 92, ' 08 Week services Rev. Thomas J. O ' Connell, A. B. ' 92, was Coach Harry Wolters, Ex. ' 06, whose checkered base- ball career has seen service with the Fresno Coast League team and then successively with big league or- ganizations in Cincinnati, Pittsburg, THE REDWOOD 357 St. Louis, Boston and New York, with whom he acted in the capacities of pitchei ' and fielder, has returned to the Los Angeles Coast League aggrega- tion. It will he rememhered, our Coach played with that team last year. A cursory glance at Harry ' s wander- ings, however, is not so indicative of his baseball ability as are the facts that the New York Americans kept him for over a year while crippled with a badly broken leg, and also that he bat- ted second highest in the Coast League last yeai , giving place only to a man who played less than half the games in which his team participated. Harry is one of the best baseball coaches Santa Clara has ever had. His wide experience has given him an inti- mate knowledge of the game. His ability at teaching and directing men is beyond the ord inary. We all regret- ted that the varsity had to loose his ser- vices at the opening of the Coast League season. It is well known that Harry Wolters is not with a minor league for want of offers from the majors. A preferanee for our climate and extensive business interests in this State hold Harry to the West. with the Central National Bank of Oak- land. ' 11 Charles C. Galliano, Ex. 11, recently motored down from his home in Oakland to spend a day amongst us. Charley was one of the most popular lads in Second Division when here. He was a leader in every form of activity. He is now Roy A. Bronson, A. B. ' 13, ' 14 LI. B. ' 14, a former Editor of this magazine and star track man, was about the campus a short time ago. Roy has been practis- ing law in Oakland since receiving his legal degree last June. He was here on his way to Brookdale, Santa Cruz Co., where he will temporarily reside and attend to legal and property inter- ests belonging to his father. Joseph Thomas, Ex. ' 14, the ' 14 very enterprising business manager of the Students ' Cooperative Store of a year or so ago, is now helping California display her wonders to the world at the Fair Grounds. Several of the boys who have lately visited the Exposition have been weleomely greeted by " Joe " and by him interrogated at some length as to the whereabouts of " Old Timers " . Though the grounds are spacious, keep your eyes open for Joe when sightseeing at the Fair and mayhap you will have the pleasure of a meeting. John Dolan, Ex. ' 15, recent- ' 15 ly spent a day meeting old friends about the campus. Joe is looking fat and saucy and re- ports that his newly assumed position is much to his liking. He is now Dep- uty Assessor of Monterey County and performs his duties in Salinas, its coun- ty seat. Baseball has pi ' actically eomi leted his annual sojourn at Santa Clara, that is, as far as our " Crack Varsity " is concerned. In baseball the criterion by which a good coach is known, is the success which his pupils attain. Now all the local " fans " are familiar with the rec- ord our 1915 team has made. The fact alone that we succeeded and apparent- ly with no great difficulty in defeating the San Francisco Coast League, not to mention the double victory over Salt Lake would, of itself, place us as it did, in Class A A. We are making a broad statement, but it is on a solid I ' ock foundation, that Harry Wolters ' ably seconded by Tommy Ybarrondo, turned out a team this year, the equal of any Santa Clara has pi ' oduced; and that is saying a great deal. Leading this season ' s nine, of whose future we predict great things, be it in baseball or other circles, is Leslie Sheehan of Sacramento, California. Ex- tremely popular with players and the college-men alike, and every inch a ball player, Les ' s days of captaincy were emblazoned with victories. The management of the team was placed in the hands of George Nichol- son of Alviso. George arranged a weighty schedule of contests and had not rain several times prevented our team from playing, many more victo- ries would have been ours. The receiving end was ably filled by " Butch " Byler and Joe Fitzpatrick, two excellent players. On the pitching staff we were well represented with Hickey and Reppy for speed, and Leonard and Stewart with their deceptive assortment of ciu ' ves. Ramage, who was catcher on last year ' s varsity, was shifted to first base and ably demonstrated his ability. I might go on with each member of the team, but a glance at the tabulat- ed scores will show their respective merits. After everything has been said in fa- vor of our team we must not forget our Athletic Moderator, who, by laboring so zealously and with untiring assid- uity, was instrumental in placing the " Red and " White " among the best teams of the State. 358 x THE REDWOOD 359 University of California 1. Santa Clara 0. We often read iu magazine articles of some hero suddenly winning the esteem of his fellow school men by win- ning a baseball game in the final inn- ing with odds greatly against his fel- low teammates. Such an instance w " as unexpectedly realized on the University of Califor- nia field on April 11. With the score to in the last half of the ninth inning, two batters out and two strikes on the batter, McMillan, right fielder of the California Varsity supplied the great dramatic climax in the shape of a home run into the right field bleachers and thus tucked away in the California belt the final victory of the series of three games in baseball, this season. Inning after inning found both teams striving hard to score a runner, but the unconquerable pitching of Hickey, Dimmoek and Gefkin checked the run getting. Santa Clara 3. Stanford 2. In the deciding game of the intercol- legiate series with Stanford, the var- sity won a hotly contested game by the score of 3 to 2. Pitcher Reppy was Coach Wolter ' s choice, while Hayes of Stanford oppos- ed him. The varsity was first to score, when Fitzpatrick hit safely to left field, Schultz grounded to short, but in over anxiety to catch Fitzpatrick, Workman dropped the throw and both runners were safe. Reppy fanned and MeGin- nis flew out to right field, Fitzpatrick scoring. Stanford added two runs in the sixth inning, when Austin was walked and sacrificed to second by Dent. Day ' s double to left scored the runner. On a single by McCloskey, Day scored. Good fielding by the teams prevent- ed further ' scoring until the ninth inn- ing, when the varsity with determined efforts won the game. Hawks walked, and reached second safely when Staf- ford missed Sheehan ' s grounder. Hoever, now pitching for Stanford, struck out Ramage. Byler singled, scoring Hawks. Montgomery walked. With three men on bases and Fitzpat- rick at the bat, Hoever made a balk forcing in the winning run. Hoever easily prevented the other runners from scoring, when he retired the side by striking out the remaining bats- men. Santa Clara 7. Sacramento All Stars 1. Determined to regain their lost lau- rels of the previous day, the varsity playing faultless ball, easily defeated their opponents by the score of 7 to 1. Smarting from the defeat inflicted on Saturday, the collegians commenced run getting early. McGinnis and Ramage reached first on walks, Hawks fouled out and Shee- han fanned, but Hern ' s fumble of By- ler ' s easy grounder and Perry ' s over- throw to second allowed both Ramage and McGinnis to score. The second inning found the varsity still scoring. Seholz walked and Ram- 360 THE REDWOOD age scored the runner on a terrific drive into center field. Ramage scored on Hawks ' double into right field. Sheehan failed to hit safely, but Byler ' s single scored Hawks. The lack of organization, so preva- lent on the previous day, was conspicu- ously absent during this game, as the players, besides hitting well, gave Hickey errorless support. Besides the masterly pitching of Hickey, the hitting of Ramage, McGin- nis. Hawks and Fitzpatrick was very noticeable. Santa Clara 4. Salt Lake 2. In a close and exciting game, remark- able for spectacular fielding on both sides, the varsity again defeated the Salt Lake Coast League Team by the decisive score of 4 to 2. Though errors were few, and the hits evenly divided, the varsity succeeded in " bunching " hits at opportune times, which netted them a victory. A runless game for six innings will tell the enthusiasm that inspired the spectators, but Hawks broke this mo- notony when he reached first on an error and scored, when Sheehan hit into left center for two bases. Byler reach- ed first base on a fielder ' s choice, forc- ing Sheehan out at second. Montgom- ery hit sharply into right center for three bases, scoring Byler. On an overthrow to third base Montgomery scored. The Mormons scored their initial run in the seventh inning when Barboiu singled through, the infield and scored when " Daddy " Rohrer hit a speedy ball into right field for three bases. The score : Santa Clara AB. R. H. PO. A. E. Ramage, e 4 9 McGinnis, ss 4 2 5 Hawks, cf 4 12 2 Sheehan, 3b 4 1112 Byler, c 3 113 Montgomery, 2b 3 12 5 5 Fitzpatrick, If 3 110 Seholz, rf 3 10 11 Hickey, p 3 10 Totals 31 4 7 25 14 1 Salt Lake AB. R. H. PO. A. E. Shinn, rf 3 10 Hallinan, ss 3 3 2 Zacher, cf 4 3 10 Ryan, If 4 2 Tennant, lb 4 9 2 Gedeon, 2b 3 10 4 3 Barbour, 3b 3 12 4 1 Rohrer, e 3 13 Easterly, p 2 110 Gregory, p 2 10 10 Totals 31 2 7 24 13 1 Santa Clara 3. Sacramento All Stars 6. Despite the lack of the polished team work of a regular Coast League team, the Sacramento All Stars, proved a worthy rival against the varsity and easily defeated us by a score of 6 to 3. Ramage, the first batsman to oppose Lloyd Snook, our former star pitcher of two years ago, greeted his former chum by hitting safely into left center THE REDWOOD 361 for three bags. McGinnis scored the runner by hitting safely through sec- ond. But Snook quickly stopped the onslaught, when McGinnis was tagged out when over-sliding third base, after being safely sacrificed to second by Hawks. The All Stars proved their hitting ability in their half of the first inning, when three suceesive hits caused con- siderable worry to the varsity. Here Stewart pitched hard and proved him- self master of the occasion, when he prevented the first two batters from hitting safely. After allowing Haus- man three balls, Stewart ' s perfect con- trol was evident, as he easily struck out the batsman. Ramage commenced the run getting for the varsity in the third inning when he was walked. He was advanced to third on McGinnis ' single and scored on a single by Hawks. The All Stars commenced their scor- ing in the last of the third inning, when Eldred was walked and went to second on McGinnis ' failure to catch Ramage ' s throw, and scored on Maho- ney ' s single. There were numerous flashes of speed and brilliancy in the playing of the varsity, but costly errors at critical points of the game spoiled our chances of winning the game. Santa Clara 5. San Francisco 1. Again Pitcher Hickey was pitted against a Coast League team, and once again he pitched his " Alma Mater " to victory. " With a few slight changes from their regular team, the Coast leaguers dis- covered a formidable opponent in the varsity and gladly admitted to Coach Harry Wolters, that the varsity was deserving of the victory they so proud- ly earned. Hickey was in exceptionally good form, and the able support received from his team mates, both in hitting and fielding answers the question, how we defeated San Francisco. Colwell was chosen to pitch against us and th e third inning found him greatly worried. Ramage hit into deep center, the ball nearly clearing the fence. McGinnis advanced him to sec- ond, and scored on Heilmann ' s error of Hawks ' grounder. Sheehan ' s infield hit advanced him to third, and Byler ' s stinging infield hit scored Hawks. In the fifth inning the varsity earn- ed another run. Ramage drove out his third hit and was sacrificed safely to second by McGinnis ; and Ramage scored on Fitzpatrick ' s single to left field. Benham relieved Colwell in the sev- enth inning, but his variety of curves failed to check the hard hitting of the varsity. Scholz singled and Ramage hit the ball over the right field fence for a home run. The fielding of Benny Fitzpatrick, McGinnis, Montgomery, Hawks, and Byler, coupled with the wonderful bat- ting of Ramage, Byler, Sheehan, Hawks, Scholz and Fitzptrick easily featured. For the Seals Heilmann and Clarke 362 THE REDWOOD distinguished themselves on several oc- casions by flashing plays. The score: Santa Clara AB. R. H. PO. A. E. Ramage, lb 5 3 4 7 MeGinnis, ss 4 13 10 Hawks, cf 4 13 10 Sheehan, If 4 12 Byler, c 4 13 6 10 Montgomery, 2b 3 2 5 Fitzpatrick, 3b 4 1110 Scholz, rf 3 10 3 Hiekey, p 4 Totals 35 5 10 27 9 San Francisco AB. R. H. PO. A. E. Meleon, cf 4 2 Jones, 3b 4 15 Tobin, rf 2 110 Baerwald, If 4 110 Heilmann, lb 3 2 13 1 Leard, 2b 4 2 2 Corhan, ss 3 112 1 Clarke, e 3 9 3 Colwell, p 2 2 Benham, p Totals 30 1 6 21 16 2 Wieland ' s 1, Santa Clara 0. Again we suffered defeat at the hands of Louie Lowenberg ' s " stars " , but as the score indicates the teams are evenly balanced. Leonard and Ross pitched wonderful ball and a slight break in luck in favor of the Wieland ' s netted them a solitary run. J. Selig singled to center and was sacrificed safely to second by Swanton. McGann ' s double to left scored the run- ner with the winning run. Inability to hit in pinches robbed Leonard of a victory he fully deserved. While pitching a wonderful game, " Pinkie " distinguished himself in the batting by singling to left. On another occasion Andrada caught a bee-line drive on the pick-up, but the umpire called Leonard out, thus depriving him of his two earned hits. JUNIOR NOTES. During the last month the Juniors have been practising diligently to meet their heavy schedule of games. Their first encounter against the Palo Alto High School resulted in a 7 to 4 victory. The game was featured, I rincipally, by the hitting of Amarel and Gallagher, coupled with the clever fielding of Cunningham and Pradere. Their second game was a practice game with the St. Joseph ' s School, and the Juniors easily showed their super- iority in every department of the game. Among the most noticeable features was the long hiting of the Juniors, espe- cially Heafey and Gallagher, while Diaz distinguished himself as a pitcher. In their third game with the Camp- bell High School they discovered a more equal rival, but as usual, return- ed victors by a score of 8 to 5. Owing to the condition of the field good play- ing was impossible, as many balls were lost in the high grass in the outfield. However, Korte ' s hitting and Galla- gher ' s fielding added much to a Junior victory. THE REDWOOD 363 The Juniors have scheduled various games about, two of which are causing unusual excitement, namely one with Mt. Tamalpais and one with Napa High School. If possible Manager Amarel will endeavor to meet San Mateo High, the conceded peninsula cham- pions. ' he following players compose the Junior team : Amarel and Bush, catchers. Berg and Samaniego, pitchers. Korte, lb. Diaz, 2b. Pradere, 3b. Cunningham, (capt.), ss. HoAvard, C, rf. Gallagher, cf. Heafey, If. MIDGET LEAGUE. Won Lost Ave. Oxnard 11 7 .605 Vernon 10 8 .550 Monterey 6 12 .333 With over half the schedule com- pleted the Oxnard team still remain the league leaders, but by the small margin of one game. Capt. Williams decares that their recent defeats were due to a slump ; he is glad, however, that it came when the team had a safe lead and expects that from now on they can hold Vernon off until the end of the season. While Oxnard has been losing, Ver- non has been playing good ball, win- ning five straight victories, which will help them greatly towards the pen- nant. Owing to Capt. Doud ' s illness Mon- terey has been without the services of their most dependable pitcher. This accounts for their low standing at present. Two pitchers have signed up lately, who will strengthen the team materially and give them a chance at the pennant. Conneally ' s hard hitting in recent games put him in the lead for batting honors. Dieringer, who has been near the top all season, is second, followed by B. Williams, Wilson and Gomez, who are also above .300. A.B. R. H. Ave. Conneally 84 23 33 .393 Dieringer 83 20 25 .343 Williams, B 56 10 19 .339 Gomez 76 14 25 .330 Wilson 40 14 13 .325 Borchard 62 13 18 .300 Fielding honors at present belong to Haley who has only made one boot. Conneally is a close second, while the catchers, R. Williams and Forster, have been doing good work behind the bat. PO. A. E. Ave. Haley 34 11 1 .978 Conneally 87 68 8 .951 Joyce 124 29 8 .950 Williams, R 196 57 19 .930 Forster 97 26 12 .911 .Distinctively I- ' i ' ' ' ' ' ' " ltcT " aat ' rnean.n.an» e.a 7ATmA Atrb: " U e.nena-. subtle :♦ ' ' ' " " " • - 20forl5c SwiTURKlSH This ad. published in t±ie $500 Fatima Ad- vertising Contest, is the work of Mr. Dillwyn Parish, Har- vard University, The $500 Prize $500 will be paid to the college student who sends to us the best original advertisement for Fatima cigarettes before June 1, 1915. In the meantime, for each ad. we publish we will pay the writer $5. Illustrate your ad. if you can, but if you can ' t draw, then use your kodak or describe your idea. Prize wilt be awartied bv a committee of three prominent advertising men. L. B. Jonet, Adv. Mgr., Eastman Kodak Co., F.R. Davit, Adv. Dept., General Electric Co., and J. George Frederick, Editor of Advertising and Selling. 212 Fifth A»e.,N«w YorkCilr FATIMA THE TURKISH BLEND .CIGARETTE, THE REDWOOD :►! 1 beg to inform the students that 1 have opened a first-class TAILORING ESTABLISHMENT With a Complete Line of Woolens. Suits from 25.00 up A. BROCKMAN (Late cutter for leading college tailors in San Francisco) Rooms 5-6-7 Deposit Bank Building First and Santa Clara Sts., San Jose GRADUATION GIFTS BOOKS, CARDS, BANNERS MILLARD BROS. The Bookmen 7 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CAL. We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c p M .. J - 0 " iy MADDEN ' S PHARMACY Franklin St. Santa Clara The Golden West Cleaning Dyeing Works Dry Cleaners, Plain and Fancy Dyers Hat Experts Daily Service Phones, San Jose 60; Santa Clara 99 J 25-27 S. Third Street, San Jose V. Salberg E. Gaddi -: ,sss= b. , Umpire Pool Room |, :_ : ;ff m Santa Clara, Cal. - JW 2! cper And everything else for COUGHS and COLDS University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. •!«: THE REDW(30D. H. MARTENSEN THE HOUSE OF BEATTY ...TAILOR... SUITS MADE TO ORDER $30.00 AND UP. 65 SOUTH MARKET STREET San Jose Typewriter Company 24 South Second Street WE RENT Special Rates to Students SELL lll l EXCLUSIVE SERVICE EXCHANGE . J O 1 ' ALL MAKES TypewHters and Supplies Phone. San Jose 349 SUPPLIES FOR ALL MAKES Agents for the ROYAL STANDARD TYPEWRITER " THE MACHINE BUILT FOR SERVICE " Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery.? BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: 4| Y ' lYSt Street SAN FRANCISCO f, . , OAKLAND an Jose, Cal. : h THE REDWOOD. •+. — — — — ►?- Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phon e San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Ciara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Mestauvant, Grill and Oyster Souse 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose " DON ' T WURRY " E. Urbani Son TAILORS CLEANING AND REPAIRING A SPECIALTY Main Street Santa Clara Century Electric o. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps THE REDWOOD ►!«: : Dealer in Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 867 SHerman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Alderman ' s NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. cigars and Tobaccos Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to PostofBce SANTA CLARA Globe Barber Shop Franklin St. Santa Clara Three Barbers No Waiting Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franldin St. GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2j4 Cents per Cue Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats Santa Clara THE REDWOOD ■■■- - -■- - ■ MORGAN ' S CLASS PINS MEDALS Special facilities for Fine Presentation Medals 615 Phelan BIdg.. San Francisco ; 595 University Barbers Main Street, Santa Clara Phones : Office S. C. ISIJ Residence S. C. 112 Y DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p, m. Franck Building Santa Clara F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara CASEY , IS STILL WITH Sherry Freitas Co. SELLING Butter, Ice Cream, Etc. 262 S. First St., Masonic Bldg. Snow Galgiani GRAPHITE, FOUNDRY SUPPLIES and MACHINERY 537-539 Second St., San Francisco Phone, Sutter 1114 EVERYBODY IS WELCOME to the SantaClara Coffee Club Come and enjoy its privileges. It ' s a public place, and a place for the public. They all enjoy a visit to the Club. M. R. GLEASON, Manager. T The Farmers Union San Jose, California Santa Clara County ' s Largest General Merchandise Store Carry an especially large line of CROCKERY HAVILAND CHINA, Plain White for Decorating, Etc. Largest line of Canned Foods, Lunch Goods, Imported and Domestic Fancy Groceries Mail Orders Given Especial Attention - h THE REDWOOD Z Unless They Are Absolutely Perfect MAYERLE ' S GLASSES are highly recommended for reading, working or to see at a distance, weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astigmatism, dizziness, headache, children ' s eyes and complicated cases of Eye Defects. Two gold medals and diploma of honor awarded at Cali- fornia Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to GEORGE MAYERLE, Graduate German Expert Optician Mayerle ' s Eyewater at 960 Market Street, San Francisco Druggists SOc; by mail 65c Established 20 Years Opposite the Empress Theater Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskln Santa Clara California Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE MARK CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS Ice Cream AND Candies Telephone S. C. 35 R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Wholesale AND Retail THE REDWOOD Z Z ' i TIlGrC i Aft ' " ' design and tailoring of our VARSITY FIFTY- FIVE. Some times called Artistic Excellence Hart, Schaffner and Marx search the world markets for masterpieces of weaving. We ' re showing some for Spring, 20 to $35 Our store Is the Home of Hart, Schaffner Marx Clothes, Knox Hats aud Man- hattan Shirts Santa Clara and Market Streets MET HOFF KAYSER vet REGAL SHOES BANISTER SHOES EVERWEAR HOSIERY Our Shoes and Hosiery Sell to Sell Again We give SCRIP — a mile in travel for a dollar in trade 95 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. SUIT CASES PURSES 83-91 South First St, San Jose. Cal. LEATHER NOVELTIES SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT " HOME OF STETSON HATS ' SAN JOSE FRESNO STOCKTON : THE REDWOOD Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS, FOBS, TOILET SETS, ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC., ETC. J J FRED M. STERN " The Leather Man 77 NORTH FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE, CAL. p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. OrlgUa Lamolle Grille-— «. 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD ANNOUNCEMENT The CLOTHES BEAUTIFUL designed and made especially for BILLY HOBSON for the SUMMER SEASON are now on display. The new models are the most attractive ever shown. Drop in and try on a few of the new models. BILLY HOBSON 24 South First Street San Jose, CaL General j A_. — — Picnic Hauling j " Parties NickelTs Transfer Co. 21 West St. John Street Telephone S. J. 469 Wm, McCarthy Sons Coffee TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA Correct Wearing Apparel In Men ' s Furnishing and Hats Agent for ED. V. PRICE CLOTHES 23 West Santa Clara Street W. H. O ' BANNON THE REDWOOD K Z ' if The Ellery Arms Company MANUFACTURERS AND OUTFITTERS For the SPORTSMAN, CAMPER AND ATHLETE EQUIPMENT AND APPARATUS For Every Need 583-585 MARKET STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Only a jester has any right to wear mis-matched clothes, and the only clothes made with perfect matched backs are SII| S txutf nth QIl0tl|?B New Summer Models Now Ready GEORG E. HOWES .j .uu -. 9 g_ pj g g gg 5 j j gg HERBERT ' S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET : SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Vargas Bros. Company GENT ' S FURNISHINGS MADE-TO-ORDER AND READY-MADE SUITS, MEN ' S AND BOYS ' SHOES, GROCERIES, HARDWARE, PAINTS Give US your next suit order. Lafayette and Franklin Streets Phone S. C. 120 4 : THE REDWOOD The Shortest Route TO Omaha, Kansas City and the East THE OGDEN ROUTE " The Overland Limited " An Extra Fare Train with observation car, valet, barber and bath. From San Francisco at 4 p.m. " The Pacific Limited " An elegant train with observation car, standard sleepers and one tourist car. From San Francisco at 10:20 a.m. Four Fast Trains Daily " The San Francisco Limited " With standard and tourist sleepers and through chair car. From San Francisco at 2 p.m. " The Atlantic Express " With through standard and tourist sleepers, with chair cars. From San Francisco at 7 p.m. All Protected Throughout with Automatic Electric Block Signals Railroad and Steamship Tickets Sold To and From all Points A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent. E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dlst. Pass. Agent 40 — EAST SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE— 40 m €9 Famous Author says : " Why shouldn ' t a man be willing to recommend a to ' oacco which gives as cool, sweet and satisfying a smoke as Tuxedo. " seorge KandoipJi Chester ' s Get -Rich -Quick Wallingford " stories have delighted thousands through the mental alertness, good humor and keen mind shown hy the wily promoter. When George Randolph Chester writes of things typically American he knows what he is talking about; and when he endorses Tuxedo — the typically American tobacco — his endorsement carries great weight with the keen- minded, alert and brainy smokers of this country. 77te Perfect Tobacco for Pipe and Cigarette is made especially to maintain the American spirit of good humor. Its constant use bene- fits a man in mind and body, by keeping him happy and physically fit. Tuxedo is the finest Kentucky Burley — the world ' s premier smoking-tobacco leaf — made absolutely non-biling by the original " Tuxedo Process " that has never been successfully imi- tated. Tuxedo is delightfully m ild, fragrant, rich, and gives a cool and satisfying smoke. Tuxedo is in a class by itself. TUXEDO EVERYWHERE Famous Green Tin with gold lettering, curved to fit pocket id 80c In Glass Humidors 50c and 90e AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANY THE " June, 1915 LAW NUMBER THE REDWOOD iversitv of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD — Tj FOSS HICKS CO. No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments INSURANCE Fire, Life, Accident and Workmen ' s Compensation in the Best Companies ok .,0 Sutter 4220 P ' " 1 Sutter 4221 Smith, Lynden Co, WHOLESALE GROCERS BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street San Francisco, Cal. f THE REDWOOD ■ ' ■— ■ — - - „ Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California ' 1 HIS institution under tiie direction of the 1 Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR J. J. MONTEVALDO NICK SPINETTI Monte Fruit Co. WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS 84 to 90 North Market Street Phone S. J. 795 SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD : : Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY PRICE, $1.50 PER YEAR OUR JOB WORK PRE-EMINENTLY SUPERIOR B. DOWNING, Editor Phone Santa Clara 14 Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company PHOTO ENGRAVING ZINC ETCHINGS HALF TONES ? Do you want a half tone for a program or pamphlet ? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA : THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA F iSh JyiHrkCt Residence PhoneS.J. 2378 y Wholesale and Retail Dealers In FISH, POULTRY and GAME IN SEASON 36 POST STREET, Bet, 1st and Market f. lociceru, Proprietor Money Spent for a S uit WHICH DOESN ' T FIT IS WORSE THAN WASTED It is better to be safe than sorry GET ME Bauer the Tailor 60 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. i — : THE REDWOOD WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE. MAIN 309 74-76 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA L. P. SWIFT, President F. L. WASHBURN, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treas. DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougli, Henry J. Crociter, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Liiienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands C anned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4tli Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton Z i THE REDWOOD The Men ' s Booterie 41-43 South First Street For your Vacation Shoes Have you tried our latest drinks? DENNO ' S FOOD Similar to Malted Milks IT ' S FINE TRY ONE ALL FLAVORS Don ' t forget Mission Brand Chocolates OSBORNE JOHNSON Phone, Santa Clara 129 J Franklin Street Santa Clara THE REDWOOD A Good Hunch Wear Walk-Overs A visit to our store will give YOU an IDEA of some of OUR IDEAS, the " Welcome " on our mat is nearly rubbed out, but the " Welcome " in the air is manifest at all times The " CARLTON " All Leathers and Patterns OVER U. " " to $6.«» We carry a full line of Tennis shoes THE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP 125 South First Street, opposite Hale ' s SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA Admission 10 cents, Children 5 cents. At all times June 4, 5. Charles Clary and Fran- ceiia Billington in " Strath- more. ' June 6, 7, 8. Nance O ' Neil in the " Princess Romanoff. " June 9, 10. Miss Kathlyn Williams in " The Carpetfrom Bagdad. " Harry Lock wood in " The Lure of the Mask. " June 13. 14, 15. Betty Nansen in " A Woman ' s Resurrection. " June 16. 17. Edwin Arden and Ro- maine Fielding in " The Eagle ' s Nest. " June 18. 19. John Everson in " The Failure. " June 20, 21, 22. William Farnum in ' The Plunderer. " June 23, 24. Francis X. Bushman and Beverly Bayne in " Grau- stark. " " The Exploits of Elaine " shown Mondays and Tuesdays with regular program. A Keystone Comedy will be shown with each change of program. Program changes Sunday, Wednesday and Friday. Z Z b |o] | I Q ' | ICZIOEZDl |C=30Cl5] |CIZ | |C=IOEZD| 1CIIIOIZ3I C lOE O [HERE are reasons, of course, for TAT- IMA ' S ' ' popularity. Altogether they number four hundred. One of them is that TATIMA " is the best cigarette pro- curable for the money. Think that one over and youll find that the other three hundred and ninety-nine don ' t matter. roi This advertise- ment, published in the $500 Fat- ima Advertisin g Contest, is the work of Mr. F. B. McGurriii, University of Santa Clara. D 0§§OK)e. 0©(l §0g8c3lo O(£)c?®r ' Tlie $500 Prize— $509 will be paid to the college student who sends to us the best original •dveitiaement for Fatima Cigarettes before June 1, 1916. In the meantime for each ad we publish we will pay the writer $5. Illustrate your ad if you can, but if jrou can ' t draw, then use your kodak or describe your idea. Prize will be awarded by a committee of three prominent advertising men; L. B. Jones, Adv. Mgr. Eastman Kodak Co., F. R. Davis, Adv. Dept. General Electric Co., and J. George Frederick, Editor of " Advertising and Selling " . Liggett Myers Tobacco Co., 212 Fifth Ave., New York City [c |CZ30I=3| ICZIOEZDl ICZnOEZDl ICZZIOEZDl [c 30E 30E ] o} CONTENTS ■ ' SONG OF THE WIND " - - J. Charles Murphy 3b5 THE CAPACITY OF A PERSON SENTENCED TO LIFE IM- PRISONMENT TO MAKE A WILL Richard V. Bressani. A. B. ' 14 366 THE RELATION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS IN THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION TO THE TERRITORIES AND DEPEN- DENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES Harold R. McKinnon. A. B. ' 14 380 THE PROOF OF SIMILIAR OFFENSES IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS - Lawrence Archer Bowden, B. S., 391 IN MEMORIAM WILLIAM BRYAN LAVELL - - - 407 EDITORIALS ___-._ 410 EXCHANGES ------- 413 UNIVERSITY NOTES ------ 416 ALUMNI -------- 423 ATHLETICS ------- 425 Entered Dec. 18, 1902. at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIV SANTA CLARA, CAL., JUNE, 1915 NO. 8 ®Ij §0ng nf tlj litn There ' s voice in tKe wind as it floats along, And blows. TKe wKispering wind may be singing a song, WKo knows? In a dream I seem to skim tne seas, And Kear tne song of tne whistling breeze. " I wKisk across a barren plain, Far from the Kome of snow and rain, O ' er a land of sand I cKafe and rasp, I ' m away ! as tne reins of my steed I grasp. " I whisper the moaning pines to sleep Where deathlike shadows their vigil keep. And away to the spray of the flashing sea, Like a ghost escaped from the tomb, I pee. " I laugh at the threats of the bounding waves, I dart aloft as the sea-god craves To seize : I tease old Meptune bold. And kiss his cheek as my wings unfold. " I hurry along to the land of snow. And over the white-capped hills I go. I sing as I fling the flakes about ; I whirl in a dance and I lustily shout, Away with the sand, and the wood, and the sea, The land of snow is the land for me. ' " J. CHARLES MURPHY. CAPACITY OF A PERSON SENTENCED TO LIFE IMPRISON- MENT TO MAKE A WILL N the discussion of legal questions con- cerning testamentary capacity we are at the outset confronted with rules of proced- ure more or less dogmatic in their char- acter, with limitations arbitrary in their nature, Avith exceptions and dis- tinctions that are numerous and com- plex in their applications. Consequent- ly it is incumbent upon one who is about to express his opinion relative to a question of testamentary capacity to first examine the constitutional provi- sions and statutory enactments and as- certain therefrom the positive declara- tions as to testamentary capacity, leav- ing all modifications, interpretations, distinctions and amplifications to be deduced from a perusal of the decisions of the Courts and opinions of text writers. In prosecuting an examination of the statutes, Ave are most forcibly impress- ed with the virility of the thought, so obvious when once suggested, that as the statutes cannot be fully ixnder- stood without the knoAvledge and pre- supposition of the common law, consti- tuting at once the substratum upon which they rest, and a not inconsider- able element in the enactments them- selves, so the nature and extent of tes- tamentary capacity finds its basic foundation in the common law. The common law, as well as the statutes, the decisions of courts, which in the last analysis we must refer to and be guided by, and the reasonings and an- nouncements of text writers, have all so far as the writer ' s ability and exam- ination would permit, been consulted and are relied upon in reaching the conclusion that a person inidergoing a sentence of life imprisonment has the capacity to make a will in California. At the outset it must be stated that in this discussion it is presupposed and assumed that the convict has complied with all the statutory requirements rel- ative to the due execution of a will. The question is not, whether the con- vict was mentally competent, nor whether the conduct and the state- ments of another unduly influenced him in executing his will in such a manner and to such an extent as to vitiate the will, but it is simply a ques- tion flowing from the fact that the tes- tator has acquired a peculiar personal status consequent upon his conviction for the commission of a felony, viz: Has a person sentenced to a term of life imprisonment in the state prison, the capacity to execute a will? 366 THE REDWOOD 367 Thus limiting the question and con- fining ourselves to that alone, upon reference to the Constitution of the State of California, we find Article 1, section 16, providing that " No Bill of Attainder shall ever be passed. " The legislature has enacted that " A person sentenced to imprisonment in the state prison for life is thereafter deemed civilly dead. " Penal Code 674. The above penal code section, were it not for the phrase, " civilly dead " , would be clear and free from doubt. To formulate an abstract definition of the phrase is not difficult, but when an attempt is made to define or rather to ascertain what the law-makers intend- ed and meant by the phrase as used in the section, we encounter difficulty, for it is said to be " a fiction of law which is contradicted by the facts " , 10 Abb. Pr. 376 ; consequently we are obliged to ascertain what the legisla- tors meant by the phrase before fur- ther progress can be made. It is a rule of construction that stat- utes are to be construed with reference to the principles of the common law in force at the time of their passage, and all words having a well knoAvn, definite meaning at common law are presumed to be used in the same sense when they appear in a statute ; and in the ab- sence of any legislation on the subject, the common law consequences of a conviction for a felony attach and re- main until abrogated by constitutional provisions or statutory enactments. " While the inquiry as to what were the common consequences of a convic- tion for felony might perhaps result only in the acquirement of a purely academical and historical knowledge, nevertheless, in view of the above rule of statutory construction and in the absence of any statutory legislation on the same, it becomes necessary and absolutely indispensable for me in or- der to prove an essential premise that I examine and consider the common law principles relative to the effect of civil death upon the rights and status of one undergoing a sentence of life imprisonment after conviction of fel- ony. It is submitted that the code nowhere and in no wise prescribes and regulates or defines the nature and extent of civil death consequent lapon a sentence of life imprisonment as to a convict ' s capacity to execute a will. At common law by civil death, con- sequent upon conviction and sentence for a capital offense, the offender eo instanti, by operation of law was placed in a state of attainder. The in- cidents resultant from an attainder were : forfeiture, corruption of blood and the deprivation and extinction of all civil rights, — which was denominat- ed civil death. Forfeiture, as part of the punish- ment, consisted in the deprivation of and forfeiting to the King the prop- erty of the convicted felon ; personalty being absolutely forfeited upon con- viction, Avhile realty and chattels real were forfeited perpetually or during the life of the offender, upon sentence being pronounced. 368 THE REDWOOD Corruption of blood resulted in the incapacity to transmit property to one ' s heirs, and on the part of the heirs inca- pacity to take by descent from the an- cestor. Forfeiture did not attach nor was it a consequence of being civiliter mor- tuus, but resulted upon " office found ; ' ' and until then the title to and possession of real property was in the person attainted. He could take by purchase and he could even devise his lands subject only to the right of entry for the forfeiture consequent upon ' ' of- fice found; " and as stated by Justice Andrews in the great case of Avery vs. Everett 110 N. Y. 317, 1 L. R. A. 264, 6 Am. St. Rep. 368, " It seems to be a necessary conclusion from the rules of the common law governing rights of property as affected by forfeiture for crime, that civil death, one of the con- sequences of conviction for felony, did not of itself, as a general rule at least, operate to divest the offender of his title to his lands. But we have not been able to find any case showing that, as a general rule, civil death mod- ified in any respect the law of forfeit- ure, or deprived the attainted person of his lands before the forfeiture was enforced by entry " , citing Coke Litt. 199, 1 Bla. Com. 132. The status of being civiliter mortuus placed the felon extra legem, or, as stated by Chitty, ' ' dead in law. ' ' An evolution, or rather a revolution, in the common law then took place, whereby the doctrine of forfeiture and corruption of blood in all cases, except treason, petit treason and murder was abolished by the statute of 54 Geo. Ill c. 45. Still later the entire theory and doctrine of attainder and corruption of blood and forfeiture of estate, ex- cept forfeiture of estate in the single case of outlawry, was swept away into the sea of historical learning by 33 and 34 Vict. c. 23. The statute of Victoria also provided for the appointment of trustees whose duty it was to admin- ister the estate of the convicted felon for the benefit of creditors and for the support of the convicted felon ' s fam- ily. Under this statute, the real prop- erty of the traitor or felon remained his OAvn, subject only to the temporary estate of the trustees. He could dis- pose of his property by will, and the only restrictions placed upon him was that he could not alienate it by con- tract during his natural life. 1 Jar- man on Wills, Bigelow ' s 5th ed. 44. Generally, see Avery vs. Everett, su- pra. But whatever the ancient common law, whatever the effect of statutory influences and restrictions on it was, we may say generally that the entire doctrine of attainder, forfeiture of es- tate and corruption of blood, both be- fore and after " office found " , has been swept away in the United States by constitutional provisions, federal and state, and by statutory enactments ; so that we have conviction for crime producing a civil death without its odious features. Consequently, the contention of those who uphold the view that a person sentenced to impris- THE REDWOOD 369 onment for life has the capacity to exe- cute a will, is of necessity strengthen- ed; for, if a felon undergoing a sen- tence of life imprisonment at common law could make a will capable of being probated, subject to the vitiating ef- fect of " office found, " how much more so is that capacity enlarged and strengthened and freed from contin- gent disqualifications when the dis- qualifying cause with its attendant re- sult, viz. office found, is done away with ? And this is the law, unless, there are code provisions or court decisions to the contrary, and it is maintained that there are none. As my object is to determine the law of California on this point, and as thers is no direct expression statutory or judicial, from which deduce an opinion, I will first examine the Cali- fornia cases pertinent to the issue. The case of Estate of Nerac, 35 Cal. 392, is the first holding in California containing an expression apparently in conflict with the conclusion and opinion advanced herein. In it the Court speaking through Sanderson, J., said, " If the convict be sentenced for life, he becomes ' civiliter mortuus, ' or dead in law in respect to his estate, as if he were dead in fact. " It is ad- mitted that, if the person undergoing a sentence of life imprisonment is to be considered as if he were dead in fact, he has no capacity at all to execute a will, and consequently it is incumbent upon me to modify the opinion of the learned judge so as to bring out the weakness of the case, and to show that it has no direct bearing on the subject matter of this thesis. The Nerac case may be distinguished on the following grounds : (1) The convict was not sentenced for life, but was merely undergoing a sentence of fifteen years. (2) The action was instituted by a judgment creditor to subject to his claim a legacy bequeathed to the con- vict. Hence we perceive that the Nerac case has no bearing Tipon the instant case of a life convict, and the expres- sion was unnecessary. The Court itself modified the effect of the opinion, or if it did not, it indulged in contradictory dicta; and it is submitted that the above excerpt from the opinion of the case is merely obiter, (see Coffee vs. Haynes, 124 Cal. 56) and was deprived of much of its weight, when the court said — " The probate court has no power to appropriate the share of an heir or devisee to the payment of his debts. That would be to adminis- ter upon his estate before he is dead in law or fact. " It is elementary that an administration had upon a person ' s es- tate before he were dead in fact would be absolutely void, but, if the dictum in the Nerac case is followed, no rea- son appears why the convict ' s estate may not be probated. Again, the court said, " What power he may retain over his estate it is unnecessary to consider for the purpose of the present case. " But a more authoritative source, holding that the Nerac expression was merely dictum is found in the case of 370 THE REDWOOD Coffee vs. Haynes, 124 Cal. 561, where the court said, " We are referred to Es- tate of Nerae, where it was said: ' If the convict be sentenced for life he l)e- comes civiliter mortuus, or dead in law, in respect to his estate, as if he were dead in fact. ' That ease called for no expression of opinion as to the conse- quences following a life sentence, and the declaration was therefore obiter. " The next expression of our Court based on sections 674, 675 and 676 of the Penal Code, is the Estate of Don- nelly, 125 Cal. 417. It was held in that case that a convict undergoing a sen- tence for life is deprived of his right of inheritance. With the holding in the Donnelly case no issue is taken, as the case is clearly distinguishable on the facts and the law. (1) Our case deals with the capa- city of the " life termer " to make a will, whereas the Donnelly case was one arising from the attempt of the assignee of the life convict ' s interest to claim his assignor ' s share in an intes- tate ' s estate. (2) Furthei ' more, the case at hand deals with the power to devise, — the Donnelly case with capacity to inherit. (3) Again, the life convict exer- cises a capacity or right which is mei ' ely passive, if it be permitted to use the term, whereas, in the Donnelly case, the capacity or right was an " act- ive and substantial " one. Kelative to this division of capacities and x ' ights, more will be said later. (4) The life convict ' s ease deals with the capacity to give, to devise, the gift and devise being realized by the recipients of his bounty after his death, when his imprisonment ipso facto and of necessity ends ; while the Donnelly case is concerned with the capacity to receive and inherit and to deal with the inheritance during the term of his imprisonment. Having thus examined the California decisions on the subject to discover any expression having a direct bearing, free from dictum and based on facts similar to the case which is the subject here, we shall proceed to collate and examine the authorities of other tri- bunals. The leading case and the foremost authority on the subject of civil death, is the great case of Avery vs. Everett, supra, from which I intend to quote liberally. In Avery vs. Everett, the testator died in 1869, leaving to his son, Charles, an estate in the lands in ques- tion which the court held to be a vested remainder in fee, limited upon the life of his mother, but subject to be defeat- ed by his dying without children. This remainder was property capable of be- ing transferred by Ch arles, and vested in him at the death of his father. In 1875, Charles was convicted of murder and sentenced to imprisonment in the state prison for the term of his natural life. The court was called upon to de- cide whether the sentence operated to divest him of the property at that time owned by him, and held that the sen- tence did not have the effect to divest THE REDWOOD 371 him of his intei ' est in the land. That the same rule applies in this state is evidenced by section 677 of the Politi- cal Code which pi " Ovides: " No convic- tion of any person for crime works any forfeiture of any property except in eases in which a forfeiture is expressly imposed by law. " The original New York statute de- clared that a person adjudged to im- prisonment for life on a conviction of felony " shall be deemed and taken to be civilly dead to all intents and pur- poses in the lav , " and the New York Court in construing the section said that the phrase " to all intents and pur- poses in the law " extended the com- mon law consequences of civil death, and made the estate of the convicted felon descendible immediately to his heirs. ' ' Later this act was amended by the Revised Statutes, by omitting the special and peculiar words therein and the language was substituted that a person sentenced to imprisonment for life should thereafter be deemed civilly dead, and the Court in construing the Revised Statute expressed itself as say- ing and holding, " the provision be- came, we think, simply declaratory of the common law; " and it is pertinent to remark that section 674 of our Penal Code is identical with and based on the New York Revised Act. If the statute is simply declaratory of the common law, it is patent and evident that he may make a will, for we have already seen that a life con- vict may make a will at common law, and as said in Bacon ' s Abridgment, title Wills and Testament, " yet the Avill is good against the testator him- self and all others but the King " . See also Davis vs. Laning, 85 Tex. 39, 18 L. R. A. 34. The case of Rankin ' s Heirs vs. Exe- cutors 6 T. B. Mon. 531, 17 Am. Dec. 161, is the most direct in point of all. That ease arose upon the attempt of a felon to dispose of his property by a will executed after his conviction and sentence. The Kentucky statute declar- ed that here should be no forfeiture to the state, but that the property should descend and pass in like manner as by law directed in case of persons dying intestate. The statute also saved to others all the felon ' s right or interest in his property, and the Court in inter- preting the statute held that the change which the statute effected was, that the forfeited estate which the Commonwealth was otherwise entitled to, was transferred from the Common- wealth to those to whom it would pass and descend, in ease the offender died intestate. The Court in the course of its lucid opinion, explained its views as follows : ' ' But it was not intended by the act to create new forfeitures or to increase existing penalties, against the person attainted or convicted. His condition as respects his estate was not to be bettered, nor was it to be ren- dered worse ; any estate or interest in his lands and goods, which by the then existing laws he would have been en- titled to retain after attainder or con- viction was not intended by the legis- lature to be disposed of by the act; 372 THE REDWOOD and if any such interest or estate there be, the attainted or convicted person must, notwithstanding the provisions of the act, be understood still to retain it. " We are therefore, led to inquire whether or not, at the passage of the act, the whole or a part only of the of- fender ' s estate was, upon his attainder or conviction of felony, forfeited to the Commonwealth (the Court cites a Constitutional provision prohibiting forfeiture of estate consequent upon attainder, beyond the life of the of- fender). It is therefore, not the absolute fee simple estate of the offender in lands and goods, that according to the con- stitution was forfeited to the common- wealth, (or by virtue of statute trans- mitted to heirs as if intestate) ; but it was the interest or estate, which the offender was entitled to during his life only, that by the laws in force at the passage of the act was forfeited (and to which he was civilly dead). " The reversionary interest, or in other words, that part of the estate which remained after the death of the of- fender according to those laws, resided in him after conviction, and since the passage of the act, must, we appre- hend, still be understood to continue to reside in the offender, though at- tainted or convicted " (or beter still, civilly dead). And the court held that having a reversionary interest which would descend under the intestacy laws, he could make a valid will con- cerning the same under the rule that whatever is descendible is also devis- able by will. It now becomes incumbent on me in order to sustain the conclusion arrived at, herein, to ascertain whether there are any constitutional provisions or statutory enactments to the contrary, and we find the following: No bill of attainder shall be passed. Art. 1, sec. 16. " A sentence of imprisonment in a state prison for any term less than for life suspends all the civil rights of the person so sentenced, and forfeits all public offices and all private trusts, authority or power during such impris- onment. " Section 674 Penal Code. " A person sentenced to imprison- ment in the state prison for life is thereafter deemed civilly dead. " Sec- tion 675 Penal Code. " The provisions of the last two pre- ceding sections must not be construed to render the persons therein mention- ed ineomijetent as witnesses upon the trial of a criminal action or proceed- ing, or incapable of making and ac- knowledging a sale or conveyance of property. " Section 675 Penal Code. " No conviction of any person for crime works any forfeiture of any property, except in cases in which a forfeiture is expressly imposed by law, etc. " Section 677 Penal Code. With section 673 we will not concern ourselves as it has no bearing on and is not indicative of the intent of the legislatui-e, as to the capacity of a life convict to execute a will. The argument has been advanced. THE REDWOOD 373 that as section 675 is the saving sec- tion, that therefore all rights, capaci- ties and competencies not enumerated and specified therein are abrogated and destroyed, and in order to enjoy the exercise of any right or capacity he must prove himself to be in the ex- ercise of a right or capacity within the purview of the above-mentioned section. But can this view be maintained? Can this contention withstand the on- slaught of judicial reasoning? Can this omnibus deprivation of personal and civil right, survive the ordeal of a strict and logical legal analysis? If it may, then it is conceded that the contention and opinion of the writer is erroneous ; if it cannot, then the con- verse is likewise erroneous. Those who assert a contrary opinion contend with the utmost earnestness and emphasis that as a will is not embraced within the definition of " conveyance " vide. Civil Code 1215, nor " sale " vide C. C. 172, that therefore the person sentenc- ed to life imprisonment, with the ex- ception of those two specific excep- tions, is, with respect to his estate, to be considered as dying intestate and that therefore consequences and inci- dents attached to intestacy apply. Were it not for section 675, the path would be more smooth, and the ques- tion freed from many of its legal intri- cacies and doubts ; but irrespective of this section it is believed that an af- firmative opinion can logically be de- duced. In passing, it may be well to remark that the rule of construction, to wit: " The common law of England so far as it is not repugnant to or inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States, or the Constitution or laws of this state, is the rule of decision in all the courts of this state, " as laid down in section 4468 of the Political Code, governs, inasmuch as section 674 of the Penal Code is not in derogation of the common law, see Avery vs. Everett, and therefore the rule of construction as laid down in section 4 of the Penal Code has no application. If the convict sentenced for life is to be deemed intestate, excepting the two instances hereinbefore enumerated, then it follows that letters of adminis- tration may be taken out and an ad- ministrator appointed to administer the estate, thus divesting the convict of his title to the property, and formu- lating a rule conflicting with the rule in Avery vs. Everett which was based on the broad groiind that the convic- tion did not divest the convict of his title to the land, and with section 677 of the Penal Code, prohibiting forfeit- ures unless expressly provided for. In Prazer vs. Fulcher, 17 Ohio 260, the Court said, " It has been suggested however, that for the legislature to en- act that the estate of a person in such situation could be disposed of as if he were dead (in fact) would be a vio- lation of that clause of the constitu- tion which declares that ' no convic- tion shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate. ' ' ' But happily, we are not disturbed with doubts whether 374 THE REDWOOD or not it be a forfeiture inhibited by the constitution, for our code prohibits all forfeitures except those expressly imposed by law. Section 677 Penal Code. That such a forfeiture is not im- posed is conceded. The Supreme Court of Ohio in Fra- zer vs. Fuleher, supra, held that a man sentenced to imprisonment for life in the penitentiary, in punishment for crime was not civilly dead to the ex- tent that letters of administration could be granted upon his estate ; the Court concluding its opinion with the statement, " we conclude that the con- viction and sentence did not effect a devolution of the title to his land upon the plaintiffs in this case as his heirs at law, and that the maxim, nemo est haeres viventis applies. ' ' To the same effect was the case in Re Zeph, 50 Hun. 524, 3 N. Y. Supp. 460, in denying let- ters of administration upon the estate of a life convict; Davis vs. Laning, 85 Tex. 41, 19 S. W. 846, 18 L. R. A. 84, holding sentence to life imprisonment not within statutes casting descent at death. In the latter case, it Avas said that " whenever these statutory enact- ments upon the subjects aforesaid speak of death, they mean the nat- ural death of the person whose estate or testament is involved. " In Smith vs. Becker 62 Kan. 542, 64 Pac. 70, 53 L. R. A. 141, the Court held that the children of a beneficiary can- not take as her heirs during her life- time even though she is civilly dead. The statutes of Kansas, provided " that a person sentenced to imprisonment for life shall thereafter be deemed civilly dead " and " whenever any person shall be imprisoned under a sentence for life, his estate and property shall be administered and disposed of in all respects as if he were naturally dead. ' ' The court construed the phrase " shall be administered and disposed of " as manifesting the intent of the legisla- ture that the administrator should be limited and restricted to the control and disposition of the personal proper- ty for the benefit of creditors, " to the end that the debts of the convict may be speedily paid. " Upon a comparison of the statutes of California and Kansas, we are con- fronted with the fact, that the statute of Kansas is more specific, explicit and comprehensive, particularly as it reads, " shall be administered and dis- posed of in all respects as if he were naturally dead, " and yet we find the Supreme Court of Kan sas holding, and rightly so, that no administration could be had for the purpose of com- pletely Avinding up and finally closing the affairs of the estate. Furthermore Kansas has no saving section on its statute books like our section 677 Penal Code. In the course of its decision the Court said ' ' If descent is cast ipso facto by the sentence and imprisonment of a person for life, then such person may make testamentary disposition of his property before such sentence and imprisonment, which will take effect immediately thereafter. The incongru- ity of the convict ' s position in the THE REDWOOD 375 event of a final acquittal or pardon may be noticed. From such sentence he may appeal to this Court within two years after the judgment is rendered. If he be granted a new trial and final- ly secures an acquittal, or his discharge from imprisonment be ordered, we may see a person formerly civilly dead liv- ing with heirs who have inherited his property. Again, it would be entirely legal for such person, though once pro- nounced dead in law, to be appointed administrator of his own estate, or to be called upon to prove the execution of his own will. In the event of the convicted person making two wills, one before sentence and imprisonment, and the other after his pardon or ac- quittal and immediately prior to his natural death, a confusing question would arise as to which will should be given effect. " An estate does not necessarily de- scend when one is civilly dead. 24 Am. Eng. Ency. Law 362. 1 Woerner 487, section 213. The fee rests with the original owner during his natural life. Jenkins vs. Collard, 145 U. S. 546. In reality no vested rights can be had un- til seizure, condemnation and judg- ment of forfeiture by judicial process; until such proceedings are held, the fee rests wholly with the owner. Avery vs. Everett 110 N. Y. 817, 1 L. R. A. 264. If a person civilly dead is in- capable of executing a will dis- posing of his property effective upon his death, it is elementary that his estate will descend according to the intestacy laws. Now if the ef- fect of a sentence to life imprisonment produces civil death and if civil death disqualifies and incapacitates a person from executing a valid testamentary disposition of his property, it fol- lows that such a person is to be deemed an intestate and his estate descends ac- cordingly. But can such a contention be advanced? Can one adhere to such an opinion in face of the array of au- thorities cited? Let those who maintain that a per- son sentenced to life imprisonment is incapable of making a will consider for a moment the dire effects following from an acquittal or pardon. A thoughtful consideration of those ef- fects would in itself be sufficient to cause one to hesitate to express an opinion as to his incapacity or that the legislature evidently intended him to be so incapable. The source of the difficulty lies in the indulgence of the legislature in a glitter- ing generality when it enacted that " a person sentenced to life imprisonment shall thereafter be deemed civilly dead ; ' ' and in the weakness and gross- ness of the generality, lies the strength of our position that a life convict is not rendered incapable of executing a will. It is not contended that the legisla- ture has no power in the premises, for the right of any person to execute a will, as well as the form in which the will must be executed, or the manner in which it may be revoked, are mat- ters entirely of statutory regulation. The power of the legislature to limit 376 THE REDWOOD the class of persons who shall be com- petent to make a will or to declare that a change in the personal status of such persons after its execution shall operate as a revocation of the will, or be a sufficient reason for denying it probate, is undeniable and unquestion- ed, but on the other hand it is contend- ed that the legislature has not express- ed itself specifically enough to deprive the life convict of his right and capa- city to make a will. It is claimed that since section 675 of the Penal Code envxmerated specifi- cally what the life termer may do, that therefore all other rights, compe- tencies, and capacities are abrogated and destroyed. But is not such a claim a non-sequitur? In view of our insti- tutions, in view of the fact, that the common law forfeitures, etc., have been done away Avith, in view of the fact that such an interpretation would conflict with the tendency and deci- sions of every American tribunal, in view of the fact that it is necessary to resort to inference and deduction in order to sustain that view, can one say in consonance with, and appreciating the great and broad liberal justice of our times that the legislature so in- tended? It must be presumed that the legislature was cognizant of the princi- ples and doctrine of the common law regarding civil death and that civil death of itself did not incapacitate one from making a will. If the legislature so intended it would have been a very simple matter for it to have inserted and annexed another phrase to section 674 of the Penal Code, making the sec- tion read " a person sentenced to im- prisonment in the state prison for life is thereafter deemed civilly dead to all intents and purposes in the law. " The added phrase would have made the section an exact duplicate of the pro- vision in the Revised Statutes of New York of the year 1799 which Justice Andrews in Avery vs. Everett, held was very specific and comprehensive, and which Chancellor Kent said ex- tended the common law consequences of civil death. Again, the rights, capacities and competencies reserved to the life con- vict, to wit : his competency to testify as a witness, his capacity and right to make and acknowledge a sale or con- veyance of property and rights, capa- cities and competencies which must of their inherent nature and character be completely exercised, and are fully en- joyed during the natural life of a per- son, all show that no reasonable intima- tion can be deduced from the section, that the capacity to make a will, Avhieh from its nature and purpose is only effective after the natural death of a person, is abrogated and taken away. While it is true that testamentary power is not an essential incident to l roperty, and depriving a jierson of such power does not take from him any right of property, still as the power is latent in every one and is only effect- ive and its exercise fully realized only after death, and as the code expressly prohibits any forfeitures except those THE REDWOOD 377 expressly imposed by statute, the de- privation of such a power when the code does not expressly authorize such deprivation would amount to a forfeit- ure, as it affects his capacity and pow- er to devise or alienate the fee or re- mainder after his death. Under the Constitution and laws of the United States, act of April 30, 1790, forfeiture for crimes is nearly abolished. And when it occurs, the state recovers only the estate v hich the owner had. 4 Mass. 174, See also Dabr. Feuds, p. 145, Fost. Criminal Law 95, 1 Washb. R. P. 92, Story Const. 1296, 100 N. C. 240 and Rankin ' s Heirs vs. Executors, supra. The fact that the state does not claim property but merely an incapacity in the convict to devise, does not take away its charac- ter of a forfeiture. Vide Rankin ' s Heirs vs. Executors, supra. ■ Now what a testator devises to those whom he deems worthy to be the recipients of his bounty is not the es- tate which he enjoys presently, but the fee, " the unenjoyed remainder. " Hence it follows that if one seeks to vitiate such a disposition, or as the in- stant case is. contends that the attach- ing status of civil death incapacitates one from devising his estate, he must show that the statutes so prescribed, or if the statutes merely prescribe gen- erally for civil death, then, that the common law incapacitated one from devising his estate. That there is no such inherent incapacity at common law has already been shown ; that there is none due to our statutes, it is submit- ted has likewise been proven, since our statute is merely declaratory of the common law. It is possible that issue may be tak- en with the statement of the common law principles and doctrines of civil death, herein, but beyond the perad- venture of doubt the great weight of common law authority, viz. Blackstone, Coke, Bacon, Chitty, etc., state positive- ly that such incapacity did not attach ex proprio vigore upon conviction and sentence for felony, but needed the assistance of the odious institution of " office found. " Reference need only be made to the earlier paragraphs and citations herein. In a question in- volving an historical examination of ancient jurisprudence it is very prob- able that expressions contradicting and varying from the true statement of general principles will be found and cited. Bouvier, the learned legal lexico- grapher has defined civil death to be " the deprivation of all rights which depend on some provision of positive law, " but it is evident upon a colla- tion of the decisions that some divi- sion of civil rights has been made. While the line of demarcation may ever be shadowy and faint, neverthe- less the division is cognizable, and the line of demarcation perceptible. In the case of Balti more vs. Chester 53 Vt. 315, 38 Am. Rep: 677, the court de- clared that " a prisoner ' s legal rights, subject to his personal restraint are un- affected by the imprisonment except as specially provided by statute. " (The 378 THE REDWOOD Vermont Statute declared the conse- quences of a sentence to life imprison- ment equivalent to natural death.) The writer has divided civil rights into act- ive and passive civil rights. Active civil I ' ights are those vphich postu- late liberty and freedom of action in- herent in a participating member of society, and which are incapable of be- ing exercised and enjoyed when there is the element of personal restraint ; and it may be remarked that all of the rights reserved in section 677 are in the category of active civil rights. The active civil rights when taken away leave one in the status of civil death. The object and purpose of the legisla- ture is fully obtained and realized without including the right to make a will, " as the disabilities flowing from the situation of civiliter mortuus have a wide scope Avith- out including this incident. " Av- ery vs. Everett. If the exercise or en- joyment of a right is unaffected by personal restraint, e. g. execution of a will, then it is a passive civil right and is not destroyed or taken away by sec- tion 674 of the Penal Code. The right to inherit is an active civil right because the aid and interposition of a court of probate is essential (pro- bate not being permitted to be dis- pensed with), for the purpose of ac- quiring full title to something which he did not have before. In other words if the exercise of a right brings the life convict into con- tact with citizens of society, if the ex- ercise affects persons sui juris, benefi- cially or otherwise, if those institu- tions which society has deemed neces- sary for the preservation of its ideals, and for the happiness of its constitu- ents, must be resorted and appealed to for the protection or enforcement of the right or privilege, if the right or its exercise is fettered, hampered, abro- gated and destroyed by personal re- straint, then it is an active civil right within the purview of section 674 of our Penal Code. The question then resolves itself into this: ' Does the making of a will fall within the provisions of the pre- ceding paragraph? " Does the making of a will bring the testator into con- tact with citizens of society during his natural life? Does the exercise of the right to make a will affect persons sui juris, beneficially or otherwise, during the testator ' s natural life? Do the in- stitutions of the state have to be re- sorted and appealed to for its enforce- ment and protection during the nat- ural life of the testator? Is the mak- ing of a will, directly or indirectly af- fected by the element of personal re- straint? It is evident that it is not, and for these reasons, the making of a will being a passive civil right is not destroyed by section 674 Penal Code, and it is germane to this discussion to quote from the opinion of the Court in Frazer vs. Fulcher, 17 Ohio 260, in which the covirt said, " that if one be otherwise possessed of statutory re- quirements essential to testamentary capacity, there exists no valid objec- tion to his devising his lands. " THE REDWOOD 379 It is not believed that tlie legislature intended that a right, the exercise of which is effective for all purposes and intents only and solely after the per- son exercising the same has departed from this life ; and which effects an orderly disposition of property, should be embraced within section 674. But prescinding from all of the fore- going, and perhaps reiterating some- what, when we appreciate the progress and advance in ideals modern civiliza- tion has made, when we consider that modern penology seeks not to taint or punish, but merely to correct, when society speaks of a convict as a person needing assistance, rather than one who must be segregated and deprived of all privileges and rights, when we realize the extensive and humanitarian power vested in the governor to i ar- don, parole or commute sentences, then perhaps it will not be amiss to say that even if the statute incapacitates the convict from executing a valid will, nevertheless it has lost much of its an- cient virility and society is less prone to demand and seek its enforcement. Resume. (1) At common law a convict un- der sentence of imprisonment for life could make a will subject only to " of- fice found. " (2) The institution of " office found " has been done away Avith both in England and America. (3) The California Statute 674 Penal Code is simply declaratory of the common law. Therefore a person under a sentence of imprisonment for life is not ren- dered incapable of makng a valid will by section 674 of our Penal Code. This construction of those statutes would, it seems to us, be founded in greater justice and more in consonance with the reason of the law, and more in keeping with the spirit of our insti- tution, than a conchision to the con- trary ; the reasonable deduction always has been present, that in those states where there is a statutory provision that one imprisoned for life shall be deemed civilly dead, the legislature could not have intended that such con- vict should labor under greater disa- bilities than those entailed by the com- mon law decisions, and especially so in view of our institutions and tenures here. (Note to Avery vs. Everett.) Richard V. Bressani, A. B. ' 14. THE RELATION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS IN THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION TO THE TERRITORIES AND DEPEND- ENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES N entering upon a sub- ject, the ultimate an- alysis of which de- pends entirely upon the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States and realizing that the au- thoritative adjiidication of teri-itorial rights is the latest decision of that tri- bunal, it would well befit the inve sti- gation of such a topic, vital as it is in the history of our nation, to trace the evolution of judicial attitude in its re- gard. It would equally become the na- tional import of our topic that, prelim- inarily, iLs terms be defined in the light of the history that has surrounded them. Indeed, a definite understand- ing of the relation between two objects always postulates an understanding, equally definite, of the objects between which the relation exists. Wherefore, in view of the generality of the phrase " Bill of Rights, " a word of analysis may be necessary to give it a concrete significance in this disctis- sion. A bill of rights, as the name suggests, is nothing more or less than the for- mal declaration of the rights, privileges and liberties of the people of a nation, be it a monarchy or a republic, assert- ed and confirmed by the governing power as a limitation upon its preroga- tive in dealing with the masses. His- tory itself has testified that it is almost an indispensable element to an ideal government. It has found its way into the English government in the form of a Magna Charta, into our Federal Con- stitution in the form of the first eight amendments and into the constitutions of almost every state, by amendment or otherwise. As a palladium of civil liberty it is a governmental guaranty of respect for the rights of the people. Two years after the Constitution of the United States was ratified by the thirteen states, in the first session of Congress held in New York in 1789, that body framed and presented to the states for their approval, the first eight amendments to the Constitution, fami- liarity with the terms of which dis- penses with the necessity of here set- ting them out in full. These eight amendments, then, may very properly be called the " Federal Bill of Rights " within the meaning of the title of this thesis. Beyond doubt, and without comment, the words " territories " and " depend- encies " , taken together as denoting all our non-state possessions, have an 380 THE REDWOOD 381 equally clear significance. As to fix- ing the difference betAveen a territory and a dependency, however, (in view of constitutional rights) considerable difficulty has been experienced, as will appear in the confusion into which the Supreme Court has allowed itself to fall. The terms have unfortunately been often used as synonyms whereas there is certainly a distinction between them. And this failure to use technical language in its technical sense (the distinction forming as it does, almost the very crux of our discussion) has given rise to a great part of that chaos and uncertainty which, while courts feel bound by their former expressions, will ever characterize judicial law. However the uncertainty develops in point of time, and perhaps a chronolog- ical investigation of the Supreme Court ' s views will serve to bring us to the best possible understanding of the case in question. Accordingly, therefore, it is my in- tention to divide this thesis into two parts : the one, an attempt to set out the Constitutional provisions and acts of Congress pertaining to territorial rights, with the conclusions which the Supreme Court has drawn from them ; the other, my own conclusions, in as definite and concise a form as it is pos- sible to frame them. In the body of the Constitution is the provision that ' ' the congress shall have power to dispose of and make all need- inl rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States. " Art. IV, Sect. III. Around this section centers this whole issue. Has Congress full power to govern the territories, unrestricted by the Constitution, or restricted by the Constitution? If it is restricted in its government of the territories, is it restricted as to the dependencies? The very first discussion of this question is found in the case of Downes V. Bidwell, 182 U. S. 244, from which we quote : " In his history of the Dred Scott case, Mr. Benton states that the doc- trine that the Constitution extended to territories as well as to states, first made its appearance in the Senate in its session of 1848-9, by an attempt to amend a bill giving territorial govern- ment to California, New Mexico and Utah (itself ' hitched on ' to a general appropriation bill) by adding the words ' that the Constitution of the United States and all and singular the several acts of Congress (describing them) be, and the same hereby are ex- tended and given full force and effi- cacy in said territories ' . Says Mr. Ben- ton: ' The novelty and strangeness of the proposition called up Mr. Webster, who repulsed as an absurdity and as an impossibility the scheme of extend- ing the Constitution to the territories, declaring the instrument to have been made for the states, not territories ; that Congress governed the territories independently of the Constitution and incompatibly with it; that no part of it went to a territory but what Con- gress chose to send; that it could not act of itself anywhere, not even in the 382 THE REDWOOD states for which it was made, and that it required an act of Congress to put it in operation before it had effect any- where ' . " This event, as the court indicates, marlcs the birth of the discussion at hand. The very next action in its re- gard on the part of either court or leg- islature is to be found in Section 1891 of the Revised Statutes, which took ef- fect in 1874 and which provided liter- ally as follows : ' ' The Constitution and all laws of the United States which are not locally inapplicable shall have the same force and effect within all the or- ganized territories, and in every terri- tory hereafter organized as elsewhere within the United States. " This stat- ute, cumbersome and ambiguous as it has appeared to the courts, has created more difficulty in their definition of territorial rights than it has cast light upon the subject. Far from providing that the Constitution is extended to all our non-State possessions, it limits its application not to the territories, but to organized territories, and not to or- ganized territories, but to organized territories wherein the Constitution is locally applicable. Indeed, very little resort is made to this section in the de- cisions which have been handed down since its enactment. Without any occasion for an extend- ed discussion of the application of the Constitution to American possessions the Supreme Court uniformly held, in a series of cases, the last of which was decided in 1897, that the Constitution took full force and effect in the " or- ganized " territories of Utah, Dakota and Montana. U. S. vs. Reynolds, 98 U. S. 145 (question of the first amend- ment) ; National Bank vs. Yankton, 101 U. S. 129 ; Kenyon vs. Gilmer, 131 U. S. 110 seventh amendment) ; Spring- ville vs. Thomas, ]66 U. S. 707 (seventh amendment). In all of these eases, however, it will be found that the ter- ritories had been formally and unequiv- ocally named and organized and no re- servation of constitutional provisions having been made, it was unhesitating- ly decided, whether upon the effect of Sect. 1891 Rev. Stat, or not, that all constitutional provisions were given full force and effect within their bounds. It will thus be seen that the first ex- haustive treatment of territorial rights by the Supreme Court was for a great many years deferred. It was in May, 1901, in the famous " Insular Cases " , that the Court was forced to lay down the line of demarcation between Amer- ican possessions subject to the Consti- tution and those to which it did not ap- ply. De Lima vs. Bidwell, 182 U. S. I. ; Downes vs. Bidwell, 182 U. S. 244. In Downes vs. Bidwell, it was held that Porto Rico, by the treaty of ces- sion, became territ ory appurtenant to the United States, but not a part of the United States, within the revenue clauses of the Constitiition, such as Art. I, Sect. VIII, requiring duties, imposts and excises to be uniform throughout the United States. Mr. Justice Brown wrote the opinion of the Court, in which concurred Mr. Justice White and THE REDWOOD 383 three other judges. But Justice White, reaching the same conclusion as Judge Brown, manifested a strong dissent from the reasons whereby the latter ar- rived at the decision. It is in these reasons for that decision that our in- terest in this case lies. The opinions of both the judges are voluminous and parts of each are laborious in the state- ment of the writer ' s views, but we think they can be safely epitomized as fol- lows : — Judge Brown held that the Con- stitution is neve r extended to ncAvly acquired possesions until Congress ex- pressly provides that it shall be so ex- tended — that its application or no, is not to be determined by the incorpora- tion of that possession as an integral part of the United States, but, regard- less of incorporation, is dependent en- tirely upon the intent of Congress to grant them the protection of the Con- stitution. Judge White, in his dissent, totally repudiated that view and held that incorporation was the sole criteri- on in determining the applicability of fjie Constitution to newly acquired pos- sessions. He held that even before a possession was incorporated as part of the United States, the Constitution ap- plied as far as locally applicable ; but that after incorporation, the whole Constitution became ipso facto applica- ble to it. It seems that in the treaty of cession by which we acquired Porto Rico, there was this clause : — ' ' The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be de- termined by Congress. " Justice White construed this clause to mean that in- corporation v as to be deferred to a later date and that therefore the Con- stitution need not in toto take effect — v hereas Justice Brown, according to his theory, looked, not to whether the island had been incorporated but solely as to Avbether Congress had extended the Constitution, or at least the revenue clause, to that possession. Accordingly both judges reached the same conclu- sion, because the island had not been incorporated nor had Congress ex- tended the Constitution to it. However, it can be readily seen, that in another case, the two theories might lead to different results. Suppose that a possession had been incorporated as an integral part of the United States, but that in the act of incorporation. Congress had reserved certain provi- sions of the Constitution, applicable though chey may have been, from their protection. Then, under the incorpor- ation doctrine, the whole Constitution would nevertheless be extended to the territory — whereas Judge Brown would hold that, since Congress had not ex- tended the provisions, they would re- main inapplicable until Congress should at length see fit so to apply them. From the day of the decision of Downes vs. Bidwell to the present hour, these two judges have combatted each other with these two views — the two theories practically i epresenting 384 THE REDWOOD the division of thought of the whole Supreme Court. Events so framed themselves that the next opportunity for the reitera- tion of their views occurred in the case of Hawaii vs. Mankichi, decided on June 1st, 1903, and reported in 190 U. S. 197. By a joint resolution adopted by Congress, July 7th, 1898, the Hawai- ian Islands and their dependencies were annexed " as a part of the territory of the United States and subject to the sovereign dominion thereof " , with the following condition: — " The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the trea- ties so extinguished, and not inconsist- ent with this joint resolution, nor con- trary to the Constitution of the United States, nor to any existing treaty of the United States shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine. " A con- vict, Mankichi, Avas imprisoned as a re- sult of a conviction for a felony by nine men on a jury of tM elve, a custom theretofore sanctioned for many years in Hawaii. He petitioned for a writ of habeas corpus on the ground that un- der the Constitution of the United States he was entitled to a verdict by all the jurors before he could be con- victed. Mr. Justice Brown decided that, though the strict letter of the joint resolution of Congress extended the Constitution to the islands, it could not have been the intent of that body to apply the Constitution in this par- ticular; that the Hawaiian law had so long provided for conviction by nine men that the sudden extension of the Constitutional guaranty would unduly disturb a native custom ; and that therefore. Congress not having been deemed to have extended the Consti- tution in that regard, the islands could not invoke its protection. Justice White, in a dissent, came to the same conclusion but, consistent with his the- ory, because the islands had not yet been incorporated into the United States and the Constitution in this re- spect was inapplicable to their condi- tions. We have now been led to the very latest adjudication of territorial rights. It is the case of Rasmussen vs. United States, 197 U. S. 516, decided in 1905, in which there was question as to the validity of an Alaskan statute provid- ing for the trial of misdemeanors by a jury of six persons. Rasmussen claimed the protection of the sixth amendment. In our treaty with Russia by the terms of which Alaska was ceded to the Unit- ed States, there was embodied the fol- loAving clause :— ' ' The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advan- tages and immunities of citizens of the United States ; and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion. " Justice White wrote the opinion and decision of the Court, in which he held that the foregoing clause in the treaty, together with certain acts of Congress establishing customs collection districts therein, amounted to incorporation, and that, ipso facto, the Constitution THE REDWOOD 385 was extended to Alaska. Accordingly the statute was decreed invalid. Jus- tice Brown, in his dissent, deplored the fact that his colleague had decided the case upon the theory of incorporation and himself reached the same conclu- sion by his own doctrine — he held that the provision in the treaty was an ex- tension of the Constitution by Congress to Alaska. In referring to the doc- trine of incorporation, he very emphat- ically remarked that it had not been embodied in the opinion of the Court in Downes vs. Bidwell and that " It has never since received the in- dorsement of this Court — Hitherto we have been content to divide our terri- tories into the organized and unorgan- ized; but now we are asked to intro- duce a new classification of ' incorpor- ated ' territories, without attempting to define what shall be deemed an incor- poration. The word appears to me sim- ply to introduce a new element of con- fusion and to be of no practical value. " This then is the present judicial atti- tude toward the relation of the bill of rights to the territories and dependen- cies of the United States. Were the question presented to the Supreme Court to-day, the theory of incorpora- tion, as embodied in the majority opin- ion of the latest precedent, would pre- sumptively constitute the most cogent authority. Criticize it or not, as you will — be it correct or incorrect: it is the latest adjudication of territorial rights by the Court from which there is no appeal. In the face of either doctrine, how- ever, there are some few qualifications upon which the courts would seem to have agreed, the importance of which justifies their mention here. Perhaps the most vital one is this : Whenever it can be said that Congress is unfettered by the Constitution in legislating for a possession, be it because the ceded land is not yet incorporated or because Con- gress has not extended the Constitution to its bounds, that body is never free from the restraint of certain funda- mental rights, inalienable in their na- ture, and applicable from the moment the ceded land comes into our posses- sion. This qualification suggests the division of the bill of rights into these fundamental or natural rights and those of a purely artificial or remedial nature. A corresponding enumeration of each set of rights has never been au- thoritatively made but in Downes vs. Bidwell (supra) the Court suggested, without intending to decide, that ' ' Of the former class are the rights to one ' s own religious opinion and to a public expression of them, or, as some- times said, to worship God according to the dictates of one ' s own conscience ; the right to personal liberty and indi- vidual property; to freedom of speech and of the press ; to free access to courts of justice ; to due process of law and of equal protection of the laws ; to immunities from unreasonable searches and seizures, as well as cruel and un- reasonable punishment ; and to such other immunities as are indispensable to a free government. " 386 THE REDWOOD In the explanation of these remarks the Court said : — " We do not desire, however, to anti- cipate the difficulties which would nat- urally arise in this connection, but merely to disclaim any intention to hold that the inhabitants of these ter- ritories are subject to an unrestrained power on the part of Congress to deal with them upon the theory that they have no rights which it is bound to re- spect. " A more satisfactory enumeration of fundamental rights was embodied in the President ' s instruction to the com- mission appointed to draw up a tempo- rary civil govei ' nment for the Philip- pines. In this instruction he suggested that upon every division and branch of the government, must be imposed cer- tain inviolable rules. As such inviola- ble rules he then proceeded to enumer- ate all the provisions of the bill of rights except the following, which, if the courts ever decide it, will very probably be held to be artificial rights from which Congress is free in legislat- ing for dependencies, to wit : — Art. II ; Art. Ill; that part of Art. IV which provides that " no warrant shall issue but upon pi ' obable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized " ; the first part of Art. V, providing that " No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a prosecution or indictment of a grand jury, except in eases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or iDublic danger " ; that part of Art. VI providing for the right of trial " by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law ' ' ; and Art, VII which guarantees the right of a jury in a civil action in any court of the United States. Kep- ner vs. United States, 195 U. S. 100. An examination of the bill of rights will very clearly illustrate the wisdom of the President ' s distinction. The in- violable rules which he suggested, such, for instance, as Art. I or Art. VIII, are the preservation of natural rights, the exercise of which, in a civilized land, must never be suspended. On the other hand the right to a trial by jury in a civil action or to presentment or in- dictment in case of crime are conces- sions whose influence will be bad or good according to the nature, habits or customs of the peojile to which they are extended. From the first class of rights, then, Congress should never de- part in its legislation for state, terri- tory or dependency. It is free from the interdictions of the second class in legislating for possessions, either until incorporated or until it extends them to the possession, according as is adopt- ed the theory of incorporation or Con- gressional extension, as adhered to re- spectively by Justices White and Brown. In concluding this resume of the de- cisions of the Supreme Court in re- spect to territorial rights it may be THE REDWOOD 387 proper to add that when Congress has once extended the Constitution, or any part thereof to a possession or terri- tory, that extension is irrevocable, and by no subsequent means can the pro- vision or provisions be retracted. Springville vs. Thomas, 166 U. S. 707. This done, I now wish to present my own views as to the relation of the bill of rights to the territories and depend- encies — proceeding, I hope, with all tliat respect which is the Supreme Court ' s due and that degree of care which will prevent misrepresentation. When the United States has invaded foreign territory as a war measure, our title to the land, during the conflict, is nothing more than a military occupa- tion, a possession by right of might. The government during this time — if, indeed, it may be called a government — is vested in the mandate of the com- manding officer, subject to the will of the President as Commander-in-chief of the army and navy. Obviously the bill of rights does not yet apply. Then the treaty comes and our occupation is rendered peaceful — for aught of that, however, still military. This military government prevails until Congress has drawn up a temporary civil gov- ernment, passed upon it, made it law and installed the proper officers for its execution. Can it be contended that this government and temporary set of laws must hamper itse lf with the bill of rights — except, of course those fun- damental rights, the limitations of which must never be disregarded? It seems that Congress itself has ad- equately made answer. Sect. 1891 Rev. Stat, provides that the Constitution (and hence the bill of rights) shall, when not locally inapplicable, have the same force and effect in organized ter- ritories as elsewhere in the United States. The installation of a temporary civil government does not make the possession an organized territory. Then by force of what argument can it be held that Congress must abide by the Constitution in the enactment of that government? By force of none. The possession has thus far been made but a dependency. The Constitution of the United States was not framed for the benefit of a dependency. It was the organ of the people of the United States, ordained and established for the states, not for the dependencies. When the thirteenth amendment pro- hibited slavery it enacted that slavery should no longer exist " within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. " Had the Consti- tution been formed for a dependency this clause were a tautology. That the Constitution does not ap- ply to a dependency is evidenced by the President ' s instruction to Congress when it was framing the temporary government for the Philippines. He recommended that the commissioners should not fail to extend a portion of the bill of rights to the islands about to be made a dependency. Had that government been subject to the Consti- tution his recommendation were a waste of words. The next step in the history of a de- 388 THE REDWOOD pendency is an act of Congress, nam- ing, forming and organizing it as a ter- ritory of tlie United States. It is given a governor, a legislature, and terri- torial courts, subject, however, to the supervision of Congress under the pow- er of that body to prescribe rules for the regulation of the territories. Art. IV, Sect. III. At this point, beyond doubt. See. 1891 applies. The depend- ency has been promoted to the dignity of a territory, an organized territory, and the section provides that, except as to provisions locally inapplicable, the Constitution must ipso facto take effect. In the act of organization, either Congress must reserve the oper- ation of that statute or the provisions of the Constitution, as far as they may be conveniently extended, will take im- mediate effect and for all time. In the latter case Congress will reserve those provisions which it deems inapplicable to the land in question. If the reserva- tion be contested, the question of the inapplicability of the provision so re- served, is matter for the Supreme Court ' s determination in each case as it arises. When land is acquired by purchase the treaty as a rule, provides one of two things : — either that the rights and privileges of the people of the United States shall be extended to the native inhabitants as soon as the Federal gov- ernment shall see fit, or that ijjso facto, upon the execution of the treaty, the Constitution and the rights which it guarantees to the citizens of the states shall be granted them. In the former case Congress may govern them incom- patibly with the Constitution until they become an organized territory. In the latter the treaty itself is an exten- sion of its rights to them, and once ex- tended, irrevocably applies. The doctrine of incorporation, is, to my mind, the expression of an unde- fined, unprecedented theory in a case where a statute has provided one way and the courts have held another. If incorporation is the criterion of Consti- tutional rights, what is incorporation? Evidently it is not organization, nor is it in any wise related to organization because Justice White, in concurring in the decision of Hawaii vs. Mankichi (supra), placed his concurrence upon the ground that Hawaii had not yet been incorporated. Yet it had been organized as the territory of Hawaii and its government as such had been installed. In Rasmussen vs. United States (supra) it was not decided whether Alaska was organized by the treaty or not — yet Mr. Justice White decided that it had been incorporated because, forsooth. Congress had ex- tended its revenue laws thereto and the treaty provided for civil liberty. Very reasonably may we ask then, in face of this evasive attitude : What is this incorporation of which the Justice speaks, and upon which depends the rights of our possessions, when the statute has provided otherwise? The student, incidentally, takes courage in his views, which, except that he found similar dissents by Justice Brown, were otherwise perhaps but timidly advanc- THE REDWOOD 389 ed in the face of such eminent author- ity. But withal it may happen (and it is almost to be hoped) that the subject may never again be adverted to. Our territories are only two : Hawaii and Alaska ; our dependencies likewise two : Porto Rico and the Philippines. To Alaska the Constitution was ex- tended by the terms of our treaty with Russia and by force of such extension is irrevocable. It has been endowed with territoi ' ial courts, an executive head and a legislature and is entitled to the i rotection of the bill of rights as completely as if it were a state. Hawaii was formally organized as a territory by an act of Congress, April 30th, 1900., 31 Stat. L. 141. By section five of that act it was provided, " That the Constitution, and except as herein otherwise provided, all the laws of the United States, which are not locally in- applicable, shall have the same force and effect within the said territory as elsewhere in the United States. ' ' Aside from a special provision made for the impanelling of grand juries and a un- animous verdict for conviction in a criminal action, the bill of rights was left undisturbed by this act and has, therefore, by force of section five, as far as applicable, been applied. In the future, then, the determination of the extension of the bill of rights to the territory of Hawaii must depend upon the applicability of the particular pro- vision which may be invoked — a ques- tion for the Supreme Court to deter- mine in each case as it arises. Porto Rico is yet a dependency. By an act of April 12th, 1900, it was pro- vided with a temporary civil govern- ment which, except as added to or amended since that time, furnishes the source of authority there now. No provision was made for the extension of the Constitution ; and the applica- tion of the bill of rights, except as to fundamental principles, rests in the discretion of Congress. Our Philippine possessions have nev- er been organized as a territory and political indications suggest the prob- ability that they never will be. Their independence is a matter of discussion even now, and our national tendency seems to be an inclination to free them as soon as they can capably manage their own affairs. In the treaty of ces- sion. Sect. 1891 Rev. Stat, was exjoress- ly reserved and special emphasis was laid upon the unrestricted power of Congress in legislating for the natives. Except as to fundamental rights, it was very explicitly made to appear that Congress Avas not to deem itself shackeled by the Constitution in its government of them. Our Philippine policy was very aptly illustrated in Dorr vs. United States (supra) wherein the Supreme Court held that trial by jury was not a fundamental right and that moreover its application to the islands, unaccustomed as they were to that form of procedure, would subvert the ends of justice. Sufficiently devoid of uncertainty then is the application and inapplica- tion of the bill of rights to our present 390 THE REDWOOD territorial and dependent possessions. To the doctrine of incorporation, how- ever, I can find no grounds for assent, and considering the fact that the stat- ute has been so clear in its expression, it is regrettable that the Supreme Court has seemed, by its own divisions and dissents, to have brought itself within the jurisdiction of an American adage, that ' ' in union there is strength, and in division, weakness. " Harold R. McKinnon, A. B. 14. THE PROOF OF SIMILAR OFFENSES IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS f rfp J] i k ' " m HE admissibility of evi- dence of similar of- fenses is a question that arises frequently during the ti ' ial of criminal cases. It is a question which has frequently been passed upon by our appellate tribu- nals. While the general rule with refer- ence to this branch of criminal evi- dence is agreed upon by all, and the exceptions thereto are fairly well de- fined, much confusion has arisen in their practical application. This uncertainty is chiefly due to the failure of counsel in briefing eases and of judges in writing their opinions to accurately state the reasons for their contentions or holdings. It is the habit to say: " Evidence of this offense (naming it) was properly admitted. Evidence of similar offenses is jjroper to show malice, motive, intent, system or identity, or to rebut the defense of accident or mistake (citing cases) " , without giving the reader of the opin- ion even an inkling of what particular ground justified the ruling. The majority opinion of the New York Court of Appeals in the celebrat- ed case of People vs. Molineaux, (de- cided in October 15, 1901, and report- ed in 168 N. y. 264, 61 N. E. 286, 12 L. R. A. 193) has done more than any- thing else to clear up this uncertainty. Justice Werner, who writes the opin- ion, takes up the various exceptions, singly, and analyzes the evidence with reference to each. In this discussion frequent reference will be made to the Molineaux case. It is not possible in a paper of such limited scope as this, to discuss this question in connection with every crime, such as murder, larceny, embez- zlement, etc. The principles involved will be dealt with and illustrated by ci- tations to cases and to texts. The following outline will be fol- lowed : I. General Rule. II. To show motive a. Generally. b. Common plan or system. III. To show intent a. Generally 1. Where there is other evidence or presumption of intent. 2. Where intent is immaterial. b. Common plan or system. IV. To show malice. V. To prove defendant ' s connection with act charged. a. Generally. b. Common plan or system. 391 392 THE REDWOOD VI. To rebut special defenses. a. General rule. b. Insanity. e. Good character. d. Accident or mistake. VII. When other crime is part of res gestae. VIII. Relevancy. IX. Necessity and correctness of instruction to jury. a. General rule. 1. Necessity. 2. Correctness. b. Effect of instruction to disre- gard. X. California cases. I. General Rule. It is a general rule of criminal evi- dence that, on the trial of a person ac- cused of crime, proof of a distinct, in- dependent offense is inadmissible. State vs. Lapage, 57 N. H. 245; 24 Am. Rep. 69, the leading case in the United States, which holds that proof of an assault by defendant upon his vi ife ' s sister, four and one-half years before, had no tendency to prove him guilty of the murder of another woman alleged to have been perpetrated to conceal an assault. People V. Ascher, 126 Mich. 637, 86 N. W. 140; Janzen vs. People, 159 111. 441 ; 42 N. B. 862; People vs. King, 137 Pac. 1076, 1077, 23 Cal. Ap. 259. People vs. Jones, 21 Cal. 565, 571. People vs. Jones, 32 Cal. 80, 82. People vs. Barnes, 48 Cal. 551. People vs. Hartman, 62 Cal. 562. People vs. McNutt, 64 Cal. 116, 28 Pac. 64. People vs. Elliot, 119 Cal. 593, 594, 51 Pac. 955. People vs. Lynch, 122 Cal. 501, 503, 55 Pac. 248. People V. Arlington, 153 Cal. 356, 55 Pac. 1003. People vs. Hurley, 126 Cal. 351, 356, 58 Pac. 814. People V. Williams, 127 Cal. 212, 216, 59 Pac. 581. People vs. Carpenter, 136 Cal. 391, 68 Pac. 1027. Boyd vs. United States, 142 U. S. 450, 36 L. Ed. 1007. 12 Sup. Ct. Rep. 292 reversing 45 Fed. 851. 6 Encyc. of Evid. 675. This rule and the reasons for it are thus stated in People vs. Molineaux, supra, at page 236 and following of 62 L. R. A. : " The general rule of evidence appli- cable to criminal trials is that the state cannot prove against a defendant any crime not alleged in the indictment either as a foundation for a separate punishment, or as aiding the proofs that he is guilty of the crime charged. 1 Bishop New Crim. Proe. Section 1120. This rule, so universally recognized and firmly established in all English- speaking lands, is rooted in that jeal- ous regard for the liberty of the indi- vidual which has distinguished our jurisprudence from all others, at least f rom the birth of Magna Charta. It is the product of that same human and enlightened public spirit which, speak- THE REDWOOD 393 ing through our common law, has de- creed that every person charged with the commission of a crime shall be pro- tected by the presumption of innocence until he has been proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. This rule, and the reasons upon which it rests, are so fa- miliar to every student of our law that they need be referred to for no other purpose than to point out the excep- tions thereto. The rule itself has been stated and discussed in this court in a number of cases, but we will cite only a few. In People v. Sharp, 107 N. Y. 427, 14 N. E. 319, it was said: ' The general rule is that when a man is put upon trial for one offense he is to be convicted, if at all, by evidence which shows that he is guilty of that offense alone, and that, under ordinary circum- stances, proof of his guilt of one or a score of other offenses in his lifetime is wholly excluded. ' In Coleman v. People, 55 N. Y. 81, it is laid down as follows: ' The general rule is against receiving evidence of another offense. A person cannot be convicted of one of- fense upon proof that he committed an- other, however persuasive in a moral point of view such evidence may be. It wovald be easier to believe a person guilty of one crime if it was known that he had committed another of a similar character, or, indeed, of any character; but the injustice of such a rule in courts of justice is apparent. It would lead to convictions, upon the particular charge made, by pi ' oof of other acts in no way connected with it, and to uniting evidence of several of- fenses to produce conviction for a sin- gle one. ' In People v. Shea, 147 N. Y. 78, 41 N. E. 505, the rule is thus stated: ' The impropriety of giving evidence showing that the accused had been guilty of other crimes, merely for the purpose of thereby inferring his guilt of the crime for which he is on trial, may be said to have been assumed and consistently maintained by the English courts ever since the common law has itself been in existence. Two antago- nistic methods for the judicial investi- gation of crime and the conduct of criminal trials have existed for many years. One of these methods favors this kind of evidence in order that the tribunal which is engaged in the trial of the accused may have the benefit of the light to be derived from a record of his whole past life, his tendencies, his nature, his associates, his practices, and in fine, all the facts which go to make up the life of a human being. This is the method which is pursued in Prance, and it is claimed that entire justice is more apt to be done where such a course is pursued than where it is omitted. The common law of Eng- land, however, has adopted another, and, so far as the party accused is con- cerned, a much more merciful, doc- trine. By that laAV the criminal is to be presumed innocent until his guilt is made to appear beyond a reasonable doubt to a jury of 12 men. In order to prove his guilt it is not permitted to show his former character or to prove his guilt of other crimes, merely for the purpose of raising a presump- 394 THE REDWOOD tion that he who would commit them would be more apt to commit the crime in question. ' The highest court in Massachusetts has said: ' The objec- tions to the admission of evidence as to other transactions, whether amounting to indictable crimes or not, are very ap- parent. Such evidence compels the de- fendant to meet charges of Avhich the indictment gives him no information, confuses him in his defense, raises a variety of issues, and thus diverts the attention of the jury from the one im- mediately before it, and, by showing the defendant to have been a knave on other occasions, creates a prejudice which may cause injustice to be done him. ' Com. v. Jackson, 132 Mass. 16, 44 Am. Rep. 299, note. The court of last resort in Pennsylvania thus states the rule : ' It is a general rule that a distinct crime unconnected with that laid in the indictment cannot be given in evidence against a prisoner. It is not proper to raise a presumption of guilt on the ground that, having com- mitted one crime, the depravity it es- hibts makes it likely he would commit another. Logically, the commission of an independent offense is not proof in itself of the commission of another crime. Yet it cannot be said to be without influence on the mind, for cer- tainly if one be shown to be guilty of another crime equally heinous, it will prompt a more ready belief that he might have committed the one with which he is charged. It therefore pre- disposes the mind of the juror to be- lieve the prisoner guilty. ' Shaffner v. Com, 72 Pa. 60, 13 Am. Rep. 649 " . In one of the dissenting opinions in the Molineaux case, Chief Justice Par- ker takes exception to the manner in which the general rule is ordinarily stated. He says: " It is often careless- ly said that the people cannot, upon trial under an indictment, prove facts showing that the defendant committed another crime, a statement which is in- correct without the addition of the qualification, — unless the facts estab- lishing the other crime also tend to es- tablish the commission by defendant of the crime for which he is being tried. " 62 L. R. A. 305. It would seem, however, that this merely amounts to saying that the rule alone, without its exceptions, is not a correct statement of the law. II. To Show Motive, a. Generally. The terms motive and intent are fre- quent! confounded both by laymen and judges. In the opinion in People vs. Molin- eaux, supra, at page 244 of Volume 62 L. R. A. the Court says this : " In the popular mind intent and motive are not infrequently regarded as one and the same thing. In law there is a clear distinction between them. Motive is the moving power Avhich impels to action for a definite re- sult. Intent is the purpose to use a particular means to effect such result. When a crime is clearly proved to have THE REDWOOD 395 been committed by a person charged therewith, the question of motive may be of little or no importance. But crim- inal intent is always essential to the commission of crime. " The writer of the note to People vs. Molineux, at 62 L. R. A. 199, takes this view: " There is however a distinct and material difference. Criminal motive is the inducement, existing in the minds of persons causing them, first to in- tend, and afterwards to commit crime. It exists as a component of every crime, — faintly in some ; prominently in others; but in all, it exists. But it is not such an essential ingredient of the crime as to be necessary, and in some cases even of use, in securing con- viction. In the abstract it might be said that it is unnecessary. " But in those cases in which the evidence of the crime charged is for the most part or wholly of a circum- stantial character, motive frequently becomes a powerful aid in identifying the accused, and thus connecting him with the commission of the crime. " Motive would then seem to be the ultimate object of the criminal, while intent is his present guilty purpose. In a murder, for example, revenge for some wrong, either real or fancied, or the procuring of life insurance on the death of the deceased, would be the motive, while the present purpose to stab, to shoot or poison would be the intent. In People vs. Molineux the trial court permitted the prosecution to in- troduce evidence of the poisoning of one Barnett through motives of jeal- ousy, when defendant was on trial for murder of a Mrs. Adams, whose death was caused by her taking poison sent to one Cornish through motives of re- venge. In both cases the poison was the same and of a very peculiar na- ture. It was such that defendant who was a chemist, had both the means and the knowledge with which to make it. In both cases the poison was sent to the intended victim through the mails. The Court held that the poisoning of Barnett from motive of jealousy had no such relation to the attempt to poison Cornish from those of hatred which re- sulted in the death of deceased, as to bring it within any of the exceptions to the general rule : while the theory of the dissenting judges was that the facts, — that in both instances death was inflicted by the use of the same peculiar and unusual compound, a poi- son of the most subtle character, — for the making of which defendant was shown to have possessed both knowl- edge and facilities, — the sending of the poison to both intended victims through the mails, etc.— made the evidence of the circumstances of the poisoning of Barnett competent to identify the de- fendant as the common perpetrator of both crimes. See 62 L. R. A. 218, 219, Note. The excei tions to the general rule are generally stated thus : Evidence of other crimes is competent to prove the specific crime charged when it tends to establish motive, intent, the absence 396 THE REDWOOD of accident or mistake, a common plan or scheme embi-acing the commission of two or more crimes so related to each other that proof of one tends to estab- lish the others, the identity of the per- son charged with the commission of the crime on trial. People vs. Molineux, 62 L. E. A. 193, 240. Wharton Crim. Evid. 9th ed. Sec. 48. Underhill Evid. Sec. 58. Abbott, Trial Brief, Crim. Trials, Sec. 598. An examination of the cases clearly shows that evidence of a common plan is not introduced merely to prove the scheme, but for the purpose of showing a motive, an intent, etc., for the crime. The subject of common plan will be dealt with, then, under the respective heads of intent, motive, etc. The ques- tion of identity will be considered un- der the topic " To prove defendant ' s connection with act charged. " The absence of accident or mistake will be treated with other special defenses un- der subdivision VI, " To rebut special defenses. " Evidence of the motive which sug- gests the doing of the act constituting the crime is always admissible, notwith- standing it may tend to prove an inde- pendent crime. 6 Encyc. of Evid. 676. In order that another crime may be proved to show motive, the motive for the other crime must be the same or closely connected with that actuating the commission of the crime laid in the indictment or informaton. This point the