University of Santa Clara - Redwood Yearbook (Santa Clara, CA)

 - Class of 1913

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University of Santa Clara - Redwood Yearbook (Santa Clara, CA) online yearbook collection, 1913 Edition, Cover
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Text from Pages 1 - 590 of the 1913 volume:

TMP RCDWOOD November, 1913 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the compl etion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER B. TH ORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY B. DOWNING, EDITOR OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR FRANKLIN STREET Phone, s. C. 14 SANTA CLARA San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. $50.00 Reward TO ANY Santa Clara College Student Whose appearance can ' t be improved and who can ' t obtain an absolutely perfect fit in one of my famous " L SYSTEM " Clothes for College Fellows BILLY HOBSON BILLY HOBSON ' S CORNER 24 South First Street - - SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA The " Clean-up " Hitter Is a bigger man than the Governor— for the moment - if he " delivers. " Anyway, he has at least the chance of an even break if the Cork Center is being used, because it has just that much more ' ' go " to it than the old style rubber core balL The Cork Center has solved the problem of how to help the batter, because, while it is livelier than the old style rubber core ball, it is not too much so. The Spalding Official National League Cork Center ball, price SI. 25, is the official ball of the world series, and will be for twenty years A. G. SPALDING BROS. 158 GEARY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. THE REDWOOD. A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 30Q 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Phone, Kearny 944 A. PALADINI WHOLESALE AND RETAIL FISH DEALER Fresh, Salt, Smoked, Pickled, and Dried Fish 540 CLAY STREET SAN FRANCISCO ThP Srintrl C f rf invites you to its rooms 1 1 IC ai 1 Id V iai a o read, rest and enjoy a T r T-« -p T T TQ cup of excellent coffee yJrrLlll L i LJO Open from 6 a. m. to 10:30 p. m. THE REDWOOD, FOSS HICKS CO. No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants + INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer, Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. Sky Rocket 1111 whistle ANGEVINE Boom Ah " h-h-hl There ' s plenty of tailors, only one 1 1 iciiiMi Line up for your fall suit now 67-69 S. SECOND ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. Orders taken for Xmas Candies Come and consult us about our prices. They are the lowest possible, and the quality of our goods is the finest in town. We make them ourselves and we know. THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Dr. Wong Him Residence 1268 O ' Farreli Street Between Gough and Octavia Phones : West 6870 . Homes 3458 San Francisco, Cal, THE REDWOOD MANUEL MELLO 1 ' Boots and 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara O ' Connor Saeitarimn Training Scliool for Nurses IN CONNECTION CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY Race and San Carlos Streets San Jose Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 10S4 Franklin St. EnterpriseLaiiniryCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s SantaClara 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street ALDERMAN ' S NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobacco Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice Santa Clara M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA Cl,ARA Pool Zy Cents per Cue THE REDWOOD. ..DOERR ' S.. T Branch at Clark ' s 176-182 South First Street San Jose Order your pastry in advance Picnic Lunches HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR CATERS TO THE THIS PLtt most FASTIDIOUS THE ARCADE THE HOME OF ROUGH NECK SWEATERS ( ¥ ' J CANELO BROS. STACKH0USE CO. 83-91 South First St., San Jose Phone S. J. 11 CONTENTS AT THE VESPER HOUR - - - B. A. M. 1 THE ECONOMIC ASPECT OF MODERN SOCIALISM Roy A. Bronson, A. M. 2 THE WANDERLUST - Byrne Alexandre Marconnier 16 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MYSTICAL PHENO MENA Robert A. Sesnon, A. M. 17 A ROSE, A RED ROSE - - - - E. C. 24 THE EMERALD ISLE - - _ Gerald R. McElroy 25 THE SHADOW FROM THE HILLS - - E.G. 26 THE PRIDE OF THE DeSABLA - J. Charles Murphy 31 EDITORIALS ------- 3(, EXCHANGES --_-___ 30 UNIVERSITY NOTES - - - - - _ 43 ATHLETICS ------- 51 ALUMNI NOTES - - - _ _ - 59 Roy a. Bronson graduate manager Mr. S. a. Eline. S. J. MODERATOR OF ATHLETICS Guy Voight CAPTAIN Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIII SANTA CLARA, CAL., NOVEMBER, 1913 NO. 1 At the Vesper Hour The sky blooms saffron in the quiet West, A crystal crescent guides the starry throng, From the distant chapel sweetly, faintly, Drift the old world hymns of evensong. The whispering olives breathe a cooling peace, Beneath whose boughs the black-robed figures pace Serene and silent with the breath of God, Their prayers drift upward through the leafy lace. The passionate saffron burns and dims away. Twilight, a wan ghost flutters through the sky— Another day has fled to dreaming eld, Breathing but a memory and a sigh. B. A. M. THE ECONOMIC ASPECT OF MODERN SOCIALISM HE word Socialism and its significance has been sub- ject to no end of abuse throughout its brilliant ca- reer, both by its advocates and opponents. The abuse has been caused by much misunder- standing and a greater amount of ignor- ance of the motives and aims of the true proponents. Anti-Socialists have violently attacked doctrines which have been promulgated by indiv- idual Socialists, doctrines given out by them as Socialistic but which have been in reality the illusions of their own befuddled brains. Socialists again have vituperated their opponents for thus misrepresenting the issue and hence a great amount of useless discussion has resulted. However, it has effected a closer scrutiny into this subtle issue on the part of the casual thinker. Men of thought throughout the world have come to the realization that Socialism represents far more than the disgrunt- led voicings of society ' s cast-oflfs, that the " Appeal to Reason " is a poor rep- resentative of a movement of such in- ternational portent and that arrayed in its ranks are some of the keenest in- tellects of the day. Although Socialists themselves dis- agree in many details and though the term itself is indiscriminately used to signify a variety of more or less re- stricted political and social revolutions, still there is something in essence to which it may be truthfully said all So- cialists will agree. What essential political and social changes do the Socialists of America, England, Germany and of every coun- try agitated by them seek? What few principles are there upon which they are all unanimous? With these two norms, as it were, to refer to we may be sure to arrive at those principles which constitute the sum total of the modern movement and our own dis- cussion, then, will apply to all alike and with equal force. Thus restricted we may predicate of Socialism the three following tenets: 1. The state is to take over the whole of capital or producers ' wealth which includes all the means of pro- duction. 2. The production and distribution of goods shall be organized by the whole people collectively. The gov- ernment will therefore be purely demo- cratic and the officials removable at will. 3. The people collectively is sole proprietor. The individual owns only what he uses for his own consumption and cannot use it to produce it for others. From these three statements it fol- THE REDWOOD. lows that the only way to wealth for the individual is through his own per- sonal labor. His work will not be forc- ed upon him but will be necessary in order for him to live. They imply also the abolition of private enterprise, of commerce and industry, of banks and financial corporations. The central aim and pivotal point of Socialism is distributive justice. While it seeks to increase production by more efficient organization it makes its cen- tral thought the JUST DISTRIBU- TION OF THE PRODUCT. In what this just distribution con- sists Socialists themselves differ. Some advocate a distribution according to real needs, others say that justice de- mands distribution according to the merit of the service rendered and still others say that equality meets the de- mands of justice. With these minor divisions we need not concern our selves. Suffice it that all are unani- mous in their opinion that the present manner of distribution is unjust and therefore they advocate a radical change. To reduce our idea of Socialism to a concise statement we may now say that SOCIALISM IS THE PROPOSAL THAT ALL PROPERTY SHOULD BE NATIONALLY OWNED THAT IT MAY MORE JUSTLY BE DIS- TRIBUTED. It rests upon two as- sumptions; first, that the present man- ner, of distribution is unjust; second that Socialism is the only remedy for the frightful human calamities which attend the present order of society. For the first of these two assump- tions Karl Marx, the Socialist philo- sopher and founder of the system, brought forward in the main one great argument. With it he attempted to show that the capitalists by an unjust system of production were deriving their immense profits from the unpaid, stolen, exploited labor of the working man. This argument was no other than the famous Marxian theory of value and surplus value, which Social- ists are wont to propound as an unas- sailable axiom. It is the basic doctrine of Socialism. " The knowledge of the theory of value and surplus value is the beginning of all true Socialistic knowl- edge. " Following the English economists, Adam Smith (1776) and David Ricar- do (1817), Marx distinguished value into value-in-use and value-in-ex- change. Value-in-use, he said, is the capability of an economic good to sat- isfy some human want. Value-in-ex- change is the ratio in which commo- dities are exchangable for one another and is measured by price. Now Adam Smith and the orthodox economists following him had conclud- ed that the production of wealth was the result of land, capital and labor, thus recognizing labor as the only hu- man element involved. From this prern- ise Marx concluded that the exchange Cf. Indust. Rev. THE EEDWOOD. value of any commodity is the result of the human labor and time spent up- on it. Thus reasons the father of Scien- tific Socialism : " Let us take two kinds of merchan- dise; e. g., wheat and iron. Whatever be their ratio of exchange it can always be expressed by the equation one bushel of wheat equals X pounds of iron. This means that an equal amount of something common to both is con- tained in two different things. Both are equal to some third quantity which in itself is neither the one nor the oth- er. But each of the two, in as far as it is value and exchange, must be re- solveable into this third element If we abstract the use value of merchandise it retains but one quality, the quality of being the product of la- bor. Nothing remains but the same ghost-like actuality, a mere crystaliza- tion of human labor without distinc- tion A value in use or an ob- ject has value only because human la- bor in the abstract is embodied or ma- terialized in it. But how are we to measure the amount of its value? By the amount of ' value-creating sub- stance, ' i. e., LABOR CONTAINED IN IT. " t Marx admits that there can be no exchange value unless the commodity has a use value, as, e. g., a paper shoe. Since it has no use it can have no ex- change value despite the amount of labor that has been expended upon it. tCapital, K. Marx. Vol. 1, p. 3, 4, S. But for all other purposes he held VALUE IN EXCHANGE IS EN- TIRELY INDEPENDENT OF VAL- UE IN USE. As stated above, his con- clusion was that the exchange value, measured by price, of any economic good was determined by the time and labor embodied in it, the standard being the average time taken by the average laborer or as Marx termed it, the " so- cially necessary labor time. " These few principles of the Marx- ian system are the foundation of his theory of surplus value. Through the discovery of surplus value Marx claim- ed to have exposed the outrageous ex- ploitation of the laboring classes and the manner in which the " bourgeiosie " were robbing the working man of his own just deserts and hence he deduced the injustice of the present system of production. The principle of surplus value is best demonstrated by a simple example. B. is a manufacturer (or capitalist as you choose to call him). He makes, let us say, hats, socially useful objects and whose exchange value, according to Marx, is the result of the time and la- bor spent upon them. B. sells his year- ly output for $90,000.00. Let us say for the sake of illustration that one- third of this amount or $30,000.00 was required for raw materials, machinery and incidental expenses. Another one- third or $30,000.00 additional was paid to labor for service rendered. Now this leave a balance of $30,000.00 clear prof- it for the capitalist. Marx called this THE REDWOOD. remaining portion surplus value. The entire $90,000.00 was a result of time and labor, he said, therefore the $30,- 000 which the capitalist took was pro- duced and earned by the laborers them- selves. The capitalist had worked not more than four hours a day, yet by an unfair system of distribution he confis- cated one-third of the entire earnings. Marx proposed to put an end to this un- just system by placing the means or tools of production in the hands of the government and to distribute this sur- plus value among the workers who cre- ated it. Labor-time was to be the stan- dard and in the case of a professional worker or skilled laborer, he would re- ceive according to the time spent in education or apprenticeship. The principle that all wealth is a re- sult of the labor of the average ma- jority still forms the basis of popular Socialism. Therefore to this funda- mental tenet let us turn our attention. The theory of the injustice of the ap- propriation of surplus value and the So- cialistic conclusion of the exploitation of the working classes, rests directly upon -the Marxian theory of value. To assail the foundation then will be to de- stroy the superstructure simultaneous- ly. Marx, it will be recalled, main- tained that exchange value was entire- ly independent of use value except inas- much as no article could be sold unless it had some value and use. But for all other purposes the two were distinct. Thus the exchange value, i. e., the price the good brings is determined solely by the labor crystallized in that article. But let us suppose that a merchant brings from the forest of South Amer- ica several shiploads of different kinds of wood to some European port. In the forests of South America the wood has no exchange value, for any one there may have all he wants by the mere taking. At the European port, the wood immediately has a high ex- change value. Now, according to Marx, the standard of this value will be the amount of labor, time, -expense and cost of transportation which has brought the wood to the present port. But this cannot be, for then all the wood, con- veyed would sell at the same price, which is far from being the case. Cedar and mahogany, abstracting from the labor expended upon it will always bring a greater exchange value or price than pine or birch. Thus Social- ists must admit that USE plays just as important a part in the fixing of ex- change value as labor and time. In fact a general estimate of the use- fulness of an article will administer more toward the fixing of exchange val- ue than the labor embodied in it. A good bottle of wine will always bring a higher price than a bottle of poor wine despite the fact that more time and labor might have been spent in produc- ing the latter. Why does fruit from the same orchard and the same trees sell at a variety of prices? Or coal from the same mine? Because utility is the determining factor, entirely in- Adapted from Soc, V. Cathrein. THE REDWOOD. dependent of the labor and time con- sumed in producing them. Marx therefore is unjustified in drawing the conclusion that all wealth is produced by labor alone for labor and time are not the only factors which bring about the exchange value of a given economic good. Utility plays even a more important part. But to admit that utility is a factor as well as labor involves the Socialists in an inextricable contradiction. For to admit utility as a factor is to admit those factors that administer to utility. In the preceding illustration it was B. who foresaw the utility, who devised the means of satisfying it, who risked his capital in the commercial venture. It was he who gave work to thousands of men whose labor would have been valueless without his direc- tive oversight. His was a labor quite disproportionate with that of the man who checked freight. B ' s work called for a grade of superior intelligence which cannot be reduced to a question of time spent in acquiring. And this suggests another and even greater difficulty to the Socialist, name- ly the part played by ability in the cre- ation of wealth. There are various or- ders of labor, mental and manual, some more useful to society than others and therefore more valuable. Labor would be useless had it not some superior di- rective power. It would be as a mighty machine powerless to move without some outside motive force. Consider for example the greatest engineering achievement of modern times, the Pa- nama Canal. This work is doubtless " crystallized labor, " as Marx terms it, but it is not in its distinctive features, crystallized labor as such. It is crys- tallized science, chemistry, mathematics and in short it is crystallized knowledge and intellect of such high calibre as not to be found existing in one mind out of ten thousand and labor is only effective in the production of such an undertak- ing inasmuch as it submits itself to the guidance of the intellectual leaders who conceived it. To reduce this higher type of labor, as Socialists propose, to a question of average time spent in acquiring it is foolhardy. How long may I ask would it have taken the ordinary man to in- vent the electric light, the telephone or the spinning jenny? How long an ap- prenticeship would the average man need before he could give to the world the serums of modern medicine, the steam engine of Watt or the treasures of literature and so in every walk of life? Nature has so constituted man that she has established an equality of her own and it is puerile to attempt to reduce all value to labor and all labor to time. All wealth IS NOT produced by la- bor alone and value IS NOT a result of of labor and time. Hence the entire theory of surplus value and the unjust accumulation of capital must necessar- ily collapse as these are but deductions from the theory of value. On the other hand an equal ■distribution of THE REDWOOD. wealth on the Socialistic plan would be a gross injustice, for it would give to the laborer that which is not his own and would rob from the man of ability the fruit of his own creative genius. There is in England today, however, a more thoughtful school of Socialists whose arguments are far more subtle than those proposed by the Marxian school. I refer to the Fabian society, whose intellectual headlights are such men as George Bernard Shaw, Mr. Sid- ney Webb and J. Ramsey McDonald, M. P. These men are wont to look upon Marx as the German Monists look up- on Darwin. They credit him only with the embryonic idea. His teaching was merely the nucleus of a greater, which was to evolve out of it. Economic de- terminism only reflected the material- istic doctrine of the age, they say, and it is not essential to the movement. They admit Ability as a factor in the creation of wealth and all that they de- sire is to see by a system of gradual increases in taxes the slow but sure turning over to the central government all the means of production. They ab- hor, likewise, the revolutionary meas- ures of confiscation proposed by the proponents of the popular branch of Socialism. They see a gross injustice to the laborer under the present system of production and they propose to erad- icate it by an identical system of Col- Cf. The Soc. Movement, J. R. McDonald, M. P., p. 142. lectivism in which all members of so- ciety shall share equally. But although their methods dififer the two factions are unanimous as to the ultimate goal. Likewise, although their arguments differ, they both as- sume the injustice of the present sys- tem whereby the laborer is robbed of his just deserts. Under this more recent school of So- cialism, however, the movement has been given a sudden impetus. The sub- tilty of their arguments and the unas- suming and conservative manner in which they propose to bring about their Utopia, has won many to their cause. It will not be amiss, therefore to ex- amine their line of argument and see whether or not their claims are justi- fied. The Fabians, being of a more thoughtful type than their Marxian comrades, have been forced to admit that labor is not the only source of wealth, but that Ability also is a po- tent productive agent. The trend of their reasoning therefore has been to establish a premise which will show why Ability as a factor in production is entitled to no more than labor. The arguments, of course, are many, but it will fulfill our purpose if we take a couple of the most important and ex- pose their fallacies, demonstrating that the Fabian claims of injustice are false and that the present system, though open to abuse, is at least closer to the principles of natural justice than the spectre which they propose. THE REDWOOD. The first argument I shall take from Mr. Sidney Webb. He correctly main- tains that exceptional ability is a pow- erful factor in the production of wealth, but, he says, exceptional productive ability has no right to any exceptional share of the products. To substantiate this statement he says : " The special ability or energy witn which some per- sons are born is an unearned increment due to the effect of the struggle for ex- istence on their ancestors, and conse- quently having been produced by so- ciety is as much due to society as the unearned increment of rent. " By this, our intellectual friend means to say that the man of ability inherited his superiority from his ancestors. That his ancestors acquired their superiority in their struggle for existence with the rest of humanity. The ' ' rest of human- ity " was the stone upon which the knife was whetted, therefore to the " rest of humanity " is due the superiority just as much as to the ancestors themselves. The " rest of humanity " may claim an equal share with Ability for they were co-partners in the production of that Ability. But to admit such an argument would lead to a multitude of absurdit- ies. If the man of genius owes his abil- ity to society, then the criminal owes his degeneracy to the same source, and society may not with justice punish him, for they have an equal share in his crime. " He who comes into court must come with clean hands. " Likewise if two rival teams are running for a grand prize the defeated members after the race may approach their victors with the argument that they, the victors, had acquired their fleet-footedness by the experience gained in running against them, the losers, in former times, that therefore justice required the victors to share the prize for the losers con- duced to win the prize as much as their victors themselves. Similarly the idle man owes his indolence to society and therefore, though he does nothing he is entitled to an equal share. But let us turn to the second argu- ment of the new school in the hope that it may be more plausible than the former. This second argument has been cull- ed from the pages of John Stuart Mill, the most celebrated of the orthodox economists, who while not a Socialist himself, strangely enough furnished them with one of their strongest argu- ments. It is not necessary that we explain Mill ' s application of the argu- ment to land and labor. It will suf- fice to elucidate the Fabian application of it to ability and labor. Recalling that this school of Socialists admit individ- ual ability as well as labor as a produc- er of capital it is curious to note the manner in which they attempt to min- imize the value of the former. They say: " Labor and Ability are two fac- tors, their product is wealth. But we can no more determine which of these two factors produces the greater part of wealth than we can tell which of the two factors five or six has most to do in THE REDWOOD. the production of thirty. Therefore to each let us give share and share ahke. " This indeed is a plausible argument, but we shall find it based on a false as- sumption. Consider for a moment a simple illustration. A. is a man who is at the head, let us say, of a great peach-packing industry, the only one in the world. He has un- der him ten thousand employes. Now for the past ten years he has annually packed one million crates of peaches. This is his maximum capacity and al- though there is a greater supply of peaches he cannot succeed in pack- ing more with his present equipment. Let us now suppose that A. is taken seriously ill and B, his office man, sub- stitutes. During the year in which B manages the system two million crates of peaches are packed with the same number of employes and with the same tools of production. After a regime of one year A again assumes the manager- ship and returning to his own system succeeds in packing but one million crates for the ensuing year and so on for the following years of his manager- ship. Since both A. and B. used the same establishment, the same employes and the same means of production it is clear that the increased capacity of the industry under the regime of B was due simply and solely to his special ability in systematization and to his superior directive powers. Returning now to the Fabian argu- ment it will be seen that what they have overlooked is the fact that capital cannot be represented by a product such as thirty, for although yesterday it was thirty, tomorrow it will be sixty, and the day after perhaps one hun- dred, and though one of these factors five, remains constant, the other varies from six to twelve to twenty and so on. In like manner although labor remains more or less constant Ability varies and therefore we can determine which of the two produces the greater part of wealth. Since we are able to do this, justice and the natural law demand that we render unto Caesar the things which belong to Caesar and we are right in giving to the greater producer the greater share of the spoils. We are safe in stating therefore that the Fa- bian claims for the injustice of the present order are false. We have already examined the main arguments advanced by the two great schools of Socialism by which they claim to have demonstrated the injus- tice of the present order of distribution, and we have found them wanting in soundness. Therefore we might here make an application of the saying of the old Ro- man legists: Cessante ratione; cessat ipsa lex " and say that since all the reasons for the change are a falsity, the necessity of the change itself is a fal- sity and we might consider the ques- tion settled once and for all. There is, however, a vast army of men and women to whom arguments of this nature do not appeal and it is mainly to them that the leaders of the 10 THE BEDWOOD. movement make their strong appeal. The state which they hold out and the condition of society under it is indeed alluring and purposely concocted to at- tract those dissatisfied with the present state of affairs. For this reason it can- not be amiss to critically examine this proposed state and determine a few of its necessary consequences. Victor Cathrein, in his admirable work on Socialism, has summed up the numberless difficulties with which the Socialists ' state will be confronted upon its inauguration. These difficul- ties may, however, in the main be re- duced to five principal heads which I in the ensuing pages shall briefly out- line. These difficulties are, in order: 1. Difficulty of organization. 2. The difficulty of supplying dif- ferent wants. 3. Difficulty of the assignment of employments. 4. Difficulty of assigning remunera- tion. 5. Difficulty of supplying a motive to work. l have said necessary consequences because So- cialists tliemseives are very reserved in statements as to the future condition of their state and the manner in which they will conduct it. Bellamy in his novel " Looi ing Backward " received harsh criti- cism and denunciationfrom his comrades for the Utopia he pictured, and Socialists all over the world pro- nounced him a dreamer. There are, however many necessary consequences attendant upon the adop- tion of Socialism which must follow a Collectivist state in which all the means of production are na- tionally owned. These necessary difficulties therefore are real ar- guments against the doctrine, Hilquit and Bernstein to the contrary noth withstanding. 1. To state briefly the difficulty of organization, either all the productive property of the United States would be worked from one center as one business, keeping work and wages uniform or else each state, dis- trict, county or town would be granted local autonomy. In the first instance such a system would require a huge amount of clerical work to determine the various demands and necessities of the commonwealth. In meeting this contention Socialists are wont to point to our huge corporations, syndicates and industries with their el- aborate systems, but they overlook the important fact that there exists an im- mense chasm between one company run for one purpose and a common- wealth made up of several millions of such companies. Compare for example the difference in time and labor in com- piling the smallest details as to articles of clothing, underwear, food and so on which every family needs, with the dif- ficulty of coinpiling a simple census which in itself is a huge task. Then again such an ascertainment of neces- sities would be required at least every month and even then there are many necessaries which cannot be foreseen and which would provoke weekly and even daily statistics. The entire ar- rangement would call for an army of officials bound by no private interest to the faithful administration of their office and subject to gross blunders which might prove fatal to the entire plan. THE REDWOOD. 11 In the second alternative or local au- tonomy where distribution would be from stations operating over a small territory, such a compilation of statis- tics might possibly be accomplished, but in this event, another and even more serious objection arises. Through the happenings of time and chance, ability and management, various in- equalities in productive wealth would arise in the divers municipalities or districts. Santa Clara, for example, would be making 20 per cent more than San Francisco and Socialists are con- fronted once more with the inequality they seek to abolish. Nor could this be remedied by allowing the " com- rades " to migrate to any community they saw fit ; for to be successful the Collectivist plan necessitates a rigid fixity in the number of workers and consumers. For to provide employ- ment to an ever fluctuating population would be an impossibility. Hence eith- er one could move about freely when and where he chose or he could not. Under the former hypothesis the So- cialist state could not operate. Under the latter the individual would be re- duced to something like slavery. 2. The second difficulty of the Col- lectivist state which flows as a neces- sary consequence from the nature of the plan, is that of supplying different wants. Under the present system of distribution we have numberless trad- ers large and small catering to the in- dividual tastes of their consumers un- der the incentive of greater profit. How different, however, under the commun- istic order would be the state of affairs. Each person would present his or her labor ticket or money if it is used, and obtain a community chair, a commun- ity hair brush or a community overcoat. Such a system is destructive of person- al liberty and grown men and women would be reduced to boarding school children and dealt with as soldiers in a presidio. Some Socialists, however, claim that one will be able to obtain whatever he chooses, providing he has worked the necessary labor time to pay for it. But this answer brings us back to the clerical difficulty wherein each individual want must be determined every week. For we must not forget that there will not be the countless traders and manufacturers to ascertain the desires of the people, but all pro- duction will be operated by the Collect- ivist state, managed by state officials who will have no personal interest in their work and who will only be too glad to finish their day ' s work and have it over with. If, on the other hand, the state produces without determin- ing exactly the consumptive capacity of the people they fall into the error of haphazard production whereby vast quantities of goods would lie idle and unconsumed in the state or communal storehouse and be a drain upon those whose tastes were not so finicky. 3. The third objection to the Social- istic state is in assigning employments. Who is to do what? Here the com- monwealth would have the Hercu- 12 THE REDWOOD. lean task of apportioning work of all conceivable degrees of difficulty and disagreeableness among the workers. For freedom of choice would be an im- possibility, else everyone would flock to the most pleasant, enjoyable and agreeable. But how could this be done without engendering a vmiversal discon- tent that would he fatal to the plan at its very inception? Dissatisfaction would exist, for human nature is such that man cannot be thoroughly satis- fied with his surroundings. The dan- ger is that without proper means for its ' expression, this dissatisfaction would grow and spread beneath the surface of society until, having no other vent, it would at last break out in rev- olution. If on the other hand, change of employments were allowed, an im- mense waste of human power would re- sult by thus undoing the division of la- bor. The increase of annoyance and discomfort would far exceed all the losses and waste of the present com- petitive system. Again, supposing for the sake of ar- gument, the employments were all as- signed. How could one tell which per- sons were particularly suited for such and such a profession or trade? In the beginnings of Socialism this difficulty would not obtain for we know by ex- perience what men are particularly adapted for a given line of work. But what of the rising generation? Who knows the talents of this particular man? Who can say to him, you serve as a blacksmith apprentice, or you be- come a statesman? How are we to test his talents? And, who again, would be this grand dictator, who would say you do this and you do that? The simple outcome of the whole affair would be that our Edisons would be sweeping chimneys and our Shakes- peares cleaning streets. 4. Briefly, our fourth contention is this: either all must receive the same wage or else there must be a discrim- ination. In the first case there is a complete discouragement of both intel- ligence and skill for will not the farm- er, the laborer, the physician all receive the same compensation for their " labor time? " And in the second case who is to be trusted in arranging an elaborate system or sliding scale of wages in every imaginable industry in the world. There will not even be a trades union under the Socialist state with which a comparison could be made. Again, how can any one say that curing the measles in a certain instance on the part of a doctor is a result of the same labor time which would produce two waterbacks for your kitchen stove on the part of the plumber? We should simply be forced to entrust our good fortune to the arbitrary decision of gov- ernment officials, who, perhaps, might be the very men (and it is highly prob- able) who are least capable of pro- nouncing such a judgment. 5. If we turn our attention to his- torical man we will find that he is one who appears an idle, careless and self- indulgent personage save where he has THE EEDWOOD. 13 been carefully trained and given an adequate motive for action. We charge that Socialism removes from man this mainspring of action. What motive to activity can take the place of the desire for individual and family advancement through the accumulation of private property? Take away the stimulus of fear for wife and children — to avert from them suffering and poverty, take away the incentive of hope for their fu- ture education, ease and enjoyment, and what adequate stimulus has man for the cultivation of his faculties and the concentration of his mind and en- ergy upon his work? Socialism is cal- culated to produce wastful and careless herds of human beings, with no private ambitions, no noble aims nor ardor in the pursuit of them. Thus at first blush we can see that Socialism as a practical working sys- tem would fail merely from the five difficulties we have considered and that the Socialistic cure therefore, is worse than the present disease. We have seen furthermore that Socialist claims for the injustice of the present system of production and distribution are falla- cious and therefore the whole chimera is swept from its foundation of clay. There is, however, one more assump- tion to which we alluded ' in the begin- ning, upon which the Socialistic claims for the adoption of their sys- tem are also based, namely, that So- cialism is the ONLY remedy for the frightful human calamities which re- sult from the present system of produc- tion. They say there is an immense amount of poverty and misery, vice and degradation caused by the cruel and extortionate methods of greedy capitalists. These are but the local out- come of the present capitalist system and until we have done away with it, relegated it to the ash heap as it were, these terrible outrages will continue and human beings will be ground un- der the heavy mill wheels of capital un- til at last revolution shall break out and throw the whole social order into chaos. Therefore, they conclude, al- though Socialism is attended with dif- ficulties we needs must accept it, for it is the only effective method of lift- ing from the pool of misery the count- less thousands of exploited workers. Here again the Socialist argues wrongly. Firstly, we are ready to ad- mit that there is, unfortunately, a great amount of poverty and misery, and hence vice and crime which is the re- sult of the forced condition of the work- er. We need but instance the horror of the sweat shops to recall to the read- er the awful condition of many of our workers in the great cities. Secondly, we may even say that this condition is the outcome of the capitalist system of production. Lastly, we emphatically deny that Socialism is the ONLY means by which we may better or even eradicate these conditions. It is not the province nor scope of this writing to point out any remedy for existing evils, but I may briefly in- dicate the fact that there are many 14 THE KEDWOOD. ways of tearing down obstacles in the path of labor ' s improvement, which being not only far more safe are also far more eflficacious than Socialism. That to which I refer is called by many Social Reform, and I urge it especially to the reader ' s attention, for it is the true middle course between Socialism or equality and selfish Individualism. Among many of the changes advocat- ed by social reformers, I quote the fol- lowing: " A sound insurance policy indemnifying not only against accidents but against reverses of life, such as sick- ness, loss of work and old age, would give the laboring classes, what at pres- ent they need most — security of exist- ence — and would keep them from drifting into Socialism. " Trades un- ions are to be fostered and organized. Every laborer is to be guaranteed a liv- ing wage, enough for the keep of his family, education of his children and a small reserve for the " rainy day. " Leo XIII, furthermore, in his masterful En- cyclical on the Condition of Labor, laid great stress upon this very matter. He advocated that the majority of people should not live from hand to mouth, but should have, each family, its small capital, some shares or stocks, but prin- cipally a small plot of mother earth from the size of a small garden to the size of a small farm, that no creditor could touch, that belonged to the fam- ily rather than the individual, that Stang., Soc. and Christianity, p. 70 quoted by Devas. would serve as an insurance against unemployment. These are but a few of the salient fea- tures of Social Reform and are here, no more than briefly indicated, but they will recommend themselves at once to the common sense of every individual who has sincerely at heart the moral, mental and physical uplift of the down-trodden laborer who at present, it must be admitted, is strug- gling against overwhelming odds. They show also, that the assumption of So- cialists is false. Socialism IS NOT the sole remedy for existing evils. It is out of many methods but one and that — we might add — a very poor one. It is only fair to Socialists, however, to concede that they have rendered a real service to society by calling atten- tion to pressing Social problems. They have done this by forcing us to reflect upon the condition of the less fortun- ate classes ; by quickening our conscien- ces ; by helping us to form the habit, not 3 et generally acquired, of looking at all questions from the standpoint of pub lic welfare rather than from that of individual gain; and finally by call- ing our attention to the industrial func- tions of government, thus aiding in separating the field of private industry from that of public business. The dissatisfied thousands who seek resource in Socialism, hoping there to find salvation, are sadly misled. The true path leads in another direction ; the family must be protected; the home watched, private property can not be THE REDWOOD. 15 abolished ; the education, moral and religious training of the child cannot be left to the community. In other words the true Christian home must be culti- vated if men are ever to become satis- fied with their lot. Wealth must not be looked upon with loathsome eyes, but we should foster in those who possess it the spirit of Christian charity. If combinations persist in abusing the power they possess we should not be- tray our spirit of pessimism in govern- ment by saying we cannot regulate it. There IS a means hy which far bet- ter and happier results can be obtained than any Socialistic monster could ever effect. But it may be said, as long as we are held in thrall by a spirit of ir- religion even attempt is useless. ROY A. BRONSON. THE WANDERLUST See the ship set out to sea — Canvas filling, blowing free, Becks a gleaming , flags a streaming, Sailors singing merrily — And my heart goes with the shij) out to sea. She ' ll bring furs from out the Northland, And ivories from Bombay, Bright gems from out the Southland, And silks from old Cathay. Alone I stand upon the sand High flies the sparkling foam. Ah were 1 upon the ship Going forth to roam! I can see the fairy vessel By gentle breezes borne Floating in the moonlight Down the Golden Horn. She ' ll journey through the Suez Stopping at Port Said And bring exotic perfumes From a land long since dead. She ' ll through the South Seas, And sail the Tuscan deeps, And to be upon her My spirit yearns and weeps. See the ship set out to sea — Canvas filling bloimng free. Decks agleaming flf gs astreaming, Sailors singing merrily — And my heart goes with the ship Sailing out to sea. BYRNE ALEXANDRE MARCONNIER 16 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MYSTICAL PHENOMENA RUE, we now-a-days hear but little of mystical phe- nomena. The study of these matters is, of course, always necessary, but should it not be reserved to specialists? We venture to think that the principles of mysticism may even assist those who are not en- gaged in the direction of souls, or who do not aspire to the highest walks of Christian perfection. For are there not such things, even at the present time, and now, perhaps, more than ever, as spiritualistic phenomena, visions, revel- ations, communications, etc.? The number of souls called to the contemplative life in its widest sense is even today greater than is common- ly supposed. They are not confined to religious orders, but are to be found in every station in life, and in every coun- try, for the " spirit breatheth where it will. " Many proceed no farther than the initial stages; few persevere as far as the spiritual night; while those who attain to perfection are but exceptions. " Many praise and bless Jesus as long as they receive some consolation from Him, but if He hide Himself and leave them for a little while, they fall either into complaining or into excessive de- jection. " (Im. n. ii.) Mysticism, in the wide and some- what loose sense in v hich the term is commonly used, may be considered as the final outcome of a congenital de- sire for knowledge which appears in all animate creatures. In children and savages, as also in the lower animals, it takes the rudimentary form of sensi- tive curiosity ; in more fully developed rational natures it becomes the desire to understand the inner nature of things, and finally extends itself to that obscure region, dimly recognized by all men, which lies beyond the sphere of things, and of the senses by which things are perceived. But knowledge is of two kinds — abstract and concrete, or experimental and theoretical. Now the limit of our theoretical knowledge in this world is reached when we at- tain to the concept of a First Cause, or the necessary being which produces, underlies and upholds the contingent and changeable universe ; and that cavise and necessary being, needless to say, is God. We have an absolute theoretical certainty of the existence of God, depending ultimately on facts of experience; and we have, or may have, many practical evidences of His power, wisdom and goodness. Moreover, He has by various means told us things about Himself which we could not otherwise have known. But direct ex- perimental knowledge of Him, we have and can have none, in the ordinary 17 18 THE REDWOOD. course of things. We cannot see Him, or touch Him, or hear Him. Yet the more certain men are of His existence, the more conscious they are of His love and goodness, and the more deeply their minds are penetrated by the idea of His perfection, the more they in- evitably long for some such experi- mental knowledge of Him as, within our earthly experience, the senses alone can obtain for us. But this, from the nature of the case, is impossible ; God is no more to be di- rectly apprehended by our senses than an idea, a thought or an emotion. Is there then no third way by which we may not only know but feel the presence of God — by which all that He is to us may become not merely theoretical certainty, but a fact or di- rect experience? Is there, that is to say, any means by which, though we cannot bring Him down to the world of sense, we may ourselves, in the vir- tue of our partially spiritual nature, ascend to the spiritual world and there behold Him? It is the desire and the search for such means of approach to God that has produced Mysticism, which in its gen- eral aspect is the experience, real or supposed, of actual quasi-physical con- tact with God — experience undoubted- ly known in reality by many, though by many more it has beyond question been merely imagined. Mystical theology is an art. There are two points of view from which this art may be regarded, the natural and the supernatural. They do not, by any means necessarily exclude one another; each, indeed, in point of fact, implies the other. But neglect of the supernatural side of mysticism has led to an altogether mistaken notion of what mysticism has always, until very recently, been held to mean; and it must be admitted that forgetfulness of the natural side, consisting of the limi- tations, necessities and obligations of humanity, has too often been the cause of degenerate and extravagant supersti- tion, with its many attendant evils. Naturally, man is enclosed within the iron walls of sense and sensible things, through which no sound or ray of light can penetrate; their solid metal vi- brates, so to speak, and the warmth from without is felt in the air they en- close. But all is silence and darkness, unless the solid barrier is removed by some power greater than man ' s. To supernatural mysticism it seems that such power is from time to time ex- erted for man ' s benefit; the walls of his prison are parted, for a moment at least, and he sees something of what lies outside. And if any true vision of God has ever been obtained by those who have sought it through the exer- tion of their natural powers — whether negatively, as the Neoplatonist ascet- ics, or positively, as the nature mystics and symbolists — it has come directly, not from the exertion of those powers, but from His spontaneous bounty alone. Such is the theory of mysticism THE EEDWOOD. 19 which obtains in the Catholic church. The general experience of a soul on its journey through the realms of mystic- ism, would seem as if it were struck unexpectedly by a ray of Divine grace. It may never really have been es- tranged from God since the day of bap- tism, or it may have strayed ; no essen- tial difference would result therefrom, because motion is determined not so much by the direction whence it pro- ceeds, but whither it tends. Such a soul, then, finds a delight, hitherto un- known, in spiritual matters ; a new chord has been touched and set vibrat- ing, the whole world seems transfigur- ed, God ' s work becomes visible and palpable in every blade of grass, His interests absorb all earthly pursuits ; the human heart has found and holds fast a treasure of incomparable value ; heaven has descended on earth. " This is he that heareth the word and imme- diately receiveth it with joy. " Such an experience is indeed a great grace, but it does not last. True spirituality con- sists not in sentiments but in the exer- cise of virtue. Mystical graces are not sanctity, but merely powerful means of sanctification; but they must be re- ceived with humility and corresponded to with generosity. To pass our time in dreaming of the mystic ways is a dangerous error. If a desire for ex- traordinary graces of union is not for- bidden, as a general principle, if it may, theoretically be good, yet illusions are very easy and are not of rare occur- rence. Certain souls flatter their self- love by making ready for these graces. By chimerical aspirations after bless- ings which are not in accordance with their actual dispositions, certain souls lose the graces of sancitity which God had destined for them. The practical course is to perfect ourselves in the ways in which our feet have been set ; it is to correspond to the graces that we possess today. The souls called by God to the higher ways are precisely those who, acknowledging themselves to be the most unworthy, are chiefly occupied with the task of doing their very best in the ordinary paths. Among the phenomena of mysticism are visions and locutions, or voices, which are sometimes permitted even to sinners in order to convert them. Saint Paul, whilst persecuting the first Christians, heard the following words : " I am Jesus whom thou persecutest. It is hard for thee to kick against the goad. " Some- times even, these locutions or voices do not convert. Caiphas prophesied and yet the gift of prophecy failed to change him. St. Margaret of Cortona, whilst living in sin, had a revelation, one day, that she would attain to a high degree of sanctity, and yet she re- mained for a short time in disgrace with God. Visions and voices are imaginative — i. e., quasi-sensible figures pictured to the imagination without causing ac- tual sensation — or spiritual ; the latter are of three kinds. Corporeal visions or voices in which one sees or hears by means of the ex- 20 THE REDWOOD. ternal senses, and may come from a good or bad angel ; God is not accus- tomed to produce them, directly by Himself. Imaginative visions or voices are re- ceived directly without the assistance of the ear. They can be said to be received by the imaginative sense. In the natural order one sees and hears more clearly by the exterior senses than by the interior senses; but in the su- pernatural order, it is the reverse ; in- terior visions and voices are far clear- er and more audible than exterior ones. Imaginative or interior words seem, almost always, to be pronounced in the depths of the soul; yet sometimes they seem to come from heaven or some near point. Intellectual visions or voices are those in which we see and hear after the manner of angels, without the use of any definite language. The human mind itself sometimes dispenses with words. For when we are writing, it often happens that we say: ' T cannot find words that express my thought ex- actly. " Both good and bad angels can speak to us intellectually, but on con- dition that God intervenes to give us, momentarily, at any rate, the faculty to understand them. Otherwise, they can only, in this world, act upon our bodies or imaginations. The reason why supernatural voices are more fre- quent than visions is because these supernatural graces are for the good of the soul, and this benefit to the soul de- pends more upon the hearing than the sight. Saint Paul tells us that " Faith Cometh by hearing; and hearing by the word of Christ. " Among supernatural voices, imaginative words are more fre- quent than corporeal or intellectual v ords. They are more frequent than corporeal words because God, having the sanctification of the soul in view, uses preferably the imagination which acts more powerfully on the will than the corporeal senses. Imaginative voices are more frequent than intellectual, because the latter are more miraculous, and God rarely per- forms great miracles. Now, God speaks supernaturally to souls in five ways. In the first manner it is by either corporeal, imaginative or intellectual voices. For example, a soul still attached to the vanities of the world may hear these words : " Hence- forth, I wish thee to be attached to none but Me " ; and immediately it loses all attraction for creatures. Or, again, a soul, buried in deep anxiety and fear, will hear these simple words : " Do not fear " ; and, at once a great peace and even heroic courage takes possession of it. These voices, of course, are very precious, and sometimes are so incom- parably forceful that they raise a soul in an instant to the highest degree of sanctity. According to Saint John of the Cross, it was just such a voice that produced in the great patriarch, Abra- ham, the most eminent sanctity : " Walk before me and be perfect. " Ordinarily these words are very brief, but make a profound or deep im- THE REDWOOD. 21 pression on the memory. Generally they are imaginative, but are heard in the most intimate privacy. A second manner in which God speaks supernaturally to the soul is by vi ords of instruction relating to the mysteries of faith, the sense of a scrip- tural passage, or the excellence or prac- tice ot a certain virtue. Sometimes these words are pronounced neither by God nor a good angel, but by the soul itself, just as we are accustomed to do when we soliloquize interiorly over some question. The soul is right in attributing them to God, in a certain sen e, because they are pronounced or heard under a special supernatural light and by a special help of the Holy Ghost. Tliey are indeed less valuable than the preceding, because instead of creating virtue in the soul, they only urge or stimulate to its acquirement. The third manner is when the voices imply a direct and determined com- mand. Saint Aloysius Gonzaga heard a voice ordering him to enter the com- pany of Jesus; Saint Teresa received an order to work for the reform of Carmel ; Blessed Margaret Mary to pro- pagate devotion to the Sacred Heart. The fourth manner is when Our Lord demands of a soul to make known its wishes or desires ; His love for the soul is so great that He can refuse it noth- ing. Generally these words are heard only by souls that have attained a very high degree of sanctity and have rendered the Divine Master some signal service. Saint Thomas, praying at the foot of his crucifix, heard our Lord say to him : " Thomas, Thomas, thou hast written well of me; what recompense can I give thee? " Saint John of the Cross was asked by our Lord what reward he wished for all the work he undercook for the glory of God. Ordinarily, the Lloly Spirit suggests the answer : Saint Thomas answered : " Lord, I wish only Thee. " Saint John of the Cross cried out : " Master, to suf- fer and be misjudged for your sake. " The fifth manner is when God dis- closes to the soul hidden things, either of the present time or the future. When it relates to actual or present things it is called revelation. When relating to the future it is named prophecy. Rev- elations are of various kinds. Knowl- edge of facts that take place at a dis- tance ; a sight of the conscience of others ; knowledge of the state of souls after death, whether in hell, or heaven or purgatory. Saint Pius V. assisted in spirit at the battle of Lepanto ; Saint Teresa saw Blessed Azevedo and his thirty-nine companions of martyrdom going up into heaven ; Saint Mary Mag- dalena de Pazzi was able to read the souls of her novices like an open book ; Saint Teresa and Blessed Margaret Mary saw the souls of certain of their friends in purgatory. Other mystical phenomena relate to levitation, stigmata and ecstacies. Attempts have been made to prove experimentally that the human body, 22 THE REDWOOD. in certain supernormal cases, can dim- inish slightly in weight, and it has therefore been concluded that this dim- inution may perhaps become so com- plete that the body can remain sus- pended in the air. But the experiment from which this conclusion proceeds is hotly contested. It is true that some neuropathic per- sons feel their bodies to be lighter at certain times than is normally the case. Scaramelli says that ecstatics often have the same sensation when they come to themselves again. But there is reason to think that this is a purely subjective impression. There would only be one scientific way of deciding the matter, namely, to weigh the per- son in question. This has been done to a so-called ecstatic who experienced this feeling. He was found to be of ex- actly the same weight as in the normal state. Instances of levitation have been ob- served among Indian fakirs. These phenomena, having no other object than the satisfaction of the operator ' s pride and the spectator ' s curiosity, can- not come from God, and the operator himself does not think of attributing them to Him. Therefore, it is said they are natural. No; they may be dia- bolic, or the results of clever trickery. Catholic writers admit that the levita- tion of the saints is supernatural, but they have sometimes wished to tell us how God does it. The simplest explanation, and that most in conformity with Providence, consists in saying: " Since the angels have power to move corporeal objects, God makes use of their ministry, so as to avoid intervening Himself with- out necessity. He entrusts them with the task of raising the ecstatic ' s body ; and this from motives derived from the good of souls. Benedict XIV gives one of these motives : " By Divine power the body may be raised on high, not be- cause this has any necessary connection with ecstasy or rapture resulting from a vehement, divine contemplation, but because God — as this ecstatic contem- plation is like to, and, as it were, a commencement of that which will be in the beatitude of souls — in order to in- struct us therein, grants at times to the enraptured this special gift; which gift is a certain imperfect participation of the gift of fleetness, which will be be- stowed on glorified bodies. " Regarding the Stigmata may it be said that they are wounds resembling those of the crucifixion, or, more gen- erally, of the Passion of Christ. Many maintain that they are produced natur- ally owing to the action of the imagin- ation and vivid emotions. Being strong- ly impressed by the sufferings of the Divine Savior, and overflowing with love, this preoccupation would act phy- sically upon the person, by producing Our Lord ' s wounds. In speaking of Saint Francis of Assisi, the great St. Francis of Sales tells us: " the soul, as the form and mistress of the body, ex- ercising her authority over it, impress- ed the pains of the wounds with which THE REDWOOD. 23 she was struck, on the parts correspond- ing to those wherein her beloved had endured them. Love is admirable in sharpening the imagination to pene- trate to the exterior. But love, being within, could not, well make the holes in the flesh without, and therefore the burning seraph, coming to its help, darted rays of so penetrating a light, that it really made in the flesh the ex- terior wounds of the crucified. St. Thomas Aquinas maintains that wicked angels possess a certain power in con- nection with stigmata and other mys- tical phenomena. The demons cannot of their own volition change the matter of one form into another, but can em- ploy physical agents that exist in the first elements of things and cause ma- terial changes that do not supersede the powers of nature. With the per- mission of God the exterior effects of the stigmata are not beyond the power of demons. Therefore all spiritual di- rectors examine, very carefully, the in- terior dispositions of persons carrying the stigmata and other mystical phen- omena, and exercise them in humble and hidden duties. Regarding mystical ecstasy it may be said that it is a state in which not only are the powers of the soul suspended, but also the external senses lose their activity. For instance, one neither sees, hears nor feels. The saints, who have treated this matter from their own per- sonal experience, tell us that in ecstasy, the soul is, as it were, separated from the body. The soul converses with God after the manner of angels. The im- agination and sensitive appetite, depriv- ed of all activity, are, as it were, dead and separated from the soul. Saint Paul tells us that the word of God is living and effectual, and more piercing than any two edged sword ; and reach- ing unto the division of the soul and the spirit. The great mystic, Saint Teresa, writes that when in esctasy the soul neither sees, nor hears, nor perceives. It abides alone with God and has noth- ing to do but to love Him. The most notable effects of God ' s action upon the soul, through the internal senses, are wrought in raptures and ecstasies. He gives her a foretaste of the celestial joys he has in store for her and causes her to exclaim with St. Augustine : " How sweet must be Thy presence, O Lord, if we are thus transported writh joy at the mere thought of Thee. If it is so sweet to weep for Thee, how sweet will it be to possess and enjoy Thee. " ROBERT A. SESNON, A. M. A ROSE, A RED ROSE The heart ' s an open arbor, framed to hold Adorning leaves of sun-suckled vine, Or roses odorous at noon grown hold In laughter with the baby buds: — but mine Hath had no cool leaf-shadow from the sun. About, beside its blackened trellises Withered the souls of fallen leaves inblown Upon the grievous wind that traitor is To his own amorous nurslings. Yet there came, There came — lonely and perfect from the sky — A rose, a red rose, with lips of flame, And grew, and glowed, and lived, and shall not die! E. C. 24 THE EMERALD ISLE " ES, it was hot. In fact it was one of those tropical nights, when the heat of the day is about to leave, and from across the broad ex- panse of waters to the east the heat of another day bre aks in upon man and beast alike. The men of Company K of the Six- teenth Regiment, at the beginning of the rebellion in the Philippines, lay around a small fire, started, not as a source of heat, but in the hope that it would ward off the fairly intoleralle pest of mosquitoes. Three companies of this regiment left on Mindanao about a month before by the transport Crook, had been having a merry chase. Fol- lowing bands of guerilla insurgents through forests of palm and cocoa trees and being followed in turn by skulk- ing natives with poisoned arrows and bolos, one blow of which was enough to easily fell an ox ; this surely was bad enough — but then came the fever. The humidity of the atmosphere was scarce- ly bearable, and men daily dropped from the line of march never to return to the ranks. The life of Company K was young Private Doyle, nor was he ever at a loss to know wherewith he might af- ford some means of diversion to him- self or his fellow soldiers. Leaning over he clapped big Sergeant McKen- drick on the shoulder, and said cheer- ily: " Say Sergeant! Wake up, old man. This life of chasing insurgents in a Philippine jungle doesn ' t agree with you. Come on now, out with a story! " The sergeant thus addressed as " old man, " lay back as comfortably as pos- sible, his two hands clasped behind his head, and pulling thoughtfully at his pipe for a few seconds looked at Doyle. " So you fellows want a story, eh? " " Sure, go ahead! " and many such responses came back to him. " Tisn ' t a bad night for a yarn, " be- gan the grizzled old sergeant, his eyes twinkling as he proceeded, " and if you only use your imagination a little bit, you ' ll be able to see some of them black devils sneakin ' around behind them trees now. " The men stirred uneasily at this al- though they well knew that their pick- ets had been duly posted. But the thought of how quickly and how quiet- ly a native could put a man out of the way entered their minds only too vivid- ly ; one whistling slash of a bolo and — well, it was all over. " Ever hear of the Emerald Isle? " asked the sergeant. " I guess not, for it ain ' t very well known around civilized parts, and it ' s mighty seldom visited ; chiefly because there ' s nothing there to 25 26 THE REDWOOD. go for, and secondly, the blacks have got a shrine there to some kind of god or other way down in the crater of an old volcano, and they ' re so blamed careful of it that they won ' t let a white man set foot in that island if they can help it. " It ' s a small little island, situated right between the northern end of this here thing we ' re sitting on now and the Island of Leyte, that fairish piece of earth we passed the day before we landed here. This little chunk of terra firma ain ' t hardly big enough to be called an island, but it got it ' s name from the peculiar green of the verdure that covers the hills. No common green, mind you, but for all the world looks like a big emerald when you get a short ways off from it. Though very few whites have ever set foot on it, I hap- pen to be one of that favored few, and ' pon my soul, I come pretty near being one of them as never lived to tell of it. " , Here the old sergeant paused for a moment and seemed to reflect on the memories that the narration brought back to him. Opening his blue army shirt wider at the neck, and drawing himself to a sitting position he went on. " Now I had a friend up in Manila that had a few of them blacks awork- ing for him and one of ' em told him about this here god. It was made of bronze and must have been cast in China and then fetched over here. Any- ways there was a big emerald in the middle of the forehead, and when that sneakin ' black told this much he got all busted up and begged Wells — that was my friend ' s name — to say nothing about it to anybody. Somehow it got into his head to swipe that emerald. " So Wells came over to see me and put that crazy notion into my mind al- so. I didn ' t have enough sense to say no, and then we began to lay our plans. We got a couple of automatics apiece, and gathering together a few necessar- ies for travelin ' , we waited for the next boat. Before the war they used to run a steamer from Manila down to the end of Mindanao, so we took passage on her, meanin ' of course to be dropped at the Emerald Isle. When we reach- ed it, the captain didn ' t want to put us off very much, but we insisted, and we were rowed ashore in a small boat. The captain had promised to call for us on his return trip, which would be in about two weeks, and Wells said this would suit us fine as we intended to look around a bit for some orchids. But say, as that skiff began pulling for the boat again and left us standing on the beach, we felt as we looked at our scant baggage, like two marooned marines. " We hit it up to the village as if we owned the place and took possession of a small empty hut we found there. Those natives certainly didn ' t like our comin ' , but Wells explained to them as well as he could with the small amount of lingo that he had picked up from his man, that we were peaceful, and besides we couldn ' t leave the island be- THE REDWOOD. 27 fore the return of the steamer, so at this they cooled off a little. " The hut was too close to town to suit us, so we built a shelter some ways farther ofJ and started housekeepin ' . Every day we went about looking for orchids and appearin ' awfully much in- terested when we happened upon some extra fine ones. We kept examinin ' all the trees too and giving no sign that we noticed the natives skulking behind us who were making sure that we didn ' t come too near to their god. " At the end of a week we had the island pretty well explored ; had found the path to the crater of the volcano, and knew about where the temple must be. Although we never went too near the place, at night we could see a green glow comin ' from the direction of the shrine, which though soft could be seen for quite a distance. It had a rather creepy effect on me, but Wells said it was phosphorus or something like that, and I tried to believe him. " The night before the steamer was to call for us, there was to be great do- in ' s down in the village, so we set upon this occasion to get away with that stone. We scouted around as much as we could without creatin ' too much comment, and prepared for all emer- gencies. " That was sure some night! It was clear and warm and the tom-toms were goin ' to beat the band down in the town as we started off. Although the stars were shinin ' , the island under its heavy growth of trees was as dark as pitch and we arrived at the crater with as much precaution as we could get to- gether. " Going down the gentle slope to where we thought the shrine must be — the green glow getting brighter all the time — I thought we ' d be discovered at every step, but I guess all the guards were down at the shindig at the village and pretty well soaked up with their rice ' saki. ' Anyway we kept on and found the shrine without much diffi- culty; a thatched hut of nearly ordin- ary appearance except for a couple of wooden statues outside the door which seemed to be standin ' guard. " We got right up to the hut with- out being seen and without hearing a sound, when, just as we were about to enter, there came a moanin ' and groan- in ' that would ha ' scared a ghost. " Wells told me to go in and find out what in thunder this meant, while he would mount guard at the door. So I gripped my automatic in my hand and went in. There on the floor was the worst specimen of humanity that it would be a shame to call a man, grovel- lin ' before a statue, the like of which I have never seen for hideousness. Now I ' ve seen some pretty poor ones since, but never as bad as that one. The old fellow on the floor saw me, and gave one y ell, and hit for the door. Wells heard the yell and at the same time started in. They met in the doorway, and there followed an explosion that sounded to me at the time like a twelve- inch gun. Wells thought that a whole 28 THE REDWOOD. tribe of ' em was upon us, btit when I reassured him, he pointed to the fig- ure on the floor and said, ' This un won ' t bother us no more. " so we set to work on the statue. " It didn ' t take long to pry that em- erald out of the forehead of this very good likeness of Satan, and if we would only be able to make a good get away and rid ourselves of it at some jewelry trader ' s, we ' d be fixed for the rest of our born days. Wells slipped the stone into his pocket and we made tracks for the beach where we had spotted a bunch of old row boats the natives had made. We sneaked down through a strip of trees to the shore and were complimentin ' ourselves on our little game when we discovered a whole crowd of them blacks waitin ' there, such as should have been down at the village hittin ' it up for further orders. But they had been watching us and we had yet to undergo the worst part of our night ' s work. " Makin ' the beach as quietly as pos- sible, we waded out some yards in or- der to float our boat and it was just then that they spied us. They cut loose with their arrows, poison and all, while some of them took to the boats. " The first boatload was fifty yards ofif when we ' began to pump lead at them. They didn ' t come far, for our automatics worked fast and their boat soon began to look more like a sieve than boat before they had got within thirty yards of us. A second and third boat started for us but two of their men were billed for Davy Jones ' before they were near enough to he danger- ous with their blame arrows. They were the most surprised bunch of nig- gers you ever saw, as a third man threw up his arms in the air and drop- ped into the warm and shark infested waters of the Pacific. " While we were aloading our guns again, the second boat gained on us and before we knew it about half a dozen were holding on to the gunwale so I started to beat ' em off with the oar. I had clubbed three of them when I heard a whistle ' behind me, and as I felt rather sick I thought I might as well lie down. I hit the bo ttom of the boat kind of sudden like and when I came to the sun was shining and there was a smudge ofif in the distance which A ' Vells told me was the steamer coming for us. I asked him how it was that I came to take my rather sudden nap, and he told that a black had hit me on the head and feeling that same part of my anatomy I agreed with him. That Avas the only nigger that succeeded in gettin ' into our boat and Wells had fed him lead just as he hit me, else I guess I wouldn ' t have been a sergeant today. " I got the ship ' s doctor to upholster my head, and in a few days I was around again and as spry as ever, but that emerald was worrying me. Wells wanted to bring it over to Singapore and sell it, while I wanted to get rid of it right there in Manila and beat it back to the good old U. S. on the next liner, but Wells couldn ' t see it. THE REDWOOD. 29 " Three nights before getting into Manila, the captain opened a bottle or two and Wells and I got to gamblin ' a little. Luck was with me and before long I cleaned him out of his roll and we called a pot. He put up his share of the emerald against all my earnings and I don ' t know how it happened after me a ' winnin ' all night, but any way, when it came to a show down he held three tens to my two pairs, and there I was, penniless and without a job, high and dry on the briny deep. Here the sergeant interrupted his narrative to laugh one of those uneasy laughs, as one of the boys sympathized with him by saying: " Gee! Tough luck. " " We put up at the Casa del Senor in Manila, Wells paying my share of the bunk and rations. I was aching to know what he intended to do with the emerald, but I wasn ' t going to show any too much curiosity for fear that Wells would think me a hard loser. On Saturday of that week he sailed for Singapore with that stone safely pock- eted and as he was going up the gang plank he turned to me with a fifty dol- lar bill and told me to have a good time. The steamer hove out of sight and as to what happened to that emerald or to Wells I never heard a word. That fifty didn ' t last long for them was warm days and created an awful thirst in a man. Then the Philippines got riled and started this shootin ' match which didn ' t look so bad to me as I had been sent to a military acad. when I was fifteen, and I thought that Uncle Sam could see to it that I got my hard- tack and canned beef for a year or so, and here I am ! But just you wait un- til these here blacks get theirs, and it ' ll he me for Singapore to trace Wells and that emerald. " " Three good ones for our sergeant ! " yelled young Doyle, and with a will the group around McKendrick, some of them quondam football rooters, filled Mindanao ' s palm trees with a good old college " tiger. " A sentinel at his post hears it, and for a moment stopped in his pace and listened to the laughing that succeeded it. The echoes floated back to the ser- geant and his listeners, and as he saw the good heartedness of the " boys, " he said to himself, " I ' m almost glad that I did loose that emerald. " " Lights out, " came from the bugler. The fire was raked over and covered. Then " taps " sounded, and Company K lay down in the sultry night air to await the coming of a more oppressive day. GERALD R. McELROY. THE SHADOW FROM THE HILLS kiiov} that I am growing old; I know Along my path of youth the fioivers must fall, Along my youth must fall the thickening S7iow And visions of lost roses strew the gale. Each evening the shadow of the hills Oroim more upon my way — wpon my heart A tiny hand, rose- petal fingered, thrills In dusky dreams, whenas I brood apart: Oh little grasp! Is this rose-hand more strong Than all the bitter years, so lone and long? E. C. THE DREAMER To B. F. D. Silently he works among them, A Master and they know him not. While they unheeding walk their narrow ways, He trails the Gypsy Road of Life and Death While they behold him, chatting in their prettiness. He dreaming breathes the thoughts of whispering pines. And gazes on high mountains blue with mist. He drinks the soul of the loio brooding moon; Anon he halts with laugh-lit eyes to note the heedless ones, And then turns back to catch the echoes of the stars. 30 THE PRIDE OF DE SABLA ENOR DE SABLA lived in Mexico. The descendant of an illustrious family, he could trace his ancestors as far back as the fifteenth century, when there was written in the records for all to read that a De Sabla had been one of the dauntless adventurers to set sail with Columbus on his famous voyage of di scovery. Many of the Senor ' s forefathers had distinguished themselves in battle. Warriors there were by the dozen, dauntless, fearless every one. So on down generation after generation the title had come unstained. Little wonder then that the Senor gloried in his birthright, the grand old name of De Sabla. He had come to the New World and acquired vast estates there through his inherited riches and through his in- fluence with the Spanish court. But always, he had been taught, always, be- fore riches, before glory, before power, came the honor of the title handed down to him, the honor of the name of De Sabla. In the course of events he had mar- ried. A frail, delicate, but exceedingly pretty woman was the Senora. Signs of coming age were already be- ginning to appear on the Senor ' s rug- ged frame before his son was born. A slender dark-eyed lad he early showed an inclination towards books and read- ing. The rougher sports held no charm for him. While boys of his age were playing, fishing or hunting, he sought some quiet spot in which to pore over his books. The vigorous, active Spaniard could not understand this tendency of his son. He himself had always lived an out- door life. A skilled farmer, he person- ally supervised his great estate. From early morn, often until late at night, he went the rounds of his plantation. He rejoiced at the birth of his heir, but as the latter grew, and as his leaning toward a quiet, studious life increased, the master of the estate became more and more displeased. " Ramon, " he would say to his son, " Come. " And the slight, well-formed youngster would come to him. Then the father would tell stories of olden times thrilling tales to stir the heart of any boy. The youth would listen, en- chanted. As the Senor ' s face lighted up on telling of some brave deed of his ancestors, his son ' s eyes would open wide in wonder. Always on such occasions the Senor would end up by saying: " My son, al- ways try to be a credit to your name, strive always to uphold the honor of the De Sabla. " 31 32 THE REDWOOD. But as his son wDuld go off, think- ing still of the heroic deeds of his fore- fathers, the Senor would shake his sage old head and murmur sadly : " No e ' De Sabla; Ramon, no e ' De Sabla. " As the years fled past, the conviction that his son was not a worthy holder of the name, grew upon the father. When left alone he would often pace back and forth, always thinking the same thoughts and repeating the same words: " No e ' De Sabla; no e ' De Sab- la. " All the while Ramon was attending school, and the day of his graduation was not far off. He was exceptionally bright and the mother and father at last decided that he should be sent to a boarding school in the United States, just over the Mexican border. " He Ibears my name. He must have a modern education, " remarked the Sen- or, grimly. " But, " and his voice grew sad, " No e ' De Sabla; no e ' De Sabla. " Ramon could not help but note the trend of his father ' s mind and it griev- ed him sorely. Then one day he came across the old gentleman walking restlessly up and down, muttering to himself: " No e ' De Sabla; no e ' De Sabla. " The scene moved him to the depths of his soul. " Perhaps my father is right, " he thought gloomily. " Perhaps I am not a De Sabla. " The day of graduation came on apace and Ramon De Sabla received his di- ploma with honors. He stood at the head of his class. The mother was proud of her son ' s achievement, ' but the stolid old Senor said nothing. A change had come over Ramon of late. No more would he seek quiet nooks in which to pass away the time by reading. He had grown pensive and dejected. He would spend hours by himself, pondering over his father ' s at- titude and the words he had heard, " No e ' De Sabla; no e ' De Sabla. " " Maybe I am not a De Sabla, " he would say, then he would spring to his feet with sudden determination and clenching his fists would cry out: " I am a De Sabla. I will show them. " The family of three was making pre- parations for a journey for the mid- term opening of the schools was near at hand. To St. Vincent ' s College they were to go, and leave Ramon there. " He bears my name. He must be educated, " the proud old Spaniard re- peated. For five days they journeyed over limitless plantations of coffee and to- bacco, over wide rivers and high moun- tams, over sandy deserts and over strips of prairie. Then they crossed the border and stood on American soil. Swift trains soon conveyed them to their destina- tion, St. Vincent ' s College. Arrangements were satisfactorily made by which Ramon was to stay for a year, and special attention was to be paid to his physical development. Then the parents left for home, to THE REDWOOD. 33 return a month later to note the pro- gress the ir son was making. The new life was welcome to Ramon. He was determined to disprove his father ' s conclusions. He took to his books with a will. Frequently he gaz- ed interestedly at the athletes jogging around the cinder path in light trunks. All this was a novelty to him. One day as he stood watching two of his fellow students running a practice race around the track, an idea struck him. " Why, those fellows can ' t run, " he thought, " I could beat both of them easily. " So the very next afternoon he was in the shower rooms, mixing with the track men. They talked of nothing but the track meet with Johnson Academy three weeks hence. He imbibed their spirit and soon became as interested as they. " Who will take the pole-vault? " " Has Kelly a chance in the hurdles? " were Greek to him. But when a lanky fel- low next to him expressed a regret that St. Vincent ' s had no worthy man to enter in the mile run, he pricked up his ears at once. " No one to enter the mile run, " he thought. " Here ' s my chance. " In some way he managed to obtain a track suit. But actually running around was quite different from simply looking on, he soon found out. To run a mile even at a jog trot was fatiguing, to say the least. The coach noticed the new man out, and inquired all about him. " What are you going out for, son? " he asked. " The mile run, " the boy answered. Under the watchful eye of the coach, Ramon was developing into a runner. The " Greaser, " as he was generally known, attracted much attention. The day of the big track meet was drawing near. The St. Vincent men had their team " doped " to win by a nar- row margin, while the Johnson Aca- demy supporters expected to " spring " a few surprises and take the meet easily. As the days immediately preceding the meet wore away, Ramon grew less and less talkative, more and more thoughtful. In the busy whirl of school life he had almost forgotten his resolution. But now he had become more settled and his father ' s words came back to strengthen his determina- tion, " No e ' De Sabla; no e ' De Sabla. " " We shall see, " he said inwardly, " we shall see. " The great day dawned. Feverish ex- citement pervaded every nook and cranny of historic old St. Vincent ' s. Knots of students gathered everywhere discussing the outcome of the meet. The score would be close. All admit- ted that. The mile run would probably be the deciding event. Burrel of John- son ' s was a crack miler. So the ques- tion which suggested itself to every mind was " Can the ' Greaser ' beat Bur- rel? " The 12 :20 train rumbled up to the 34 THE REDWOOD. depot. There was a sound of grinding brakes, the roaring cars came to a stand still and a score, more or less, of ath- letic, determined looking fellows hop- ped off, grips in hand. ' " Ray, ' Ray, ' Ray. " " Johnson team, " shouts a large gath- ering of Johnson supporters, earlier ar- rivals. The blare of a band is heard on the campus some distance away. The Johnson men are crowded into waiting automobiles and hurried to the scene of battle. The many men who are to compete at present are " warming up ' around the track. By his set jaw, by his determined look, and by the occasional snapping of his dark eyes, one of the athletes is easily discernable. Needless to say he is Ramon De Sabla. A death like silence prevails as the announcer lifts his megaphone and shouts: " Clear off the track. First event, 100-yard dash. " Six men line up at the start. The starter ' s pistol cracks, and they are off. In less than eleven seconds the tape is broken. Silence again as the announcer raises his megaphone : " Arson, St. Vincent, first; Dank, Johnson, second; Arthur, Johnson, third. A great cheer rends the air and the men line up for the low hurdles. Next comes the broad jump. Every event is closely contested, but Johnson is slow- ly but surely overcoming the lead of the St. Vincent ' s men. The quarter mile is run and still the tie remains unbroken. Then comes the last, the deciding event of the day, the mile run. Burrel of Johnson is confident. " Greaser, Greaser, we ' re depending on you, " hoarsely shout the St. Vincent supporters. Ramon pays no heed. Up to the starting line he walks and takes his place among the rest. The light of battle is in his eyes as he crouches down, awaiting the gun. Bang. They ' re off. Burrel jumps ahead and at the first turn he is leading. " Greaser, Greaser, " shout the St. Vin- cent men. Ramon smiles confidently and jumping ahead he dogs Burrel ' s footsteps. Now it is thud, thud, thud, thud. Both runners are saving up en- ergy for the last laps of the long, steady grind. Burrel still leads but Ramon clings to him like a leach. All eyes are upon the two foremost runners and no one sees a portly Span- ish gentleman enter the gate. He looks about and seeing the noisy crowd in the grandstand, advances to see what is going on. He at once recognizes his son behind the foremost runner. " Raijion, " he gasps unconsciously. The last lap has come. Every man in the grandstand is on his feet. " Greas- er, Greaser, come on, " shout the St. Vincent men. " Fight, Burrel, fight, " comes from the Johnson defenders. Ramon comes on — and Burrel fights. The distance between them remains the THE REDWOOD. 35 same. They round the last turn and break into the home stretch. Burrel still leads. He puts all his remaining strength into a final sprint for the tape fifty yards away. Ramon is trying with all his might and main, but the long grind has sap- ped his strength. He staggers and al- most falls. Then all of a sudden, like a thunderbolt from a clear sky, a mighty voice rings out strong and clear above the frantic cheering of the rooters: " For the honor ,of the De Sabla. " What a magical effect those words produce on Ramon. How the sound of that voice electrifies his aching limbs. Gathering together his swimming senses he starts the gamest sprint that was ever seen at St. Vincent ' s. He trav- els like the wind and overtakes the fly- ing Burrel. He passes him like a flash, and breaks the tape, the winner by inches. Pandemonium reigns complete. Ten minutes later a little group in the shower room gathered about the outstretched form of Ramon. Senor De Sabla gazed anxiously at his son ' s white face. " He ' ll be all right in a few minutes, " announced the doctor. Just then the lad ' s eyes opened. He looked around in a bewildered way. Then suddenly his brain cleared. " Did I win, did I win? " he asked excitedly. " Yes, you won, " responded a dozen ready voices. " Why were you so determined to win? " asked the doctor. Ramon jumped off the be nch. All the old Spanish pride rang in his tone, and all of the old Spanish fire biased in his eyes as he drew himself up to his full height and exclaimed : " Because I am a De Sabla, senor! " " Si Senor, " joined in the old man with a hearty voice which trembled the least bit, " Si, senor, because he is a De Sabla. " J. CHARLES MURPHY. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR ._----.. RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER -_---. HAROLD R. MCKINNON, ' 14 ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER ----- GEORGE A. NICHOLSON ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS .------. EDWARD O ' CONNOR, ' 16 ALUMNI -------- WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 UNIVERSITY NOTES ------- f. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 16 EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription. Si. SO a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL On the Past There is a certain com- and the bination and association Future of papers published in most of the principal cities of the coun- try, which is ' controlled or owned by a prominent political publicist, who hires brains to do his bidding. Any man who has his name num- bered amongst the elect in his own cer- tain line of endeavor, can readily se- cure a position, with ample compensa- tion, whether his work be cartooning or financial reports. Now, like most things on this mut- able planet, the editors dies ofif or are changed, but still, with all the unbend- ing forcefulness of the laws of gravi- tation, the " policies of the paper " re- main identically those of the owner. Indeed the saying is, that " editors may come and editors may go, but the X • goes on forever. " 36 THE REDWOOD. 37 So too with the Redwood. While we do not claim that she hires brains (for we are held by ties far stronger than things mercenary) still editors come and editors go, but our policy goes on forever. And that policy may be found at the heading of the editorial page. In short it is the prime purpose of the existence of this publication. It is brief and pertinent, running simply thus : " The object of the Redwood is to gather what is best in the literary work of the students, to record university doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the boys of the past. " This is our policy and this is our purpose. Former " staffs " and editors have done so before our time, and have done it well. Therefore with this in view we can simply say for the future that we will try to do as well as those who have labored so well in the past. Efficiency, Business methods, un- What Possi- der the moulding of bilities? changeful conditions, have been forced to examine their own internal affairs and " modus operandi. " Startling disclosures have come to light, showing waste where there should be economy, saving where there should be expenditure, and renovations where there should be innovations. A product is to be put out. Time, labor and capital are used. Perchance, there is too much capital spent, or mayhap insufficient time, or again too widely distributed laboi " , all three of which are decidedly out of proportion with the proper combination necessary to finish the article manufactured. To meet with these conditions and remedy them has become the work of a new kind of expert. In short, a new profession has sprung up to supply a very patent demand. This profession is called Efficiency Engineering, and the results obtained are marvelous. A railroad losing $1,- 500,000 a year has gained $800,000 sim- ply by having leaks stopped. A factory that was losing four foreign fields of exports per season, is gaining six. All through industry, this modern service is reviving weak pulses of com- merce and the possibilities of what it is yet to do in the economic field as well as the industrial, remains as yet uncharted. Great dreamers have come, who in after years have seen their dreams ma- terialize, and perchance the dream that this new system will enter modern poli- tics and ameliorate it, may some day cease to be a toy of Morpheus, and be- come a stern reality. Our Proper Three things are need- Position ed to constitute a well Obtained rounded American uni- versity. The first is moral stamina, the second the power to give a useful and liberal education, and third, which some will contest, a proper athletic standing. 38 THE EEDWOOD. Santa Clara has always possessed the first two ; the third, save in the line of baseball, she has never approached un- til late years. When we became a University our curriculum was changed and has been recognized by the state legislature ; our moral tone has permeated a greater number, and now, by defeating Stan- ford in the last Rugby season and los- ing to California the week or so past, by a simple " break of kick " and three points, we have placed ourselves upon the athletic map to stay. It has been a long uphill fight of some three years to do it, but now that the fact is accomplished— here ' s hop- ing that future teams, with true Santa Clara " pep " will keep us there. After reviewing our numerous con- temporaries which have accumulated on our desk since commencement week, it is with a genuine feeling of satisfac- tion produced by the high character of their general contents that we venture the following remarks . Our critical at- titude has always been dictated by a spirit of friendliness and mutual help ; we shall judge our fellow contemporar- ies as we should wish them to judge us — pointing out whatever offends good taste, without ignoring that which must be praiseworthy in all honest literary efifort. The Marquette For June is among the University first to solicit our atten- Joumal tion. Garbed in an at- tractive front cover, it is equally inter- esting from beginning to end. Though in this number we miss the Journal ' s usual array of verse, " The Sancturay Lamp " has a delicate harmony running through its three stanzas which is not unworthy of a less prosaic theme. " Na- tional Life and World Peace, " is a well thought-out and ambitious address, but like all written briefs on momen- tous questions intended for delivery, it fails as a written composition to arouse that interest which its author may only call forth from his immediate au- ditory. The broad portentous subject of world peace as it affects the numerous races which constitute th e American nation can therefore hardly be ade- quately expounded in the form of a brief intended for an address to a uni- versity audience. The brief, as far as it goes into the subject of world peace, recommends itself to interest only by reason of the writer ' s lucid style and ar- rangement. But we should gently re- buke his generous enthusiasm by re- minding him that though international arbitration is eminently desirable, as promoting the bests interests of univer- sal peace and civilization, yet its ad- vocacy (as he intimates) does not pre- clude that national preparedness for war, which in the last analysis, must necessarily determine international con- troversies which from their very nature can not be submitted to arbitration. Mr. Schuttler is blamelessly fascinated by 39 40 THE REDWOOD. the visions of " universal brotherhood . " or he would never have overlooked what is as old as human nature, that na- tional dispute involving the honor and vital interests of great and powerful states, when failing of a happy issue after all peaceful solutions have been exhausted, must and can only be ad- justed by resort to arms. For May tells us " today . „ we see this militarism I Campion displayed on all sides. Germany has but lately appropriated $260,000,000 in excess of her regular program for this purpose, to be expend- ed during the next four years. France has voted a similar amount. " We cannot therefore be of the same mind with him, though we have a warm sympathy also for world-wide peace. We cannot see any practical fallacy in the well-established maxim " in time of peace, prepare for war. " Among the other contributions to the Journal is the " prize oration " which shows up well not only the legal grasp of the writer in getting at the real root of a well-defined evil of our present day, but also shows a high standard in the law department of the university. The Williams ' For April, taken all in Literary all, in its neat appear- Monthly ance and refreshing contents, deserves mention amongst the best exchanges that are before us. The essay on " The Artistic Temperament. " though short, is well written, energetic and full of truth. Our only regret after reading it, is that it is far too brief. On the other hand, " The Chinese Repub- lic, " lacks the facts that are necessary to support its broad statements. Such statements are permissible in news items, but in a well analyzed essay, of the political kind, one inevitably ex- pects something more than effects. Ef- fects have their causes. Every well in- formed person is aware of the deplor- able state of affairs in China, but very few can guess the real causes of this condition, without some diligent re- search. " William ' s " poetic taste ingen- iously fills up space left vacant by lack of advertisements, or perhaps to make this dry section more attractive by interspersing the gems of poesy with the dross of price lists and labels. In either case we have to praise to " Lit " Williams ' imaginative business head. for May has a true liter- The D ' Youville ary atmosphere. In its abundance of tasty fruits and morsels, the palate of the most fastidious will find an intellectual repast for the idle hour. Those music- ally inclined will like the short story of " The White Rose, " even if " Mon- sieur Morveaux " is a music master of almost " repulsive looks " and even though he holds poor Margaret ' s atten- tion " as a snake does the small animal it charms. " " The Fool in ' King Lear ' " is a happy hit upon a novel way of THE REDWOOD. 41 viewing most intimately the grand old king. Ever since we can remember the fool has been kept in utter darkness while the spotlight of opinionists and critics has been lighting up the drama- tis personae. The following call for favorable comment: " Reforming the Theatre, " " The Poor Man of Assisi, " " The Paddock and the Painter, " " The Siren of the Aar, " " An Indian Reverie " and " The Parting of the Ways. " ti-KT t rw for June graces our " Notre Dame , , , . 1 M desk and was among Quarterly " ,u c . . n . the first to call our at- tention; nor were we disappointed. The interesting account of Bishop Han- na ' s visit to our valley is well gotten up; and the Quarterly publishes a beautiful poem of welcome to His Lordship which we cannot help repeat- ing in part: In the glow of the springtide glory, To the Land of Sun and Song, To the land of the brown-robed Padres, Where myriad memories throng. Of romance rivaling in glamor The wondrous tales of old, Have thousands bidden you welcome! Have thousands the story told. Of their leal and loving homage. Of their fealty proud and true, In pledging their faith and service. Our Honored Guest, to you; In words that ring clear the changes Of melody myriad-toned. Of the highest, noblest emotion That our human speech has owned. " The PleightLi, " home of Joaquin Miller, gives an interesting account of the poet ' s picturesque home life and will prove a source of pleasure to the large host of " his admirers. The deli- cate little poem, entitled " Humanity ' s Crimson Roses " shows the true poetic sentiment of the author ' s ideal. " The George- for April, is full of good town College literary readables as Journal " ever before. Neither amongst prose nor poems can we read- ily pick a choice. The editorial article on " Secular Education And Otherwise " has good strength in it. There is a def- inite call for such articles, and we trust that our contemporary will not cease firing. Another timely article is the essay on " The Advent of the Taking Motion Pictures. " It is a bit pessimistic but on the whole makes its points tell- ingly despite this obvious drawback. We wish also to mention the perspic- uous essay on " The Builder, " from the same promising pen. Another good ar- ticle is the essay " On Magazines. " As to the verse, we have a decided prefer- ence for " Relapsus Calami. " " The Ig natian " for June has a wealth of readable and instructive matter besides an abun- dance of verses. " Pragmatism and Common Sense, " and " The Oldest Commonwealth " are, by far, the best essays of their kind we have so far read in this review of our neighbors. " Want- 42 THE REDWOOD. ed a Millionaire, " is a very entertaining stort story and together with the poem " Pulchra ut Luna " relieve the reader ' s attention from the more ' " brainy " arti- cles. Limited space does not permit us to expatiate on the merits of our remain- ing contemporaries, for which we are very grateful. These are : " The Tat- tler, " " The Campion, " " The Spect- rum, " " The Victorian, " " The Occi- dent, " " The Pacific Star, " " The Lau- rel, " " The Columbia, " " The Academia, " " The University of Tennessee Maga- zine, " " The Holy Cross Purple, " " The Solanian, " " The Whitworthian, " " The Ephebeum, " " The Mount Angel, " " The Villa Marian, " " The Catholic Junior, " " Ave Maria, " and many others. Summer past, the stu- Prospects dent finds himself on the threshold of anoth- er scholastic year. Perhaps he won- ders what it contains for him. Let him weigh carefully his decision in regard to the disposition of his time. In the balance is a great result, for it is dur- ing this formative period that the foundation of his life ' s work is to be laid. Despite the numerous changes in the faculty and the multitude of unfamiliar faces about the yard, we feel that the atmosphere of congenial gooklfellow- ship — the presence of the co-operative spirit, so necessary for the welfare of an institution of this nature, is not lack- ing. The mention of this vital requisite, namely co-operation, brings to mind the duty imposed o n every member of the resident body concerning the support of our college magazine. The Redwood is edited and written by the students. Being their own organ, it has their best interests ever at heart. It therefore justly demands their unswerving loyal- ty and support, not only as regards literary contributions (without which it could not exist), but also in a finan- cial way, by maintaining and enlarging its circulation. It makes its appearance on the desks of numerous contemporaries, there to be critically judged, and accepted as representative of the school whose name adorns its cover. Accordingly, The Redwood stafiE summons your loyal and unselfish sup- port, confident that with the proper amount of encouragement it can pro- duce a book which will merit the re- spect of our contemporaries in the field of journalism, one that from cover to cover will worthily represent our be- loved Alma Mater. The New President We welcome our new president. Father Wal- ter Francis Thornton. An old student of Santa Clara in the early eighties and afterwards vice-pres- ident, there will be few problems for which he will not have a solution. We know already that we will like our new President and we wish him from our hearts a very pleasant rule. 43 44 THE REDWOOD. Father Morton, a for- The Vice- Director of Studies, President returns as Vice-Presi- dent and Director of Discipline. Most of us remember him from his last term and have already experienced his kind- ness in many ways. We have missed other familiar faces. Father Laherty, Father Conlon, Father Boesch and Father Wall are at Pough- keepsie, N. Y., for a year of ascetic work. Mr. Butler, Mr. Ivancovich, Mr. Vaughan are at Spokane doing their philosophy. Mr. Ryan and Mr. O ' Brien are at Woodstock preparing for ordina- tion to the priesthood. Our good wish- es and gratitude follow them all. We have first to men- Departures tion the real loss we have sustained in los- ing our President, Father James P. Morrissey. We had got to love him more as we knew him better, and none of us but regretted the serious ill- ness that caused his resignation. We always felt we had a real friend in the President who would understand every petition and rule for our good in every request. We know that the immense changes in the campus, the new build- ings, the inception of the University will cause him to be remembered among the great presidents of Santa Clara, but we think that there was a something more that will cause him to live in the heart of every man who was under his influence as an inspiration towards all that was right and noble. Father Morrissey will appreciate this last factor of his administration as of even more importance than the former. At least to our mind he seemed to think most of us and of our progress and happiness. It is needless to add that we hope for him a speedy return to strength and health. We are sorry too at losing Father Burke, our Director of Discipline. Years of experience had taught him all that is worth knowing of human nature as boys shape it, but his knowledge never seemed to make him a pessimist. If there is one quality we found in him that we like to remember it was his ab- solute desire to be just and " square. " In his position we often met him when we were wrong. But we were never finally wrong until we were proved so. There was always a lesson in this line of action for us and Father Burke must have felt that in the yard everyone was his friend even when lines were numer- ous and privileges were forfeited. We hear he is Prefect of Discipline in Seat- tle College and were we not magnanim- ous we would envy the student-body there. Football Rally The Varsity football team, which plays such an important part in our athletic activities, is now well launched on what is very evidently to be a highly successful season. With a team consisting of the finest aggrega- THE REDWOOD. 45 tion of athletes to be found anywhere, a most auspicious outlook, and that in- valuable asset on the part of the stu- dent body, best described by the popu- lar term, " pep, " Santa Clara undoubted- ly has a long succession of triumphs in store for her. The presence of the last- named factor was clearly demonstrated at the rally held on the night of Octo- ber tenth. A number of speeches were made. Among the speakers were Fath- er Eline, athletic moderator; Student Body President Rodney Yoell and Cap- tain Guy Voight of the. Varsity fifteen. All had abundant praise for the excel- lent work of the team in the preceding games of the year, and all commented favorably on the enthusiasm shown by the student body in general. Later a huge bonfire was built in the inner campus. A serpentine around the blaze preceded a most enjoyable dance in Senior Hall. Dancing was inter- spersed with several " stunts " by some of the yard ' s talent. Perhaps the most unique of these was a speech made by a certain Oriental gentleman, whose head was swathed in a huge bandage much awry. He was joined in his ef- forts by a fellow countryman, and the dialogue which ensued was distinctly amusing. The identity of the myster- ious Nipponese has existed consider- able comment, and local sleuths are busy with clues. The spirit displayed on this occasion has not been surpassed in several years and it is a certainty that with a con- tinuance of this whole-hearted loyalty the teams cannot fail to maintain the standard of their past perfomances and the glory of the school. An account of the ex- The Band tremely successful rally would scarcely be com- plete were mention of the band omit- ted. A considerable amount of credit must be given to its members and its directors, E. J. Cunningham, S. J., and Professor S. J. Mustol, formerly cornet soloist with Sousa ' s world famous mu- sicians. Both directors and members have devoted a great deal of time and energy to this work, and considering the short time since its organization, the results achieved have been most creditable. Student Body The . rst student body Meeting " .eetmgof the year was held on September 5th. President Rodney A. Yoell made the initial address of his incumbency in a forceful speech on the nature and gen- eral tone of his policy. The student body is indeed fortunate in having a man, such as Yoell at its head, to labor ceaselessly for its best interests. After the numerous new members had been fittingly welcomed, several matters of business import were dis- cussed. The principal one related to the purchase of a piano by the students. This was authorized by a vote, and a committee was appointed to carry out the resolution. 46 THE REDWOOD. The meeting was well attended, and the members enthusiastic. It might be well to remember that the monthly student body meeting presents to us what is practically our sole opportunity to take part in the administration of our affairs. Possessing as it does, an efficient, talented and practical worker at its head, it must assuredly accom- plish great things for the students. Yoell is a natural leader and the stu- dent body is indeed to be congratulated on its choice. It is to be hoped that while in the chair he will continue his brilliant and enviable record as a schol- ar and as a practical man of affairs. Piano The new piano, recently purchased by the stu- dent body, supplies a long felt want; an assertion proven by the fact that it is one of the most popu- lar features of Senior Hall. Wooers of Terpsichore may now press their suit at will ; while those whom the spirit moves to bring forth sweet (or slightly bitter-sweet) concords of sound, find a medium of expression awaiting them. It is the property of the students them- selves. This should be kept in mind, and treatment accorded it should bear witness to the fact. Among the youthful so- J. D. S. Ions, the ever popular J. D. S. is once more the scene of lofty flights of oratory, and mighty verbal controversies. The ef- forts of its members are to be com- mended, for here are the embryo de- baters who later will grace the ros- trums of the Senate and House. The election of officers was held at the initial meeting. Father Whelan presides over this grave body. Three interesting debates have been held at the meetings, with many more to fol- low. In keeping with the Poolroom progressive spirit so much in evidence, Fitz- patrick and Twohy, the genial manag- ers of the billard parlor, have added a new table to their equipment. These gentlemen are now in a position to ful- ly accommodate the numerous cue ex- perts desiring an opportunity to display their ability. Institute One of the happiest of Law — strokes of our former Judge Richards president. Father Mor- rissey consisted in getting Judge Rich- ards to consent to undertake the work of organizing and presiding over the new practice court of the Law School. A fitter man for the position could scarcely be found in the State of Cali- fornia. Graduating from the Univer- sity of the Pacific in 1877 and from the Law School of the University of Mich- igan in the class of 1879, Mr. Richards continued to reside and practice in San Jose until he was elected to the super- ior judgeship of the County of Santa THE REDWOOD. 47 Clara. Nor were his energies directed solely to the dry study of the law. He has followed the advice of Rufus Choate who held that the lawyer after a thor- ough view of the whole field of law should turn again to the literary stud- ies of college days to glean from them the ready tongue and human sympathy that would make the best-rounded, well-balanced advocate. Through the columns of the local press he made him- self known as a forceful writer of edit- orials as well as a graceful essayist and a poet of great charm. His work as a lecturer too has attracted a good deal of attention and nothing shows better the wide range of his mental activities than the titles of some of his more re- cent lectures: " The Legal Aspect of the Trial of Jesus " and " The Historic St. Paul. " During the years of his service on the bench he had been spending much of his vacations in relieving the crowd- ed calendars of other courts. Such pub- lic spiritedness naturally marked him out for higher places and hence short- ly after the death of Judge Hall, Judge Richards was appointed ' by Governor Johnson to succeed the deceased on the bench of the District Court of Appeals for the First District of California. The change in his duties just mentioned, making it necessary for Judge Richards to spend much of his time in San Fran- cisco, it became impossible for him to continue to preside over the regular ses- sions of the University practice court, and hence on his suggestion, Mr. Will- iam A. Beasly of the San Jose bar, who had been appointed to succeed Judge Richards in the Superior Court of San- ta Clara County, was asked by Father President to continue the work. We are happy to say, however, that while Judge Richards has been forced by his duties to forego the regular work of the Superior Court of the University, he still retains a very lively interest in its operation and will regularly organize and conduct the appellate court when the cases now in the Superior Court shall be ready for appeal. We heartily congratulate Judge Richards on his well deserved eleva- tion and hope that his present post will be but a stepping stone to the highest judicial station in the gift of the people. " The Superior Court of the Univer- sity of Santa Clara " was formally or- ganized on Monday evening September 7th by Honorable John E. Richards, then of the Superior Court of San Jose, but now of the District Court of Ap- peals for the First Appellate District of California. The following members of the senior class were admitted to prac- tice on signing the roll of attorneys : Frank S. Boone; Lawrence Archer Bowden, B. S. ' 10 (Univ. of Cal.) ; Roy A. Bronson, A. M., ' 13; John J. Jones, A. B., ' 08; Albert J. Newlin, B. S. ' 13; Harry W. McGowan, A. B., ' 13; Ed- ward White, A. B., 13; Stephen M. White, A. B., 13; Thos. J. Riordan, A. M., ' 12. Mr. John J. Jones was made clerk of the court, a position for which 48 THE REDWOOD. his experience in the county clerk ' s of- fice for some time past has well fitted him. Mr. Emil O. Coschina and Mr. John Concannon, both second-year men were respectively appointed bailiff and notary public. Members of the first and second year classes have been al- lotted as clients to the different law firms. For several sessions Court was held in the law library, but now it convenes every Monday at 8 p. m. in a room set apart for the purpose and furnished with the usual court fixtures. Much en- thusiasm is manifested in this portion of the work of the law school especially as the policy outlined by Judge Rich- ards and now being carried out by his successor, Judge Beasly, includes not merely arguments on moot questions of law, but also the actual conduct of causes with its attendant trials of fact. The Dean of the Insti- Lectures tute of Law has initiat- ed a series of brief monthly addresses to stimulate the rap- idly increasing students under his charge. The first is given below: ATTENTION. Sir Isaac Newton when asked how he came to discover the great principle of the attraction of the earth for all bodies around it, replied : " By constant- ly thinking about it. " In other words a new era in science, a great leap forward, sprang from the concentrated and prolonged attention of one man, to ascertain the reason for a simple fact, namely why an apple fell from a tree. It did not satisfy him to say that of course it must come down. He knew that the direction which was " down " to him was at the same mo- ment " up " to one on the opposite side of the globe and would be " up " to him twelve hours later, when the earth had made half a revolution. So it was ob- vious that " down " meant toward the earth ; " up " away from it, and constant and continued reflection upon these and similar facts produced an invalu- able result. With the intellectual growth of the world and the great increase of popu- lation, there has come a multitude of men capable of the highest degree of attention. This is the age of attention and therefore it is the age of wonders. Men fly in the air, higher and faster and farther than the hawk or the eagle. Through the magic of the pres- ent the voice of a babe can be heard hundreds of miles though many walls and motmtains intervene and thunder- ous noises fill half the space. Though we have never seen them, we are famil- iar with the voice of Nordica and of Caruso and the strains of Kubelik ' s violin. Great orators rehearse their most eloquent speeches to us and the most famous bands and orchestras de- light our ears when we will and as long as we will and all this happens by the touch of a little lever. Even the do- mains of nature have been infringed up- THE REDWOOD. 49 on. The cactus has been rob ' bed of its spines, the orange of its seeds. How does Burbank work his semi-miracles? By close and long-continued attention to the laws of nature. But the greatest magician of any age since the world be- gan, is Edison, and he is the great apos- tle of attention. As a telegrapher it was his marvelous power of attention which first brought him into notice. Yet des- pite this natural aptitude, whenever he felt that he was nearing a discovery of great moment, he shut himself off, sometimes for a week, from his family, closed out the world and scarcely slept or ate until the end was achieved. Of course such men must have talent, but between men of equal talent the suc- cess of one and the failure of the other comes often solely from the attention which the winner in life ' s contest brings to his work. The fame of Paderewski has made his name familiar in every part of the earth and many no doubt suppose that his proficiency as a pianist came by inspiration. Yet it is said, that as a student, he seemed at first a dull and clumsy performer, and his teachers were for a long time hopeless of his fu- ture. The only one whose confidence never wavered was himself. He felt that by ceaseless attention he could over- come all obstacles, and he did. The amount of work which he did willingly every day, not merely to reach the loft- iest heights in his profession, but also to retain his eminence when he had gained it, is almost incredible. In the very zenith of his fame it is said he practised ten hours or more every day. His attention was thus kept fixed upon all the little details which go to make up perfection. Napoleon, being asked what was the chief attribute of a great general, re- plied : " The capacity for attention to detail. " Attention to what secures ex- cellence is a distinguishing feature of greatness in every occupation. A friend called upon Michael Angelo. A couple of weeks later he came again. " You have done no work upon the statue since I last called, " he said. " Oh, yes, " said the sculptor, " I have changed the expression of the eyes. I have added firmness to the chin. I have given char- acter to the face as a whole. " " But these matters are trifles — " " Perhaps, " was the retort, " but it is attention to trifles that makes perfection, and per- fection is no trifle. " Attention, with many at least, is largely an acquired faculty which may be said to spring from the earnestness of desire. Let the curiosity be intense- ly aroused to learn certain facts and the narration which satisfies that curiosity will make a deep impression and will ibe vividly remembered. For the same reason a student advances most rapid- ly in the studies which please him best and is sometimes a dullard in those which do not interest him. The masses of mankind are content to give an in- termittent attention and to doze in the intervals, and this can bring nothing better than a commonplace and ques- tionable reward. The first point for 50 THE REDWOOD. consideration is the capacity for atten- tion and the best means of fostering it, developing it and bringing it to perfec- tion. If a student will give to his work the same concentrated thought which he gives to his play, the fruits of his wisdom will quickly become apparent. He must never mix his work with his play, nor his play with his work. If he is the short stop in a baseball game and sees a ball coming hot from the bat, his mind will not wander off into a consideration of some intricate problem in geometry, but the same student in the class room, instead of having all the powers of his mind fixed upon the work at hand is, perhaps, often won- dering why Barton should have been such an idiot as to throw the ball to second, instead of to first. The hour of play is over, but his mind is still at play and thereby he is disappointing his parents, disappointing his teachers and disappointing his own ambitions. Un- less a student comes out of college with a trained capacity for attention not only does he start upon his career without sufficient knowledge, but he is also lacking in an essential equipment for the practical functions of life. There is nothing more important for success at the bar than an alert, keen and constant attention. Attention to the tale of the client ; to the words and manner of the judge and the opposing attorney; to the demeanor of the jury. There is nothing more important for the physician and the surgeon than a perfect attention to appearances and symptoms, for on this rests the accu- racy of his diagnosis. In every line of life attention is indispensable to ad- vancement, and all of you young men who are seeking knowledge that you may avoid being hewers of wood and drawers of water should acquire that element of success here and now. You have the necessary intelligence. Have also the wisdom and good judgment to acquire the habit of attention, without which your intelligence will bear little fruit. " ' rt t nr. r . SANTA CLARA, 13; ST. IGNATIUS, 3 The University of Santa Clara Rugby team initiated its season in first-class fashion by contesting for the long end of the score with the St. Ignatius All-Stars. Of the two halves the first was far more sensational and Rugbyish. The Santa Clarans could not have execut- ed a more perfect passing rush than when the ball going through the hands of Voight, Benny Fitzpatrick and Mil- burn, went over to Meadows for the first try of the day. Hardy converted. At the beginning of the first halt the St. Ignatians tried hard to score, but on the 25-yard line Stewart punted safely to touch at midfield. Here Cap- tain Voight received the pigskin and quickly passed to Shipsey, who in turn passed to Milburn and from Milburn the ball went to Meadows and back again to Voight for a try. Hardy again converted. The only scoring done by the St. Ig- natius team was accomplished in this half, when Noonan picked the ball from the scrum at the five-yard line and car- ried it over for a try. In the second . half the Mission boys also got away with some very good passing, but could not force the ball over the line, the only score being made when B. Fitzpatrick got the ball and carried it for fifteen yards over the line. Hardy, who had kicked the two previous goals, failed in his attempt. The stars of the game were : Mead- ows, B. Fitzpatrick, J. Fitzpatrick, Stewart and Voight for Santa Clara; while Noonan, Michaels and Guerin proved heavy gainers for St. Ignatius. The teams lined up as follows: Santa Clara — O ' Connor, fullback; Hardy, left wing; Meadows, right wing Milburn, center three-quarters ; Curtin, first five-eighths; Ahern, Shipsey, sec- 51 52 THE REDWOOD. ond five-eighths; Schultz, half; B. Fitz- patrick, forward; Gihnan, forward, Kiely, lock ; Stewart, forward ; Voight, breakaway; J. Fitzpatrick, breakaway; Martin, forward ; Coschina, forward. St. Ignatius — Comstock, full back; Upchurch, left wing; Michaels, right wing; Evans, center three-quarters; Hicks, first five-eighths; R. Noonan, second five-eighths ; Warren, half back ; Flarrington, forward ; J. Noonan, for- ward; White, lock; Murphy, forward; Williamson, breakaway; Keating, breakaway; Guerin, forward; Carrol, forward. Referees — Schaup and Bronson. SANTA CLARA, 15; STANFORD SEC. VARSITY, With the forwards continually fol- lowing the ball and feeding it to their speedy backfield, the University easily defeated the Stanford Second Varsity by a score of 15 to 0. Immediately after the kick-ofif the Cardinals threatened to score, but ' .he plucky fighting of the forwards carried the ball to the Stanford 10-yard line. Here a free kick was awarded Stanford, bringing the play out of danger. In a passing rush in which all the Santa Clara back field figured, Ybar- rondo passed to Milburn, who scored. Ybarronda converted at a difficult an- gle. The first half ended with the Stanford boys defending their goal line At the opening of the second half, Hardy kicked to Knight, who returned it by finding touch at midfield. Here the Cardinals dribbled the ball to the Santa Clara five-yard line and were pre- paring to score, when Curtin intercept- ed a pass from Hollister. Curtin quick- ly passed to Milburn, who broke through the Stanford backs. Betterton caught him on the 20-yard line, but Kardy was on hand to receive the pass, and scored. Ybarrondo easily convert- ed. The Cardinal team again threatened to score, when Ybarrondo, picking the ball from a ruck snappily passed to Mil- burn who kicked the ball to the center of the field. He ran down on it, and dribbled it through Detels and kicking it over the goal line fell on it. Ybarron- do made his third conversion. Ybar- rondo ' s kicking to touch and the speed of the Santa Clara breakaways were great ofifsets to the Cardinal ' s attacks. The teams lined up as folows : Stanford Second Varsity- — Detels, full back; McMillan, wing; Warren Long, Wing; Bacon, center three-quar- ters; Hollister, Longmire, first five- eighths; Davis, second five-eighths; Burns, half, Bedeau, Sundstrom, right breakaway; Worthy, Vanderburg, left breakaway; Witaker, S.wanson, Clark, Fife, Sopier, Jacomini, Betterton, Knight, forwards. Santa Clara — O ' Connor, Soto, full back; Meadows and Hardy, wings ; Mil- burn, center three-quarters; Curtin, first five-eighths; Ybarrondo, second five-eighths; Harkins and Schultz, half; Voight, right breakaway; J. Fitz- THE REDWOOD. 53 patrick, left breakaway; Kiely, Gilman, Vejar, Coschina, B. Fitzpatrick, Martin, Quill, forwards. Referee— J. O. Miller. SANTA CLARA, 6; OLYMPIC CLUB, On Sunday, September 29th, the Olympic club ruggers, elated over their victory of the previous week from the Stanford Varsity, journeyed to Santa Clara with the full intention of " wallop- ping " the Mission lads. How their in- tentions were thwarted may be easily observed from the score. Ybarrondo kicked off against an ex- ceedingly strong wind and Haley re- turned to touch. Then a series of scrums and dribbling rushes mixed in with a couple of clever kicks by Har- kins and Ybarrondo kept the ball in the Olympic territory for some time. However the high wind told and upon kicking into the air the ball continually soared far into Santa Clara territory. The Red and White, however, put up an impregnable defense and forced back the repeated onslaughts of the Winged O kickers. Shortly before half time was up, B. Fitzpatrick picked the ball up after a short dribbling rush, and made a beautiful run for 35 yards. Com- stock in an attempt to tackle him re- ceived a hard straight arm for his ef- forts. The angle was a very difficult one and Ybarrondo failed. The second half proved a surprise to the Collegians who were expected to be greatly aided by the strong gale, and if anything the fight in this half was even more strenuous. Repeated at- tacks by the clubmen drove the ball into Santa Clara territory, but Ram- age, Ybarrondo and O ' Connor ' s gratify- ing kicks and tackles and the stop- ping of rushes by others were enough to withstand the pressure. Finally the Red and White, by su- perior playing, carried the ball within the shadow of the posts, where it re- mained. The backfield did not engage in any passing rushes as the wind, carrying the ball in every direction, made it impossible, thus confining the game almost entirely to the forwards. Nevertheless, Flarkins, Ybarrondo, Ramage, Curtin and Meadows won merited praise at different intervals for really excellent plays. A few moments before the end of the second half, from a free kick award- ed for an off side play by Haley, Ybar- rondo booted a nice goal, annexing the additional three points. Time was call- ed with the ball in midfield and Santa Clara quickly found touch ending the i)itterly fought contest. On repeated occasions injuries re- sulted to the Winged O players. Our old friend, Joe Noonan suffered a sprained ankle. We are glad to hear he is better. Best and Stoltz played magnificent ball in the back field, while Haley, Shor and Guerran were the stars of the for- wards ; Captain Voight, the Fitzpat- ricks. Quill, Gilman and Stewart per- formed remarkably for ourselves. 54 THE REDWOOD. SANTA CLARA VARSITY 54; INSURRECTOS " Insurrectos " is a highly appropriate name for a bunch of hard fighting Rug- by players, but the squad who journey- ed from San Francisco to engage in a scheduled game with the University last Sunday failed to uphold the honor of such a name. Before three minutes had elapsed Captain Voight picked the ball from the ruck and made a great run through the visitors ' backfield, scoring. Ybar- rondo failed to convert. The speed of the backfield again was demonstrated when the entire backfield was participating in a wonderful pass- ing rush. Hardy scored. Owing to the strong wind Y ' barrondo again failed to place the balls between the posts. On the 25-yard line Coschina received the ball from the line out and with the entire scrum at his back carried the ball over the line. Ybarrondo converted and the score stood: Stanta Clara, 11; Insurrectos, 0. Trys in the second half were too nu- merous to give the particular plays, resulting in scores. Milburn scored three tii:ies; Captain Voight twice in succession; Kiely, Curtin, Ramage, Benny Fitzpatrick and Ybarrondo all scoring as fast as such a feat can be possible. Big Mike Kiely was the particular star of the forwards, scoring twice him- self after long runs, dribbling in great fashion. For the visitors Christie, Soto and Hayden starred. The teams lined up as follows : Insurrectos — Ahern, full back; Roche, Fowler and Christiansen, front rank; Wren and Christie, second rank; Miller, lock; Comstock and Lenord, breakaway,; Evans, first five-eighths; Hayden, second five-eighths; Tobin, center three-quarters; Williamson, right wing; Soto, left wing. Santa Clara — Jackson, full back; B. Fitzpatrick, Oilman, Vejar, front rank; Stewart, Coschina, second rank; Kiely, lock; J. Fitzpatrick and Voight, break- away; Tommy Ybarrondo, first five- eighths; Ramage, second five-eighths; Milburn and Concannon, center three- quarters; Curtin, right wing; Meadows, Hardy, left wing. Referee — Quill. S. C. SECOND VARSITY, 3; STANFORD FRESHMEN, 3 On October 8, the Santa Clara Sec- ond Varsity journeyed to Palo Alto where they lined up against the Stan- ford Freshmen. The game, while it was not a victory for either fifteen, was altogether a San- ta Clara affair. Time and time again the Mission backfield started by Rudie Schultz ' s fine passes knocked upon the Stanford line. Unfortunate fumbles at crucial moments cost the Red and White scores. Immediately after the kick off Schultz secured the ball from the scrum on the 25-yard line, and dodging the entire Freshman back field placed the THE REDWOOD. 55 ball squarely between the posts. Con- cannon failed to convert. Just before time the babies fighting desperately, fought their way to the Santa Clara 5-yard line, where Boul- ware carried the ball over, but before he could touch it down Watson and Ve- jar, aided by the forwards, carried him bodily away from the line. From a scrum the Santa Clara forwards, led by Twohy, hroke through and relieved the pressure by dribbling to midfield. The second half was more hotly con- tested and the Stanford forwards bit- terly contested every inch. But when the ball went to the backs, the babies were weak, chiefly because the Santa Clara forwards were conti nually break- ing through and smothering them. With a minute to play Williams of the babies scored from a five-yard scrum. Referee Dingley ' s decision was questionable as it seemed as if the Car- dinal player picked the ball from the ruck. West failed to convert. Twohy, Watson, Donahue, Ginnochio, Aurre- coechea, Concannon and Vejar played great Rugby for Santa Clara, while West, Holston and Williams played ag- gressive ball for the babies. UNIVERSITY OF S. C, 3; UNIVERSITY OF CAL., 5 In one of the most exciting and hard- est fought contests ever witnessed at Berkeley, the University of California defeated the University of Santa Clara by a score of 5 to 3. On the kick-off California took the ball and securing the jump from the start dribbled the ball twenty yards to Santa Clara ' s 25-yard line. They were fighting hard and took ad- vantage of a misplay, which awar ded them a free kick on our fifteen-yard line. Captain Peart, the University of California ' s stellar performer of the day converted an easy goal. Santa Clara strengthened here and the work was differeiit. They were continually securing the ball from the scrum and on repeated occasions start- ed many thrilling rushes, which sur- prised the spectators. In one of the prettiest plays of the year, B. Fitzpatrick, J. Fitzpatrick, Captain Voight and Meadows, passed the ball with the speed of a bullet and Milburn caught the leather from the fleeting Meadows and scored. From a very difficult angle Ybar- rondo failed in his attempt to convert. During the remainder of the first half the backs worked like a machine and fighting desperately carried the ball into the California territory when the gun sounded. In the second half Schultz replaced at half Harkins, who had received a severe blow over the ear, and he was a star in getting the ball from the scrum, but the continual offside plays by the California breakaways prevented him from passing it out to the Santa Clara back. Time after time, during this half the great head work of O ' Connor spoiled 56 THE REDWOOD. California ' s opportunity to score. The California players were desperately de- fending their goal line during this half, and a minute before the final gun sounded, the California forwards start- ed a dribbling rush, headed by Abrams who dribbled it over the line and fell upon it. Captain Peart missed a hard goal. The forwards of the two teams were evenly matched in offensive ability and on the defense, but in the scrum work, Gilman, B. Fitzpatrick and Quill show- ed up to great advantage. Quill hooked the ball on nearly every occas- sion from McKim, who was consider- ed the best hooker on the Pacific coast last season by the California Rugby union. The stars of the game were many, but Ybarrondo, Meadows, B. Fitzpat- rick, Quill, Ramage and Curtin fea- tured most for Santa Clara while Peart, McKim, Bogardus, Drake and Hazel- tine were most in the limelight for Cal- ifornia. The teams lined up as follows : Santa Clara — Curtin, Meadows and Hardy, wings; Ramage, second five- eighths; Ybarrondo, first five-eighths; Milburn, center three-quarters; Hark- ins, Schultz, half; O ' Connor and Con- caAnon, full; B. Fitzpatrick, Quill, Kiely, Gilman, Coschina, Stewart, for- wards; Voight and J. Fitzpatrick, breakaway. University of California — Hunt, Meyer and Hayes, wings; Peart, second five-eighths; Hazeltine, second five- eighths; Lane, center three-quarters; Canfield, half; Bogardus and Drake, full; McKim, H. King, Crane, Abrams, Douglas, Shaw, Hoskins, Fleming, Brant, forwards; W. King, Saunders and Fish, breakaways. Referee — Palmer Fuller. RUGBY. The commencement of the 1913 Rug- by season 6f the university found fifty young aspirants striving for positions on the Varsity. Under the able guid- ance of Captain Voight the team has quickly rounded into shape, and pros- pects were never brighter for a record year. Great credit is due to our athletic moderator. Father Kline, and Graduate Manager Roy Bronson, for the fine schedule of games they have secured for the Varsity. Among the games which are creating great excitement on the campus are : Stanford Varsity at Palo Alto on Wed- nesday, October 29th, and the All- Blacks at Santa Clara, Wednesday, No- vember, 12th. The annual game between Nevada and Santa Clara is scheduled to be play- ed in Reno on November 8th, and re- ports from members of the Nevada in- stitution say the game is attracting much attention since Reno is the center of athletic activities of the state. THE REDWOOD. 57 NEW ZEALANDERS AT THE UNIVERSITY. Two of the members of the All-Black New Zealand Rugby team, George Sel- lars and David Grey, journeyed down from Stanford recently, and kindly con- sented to give the Missiohites any pointers they desired regarding the English game. Sellars has a world-wide reputation as a forward and his instructive re- marks were attentively listened to by the forwards. Grey is a backfield player renowned for his clever tactics tackling, and in passing the ball, using the dummy pass to great advantage. They both spoke highly of the team and gave particular praise to the work of the backfield. On Monday, the 20th, Captain Mc- Donald and R. Roberts spent the afternoon with the team. We find it hard to express our gratitude for the generosity which showed itself in these visits. Our admiration of their knowl- edge of the game and the intuition with which all these gentlemen seem to play will last a long time. JUNIOR NOTES. September saw a goodly squad of the younger members of the University togged out in Rugby attire and before long rumors of " some team " began to be heard about the campus. In High School circles the same opin- ion seems to prevail. This very likely accounts for the reluctance shown by some in arranging for games. Evident- ly the Juniors are not considered- an easy leam to get by on the way to foot- ball supremacy. However, some games have been played with very gratifying results. At WatsonviUe ihe superior weight of the High school players proved of little ad- vantage against our light, but speedy team. Though the score would seem to indicate a close game yet only twice did VVatsonville have an opportunity as during the greater part of the game tliey found plenty to do keeping the Juniors ' backs away from their own goal. Both halves brought points for Santa Clara. Winston we it under the post in the first half and Blinn scored far out in the second on a very clever passing rush. The next game proved a better exhi- bition of Rugby, due to the greater knowledge on the part of the San Ma- teo High of Rugby tactics. A high wind favored the peninsular team dur- ing the half, only one try resulting from the first twenty-five minutes of strenuous endeavor. But with it at their back the Juniors swooped over their opponents ' line three times and raised the score to 15 on a penalty kick . Of last year ' s team, Captain Ginno- chio, Jackson and Amaral play great Rugby, and with more weight and years they should have valuable men for the 58 THE REDWOOD. Varsity. Of some of the new members the same can be said. Winston, Dodd, Donahue, J. Fitzpatrick, Day and Dodge have the qualities that have given Santa Clara two fine Rugby teams; while Lopez, Reed, O ' Neil, Steiger, Bothwell, Aurreccochea, Dur- ney and Harwood round out a nicely balanced team. JA IiVMNI The Hon. Maurice T. Dooling, Hon- orary ' 01, Ph. ' 03, has been raised to the federal bench. To quote the Columbia : " President Wilson has honored himself and enriched the federal bench by the appointment of Honorable Maurice T. Dooling as district judge of Northern California. " Judge Dooling takes an act ive inter- est in the affairs of the University and in the past years has sent his two sons to receive their education here. His appointment brings great sorrow to many as he was one of the most popu- lar men on the state bench and was at the time of appointment Superior Judge in San Benito countv. ' 87 We offer our sincerest con- dolences to Otto Stoesser, B. S. ' 87, on the death of his de- voted wife. John Riordan, A. B. ' 05, be- ' 05 came a benedict on the last Saturday in August. He was married in St. Agnes Church to Miss Vivian Sheehan. It was an extremely simple and very private wedding, only a few of the bride ' s and groom ' s closest friends being present. Mr. Riordan visits the campus regularly and is well known, especially among the older stu- dents. Hq is a lawyer and is rising rapidly in the profession. He is at pres- ent in the State Attorney-General ' s of- fice. " The Redwood " extends its best wishes for a long and prosperous life to the happy couple. ' 08 On July 17, Dr. George J. Hall, ' 08 became the proud- est alumnus of Santa Clara, owing to the arrival of a son and heir — later baptized by Father James W. Galvin A. B. ' 98, " William Henry, " while A. T. Leonard Jr. ' 10 was God- father. To the proud alumnus we ex- tend our congratulations, and to the fu- ture alumnus, all success. Since our last issue the class ' 10 of 1910 has been distinguish- ing itself in various ways. The first one to merit distinction 59 60 THE REDWOOD. was Ralph Cebrian who journeyed to Seattle to ' be married to Miss Irene Lu- cas. Harry Cebrian ex. ' 12 brother of the groom acted as best man. Since the honeymoon they have taken up their residence in beautiful Mill Valley, one of the suburbs of San Francisco. Thomas McCarthy and Miss Blanche Harvey, a graduate of Notre Dame Col- lege, Avere the next to plight their troth. In this case Jerome McCarthy ex ' 12 was groomsman to his brother. " Tom " and his bride after a honeyinoon trip to the south will reside in San Francisco. September 3rd saw Harold J. Durney wedded to Miss Margarita Burke of Alameda. They will leave shortly for the North where Harold will represent the firm of Rolph, Mills and Co. Reluctantly coming to earth after chronicling such events as weddings, the writer turns to the achievements of Adolph Sutro, once a member of this :lass who while here was very much interested with the late Professor John J. Montgomery, " The Father of Avia- tion. " As a result he has taken to fly- ing for good, and as a starter he has broken four world ' s records and a few others. He can be seen flying about the bay almost any seasonable day. Sutro ' s father was for many years may- or of San Francisco. At the last commencement exercises of the University of California, Ray- mond W. Kearney, president of the class of ' 10, and a prominent athlete in his days here, received the degree of Doctor of Laws. He has opened of- fices with J. C. Campbell in the Mills building, San Francisco. L. Byington Ford obtained his Mas- ter ' s degree at the same time. John P. Degnan received a like degree from the University of Santa Clara. The Uni- versity of Santa Clara has by the way brought honor on the class and to itself by .the appointment of the Rev. Ernest Watson to its faculty. It is with the deepest regrets that we note the death of Mrs. Ellen Lowe, the mother of the rising thespian, Ed- mon S. Lowe, A. M. ' 10 of the Alcabar Theater. We fain would share his grief in the loss of one who, at times took a deep interest in everything pertaining to Santa Clara. The memory of her noble character and her true Irish na- ture, shall ever remain a sacred legacy in the hearts of those among us who had the honor of her acquaintance. In conclusion, it may be said the in- vitations for the banquet to be held on the eve of the Santa Clara-Nevada game, have been issued and a great re- union is expected. ' 11 Frank Blake A. B. ' 11, one of the most popular boys in the yard in his time, lovingly called " Tin Horn, " is completing his senior year at the Harvard Law School. He is the leader in his class and we are given to understand that he leads also in the class room. This is not unex- THE REDWOOD. 61 pected as he split the honors with an- other when he graduated, and was al- ways a fine student. ' 12 Despite the lachrymose fare- wells of the class valedictor- ian, the Class of Twelve is very much amongst us yet, though in the high and lofty status of " P. G. ' s " A goodly number see the way pointing to the bar and are completing their courses in the Institute of Law. Our barristers in embryo are : Richard Bressani, Harry W. McGow- an, Steve White. In the pre-medical course we have " Dingbat " Ryan. Har- kins is in the college of engineering and Hardy is completing his architectural course. Joseph Thomas was with us for the beginning of the term, fcut was forced to leave in order to have an op- eration performed. He is now conval- escent in St. Mary ' s Hospital, San Francisco. " Bob " Flood is in the real estate and insurance business in the city and if his general appearance is to be taken as a sign we would say that he is getting along famously. Harry Curry is with the Standard Oil com- pany at Richmond, Cal. George Lyle, who was the artist on The Redwood stafif is studying art in the Mark Hop- kins Art Institute. " Augie Plunker " Walt. Lyng, is practicing law in Gol- conda, Nev. Sargent is studying law at Stanford. C. Castruccio is studying law at Columbia, New York. O ' Con- nor is in Los Angeles. Nino is in Los Gatos and Fitzgerald is at home in Menlo Park. Lawrence Fernsworth, last year ' s edi- tor of Alumni Notes, is owner and edi- tor of the Cornelius Tribune in Corne- lius, Oregon. We can trace his deft pen in many of the articles. We wish him all the success we know he de- serves. THE REDWOOD. THE " L " SYSTEM CLOTHES CLOTHES FOR THE YOUNG GENTLEMAN Lend a " touch of class. " They are full of " pep " and " ginger. " Clever designs and rare styles give these clothes the individu- ality which they enjoy. " L " System Clothes, designated particu- larly for the young gentleman, are tailored from the word " go. " The coat fits beauti- fully around the neck. The trousers fit at the waist and hang without a hitch. STYLE, WEAR AND PRICE ARE COMBINED IN THE " L " SYSTEM CLOTHES ROOS BROS. Market and Stockton Streets San Francisco, Cal. SAN JOSE BAKING CO. L. SCHWARTING, Manager The Cleanest and Most Sanitary Baking in Santa Clara Valley We supply the most prominent Hotels Give Us a Trial OUR BREAD, PIES AND CAKES ARE THE BEST Phone, San Jose 609 433-435 Vine Street San Jose, California J. B. Enos OUR COLLEGE BARBER Neat Hair Cutting His Specialty THE REDWOOD. Telephone, Oakland 2777 Hagens MEN ' S TAILORING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WOOLENS 521 12th Street OAKLAND, CAL. TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS, FOBS, TOILET SETS, ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC., ETC. FRED M. STERN " The Leather Man " 77 NORTH FIRST ST., SAN JOSE Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery.? Bushnell Fotografer Branch Studios: 4 J f Iorth FlrSt Street SAN FRANCISCO :. , , OAKLAND oan Jose, Cal. For classy College Hair Cut, go to the Antiseptic Barber Shop SEA SALT BATHS Basement Garden City Bank Building THE REDWOOD. And It Happened Thus- " To buy or not to buy? that is the question. " Said Gaffey in a fit of hesitation . And hied him from the treasurer ' s office room To where the CO-OP store in grandeur loomed. " Here are two nickles-bright new Buffalo ones Good Heavens! could I change them into bones! Two nickles for an appetite lil e mine When I could eat a melon, — seeds and rind! " So stood he there before the CO-OP store Resolved to spend one nickle more. " Let ' s see those gum drops, naw! — let ' s see the top. Shall 1 buy toilet powder, soap or hop? How much for that new lid right over there? " " Two plunks. " Poor Gaffey tears his hair. " Do you keep candy! Foster and Orear ' s? " The question brings poor Gaffey into tears. " No! don ' t want it! — throw down the tube Just hand me out an Armour ' s Bullion cube. 1 think that I should keep my teeth more clean I ' ll take a sample of that Dental Cream Well no — I ' ve changed — some old Prince Albert please, Or cancel that and give me banquet cheese. And now I ' ll take my change, come hand it quick Don ' t think the CO-OP guys are awfully slick! " Poor Ernie blushed, then fainted, called for time " He ' s down and out! " the crowd around did chime. Then Joe appeared, sedate and full of cares His mind was taken up with vending wares Facing about with accents swelling loud He burst him forth and then addressed that crowd: — " O ye who gather round about this lad Arouse your interest and appear not sad Why fainted yon fair headed lad so strange? Because a rough-neck asked for five cents change . Now who, 1 ask YOU keeps the teams in suits? The CO-OP store as well as he who roots. Who gives the cash for bats and catcher ' s mitt? The CO-OP ' guys ' — there lies one in a fit. Who paved the tennis courts by yonder hall? Who backed the track team to Nevada, where The sage-brush was hoisted by the hair? Who did these things? Who did a full score more? Believe me lads, it was the CO-OP store. Reprove me not, nor shed the briny tear, Don ' t go be cheated elsewhere,— COME IN HERE! " THE REDWOOD. Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. Mission Olive Oil Absolutely Pure Virgin Oil for Medicinal or Table Use MADDEN ' S PHARMACY, Agents FRANKLIN STREET SANTA CLARA, CAL. PATRONlZE University Barbers Main Street Opposite Postoffice Santa Clara Whatever comes from our store If dissatisfied, let us know UNIVERSITY DRUG CO. Cor. Santa Clara and S. Second Sts., San Jose See That Fit Now is the time to have your measure taken for a new fall suit or overcoat. J. U. will supply your every need at the most reasonable prices. We guarantee every garment to be right. If it is not Right, you have no Right to take it. J. U. WINNINGER IVA SOUTH FIRST ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. If You ' ll " ' " " " " " ' by HART SCHAFFNER MARX you ' ll otlOOt come nearer making a hit for style, for d or AA quality, for looks and for real economy JpZO.UU than you ever did. Other good ones at $20 up to $40 Itr tit ft « Other makes as low as $15 ' P t Established 1865 SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STREETS Phone, San Jose 3802 Angelus Hotel G.T.NINNIS Proprietor European plan . Newly furnished rooms, with hot and cold water; steam heat throughout. Suites with private bath. Open all night 67 NORTH FIRST STREET San Jose, Cailfornia The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage " DON ' T WURRY " When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Restaurant, Grill and Oyster House Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Sallows Rorke Ring us for a hurry-up Delivery :: :: :: Phone S. C. 13R Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. THE REDWOOD. p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. Origlia LamoUe Grill_ - 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS IF YOU ONLY KNEW WHAT- Mayerle ' s German Eyewater DOES TO YOUR EYES YOU WOULDN ' T BE WITHOUT IT A SINGLE DAY At Druggists, 5 c.or 65c by Gcorgc Maycrlc, German Expert Optician 960 Market Street, San Francisco Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and A anager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. 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Clothes Established 1865 SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STREETS Founded 18S1 Incorporated 18S8 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Phone. San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD, MANUEL MELLO Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed 0. 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street ALDERMAN ' S NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobacco Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice Santa Clara Training School for Nurses IN CONNECTION CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY Race and San Carlos Streets Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnisliings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 10S4 Franklin St. Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s SantaClara M.«S;M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2% Cents per Cue CONTENTS A SONG OF CHRISTMAS THE TRUTH OF DREAMS MARY, A CHRISTMAS LAMENT VAGABONDIA THE GIFT HIDDEN IN MYSTERY IN PASSING THE REASON WHY MONTY ' S CHRISTMAS THE MASTER DREAMER EDITORIAL EXCHANGES UNIVERSITY NOTES ATHLETICS ALUMNI _ - _ Byrne Alexandre Marconnier Lawrence P. O ' Connor Lawrence P. O ' Connor Narrated to R. Y. by A. G. F. Buckley McGurrin VViUiam B . Lavell Byrne Alexandre Marconnier Edward L. Nicholson Edward L. Nicholson Byrne Alexandre Marconnier 73 77 85 92 94 95 97 98 99 101 106 110 121 STUDENT BODY OFFICERS RODNEY A. YOELL. PRESIDENT HAROLD R. McKINNON, SECRETARY ROY A. BRONSON. GRADUATE MANAGER JAMES FlTZPATRrCK, TREASURER Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIII SANTA CLARA, CAL., DECEMBER, 1913 NO. 2 A Song of Christmas Tis Christmas, holy joyful time. In every country, every dime, From Santa Clara ' s snowless vale To Northland ice and stinging hail. They chime the bells and garlands bring To keep the birthday of the King. O ' er moonlit pool and ice-bound mere, O ' er blooming weald and rippling weir. The Christmas Spirit laughs and trills To snow-hung firs or daffodils. And down beside the gypsy bourne,— There where it swings its care free turn, The poppies sing their joyous lay— " Awake— awake ! ' Tis Christmas Day ! " ' Twas on this day adown the years There came the music of the spheres To earth, tnat He might harmonize The souls of men to higher skies. The Wise Three brought Him myrrh and nard, Sweet frankincense, and lumps of sard,!? And bowed and prayed before the Gem— The Holy Babe of Bethlehem. And thougn we be not Eastern Kings, While since have passed a thousand Springs, Can we the Infant Jesus greet With jewels as rare and oils as sweet ? Ah Yes ! Upon this Christmas Day We at his feet our souls can lay, A gift more precious, when ' tis made, Than chrysoprase or sard or jade. Cast from thy heart all lust and hate And then thy gift will be as great. Ascending where the angels trod— The starlit, mystic way to God. BYRNE ALEXANDRE MARCONNIER THE TRUTH OF DREAMS Remarks on the Importance of Dreaming — A Tribute to Stanley Osborne of Oxford DIALOGUE. Persons: Sebastian and Royal. Scene: St. Joseph ' s Shrine, Santa Clara University. Sebastian: (Dream- ing over the roses) : Hello, Royal, come, sit down; won ' t you join me? Royal : In what ? Doing nothing, cer- fcainiy not! Sebastian: My dear Royal, what lack of taste you do show by saying that I am doing nothing. Am I not seated among the most beautiful roses you ever saw? And can one possibly do anything better than be among what is beautiful? Royal: I don ' t care to answer your questions just now. But beautiful sur- roundings or not, you are sitting there indolently when you should be work- ing. Sebastian: How delightfuly incon- sistant you are today Royal, you must have just finished your morning ' s phil- osophy. You say I am doing nothing when I should be working. Hasn ' t Father Ricard taught j ou in his class yet that " doing nothing " is the hard- est possible work? Royal: You ' re flippant. You ' re not worth talking to this morning. But to thrust and see how poorly you can parry, Father Ricard has taught us that doing nothing is the hardest kind of bad work. Sebastian: Ah! Alas, I thought so. It only proves what a deleterious influ- ence mathematics and philosophy have on a man ' s taste. Royal : Taste ! What has taste to do with it. We ' re not discussing a work of art. I don ' t understand you. Sebastian: Capital! You must now surely sit down and hear me talk. I am at my best when I have a listener who will make a conscientious effort to misunderstand me. Royal: Sir, to be misunderstood is only the privilege of German philoso phers, and since you ' re bound to be flippant, I ' m going. Sebastian: Please don ' t. Do sit down. I promise that I shall, — like our mutual friend Rodley, — grow elo- quent upon any subject of which I know nothing. I promise to Royal: No, Sebastian, you offer no inducement in that, for if I want to hear the eloquence of ignorance I need only spend an hour with some of our modern philosophers, no, I 64 THE REDWOOD. 65 Sebastian: Dear me, you have either been reading Chesterton or listening to someone who is deplorably truthful. But why such stoicism about our mod- ern aspirants to wisdom? Don ' t you pretend to be something of a modern philosopher? Royal : The gods deliver me ! Cer- tainly not. I am a modern student of Scholasticism. I would consider it an insult to my intelligence to be desig- nated as a philosopher of the modern school. Sebastian : An insult ? Really Royal, you ' re becoming so now-a-days, that you can absolutely be relied upon. Must I also blame Pr. Ricard for that ? But I ' m curious; why an insult? Haven ' t so many eminent gentlemen achieved envious popularity? Royal: Envious popularity! Dear Sebastian, if I show the influence of my venerable professor, I must admit you show the influence of these roses, and to quote you " it merely shows what a deleterious influence ' ' roses and indolence have on a man ' s taste. Of course insult, for now-a-days the only requisites toward becoming a modern philosopher are to misunderstand Aquinas, misquote Augustine, affect a set of meditative eccentricities and write incomprehensibilities. As for your envious popularity it is indeed so popular that all our intellectual medi- ocrities, with a series of large words, have succeeded in gaining recognition. And now, au revoir, I am going to philosophy class and wander in the ethereal spaces which is the inalienable prerogative of a metaphysical mind ' Sebastian : Royal, you ' re too wonder- fully scientific for you ' re class of ex- act and ultimate wisdom, this morning, and besides you ' re becoming so versed in your science that soon you ' ll be able to explain away all my few remaining mysteries. Life will then become sense- less and sterile to me ; I pray you sit Royal: Why, don ' t you have an in- satiable desire to reach the ultimate cause of a given effect? Sebastian : I should hope not ! Why should I give myself unprofitable wor- ry over the steps toward a certain ef- fect? If the result is happy, or beauti- ful, that is sufficient. That is one of the chief attractions, — at least for my- self, — in our religion. That Royal: But that craving for com- plete knowledge Sebastian: You should not interrupt me. One of the causes for the world ' s dissatisfaction is just that very reason. Should I concern myself with other than an effect I might discover many strange things, that rouge may make beauty, for instance. Wisdom has oth- er than sweet fruits. I never seek the bitter. Royal: You are positively flippant, Sebastian. You really exasperate me at times. I want to get all this non- sense out of your head ; will you please be sincere and believe what I am going to tell you apropos of our philosophi- cal observations? Will you listen? Sebastian: (gazing down the path) : Here comes Father Ricard, could one really, — as it has been alleged, — tell the 66 THE REDWOOD. coming weather by his face, I would forecast perennial sunshine. But let us get back to your dry reasoning. Yes, I am prepared to listen and believe anything you say — provided it ' s in- credible ! Royal: You would provoke a saint to strike you. You lazy, indolent dreamer. I ' m going. Come on, for once in your life be noble and go con- trary to your inveterate lust for loung- ing and come to class. Sebastian: Royal, you would make a magnificent lawyer,- — your vulgarity is unsurpassed, and with your sharp intellect you would certainly be the embodiment of justice, — blind, with a sharp sword to wound or kill many a happy heart. But to be relevant why would I be doing a noble act by accom- panying you to class? Royal: Because, the nobleness of life lies in our doing what is hardest for us. Sebastian: Alas, that ' s why I am always intending to go to class. Royal: Well why don ' t you rise above what paves the floors of Hell? Sebastian : Ah ! because the Pleasure of Life lies in our doing what is easiest for us. That ' s why I never go ! Royal: Good-bye, you — I find it im- possible to concoct an epithet strong enough to predicate of you. Stay with your roses, waste the time in useless dreams. Had we fewer people of your caliber, we might accomplish more in this world. You dreamers are the set that cavil for Beauty, that harangue us for its lack, forgetting that you are the only obstacles to the world ' s real- izing what you advocate. We are in need of action, of men who will accom- plish something, who will perform oth- er things besides idling away their hours in formulating words and ideas, that tend only to make the world feel its imperfection and do nothing to- ward helping it along ; we want men to speak so that the harmony of existence may be rounded, made more rich and beautiful, to engage in useful action and endeavor that Life may become worth the living! Sebastian: Dear Royal, you are a thorough Philistine, but an eloquent one. Your criterion is the measure of every true Philistine — production, you Royal: If production make me a Philistine, then welcome Philistia, and let me name myself an inhabitant of thee forever. " Show me thy works! " Sebastian: But bear with me a while and secrets as strange as those that lie sunken forever in the silence of the silver sea-sands shall be yours ; theories as exquisite and crystal as the dew- drops in the chalice of a flower, I shall give thee, and propositions as sweetly inconsistent as is the heart of woman thou shalt have from me. But stay, and when I finish you shall find more truths in the petals of a rose than in the pages of your Plato, you shall be able to possess more wisdom by the contemplation of a frail fair flower, than if you ' d pore for hours over Aris- totle, and understand God ' s goodness better by considering the ' ' birds of the THE REDWOOD. 67 air and the lilies of the field, ' ' than by memorizing the De Gratia of Mazzella ! Eoyal : You ' ve made me late for class anyway, so I ' ll stay, provided you be- come sincere and talk a little learnedly. Sebastian : For the first condition imposed, I can only say, that when one becomes sincere he usually also be- comes tedious. But I don ' t mean by this that I intend to be insincere, I merely wish to observe that the insin- cerity of a man should not detract from the weight of his expression; and as for talking learnedly, I am a firm be- liever with the man who said that " learned conversation is the affecta- tion of the ignorant, or the profession of the mentally unemployed! " Royal : Of what then do you propose to talk? And in what wise? Sebastian: I intend settling in your mind the right ideas concerning that class of people with whom you set me, useless, indolent, dreamers, and so forth. And I shall do my subject the justice of being as unjust to it as possi- ble. It is only those things that are entirely of no interest to us, or that we do not love, that we can possibly be just to. So will you listen and believe? Royal: I am prepared to listen and believe anything, provided it ' s incred- ible! Sebastian: Capital! We thoroughly misunderstand each other. A mutual misunderstanding is the modern basis for all argumentation. We are bound to make perfect asses of ourselves and enjoy it immensely. Royal : You mean you ' 11 make an ass of yourself. Sebastian: Exactly, and I hope to provoke a bray from you. Royal: If so, it will be your own echo! Sebastian: You fence divinely! But the tip ' s off your foil. Royal: I ' ve still the mask. Have at me. Sebastian: You ' ve still the mask? Good. Keep it on. It hides the long ears! Royal: I parry, the better to dull your braying. Sebastian: What ho! you ' ve run me through. Royal: Good! now I shall listen to you. Sebastian: Well, to begin with I must first make clear to you why I am here amid these roses, idling as you say, time which should be spent over the pages of my Philosophy book. Royal: Don ' t tell me you have the intellectual arrogance of attempting an excuse for your idleness? Sebastian: Kindly don ' t try to anti- cipate me. I am not seeking to excul- pate my behavior — but I believe, I can explain it. Royal: I am all ears. Sebastian : This morning I was in that mood in which I could infinitely be- come more moral by coming out here into this dew-drenched garden, than by sitting for hours listening to ethical platitudes and yawning with ennui, I felt 68 THE REDWOOD. Eoyal : The Lord save us ! You are not only lazy today, but sinfully heret- ical. Sebastian: How so? Eoyal: You ass, you consummate nincompoop. Why, to come out here and waste time is sinful enough with- out your talking about ethical plati- tudes. Sebastian: I cannot agree with you in that. If with your moral philosophy you can label such an act as this sin- ful, then I must say, that sin is the essential element to my progress. Were I to deny myself the sweet indulgence I am now enjoying, the world would become stagnate, grow old and grey. Everything would be colorless, and then there would be nothing left for me to do but turn philosopher. Eoyal : You are incorrigible ! But say what you will, to sit here wasting time, dreaming, God only knows what rot, is sinful. " An idle brain " — Be- ware! Sebastian: Alas, it ' s true. Many people think well, but few people dream well. But this only goes to show that dreaming well is far the most difficult thing of the two, and by far the most beautiful. Now as for my coming out here instead of having sat in a class, — hearing discussions as to whether Truth is Beauty, or Beauty, Truth, — I have strolled out into the garden to watch the dew creep over the grass and make it silver, to watch the little red hearts of the rose-buds open at the ardent kiss of the sun, and to lose myself in the contemplation of tiny buds, struggling to burst out into expression and give the world a new and lovely beauty. I have sat and watched and become conscious of a new and purifying influence that has come into my life by listening to the liquid notes of some lost sky-lark ; and with a sense of quickening joy, have noted, that for the weary there is cheer and refreshment in the flowers of the fields, and that for those who sit in sor row and whose silence is heard only by God, here are tears awaiting them in the hidden hearts of violets: and having seen these things I have begun to realize the wonder of Beauty, and have grown silent with unaccus- tomed awe! Eoyal: Well, all that you say may be beautiful, and all that, but I fail to see the ethical value of such surround- ings. Sebastian: How horribly incomplete you are in imaginative functions. It ' s well for you to grave these words deep in the rocks of your memory, that to arrive at the true appreciation of any beautiful object is the highest kind of moral education. The influence of Beauty is the purest moral influence possible. Eoyal: My dear Sebastian, you ' re ranting. I cannot possibly agree with you on what you say. Sebastian: Alas, more is the pity! But to me, and such as I a m. Beauty is the highest, in fact, the only influence that has any potency. I am positive THE REDWOOD. 69 that our Lord did more by the Beauty of His life than by all the parables He spoke. I like to think that He was followed as much for the mere loveli- ness of His presence as for the ser- mons that He gave on the hillsides. I find no difficulty in believing that so strong was the influence of His Beau- ty, that evil passions fled with the mere touch of His garments, like dark thoughts leave when we touch the mar- ble throats of lilies. I can feel without the slightest difficulty, that He ex- haled such lovely influence, that men forgot their pain, like we forget the heart-ache when we breathe the frail fragrance of a flower. Royal: For the sake of argument merely, I grant what you say, but T want to add, that though a man con- templating Beauty may not really be wasting time, you here have had no thoughts worthy of your contention. Sebastian : I am forced to admit that in part you are perfectly right, I have, among other things, been thinking of lunch. Royal: That ' s the only sensible thing you ' ve said today. Sebastian: And now let us not dis- cuss more, but repair with me to a lit- tle hidden nook where I shall show you a marvelous rose, whose petals are redder and softer, than any lips you ' ve seen. Come. Royal: Your rambling rot has ex- erted a peculiar fascination over me. Let us continue. Once more I am forced to grant, for the sake of hearing you talk, that Beauty is something of a moral influence. It doesn ' t however, prove that you here have been really absorbing all this pleasing prospect. Sebastian: You are terribly unfair to me this mornig, Royal. Certainly I have been sipping the sweetness which this garden offers. Come up closer and I shall breathe you a secret as delicate as any perfume that haunts this rose- imprisoned shrine. Royal: What is it? Sebastian: I am hopelessly in love. Royal: Rot! Haven ' t you quit fall- ing in love. You ' re not in love. Why, you don ' t even know the meaning of love. Come now, what is love? Sebastian: I contend that Love is to the emotional life, what Life is to the intellectual life — a conundrum ! Royal: Say, 1 am beginning to per- ceive that you elude all the proposi- tions you started out to prove. You began by attempting to excuse your in- dolence, hence showing what you call contemplation to be better than action, and that dreams are of utmost import- ance and that you have been truly ap- preciating this surrounding beauty, which you contend has a moral influ- ence over you. Now go ahead. I listen. Sebastian: To prove that this loveli- ness has been absorbed, look you here at this simple poppy with a drop of dew in its golden chalice. When T looked at it this morning, it not only conveyed to my heart a message of loveliness, but it had a spiritual ele- ment for thought and passion, it awoke in me a new mood, it stirred a new train of ideas, and opened by its mere 70 THE REDWOOD. fragrance and frailty, by its sweetness and softness, a new or long forgotten golden door leading into a garden of ethereal dreams, a door at which my imagination had knocked, but knocked in vain, until possessed of the enchant- ed flower it opened softly to my bid- ding. Look you here at these precious petals. Softer than these poppy-petals, must be sleep-laden eyelids. Look you here at the red heart of this flower upon whose flame-like color lies one drop of dew. Nature ' s eternal sacri- fice to her Creator, in a chalice as gold- en as that of any altar and more deli- cate. The morn has cried a tear where we have graced the Mass with no such offering. Royal: You ' re a hopeless Utopian. Sebastian: If this old world didn ' t include Utopia it wouldn ' t be worth living in. But, please don ' t make me digress from the matter of import. I think, Eoyal, that I have clearly shown that in my seeming indolence there was something much better than action — dreams; and that these have and do exert a great influence, moral and beautiful. It remains that I pr ove dreams to be far better, or to turn utilitarian, far more useful than action ; in short, I am to show the great im- portance of dreaming. What you said about dreamers being the impediments to the realization of the things they ad- vocate, is as untruthful as it is shallow. I propose proving it thus. Eoyal : That is impossible ! Sebastian: It may be, so much the more reason for my attempting it, for in this purely practical and mechanical age, the only thing worth trying to do, is the impossible. The Church has rec- ognized this, no less than Socialism, and while the former is trying to mor- alize the world the other is striving to demoralize it. Both are marvelously succeeding. Anybody, my dear Eoyal, can act a part. But it takes a poet to write it. Action proclaims the lack of imagination. It is the last recourse of those stereotypes, uninteresting beings who don ' t know how to dream! They never accomplish anything but what is commonplace. They are neither capable of the sins of Borgia, nor of the virtue of an Anthony, but they live their dull lives, which are a forjn of death, and depart, having done nothing better than filled a place in space ! Action dies at the moment of its en- ergy. The marvelous beauty that caused the Trojan war has long been dust in those far Grecian fields. The very men who fought with sharpened spear and burnished helmet for the sake of Helena, have long lain under the grassy ground upon which the lone goat-herd sits watching his small flock. Yes, indeed, Helena is no more, and neither Greek nor Persian, but, the dreamer who recorded, who perhaps, behind those blinded lids saw wars that never were, is with us. He lives today as in the days of Greece, and the clash of Spartan arms still rings, long after man and sword have passed away. In Italy the pomp and pageant of Pom- peii are gone. The baths and temples at Baiae are torn and overgrown with THE REDWOOD. 71 the moss of many years. Paestum, Cumae, Capua and Rome are ruins of tumbled columns and lonely amphithe- atres. But Horace, Virgil and Ovid are still full of lusty life. With Hor- ace we enjoy the sumptuous banquets of Caligula. At Cape Miseno with Pliny we behold the dread destruc- tion of Pompeii. And we enjoy the beauties of Vesuvian bay and land- scape with pensive Virgil. Dante guides us through the pains of Hell. Ariosto makes us sip the bitterness of life while Leopardi offers a like draught. The Moor who, pale with jealousy lays the trap for his own grief, is more real because he never lived. We know that noble Lear was never seen, and yet we weep for him. Aye, the dreamer has given us eternal loves that the world has never seen. Ma- jestic bravery, that no earthly battle- field could make. Devotions, pure and constant as the ones which saints have had, he has bequeathed the world. In short, there is nothing in this world, whether for pleasure or for pain, that is not the realization of a dream. The world has indeed been made by the sweetness of the singer for the contem- plation of the dreamer ! But, come now, let us cease talking. The poppy here nods its little golden head as if grown weary of our chatter. The roses too, modest maidens that they are, have blushed at hearing all the honey things we ' ve said about them. And yet, a few there are, — those gorgeous ear- mine ones — whose blush is not of mod- est shame, but — pride ! Let me take you to an olive tree just beyond Father Ricard ' s observatory, where a high- soaring lark is wont to perch and sing his songs. He fascinates me. I can never hear him sing, but that I feel strangely incomplete, for he makes one feel as he warbles his sweet notes, that up in the blue spaces where he roams are joys and sorrows undreamed of by us mortals. He makes me long to know those other passions cool and chaste as that eternal pearl — the moon, or warm and ardent as the summer sun. Come, he may be waiting for us. Royal: I really, Sebastian, don ' t know what to make of you. There seem to be as many sides to you as there are colors to your roses, and I dare say, each seems to be as enjoyable. I don ' t exactly know, why I can ' t fully believe you. There are times when in your highest pleasure I discern a lat- ent tear, and yet when in the deep and darkness of pain, I cannot help but see a smiling bud of happiness. But, all in all, you are just a dreamer and ipso facto, a perverse fool ! Sebastian: Come, let ' s go. What you say of me is what the blind world says in general. The reward of a dreamer is exactly such an epithet as you uttered of me, and that because he wanders alone in the silent silver of the moonlight. But though his pun- ishment be nothing else, his reward is that he sees the pink feet of the com- ing dawn before the rest of the world ! And now, to our sky-lark. We must 72 THE EEDWOOD. not keep him waiting and on one of these balmy Santa Clara nights, when the sky is hung with stars, and Diana keeps her virgins vigil, I shall walk with you and talk more on the truth of dreams and the importance of dream- ing! LAWRENCE P. O ' CONNOR. MARY A. Chvisttnas Iiament She did not have the happy home That other mothers had. She did not have those Urth-night dreams To make her spirit glad In thinking that her little hale Was never to he sad. She only had that little warmth Of hosom pure and mild, And though there were no swaddling clothes, Her little hahy smiled; But I never saw a mother look So sadly at her child. 1 never heard a mother heave A more heart-rending sigh. As when she saw her hundled habe First move its lips and try To call her name, and only give A little lisping cry. II She never had those happy hours A mother has, — to see The curly head toss up and shake In laughing golden glee. She only stroked the pensive brow That rested on her knee. 73 74 THE REDWOOD. And many times He looked up hng Into her face and smiled, And though He often on her lips Sis tender kisses piled, I never saw a mother look So sadly at her child. I never saw such trembling tears In woman ' s weeping eye, As when her little wistful boy Looked longing at the sky, And at every singing bird that flew With fluttering feathers high. in. She never ivas to hold up close The soft and sleepy heap. Or watch her little baby take His last and loving peep Before the Sandman came and dropped His silver sands of She never was to know those joys Of mothers, who at night Without a single sorrow give A last kiss to their mite. She held Him close when darkness came And passed the hours in fright. THE EEDWOOD. 75 I never heard a sadder sob Nor saw a woman iveep, Those silver silent tears that drop Into the arms vjhich keep The tiny tired head of Him Who softly fell asleep. IV. She was to see her son grow up For other men to mock, And see him weep in silence for The lost sheep of the flock. And with a pathos in his voice Tell Peter of the cock. She was to live throughout the days With heavy aching heart, And see Him sadden as the time Drew near for them to part, And see them strip Him of his robe And pierce Him with a dart. I never saw such agony In woman s weeping eye, As when they nailed Him to the cross With Jewish jeer and cry, And as between two bloody thieves They raised the rood on high! 76 THE REDWOOD. V. ' Tis Christmas time and happy chime Will Jill our hearts with joy. What awe we feel when lo! we kneel By Mary ' s haby hoy. The love of Him and yule-tide hymn All purple thoughts destroy With laughing hve we look above And praise the Lord on high; And Mary ' s tears throughout those years At this time bring no sigh. And I regret that tve forget That woman s weeping eye. I do regret that we forget That woman ' s weeping eye, Our mother mild whose little child Looked longing at the sky And at every singing bird that flew With fluttWing feathers high! LAWRENCE P. O ' CONNER. VAGABONDIA T was on a Saturday night in the earl summer, and one that had a damp, smell to it which prevented good breathing. I mention the smell in particular be- cause it made that of the crowd more intense and between garlic, perspira- tion and a fetid dankness my thoughts followed rather the olfactory stimula- tions than the thoughts advanced by a lank square-boned red-headed woman who for two hours and a half had pumped " Labour " , " Capital " , Bour- geoise (Bourgewash) " Proletariate " and the rest of the common run of soap-box philos ophy at us. Behind me was a pawnbroker ' s shop which held in its window a miscellan- eous collection of gems, knives, eye- glasses, a rusty set of carpenter ' s tools, two field-glasses, a box of socks at three pair for a quarter, and all the similar flotsam and jetsam of fifth- class commercial oddities. Across the narrow cobble-stoned street was a saloon and next to it a " Gent ' s Clothing Store " , where " everyone ' s credit was good " , as a large sign informed one, and the pro- prietor stood out in front, keeping company with two fly-specked dum- mys bearing oilskins. Above the narrow entrance the name Coalskar Lipkinoviteh, flamed forth in dirty red letters upon a once white board, while in the gutter a peanut vender ' s whistle steamed and sang a piping tune of welcome. I don ' t remember what the woman was talking about, in fact I hadn ' t been paying attention for mayhap over an hour, ten chances to one, I had her voice mixed up with that of the peanut-whistle, but anyhow I stood there and took it all in, — peanut- whistle, the Jew and his two dummies, the red-headed woman and the odor. Then I remember somebody started a row. Questions had been called for and over one a dissension arose that took the sleepy policeman with all his gruffness to overcome. How I got mixed up in it I cannot say, but a fellow with a red nose, a wicked leer and a dirty shirt without a necktie, called me a sap-head and said that anyone with a starched collar on had a starched intellect, and hence his head was too stiff to stand any intel- lectual stretching. " Go into the jungles, " he said, " and find out for yourself. You ain ' t got as much solid stuff in your bean as a railroad culvert after a washout has. " I inquired after the jungles. " Where are they? " " Say, you go down to the freight- yard and you ' ll see an article called a train; grab it and climb on top. You ' ll 77 78 THE EEDWOOD. meet a chap with a lantern; if you don ' t jump he ' ll kick you and when you wake up you ' re in the jungles. " So I took his advice and after chang- ing my clothes I wandered down to the railroad yards, just a little below the station, and waited. In a short time a man came along and after looking me over a bit, asked whether I was going north or south. I told him I didn ' t care much where I went, but go I must, as the Bulls (police) had given me twenty-four hours to get out of town. I ' m in the same fix myself, he ans- wered. Only I got picked for five ; meaning that he had been in jail for five days on vagrancy. " Now, " h continued, " the Lark ' s due here in about ten minutes ; she has a good load on and can ' t make that turn fast, you can grab it easy. I ' 11 wait for a freight as Frisco ' s my ' pull ' destination. " In a little while we heard the train whistle and then she pulled into the depot, her headlight making a silver streak down the track as far as the turn. She lay there for a few minutes and finally, after a warning whistle, got under way. Now, I have seen trains move and never thought much about it, but when I saw and heard and felt that great big monster of steam and steel come bear- ing down upon me, my spine pretty nearly ran jelly. But it was too late to back out, so just as the engine went by, I stuck out hand, grabbed a rail and swung in. My heart went up into my mouth, for where I was to land I had no idea ; but, as it seemed to me, after half an hour of being dragged through space, my feet hit a step and there I was bound for — where did I say? Oh, yes, the jungles. Well, I rode half the night. As soon as I got my bearings I found I was back of the water-tank standing on an L-shaped step. Above me was the rounded end of the tank, and running along its sides were two plank-ways upon which I climbed and from there I struggled up to the top and sat down. And then, — oh what a ride I had. We were passing through the southern end of the Santa Clara valley and beau- tiful though it is by day, at night, by moonlight, it seemed a veritable fairy- land. Off to the east a great golden low- hung moon shone out above soft mountains, which seemed almost trans- lucent, they were so blue. The trees were etched in silver, and the floor of the valley swam in a color of beaten gold. And there I was, perched upon the tender of a great steel beast, plunging onward ever on- ward, through a night of soft warm air into a beyond — of which I had only been told. Crawling forward I came almost to the cab and therein I saw the fireman and the engineer. The latter was looking constantly forward and as we hit a grade, he handled his throttle, nursing and coaxing the engine, as if it were a thing of flesh and blood. THE REDWOOD. 79 And run up that incline we did. Aftei which we had a long low coast to ride, until a stretch of two hours, brought us to a station. Now here was where my troubles began. There are two sides to every station. Not just front and back as most peo- ple suppose, but two sides that far sur- pass in importance any such simple architectural relations. And these sides are the " wide " and " blind " sides. By " wide " , in the language of vagabondia, is meant the side the train faces in pulling into the depot. It is the side that the baggage is loaded from and hence the passengers get on and off here, necessitating the presence of the train officials and railroad men. The other side, at night, the dark side, is called the " blind " . In plain English it is the side of the depot that can ' t see and therefore all such pas- sengers as myself, who ride, but pay not, are particularly attracted to it. " Well, off the blind side I piled, but, oh what a welcome I was to receive. In my ignorance I had forgotten to look for the railroad police, or " bulls " , and the minute I struck the ground a hand grasped the back of my neck and flung me flat. Then I received a kick in the ribs, and was told that if I tried any " dash ? him to dee la la ra, etc., etc., rough stuff, he ' d kick my insides out o ' me. Of course I didn ' t try it. What? Kough stuff, why " my good- ness Godness Agnes " , I ' ve always hated it, it ' s such a beastly habit. A lamb, I thought at that moment was " greasy roman " wrestler compared to me, and so I lay until — further orders. Ye God ' s I ' d more of the jungles than I cared for! " Get up, " and up I got. " Open your shirt. " Sure, say kind reader, what in the name of heavens does any man in this twentieth century need a shirt for anyway. " Now then, let ' s look for tattoo- marks, both wrists too. " By this time the train had pulled out and all hope went with it. He had me " dead to rights " and never relaxed his hold on my shirt-collar to make certain of it, either. In his other hand he held a " sap " . Now a ' ' sap " is a club, bvit the term is particularly applied to a short thick piece of hard wood about fourteen inches long, and thicker at the end than near the handle. Frequently it is loaded by having a hole bored in one end and molten lead poured in. Taking it " by and large " , as the say- ing is, I ' d rather tackle a harvesting machine going full tilt, than have as an antagonist a man armed with a " rap " who knew how, and was willing to use the thing. I have seen a tramp split a box with one that he had taken from a " bull " , and the damage they can do is attested by the number of cracked noses found in Vagabondia. Therefore it did not have a very salu- tary effect upon my nerves to have the article waved right under my nose on my first business acquaintance with it. 80 THE EEDWOOD. The reason for the search is as fol- lows. Deserters from the army or navy in nine cases out of ten, are tattooed. Either an eagle, a woman, a dove, or an anchor and shield of America, can be found, and since Uncle Sam pays fifty dollars for such gentlemen of leave, one can readily see the over- weaning desire of the police to appre- hend one. Many a poor devil has brooked liCe and death in making a " get away " from a ship only to be caught by some country policeman and sent back. I often think of the general who went unscathed through a hundred battles only to be killed by a brick falling from his chimney upon his pate dur- ing his latter years of honorable re- tirement. But to be on with my tale. It is not a very pleasant situation, that of finding one ' s self standing under a lamp-post with an ignorant man only too anxious to use a club upon your head, so, in response to some psycho- logical C. Q. D., wireless, a faint, but definite small still " voice whispered with dulcet tones into my ear: " Get thee hence and be gone. " Fool! Of course I ' d go! But how? And then chance gave me my oppor- tunity. The " bull " took his hand off my collar for an instant to shift his grip. That was all I needed. A bolt, a quick swing, which left part of my shirt behind, and off I tore down a road, at a pace which, had I been running on a circular track, would have soon made me catch up with my- self. It seemed as if I had been running for about half an hour, and then na- ture asserted itself and I was forced to stop. The road I was on stretched out from the depot and led to a town some mile and a half away, so onward I trudged in the half darkness until I crossed a bridge, walked through an Oriental quarter and found myself in a village far-famed for its quality of apples. Now, as regards the apples I have no doubt, but when it comes to the stern and sturdy officers of the law who so faithfully guard the natives during their sleep, I ' ll candidly admit I have my prejudices. There I was " broke " , without a friend and had just arrived in their fair city. It is true, the local paper heralded not my coming as I neither intended to buy fruit or start a brew- ery, but anyway, why didn ' t they give me a fair chance. The hour was somewhere around one o ' clock in the morning, and the main street, or should I say, the street was entirely deserted, save for a dog with a cut tail and a man of short, but sturdy physique. As I walked by him, under one of the few arc lights, he eyed me pretty closely and on my way back, for it only took a couple of moments to walk to the end, he came up fairly close to me and the following was the result. " Howdy? " THE REDWOOD. 81 " Good evening, " I answered. " Stranger in town, ain ' t you ' ? " I admitted this gladly and without much pressing. In fact I consider myself fortunate in being able to speak the truth of the matter. " ' Eve you got a job? " " No, " I replied, " I just arrived and haven ' t had a chance to loolv for one. " " " Well, " he snapped dubiously, " I ' m the night peleece, and ef you don ' t look right — in you go. Say, " he pop- ped, on second thought, " air you bursted for money 1 ' ' Oh subtle, subtle man! With what a Machiavellian question he hoped to find the handle wherewith I could be safely incarcerated in the city ' s bastile. Now, if I answered yes, that I was broke, then for the heinous crime of being penniless, I would be arrested and for probably ten days, be made to swab the dirty streets of the comity seat. What had I done, — whereiu had I offended? I had not been given the opportunity to violate any canon of the city, yet here I found myself " stood up " , searched and questioned, simply because my looks were against me and possibly I might be poor to the point of absolute poverty, namely, dead broke. Have you ever stopped to consider the psychology of a man under simi- lar circumstances? Is it not natural that he comes to regard every minion of the laAv with hatred and suspicion? Suppose I had been arrested and made to work on the county roads, then don ' t you think that when I got free I ' d like to leave my impressions of the community physically expressed in the way of stolen chickens, broken park- benches and petty crimes? Of course I would. In the Jungles the ' ' Bulls ' ' have it in for the ' ' hoboes ' ' and vice versa. Now, I am not trying to justify these things, but simply to put down my impressions as a normal man in certain circumstances, and, therefore, if violence be done me, is it not natural that simply following the bent of weak human nature, I ' d en- deavor to retaliate? If you do not think so, go to the — Jungles. However, in answer to the man I ripped out a short " No, I ' m not broke and don ' t you search me either; you ' ve got no right to, I haven ' t done any- thing yet and besides I know a bunch of people in this town, savy? " It is peculiar what a little shoAV of teeth will do to certain men in certain circumstances. He backed water right away. If I had crawled to him, well, he would have had me, but the old say- ing that ' ' Bluff is half the game ' ' , cer- tainly holds true in some instances. " You gotter get off the strets, any- how, and don ' t let me see you again Say, there ' s a place down here where you can get a bed for a quarter and breakfast too, so beat it. " I took the hint and went, but have often wondered what a sight it would be if some large gentleman of the road, accidentally on purpose, struck the noble guardian of law and order as he 82 THE EEDWOOD. would undoubtedly have done to me if opportunity offered. The place I went into was an all night affair run by a Slavonian. Up- stairs were the beds and below a dirty kitchen and the chop house. So, after greeting the man, I in- quired if there was anything I could do to earn a bed and breakfast. That set- tled it. I was set to washing dishes, and when that was done I swept out, then I strained the coffe grounds, next I chopped some wood, after that washed the table tops, but that was no sooner done, than I had to pick out the meat from the refuse, for the soup. Never again can I eat restaurant soup. Then the top of the stove needed clean- ing and it all wound up by my having litterally " nothing to do till tomor- row ' ' , as the dawn was just coming and I knew I ' d have to be on my journey. I took a cup of coffee (if I had taken the whole place it wouldn ' t have re- paid me for the work I had done) and then made my way to the railroad tracks. It was rather cool that morning, as a wind was blowing from the bay, laden with fresh salt air. At the depot, a couple of freight engines were busily snorting and grunting around, shoving cars here and there. Walking down the track a ways I came to an ice warehouse and here were five " vags " lined up and waiting for a through freight to Santa Cruz. Now, as I might as well explain here, a " vag " is the term in Vagabon- dia, for a tramp who bums his way a bit, always preferring the railroad and never doing much work except when necessary, very frequently, quite ready to steal. A " boe " , or " hoboe " , is a blanket man; he walks rather than rides and may work at unsteady jobs, such as harvesting, if he is in a locality where it is obtainable. These men are, or seem to be, recruited from all common walks of life. I have talked to many of them and found that the main reason for their being on the road, is an indefinable something which once tasted of will very seldom let the blood rest. It is what the Germans call the Wanderlust, a queer, yet dominant desire to be con- stantly on the move, to break all chains with organized communities and be- come an Ishmael, as it were. Then, there is the third class, small, yet sufficiently numerous to form a distinct set by themselves. These are the Yeggs. A vicious, shiftless set, which possesses its own peculiar jargon and is filled with many I. W. W. There are not so many of them in the West, but throughout the Missis- sippi valley and the East they rove in numerous bands, preying upon small town postoffices and country grocery stores after the harvest season. But to continue. There were five " vags " at the ice warehouse and I made the sixth. The train, a through freight, was about due and some one had to stay behind. The oldest man in the THE REDWOOD. 83 crowd tipped me off and told me to sit next to a small nigger on the side that was the engine end of the train. This I did, and pretty soon the train came in sight with a light load and hitting it up at a fairly good clip. The old vag and another took on behind the engine, a third got the middle section, and it was up to the nigger and myself as to who would grab the next to the last car. Now, here was where the value of the " old ' uns " tip lay. In jumping a train you run in the same direction, letting the place you wish to jump for pass by you, and then catching up with it. Hence, this put me between the " get a hold " and the " smoke " (nig- ger). He started after it and so did I ; but I honestly believe he choked himself. Anyhow I grabbed the " get a hold " and was pulled off my feet, and these, trailing behind me, caught him full in the face, knocking him down and that was the last I saw of him. When we arrived at Santa Cruz I jumped off and began to look for breakfast, as what little I had eaten early that morning only whetted my appetite. It is no pleasant task, that of look- ing for food in a strange town. Yon walk down the sreets lined with pleas- ant homes and very frequently catch the appetizing odor of crisp frying bacon and savory coffee. Once in a while you can see into the dining room, and the sight of a warm., cosy home, with all sitting around a well-filled table, eating good food, makes you feel lonely and perhaps even a little rebellious, but you can only cinch your belt up a bit tighter and walk on, waiting for a place that looks likely for a donation or " hand out " . The third house I struck, a rather small peakish woman came to the kitchen door and after quieting a small fox terrier, heard my request. Up to that time I had always re- garded the ' ' tramp and the wood pile ' ' stories as jokes only, but oh — sad, sad reality. " Yes, I could have my breakfast, but could I do a little chopping while it was being prepared? " Every thing was cold, she explained, as her hus- band had gone to work, but it took no Sherloch Holmes to know she lied for a sturdy tow-headed youngster bawled out from somewhere, " Ma, pa wants you. " Anyhow I set to work, but honestly, kind reader, should it take an hour and a half to cook two eggs and warm up a cup of coffee? " No? " you say? Well it did. It isn ' t the time that de- termines the length of the preparation, it is the wood-pile. After finishing the meal I struck out for the depot and when I was almost there, I ran into one of the " boes " who had been on the train with me. All the others had gone through. He had a happy grin on his face and I asked him why. " Went plinging up the pike, " he 84 THE REDWOOD. answered, ' ' and turned one forty ' five ' ' , which translated, means that he went begging up the main street of the town and received one dollar and forty-five cents for his efforts. There I had been sweating over a wood pile for about an hour and a half and in that time he had gotten with- out any effort, a fortune. Oh, wise indeed, are the ways of Vagabondia ! I had the hardest time getting out of Santa Cruz of any place I ever sav ' . The trains were small locals and stop- ped at little bits of stations, giving the " shack " (brakeman) plenty of op- portunities for catching me. I was constantly hopping on and off and never could quite figure out just which would be the blind side of the statio n. At one, I forgot the name, the shack caught me and after a good kick I was left behind with no more trains com- ing and about eighteen miles of sun- beaten track, between me and the near- est place I could negotiate home from. I started to foot it. Hot, — it seemed as if the railroad cuts were ovens and every bit of wind, dried up the cool- ness, it was so scorching. Late morning turned into early aft- ernoon — early afternoon into late aft- ernoon and I still trudged on. Just about sunset I reached my point and took the long dusty road for home, still footing it, — hungry, but home I must make. A few farmers ' wagons helped me out, but most of the way I walked. It made about thirty-one miles I walked that day, and along in the night I reached my domicile. Eat? No. Wash? No. I just flung myself down on the bed and al- most immediately went into a deep, but dreamful sleep, in which I remember distinctly a tall raw-boned red-headed woman showing a railroad engine the map of Vagabondia. Narrated to R. Y. by A. G. THE GIFT REEVESPORT is a straggling fishing village on the Maine coast. In summer it is caressed by cooling breezes from the broad Atlantic ; in winter it is buf- feted by icy winds from the pine for- ests to the northward. The town ex- tends for a mile or more along the nar- row sandy strip between the ocean and the rolling hills, the rough wooden buildings built haphazard facing the water. Wharves of various sizes pro- ject from the shore at frequent inter- vals, forming moorings for the numer- ous fishing sloops which constitute the villagers ' principal property. Its inhabitants are rough, kindly folk, whose natures partake of the strong, primitive emotions of the sea, to them a friend and provider, and at the same time a grim, menacing enemy. Man ' s loves and hates run high here ; woman ' s devotion and an unobtrusive heroism is not unfrequently demon- strated in a striking manner. Thej are inclined to regard the stranger as being more or less of an intruder ; to him is generally denied admission to their hearts — and confidences. Conse- quently there is many a thrilling tale and many a heart-rending tragedy that is known only to themselves, and jealously locked in their bosoms. The following tale is but one of many which has lain for years undisturbed in Dreevesport ' s annals of the past. Captain Doyle was a typical deep- water sailor. His worldly possessions consisted of two things, which shared equally his rough, honest old heart. They were the schooner, " Star of Maine " , a neat three-masted vessel, and his daughter Mary, a sweet-faced girl of eighteen. The old captain was jealously devoted to both. No one had been able to wrest from him either the vessel or his daughter, consequently Mary ' s clumsy suitors received scant encouragement from this quarter. Least of all the captain favored John Wilson, known to every one in Dreevesport as " Johnny " . He had drifted into the town when a mere lad, from where, no one knew. But the vil- lagers are the most thoroughly demo- cratic people in the world, and when Wilson, by reason of energetic appli- cation and unfailing courage estab- lished himself as part owner in a small sloop, he was not denied access to their inner hearts. " Johnny " he was when he shipped from the village the first time, and " Johnny " he re- mained even when, at twenty-two, he avowed himself a contender for the hand of the captain ' s big-eyed daugh- ter. Their mutual attachment culminat- 85 86 THE REDWOOD. ed in an arbitrary statement by Cap- tain Doyle, and Johnny was forbidden to have any communication whatso- ever with the fair Mary. Notwith- standing the captain ' s orders, however, the young people continued to meet, now clandestinely, on the rocks along the shore. It was here Johnny, in his awkward, serious fashion, had done his " courtin ' , ' ' and it was here that he had taken from about his neck one night an antiquated gold locket, and placed it about Mary ' s slender throat. The captain became irritable with the passage of time, and even more ex- acting concerning his daughter now blossoming into the sweet tranquility of maturity. The meetings of the two young people were necessarily fewer, as his love persisted in keeping Mary almost constantly at his side. He had practically retired from active service, making only an occasional voyage. It was during one of these that the " Star of Maine " ran into the storui which is still vividly recalled by Dreevesport ' s fisher-folk. For days she scudded helplessly before the gale, her venerable hull battered and buf- feted by wind and wave. The courage- ous old captain was everywhere on the vessel. Despite his untiring efforts, his beloved schooner weakened under the strain, and was at last shattered on a jagged reef. The angry sea claimed both the ' ' Star of Maine ' ' and old Cap- tain Doyle. Word of the disaster failed to reach the village until some time after. The " Star of Maine " was long overdue, and in the hearts of the villagers lurked a premonition of the truth. Together Mary Doyle and her lover stood on the point of rocks each day, scanning the restless Atlantic for trace of the tardy vessel. When one day a panting lad clambered over the rocks to where they stood and gasped out his message, it was Johnny who bore the fainting Mary in his strong arms to the captain ' s neat dwelling, and later summoned women of the neighborhood to care for her. With Mary ' s only relative thus snatched away, it was but natural that she should cling to Johnny in her af- fliction. A quiet little wedding occurred some months after, at which the greater part of the villagers were pres- ent. All felt that the union would prove a happy one, and sympathy for the parentless girl was replaced by heartfelt well wishes for the happiness of the young couple. The simple ceremony concluded, the party left the little church in the best of spirits. One shadow only was east on their happiness. As Johnny with his smiling, damp-eyed bride, left the town and walked slowly toward his cabin on the dune, a menacing figure rose from behind a rock, and hurled a string of drunken invectives toward him. He recognized the gaunt dishev- elled figure as that of Luke Rogers, who had been his keenest rival. Mary ' s arm contracted quickly in THE EEDWOOD. 87 his, and he felt her slender figure tremble violently. Laughingly he passed the incident off, but Roger ' s appearance seemed to affect her strangely, and Johnny sensed its in- fluence for some time afterwards. It had not completely disappeared even when they reached what was hence- forward to be their home. Johnny closed the door softly, and hand in hand they surv eyed the rough interior. " It ' s a rude cottage, Mary, " he whispered huskily, " but it will be the happiest place for us in God ' s world. " Mary nodded her small, shapely head, too filled with emotion to speak. They stood thus in the gathering twi- light. Then she drew from her bosom the locket, and said, smiling through tears, " This locket will be a bond be- tween us, Johnny — I will keep it, al- ways. ' ' He snatched the slim hands that held the token, and pressed them to his lips, then folded her in a bear-like embrace. Several months flew by, during which the two were completely, child- ishly happy. When a fishing trip ne- cessitated a short separation, Mary in- variably accompanied her husband to the wharf, and stood waving farewell until the vessel melted in the distance. On returning, Johnny was the first ashore, to embrace his smiling wife, and to stroll homeward with his arm about her waist. A year passed before a cloud ap- peared to overshadow the sunshine of their happiness. A few rumors care- lessly dropped by Johnny ' s acquaint- ances made him aware that his former rival, Luke Rogers, was getting to be a frequent visitor at the cabin during his absences. At first he rejected them as being merely idle tales; but they persistently assailed him until at length they obtained a footing in his mind. He would have confronted Mary with the bare facts, and was on the verge of doing so several times, but her child-like innocence was so disarming, and his love for her so great, that the question died on his lips. Meanwhile the village gossips nod- ded gravely. The denouement came at the con- clusion of a voyage in late fall. John- ny ' s craft made port just at dusk. He leapt ashore — Mary was not on the dock. Somewhat surprised he hurried along the wharf, but failed to observe her among the little knot of people gathered to welcome the home-comers. Their greetings fell on deaf ears. For the first time since their marriage Mary had failed him. He strove to quiet his apprehensions, finding ex- cuses for her in the premature return, in the chillness of the wind. But they all rang hollow. He was conscious, too, that Mary ' s absence and his bewilder- ment were not lost on the villagers, and thereupon his old suspicions recurred with stunning force. He strode along the beach, head bowed and collar turned up against the freshening gale. His limbs seemed unusually heavy, and the fatigue of THE REDWOOD. the voyage seemed doubly great with- out Mary at his side. The twilight had deepened into dusk before he arrived at their little cottage. A light beckoned cheerfully from the window. He halted, and stood still in his tracks as the sound of voices, one of a woman, the other heavy and gruff, reached his ears. His worst fears were realized. His head swam dizzily as his idol dropped shat- tered into fragments. Dazedly he lifted a hand to the latch, but drew back as footsteps approached from the interior. A shaft of yellow light shot from the opened door, and Luke Rogers ' tall form swung off down the beach, to be swallowed by the darkness. For a moment Johnny swayed unsteadily, then plunged off in pursuit. The darkness was intense, and what- ever sounds Rogers might have made were lost in the roar of the surf. Johnny strained his eyes in an endeav- or to penetrate the gloom which con- cealed his quarry. In this fashion he strode rapidly along for what seemed to him to be an eternity. Then as the lights of Dreevesport ' s scattered store buildings lent their aid, he discerned a dim form a short distance in advance, Johnny broke into a clumsy seaman ' s run, and rapidly overtook it. Rogers turned a frightened face, and received a crushing blow, followed up with a fierce assault. Unable to retreat, Rog- ers retaliated as best he could, but in spite of his great bulk he was no match for Johnny ' s rage-inspired strength. His guard was beaten down repeatedly and his face and head bruised and cut from the force of his attackers blows. Before Johnny had vented his fury upon him he lay insensible in the sand. John Wilson, whom grief and hate had changed to a primeval beintr, stood over his prostrate foe, and cursed him with all the lurid oaths that con- stitute a seaman ' s extensive vocabu- lary. Slowly he recovered his oilskin " sou ' wester " and headed unsteadily for town. The encounter had served, in a meas- ure to abate his rage; still he desired time for reflection. His mind was yet numb with the crushing shock of his discovery. Accordingly he entered the first saloon, and uttered a low de- mand for whiskey. The fiery liquor consumed, his thoughts became less turbulent. The rough bar and dingy ' ' decorations ' ' gradually assumed their natural forms. With the return of his self-control he noticed a group of three sea-faring men seated at a battered table in one corner of the room. As he continued to drink, they eyed him with evident approval. Finally one rose and ap- proached. After introducing himself as Nel- son, mate of the " Minnie Lockhart " , he tapped Johnny confidentially on the shoulder. ' ' ' Sense me, lad, for buttin ' in on you, but my pardeners have a proposi- tion that I reckon might suit. Yoa jest step over and listen to what they got to say, will you? " Johnny nodded assent as he drained THE REDWOOD. 89 his glass. The other men proved to be Herman, captain, and Johnson, part owner, of the freighting schooner, " Minnie Lockhart " , then anchored in Dreevesport ' s diminutive harbor. With characteristic bluntness they at once divulged their plan. The schoon- er, which must leave the following day was a bit shorthanded. In their esti- mation, Johnny would fill the bill. " Will ye sign, lad? " queried Her- man, at the conclusion of his brief ex- planation. Johnny hung for a mo- ment undecided, then seized the other ' s hand. " Yes, " he muttered, almost fiercely. The John Wilson who sailed next morning was not the Johnny of old. " Johnny " had ceased to exist the night before, and now lay beside his shattered idol among the dunes. »♦ Three years passed during which John Wilson rigidly schooled himself to forget the sad-eyed little woman in Dreevesport. He sought this forget- fulness in odd corners of the world, — - out of the way ports where his native tongue was strange to the ear, making several voyages to India, China, and South America. He sought it in the uncertain existence of a trader ' s life among the South Sea Islands, in the roar of angry seas, in the shriek of wind-swept rigging. In Brazil he set- tled down for a time as a coffee-grow- er, and was unusually successful, but always there was a vague, unrelenting restiveness which hurried him on. In order to recover again his peace of mind he disposed of his little planta- tion, and plunged into uncertain spec- ulations, wild adventures — anything that would supply the excitement so necessary to him. Later he purchased a fair-sized schooner, which he employed in trad- ing among " the islands " . The cold, seemingly emotionless man rapidly ac- quired a reputation for cool-headed business ability, but in making his for- tune he was left severely alone, a course of conduct which seemed to meet with approval on his part. The comparative quiet of a trader ' s life soon palled on Wilson. The wan- derlust within him became again un- bearable. Accordingly he set oiit for a long voyage to the west coast of Afri- ca. The hazardous trip was made with- out mishap. Favorable winds drove the schooner smoothly through friend- ly waters. It was not until within five days of the Canaries that Wilson ' s ves- sel was engulfed in a furious storm, which snapped her masts like tooth- picks and laid her seams open to the rush of the seas. All hope of saving the schooner abandoned, Wilson stood at the rail superintending the launching of the boats. Everything in readiness, the first boat bobbed away from the vessel ' s side. With the fear of death on their faces, the remainder of the crew began to embark. Wilson made no move to leave the ship, and in re- sponse to the crew ' s appeals, drew a revolver, and avowed his intention of remaining aboard. Finding argument to be fruitless, they were about to 90 THE REDWOOD. leave this mad man to his fate, when they discerned the Kanaka cook creep- ing up behind the captain. A shout of warning froze on their lips as the cook ' s weapon flashed in the air and descended. Wilson fell without a groan. Misinterpreting the cook ' s motive, they cursed him heartily and pulled away. A week later Captain Smithson of the wind-jammer " Robert Lincoln " sighted the wreck of a three-masted schooner, with shattered masts and hull awash. He sent out a boat, which returned bearing an unconscious man, with a severe scalp wound rudely bandaged, emaciated, and nearly dead. " Found him on the wreck, cap ' n, " reported the mate. " Couldn ' t make her out. A Kanak was lyin ' by this feller, too dead to bury, so I jest brung this here one along. " Wilson lay for several days in a comatose state. When at last he was sufficiently recovered to talk, he asked for the particulars of his rescue. When the captain had complied with his re- quest, telling of the derelict, kept afloat, no doubt, by the lumber in her hold, and of the dead Kanaka, Wilson found courage to ask the question up- permost in his mind. " Where are we bound, captain? " " Dreevesport, Maine, " was the re- piy- Wilson protested violently, but as Dreevesport was the vessel ' s first port of call, his protests were unavailing. He gathered strength rapidly during the voyage. For some reason the man who had deliberately sought death now found himself looking forward to com- plete recovery. The reason was clear to him, but he strove with all the force of his will to banish it from his mind. The voyage drew near to its close, and Wilson fumed with impatience When at last the " Robert Lincoln ' approached Dreevesport ' s harbor, he donned a heavy great coat as a protec tion from the biting December wind and paced the deck, seeking out famil- iar spots along the shore. At the dock Wilson extended his hand to Captain Smithson, who shook it warmly, saying: " Well, Wilson, you certainly pulled out of a tight place in tip-top shape. We hang up here for a few days. If you want a berth I ' 11 find one for you. ' ' The captain strode off, then turned and called out, " Merry Christmas. " Wilson started as if struck with a whip. Why, surely this must be Christ mas eve! What a night of nights for his return after nearly seven years of wandering ! As he strode along the desolate beach, purposely avoiding the lights of the town, he sought to determine upon a course of conduct. Should he accept the captain ' s offer, and ship with him ? Unable to arrive at a conclusion, he continued his tramping through the falling snow. Like the majority of: Christmas eves in the vicinity of Dreevesport, it was bitterly cold. The icy wind from the dark waters carried small ice crystals which stung his face THE REDWOOD. 91 sharply, but somehow did not annoy him. Wilson realized that he must be near the cabin which, so long ago, he had called home. " I ' ll turn back, " he muttered, " I ' ll not go farther. " Despite his efforts to the contrary, he felt his resolution ebbing away. Soon he observed a dim yellow glow through the storm. Involuntarily he quickened his pace, cursing simultane- ously his weakness and the snow which clung hinderingly about his knees. Fifteen feet further on he saw a line of ghostly white shapes swaying in the wind — a neglected wash flapping stiff- ly to and fro. His heavy seaman ' s boots slipped on the frozen clods of a wind-swept garden patch. A moment later his face was pressed against the cabin ' s single window. Two of the panes had been replaced with heavy yellow paper — a pitiful bulwark at which the cruel blast laughed in mocking derision. At the rude oil-cloth covered table sat a woman; the Mary whom Wilson had striven unsuccessfully to forget. Her head lay pillowed on her thin arms. Though the storm deadened all sounds, he saw her frail shoulders heave with convulsive sobs. Against the opposite wall stood a dilapidated cot. The flickering oil lamp cast a few feeble rays on a pale little face, surmounte i by a mop of tangled golden hair. Wilson ' s heart beat rapidly, and a heavy lump welled up into his throat. In a few floundering strides he reached the door, sprung the latch, and stepped over the threshold. The woman turned quickly, with the same motion raisin " ? the lamp wick. The augmented light revealed more plainly the delicate features of a little girl, of about six years of age, sleeping quietly in the crib. About her thin neck, half con- cealed in the folds of a tattered night dress, he saw the dull glint of gold. It was a familiar token — the locket. Wilson observed all this in a flash. The great fear that had possessed him vanished and his heart lightened mag- ically. His eyes then sought Mary, standing with her hands tightly grasping the edge of the table; her lips parted ex pectantly; her face, though stained with tears and marked with the lines of suffering, still lighted up with the innocent, confiding look of the Mary whom he had kissed that night as hs placed the locket about her neck. With a great, choking sob, the man — John Wilson no longer — advanced, and heard her happy lips breath, " Johnny, " as he crushed her in his great, strong arms. F. BUCKLEY McGURRIN. HIDDEN IN MYSTERY I ANY years ago, there lived in what is now the populous city of San Raleo, then but a small thriving vil- lage, a wealthy Span- iard who boasted that he came of the noblest of Spanish families, the Gon- zales. He had come mysteriously, silently. No one knew him or had ever heard of him. He had built the most magnifi- cent of houses and surrounded it with the stateliest of gardens. It had taken years to complete them, yet Senor Gonzales seldom appeared among the country folk during this time. One might have seen him occa- sionally superintending the work, but for days afterwards he would be miss- ing. This strange man soon became the chief topic of conversation in the little town. His house in time became . the pride and boast of San Raleo, even travelers were wont to visit there to observe the grandeur which was fast becoming famous throughout the country. Rum- ors of the strange Senor, his ways, manners, and the mystery connected with him made a curious story which attracted much attention. Later, even after Senor Gonzales had been living in the great house for many months, the same mystery pre- 92 dominated. Sometimes on a quiet even- ing the wdndows blazed forth in brilliantly lighted rooms, the sounds of feasting and music were heard, for all the distinguished ladies and gentle- men of the country Avere making merry at the pleasure of the rich Spaniard; then for weeks, months, the house was hushed in gloom and darkness. Dur- ing these periods the Senor completely disappeared, as though the earth had swallowed him alive. These puzzling actions brought out a strange commentary amongst the villagers. The story ran that he was constantly tormented by thoughts of a dreaded enemy who was continually searching for him, causing him to hide in fear. Ten years had elapsed, and the curi- osity of the house and its mysterious owner had somewhat subsided. It was after a particularly long spell of quiet- ness that the dread event occurred. A man returning from a walk in the dusk of evening, involuntarily quick- ened his steps as he passed the man- sion. It was not through fear, but thoughts of the dark and lonesome rooms with their gloomy and strange occupant made him hurry on. The house had almost earned the name of haunted among the townspeople. He had nearly gotten by when a low, hoarse moan from a half-opened THE REDWOOD. 93 window to his right brought him to a startled stop. His teeth chattering he listened for the awful moan again, but in vain. A few moments had gone by before he could move from fright. The a down the street he rushed to the con- stable ' s office, a block or so away. The story was repeated. Together they re- turned with a few helpers. Quaking with fright they knocked at the massive old doors, and found, to their dismay, that they were unlocked, even partly open. The house was in utter darkness, so two candles, which had been brought along, were lighted. The two men who held them led and the others followed stealthily to the room whence the moan had come. The wind had rise]i by this time and, to add to their uneasi- ness, doors were banging shut in every part of the house and the candles were kept lighted with difficulty. The wind whistled through the old house like the crying of some wounded thing. At last the sought for room was f ound. But what a sight met their eyes! Senor Gonzales lay stone dead upon the floor, with eyes staring wildly and such a look in them that would fright- en the most courageous. Suddenly both lights were snuffed out, the wind roared through the room, and out of the darkness came a slow agonizing groan. The men huddled together in terror, only one, the constable, having pres- ence of mind enough to relight the candles, which put a little courage into the terrified company. Painfully, fur tively they examined the room. Over in one corner, braced against the wall, opposite the stiffening body of the Senor lay the dark figure of a man wounded to the death. His hand was placed over his heart, his head rolled slowly from side to side. Slowly life was ebbing, and some- thing must be done quickly. Forget- ting their fright in the crisis of a life the men grouped around the prostrate figure. Fiery stuff was poured down his throat. He revived, opened his eyes, gazed dizzily at the strange face, and realizing the unasked question on each, told his tale, in broken English, slowly, but briefly, for he was fast sinking into unconsciousness. It seemed that as boys, Senor and he had been boon companions. To man- hood grown, enmity had come be- tween them over some trivial matter, bitter hatred had been the outcome. He, Senor Lopez, had sworn to take Senor Gonzales ' life, but he suddenly departing, left for a country unknown. It had been hard for Senor Lopez; he had searched many nations; he had followed mistaken clues, and finally came to America, where overhearing the all too true fable of the rich Span- iard in San Raleo and guessing who it was had hastened thither. Their clash had come shortly before the even- ing set in. Fiercely, savagely, silently they 94 THE KEDWOOD. fought, each longing for the other ' s life, till at last Senor Gonzales had been desperately wounded, but with his dying breath took his adversary by sixrprise, struck one last feeble bloAV with his sharp-pointed dagger, and found his mark. Senor Lopez had kept his oath, but at a fearful cost. Together they had lived in hatred, together they died with the same hlaa ' k bitter feeling in their hearts, and to- gether they were buried side by side ; for death and death alone had con quei ' ed their hate. Many years have passed, but San Raleo still abounds with tales of the bloody battles that are said to take place between the spirits of the dead Spaniards on the same day of every year that Senor Gonzales was found murdered in his own house with the look of horrible fear upon his dead glassy eyes. WILLIAM B. LAVELL, High School. IN PASSING Let me look long at the sunset, At the rapturous blue of the bay, For mayhap in the misting Tomorrow I ' ll not be returning this way. O let me drink deep of the odor Of wet dripping firs in the rain. For perhaps in my long journey homewards, I may not pass by here again. Our lives are but fragments of chanteys, A crooning of half broken lays, A dream that comes just before dawning. An echo, a rift of blue haze. So let me sit long in the sunlight, And let me drink deep of the may, Till the purple-clad, misty-eyed Lady Smilingly calls me away, BYRNE ALEXANDRE MARCONNIER. THE REASON WHY T had snowed hard all day. We ranch hand,-? didn ' t care much though, for it was late in the season and the hay was all under cover, and besides we needed a rest. Everyone about the big fireplace in the ranch house looked the picture of blissful contentment, even the two nondescript mongrels rolling about the floor in play. We had been telling stories all afternoon. Archie, a big, smooth-tongued Scotchman, had just finished a gruesome ghost story and we had given him a round of applause. By ' We ' , I mean ' all but an old team- ster sitting apart from the rest. He had little to say at any time, but throughout the whole afternoon he had sat with a far-away look on his hard, furrowed visage, his eyes rest- ing always on the two dogs. " Weel, " said Archie, turning to the old team- ster whom we called John, " Tell us something of a story. Ye ' ve sat the whole afternoon watchin ' the dogs. I ' ve seen ye do it often. Tell us, mon, why don ' t ye speak? " John, ques- tioned directly, sat for a moment in silence. Then he threw one leg across the other and putting his elbow upon his knee, rested his chin in his cupped palm and turning his far away gaze into the fire, spoke: " Long ago, when most of you were children, I had a ranch of my own, a sheep ranch. I started out in a small way. After five years of slavin ' , workin ' my little place in the summer and working out all winter, I bought a thousand sheep. I paid half down and reckoned to pay the rest on install- ments. Things were comin ' along pretty good. I paid four men to herd my sheep an ' worked from day-light till dark myself to pay these men. First summer I made good money of ' n the sheep. Had ' em all sheared and made quite a bit from the wool. My only trouble was in keepin ' the herders. The same ones seldom stayed more than a month an ' a half. ' Twasn ' t always that they disliked me, but ' twas too lonesome way out there, ' specially for the night herds. I ' d often thought about gettin ' dogs an ' herdin ' the sheep myself, so one day when I hear of a man sellin ' out I went and bought his five sheep dogs. There was one that seemed to be leader, a big power- tiil built shepherd. I took to him the first time I saw him an ' he seemed to take to me. " Here old John stopped and his hardened features seemed to soften. When he spoke again his voice was low and husky. " After I had that dog for a week all t he money this side of the Rockies couldn ' t have bought him, an ' I don ' t think he would 95 96 THE REDWOOD. have left me either. He followed me about from morning till night an ' then slept aside of my bed. " " I didn ' t let my men go right away because I wasn ' t ready to start herdin ' yet. But one day I went out to see the sheep when the Greasers who were tendin ' them didn ' t expect me. There was a little ravine right near the big pasture and as I came over the hill to- wards the field I saw two of the Greasers draggin ' something between ' em towards this ravine. I got back out of sight before they saw me and went by a round about way up to the knoll overlooking the washout, and watched. " What I saw made me feel like goin ' down there and wipin ' out the whole five of them devils. There was a wagon waitin ' in the ravine and in it was eight dead sheep, an ' the Greasers pilin ' in more as fast as they could kill ' em. I didn ' t know how long this had been going on because I hadn ' t counted the flock for two months. Anyhow I went down and broke the head of one of the thieves that pulled a knife on me before they ran. " " I took the butchered sheep to town and sold them, and the next day start- ed herdin ' with the dogs. Say, to see them hold that bunch of sheep was a pretty sight. They worked like a ma- chine with the big shepherd always leadin ' them. At sun down I ran ' em into a big corral and chained all the dogs except the big one near ' em; be- cause he always slept with me. " I did this for a week, an ' every day I got to love that big shep more ami more. I ' d wake up at night an ' in the moonlight I ' d see him standin ' aside of my bed with his cold muzzle poked against my cheek. " Here old John stopped again and pulling an old red bandana from his pocket blew his nose violently and then turning away, wiped his eyes. " One night about two weeks later I wasn ' t feeling extra well and couldn ' t sleep much. I had just fallen into a sort of doze when I heard a crash right beside my bed. I thought at first I had just dreamt it, but then I could hear a queer gaspin ' noise every few seconds. So I got up and lit the lamp. There on the floor lay the big shepherd, his teeth fastened in the neck of a Greaser I had knocked down that day on the range. I spoke to the dog, but he didn ' t move. Then I put the lamp down closer and saw that he was dead. There was two long cuts in his throat the Greaser had given him with the knife that was meant for me. " Here old John stopped and sat look- ing into the fire with that far away look in his eyes just as if he had never spoken a word. As he finished, Archie drew his sleeve acress his eyes. " Ah weel may ye be silent, " he said. EDWARD L. NICHOLSON. MONTY ' S CHRISTMAS SPIRITS ' LL do it, " Monty was saying. " Just leave the job to me. " The speaker was the smallest and rough- est looking man of the four that were seated in the rear of Worril ' s saloon, talking over a big haul that was to be made that night. It was Christmas Eve, and a party was to be given at Judge Adam ' s. This " Lucky Four " , as they termed them- selves, figured on robbing the house about one o ' clock when every one was sure to be asleep after the tiring hours of the party. They had drawn lots to see which one would " do the job " , and Monty had drawn the " winning " slip. They were each to receive a fourth of the contents of the safe, and the one who did the work was to receive all else he took over and above his fourth. At eleven o ' clock Monty dropped in at Worrill ' s to see if his pals were there. They were not, so he started for the Judges ' home to find an easy access before the time came for him to act. By eleven- thirty the last per- son had left the party, and by one Monty thought it time to begin opera- tion s. By the light from the big church across the street he could see that it would be unsafe to attempt an entrance from the front. Besides Mon- ty did not care to enter here, " With the very eye of the Lord alookin ' at me from the church, " because he was su- perstitious. The fact that he often mentioned that he wasn ' t, proved it. In the rear of the house he had bet- ter luck. There was a low porch lead ing to the kitchen here, and just above this was a window. With the ready aid of a " chip " glass cutter, he soon had the window open, and a minute later had closed it softly from within. " Kinda handy, " he muttered, " in case I see them before they see me. " He was to begin with the library as he had been instructed by a man who had told the " Lucky Four " about the job, a man who had lately acted as butler in the house until he had been discharged for " borrowing " some silverware. After going through several rooms with the aid of his dark lantern, Mon- ty at last discovered the library. The safe was there as his informer had said. Judge Adam ' s little daughter had been sickly from birth and as a result her smallest wish had ahvays been gratified. Tonight she had been al- lowed to stay up till eleven o ' clock and had eaten some cake before retiring. This affected her so that she could not sleep. Suddenly she bethought herself of her toys which she had left down stairs, one in particular, a large French doll which could say " Father " and 97 98 THE REDWOOD. " Mother " in perfect imitation of her oM n voice when the plaything was pressed sharply. She thought she would get it without waking any one, and then, perhaps, she could sleep. She opened the nursery door and stole qui- etly down the stairs. The doll, as she recollected, had been left on the floor in the library. She thought that she saw a dim streak of light from under the door, but could not be sure. She walked to the library and pushed open the door noiselessly. Monty had just unstrapped his kit and was putting his drill together, when, — " I heard a low voice from the door. I looked, an ' I don ' t believe in spirits or ghosts, but I saw a little girl astandin ' there with her hands stretched out, just the pic- ture of my little girl that died. T jumped back and my foot hit somethin ' soft that said in the same low voice ' Father ' . That was about all I could stand. I don ' t remember just how I got to the street, but, however it was, I did it pretty quick. I knew you fel- lows ' ud be waitin ' for me here, so I came to let you know that if you want what ' s in that safe you ' 11 have to either ask ' em for it or go get it yourselves. I ' m goin ' to be sure my little kid ' s back in heaven before I do another job for you fellows. " EDWARD L. NICHOLSON. THE MASTER DREAMER He came and lived his hour then went his way, Went sadly, half forgotten through the grey. They laughed to see him brooding on the moon, And mocked him for an idle dreaming loon. But he, scarce heeding, smiled away the pain. And knew the sun was sweeter for the rain. Alone he walked the moonlit dewy ways. And breathed the hearts of roses singing lays. Forgave them all, and rendered for the whole, The poor half-broken fragments of his soul. And when his song was done, he stole away. Stole silently and softly through the grey. BYRNE ALEXANDRE MARCONNIER. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR BUSINESS MANAGER ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER REVIEWS . - - ALUMNI - - - • UNIVERSITY NOTES - ATHLETICS ALUMNI CORRESPONDENTS ASSOCIATE EDITORS EXECUTIVE BOARD THE BUSINESS MANAGER RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 HAROLD R. MCKINNON, ' 14 GEORGE A. NICHOLSON EDWARD O ' CONNOR, ' 16 WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 16 JCHAS. D. SOUTH, Litt. D., ' 01 I ALEX. T. LEONARD, A. B., ' 10 THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 50 a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL COMMENTS Christmas time is here Christmas again, with all its wealth of good cheer and present-giving. The Christmas spirit pervades not only the atmosphere but also the realms of journalism, and many a pen is busy, forming trite ideas into new shapes, embodying the snow, the hay, the kings, the ass, man- ger and similar yuletide subjects. The Redwood is not exempted from a touch of this spirit. Indeed we would feel that something was radically wrong if we were, so in place of an editorial endeavoring to carry to our readers the description of " It was snowing hard outside and little Bobby ' s papa had not yet returned from the city " we simply state that to all our friends of the past, to all old Santa Clara men wherever 99 100 THE EEDWOOD. they may be, Alma Mater, through the pages of The Redwood wishes a very very Merry Christmas and a Happy Christian New Year. No activity can be The Redwood successfully carried on in a community un- less it be given the proper support. Moreover, if the activity depends in a large measure upon the good will and sincere interest of a community, it be- comes absolutely imperative that these essentials are forthcoming, else every- thing falls into decay and death. Now The Redwood is entering its thirteenth year, and never in its history has it needed support as in the pres- ent semester. This is your book, it is the official publication of your student body, and through its columns are you judged by many a university and school who are rivals to you in more than athletics. With these considerations in mind. we of the staff are calling upon the campus for support. We want it expressed in some mate- rial form. Moral support is all right for some things, but it makes very poor " copy and reading matter " . What we want you to do is write. Write poems, essays, histories and if they are good enough we ' 11 gladly pub- lish them, only, for the sake of the cause, write. Literary stagnation in a people de- notes generally intellectual stagnation and in this way it can be applied to a university. While it has never been the policy of The Redwood to sound a minor key, bewailing conditions and man, we always have held to a policy of straight-forwardness and though it is true the campus is far from stagnation in spirit we would certainly like to see some of it transferred to paper and brought up to the office. Remember, this is your book, and it will be what you help make it. The question of the college monthly, with its many inseparable problems, has again been brought to light in the exchange columns of " The Univer- sity of Virginia Magazine ' ' . The writ- er, in his own humble way, evinces a comprehensive grasp of a subject which has always presented many discourcg- ing and almost hopeless difficulties to every association editing a college pe- riodical. He does by no means attempt the solution of these problems. His aim is apparently to keep the friends of col- lege publications alive to their import- ance ; and it is in this spirit that we are glad to help him if we can, in his fight against the indifference of un- dergraduate support and the conse- quent danger of stagnation to literary talent. This attempt to stimulate, if possi- ble, the apathetic and lukewarm sup port of undergraduates has brought out in the opinion of this Virginia writer, the importance of an exchange department to every college periodical wishing to retain the support of stu- dents. To quote: " From magazines all over the country comes the complaint that the student-body is not interested in their literary publications and is un- willing to give them more than a half- hearted support which the combined efforts of the business manager and the editor scarce suffice to arouse. Is it any wonder then, that the contribut- ors wearied by the indifference of their logical audience turn eagerly to what is their almost only source of encour- agement and criticism! This state of affairs, while very unfortunate to the college magazine in a number of ways, has succeeded in bringing into promi- nence a very valuable department " A well conducted exchange, like a gift, blesses both him that giveth and him that receivth; " and again, " We believe that if some of the magazines which slight or omit this department were to think this side of the question over carefully, they would reach the conclusion that self-interest, if nothing else, demands more attention to the subject. " The importance of the fact that a well conducted exchange department, along lines of watchfulness, modera- tion and helpfulness, is the greatest inducement the student contributor 101 102 THE REDWOOD. has, should not be lost sight of. But to revert to the question of student support, we can say, without fear of contradiction that there is scarcely any other way by which one may more surely learn the true character of an educational institution, than by read- ing its publications. And it is for this reason that a college journal should get the- hearty and unselfish support and the best efforts oL students, whether contributors or not: — otherwise, we must admit, with due regard to limita- tions in talent and scope, it were bet- ter left unpublished. In this connection we readily sub- scribe to the just contention of our friend from Virginia that: " Chief among these problems is that of retain- ing the support of the ixndergraduates, which is absolutely necessary if the magazine is to fulfill its proper func- tion — the preserving of literary ideals and the fostering of literary talent among the students " " If stu- dent interest is not great enough to furnish the magazine with articles of the standard which it desires, it must print articles of a lower standard; and if articles of a lower standard are printed, how can it hope to reawaken the interest the absence of which it de- plores ? ' ' University of For October has Virginia whetted our taste for Magazine the best of our ex- changes now before us, and we discern marks of true literature in its palata- ble, though not over-sumptuous offer- ings; " Speaking of Convention " is an intensely personal observations on a question which cannot be readily so viewed. This writer falls into the common but unpardonable error of judging the whole by one of its parts. Because Tom, Dick and Harry are dull- ards in English as a result of an educa- tional system which he is pleased to label ' English literature tail-forward; ' it does not follow that the method is not ' tail-backward ' with the rest of the unfortunates, and that the average Freshman does not enjoy that ' eager- ness ' and ' interest ' in his English course the absence of which the writer deplores in the case of ' Tom ' , Dick and Harry. He would have us take these apposite and happy remarks on the subject as serious and final: " by con- sequence, (of the system he would in- vert) the literary metabolism of the usual Freshman is limited to the pre- digested doses stuffed down in a pa- thetic endeavor to ' make the weight ' specified by college entrance require- ments. " Be all this as it may, we en- joy the article though it proves noth- ing. The merits of the writer as a witty reformer are beyond reproach and his endeavors as a free-lance in the field of education are not alto- gether unpleasant reading. " The Masqueraders " is the title of a short story in the issue of the monthly be- fore us which is very well written, not so much as a story with the proverbial plot in it, but as a story in which the picturesque is given the ascendancy and in which the drollery of a truly THE REDWOOD. 103 convivial masque is very well brought out. " Beraugere " is another short story which we enjoyed as much de- spite its improbable tragic climax. St. Thomas Is replete with instrue- Purple tive and readable and Grey matter. We do nor hesitate to confess a surprise at the abundant and splendid results embod- ied in this issue of so much earnest, honest effort. The well-written and equally important subject of the essay on ' ' The Real Value of Military Train- ing " will appeal to all patriotic Amer- icans. We have nothing but praise for the author and hope that he will find time to continue his splendid work. The essay on " The Pagan Ideal Shown in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam " draws an incomplete though not unin- teresting parallel between Christianity and Paganism. But in all other re- spects: the style, choice of quotations and general tone, it is well worth the labor of review. We note with pleas- ure the trenchant pen behind the edi- torials of the periodical. The Harvard Monthly This periodical has always upheld the scholarly reputation of the great university it represents. And the number of this publication which we have just received is no exception to this rule. We are indebted to the studious essay on " Syndicalism, — the Doctrine of Violence " , for much light shed on a subject the significance of which is not generally understood. " Almeh " , a short story of the far- East is a bit loose in structure, but its realism and the shocking discovery of its love-lured hero save it from consign- ment to the scrap heap. For September has an The Occident unusually interesting story with a real cli- max which easily bears away the palm of the number. The article on the Pan- ama-Pacific International Exposition, is full of timely details and descrip- tions of the great work now being pushed ahead in San Francisco. The poetry of the book is also in keeping with the prose. For November has Fleur de Lis furnished a very in- teresting hour of pleas- urable study. " The Pathetic in Trage.- dy, " and " Jaques the Cynic, " are two articles that might have been cut from the same literary cloth, for though their faults be many, yet they have an equal number of redeeming qualities in common. " Three Ghosts and a Widow " is the best piece of fictioa which it has been our pleasure to re view since we first mounted the Ex- change editor ' s high chair of criticism. The style of the story is that of a ' hartie ' familiar with ' Davy Jones ' no less than that of a writer well acquaint- ed with the elements which go to make the telling of such yarns both interest- ing and realistic. All things eonsid- 104 THE REDWOOD. ered, we are pleased to own that this and instructive relaxation. Price number of the " Fleur de Lis " is an 75e, Benziger Bros., N. Y., 36-38 Bar- eloquent testimony of the university ' s clay St. large share of that thing called talent. We gratefully acknowledge the re- ceipt of the following Exchanges: " The Exponent " , " Notre Dame " , " The Academia " , " Niagara Rain- bow " , " The Pacific Star " , " The Holy Cross Purple " , " St. Mary ' s Collegian " , " The Villa Marian " , " Williams Lit- erary Monthly " , " The Morning Star ' ' , " The Viatorian " , " The Young Eagle " , ' ' Marquette University Journal ' ' , " The Solanian " , " The Spectrum " , " The Xavier Atheneum " , " The Ave Maria " , " The Notre Dame Scholastic ' ' , " The Campion " , " The Mercerian " , " The Fordham Monthly " , " The Xaverian " , and " Fleur de Lis " . BOOKS REVIEWED. Children of the Log Cabin By Henriette Eugenie Delamare. One of the greatest charms about Miss Delamare ' s writing is the naturalness of the characters she draws for her readers. Her mind has a keen insight into the motives that prompt the peculiar actions of the normal child and her manner of expression is in en- tire consonance with the characters de- picted, and she is careful never to over- draw the picture. For youngsters and the elder children " The Children of the Log Cabin " will furnish charming The Little By Mary F. Nixon- Marshallsat Roulet. This bright, the Lake interesting book de- scribes the further adventures of the Seven Little Marshalls, with whom so many are familiar. Needless to say, they are still the same happy, care-free mischief-makers that they were when the author first introduced them to our Catholic children. Price 60c, Ben- ziger Bros., N. Y., 36-38 Barclay St. Other books received were: " Billy- Boy " , by Mary T. Waggaman; Price 75e, The Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Ind. " Our Catholic Sisterhoods, " by Rev. Ambrose Reger, 0. S. B., and " Robert Martin, " by Henry Gunstock, The Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Ind., Price 30c. The Fairy of the Snows " The Fairy of the Snows ' ' , the first book Father Finn has writ- ten in twelve years, is a great success. It is something of the same style as his earlier works and it deals principally with the poor and their struggle against poverty. Alice Morrow, who is the principal figure of the story is introduced as a girl of about eight years old and is named the " Fairy of the Snows " by Father Carney, her parish priest. The story is developed in such a way as to hold the reader ' s interest through- THE REDWOOD. 105 out every bit of it. It centers around the Morrow family, whieh. has many troubles, the greatest being that Mr. Morrow, the father, spends all his earnings in drink. However, all these troubles at last clear away and the story ends with a fine climax in which Mr. Morrow is cured of his habit of drinking, Alice Morrow, the Fairy of the Snows, pro- cures a position which brings the fam- ily to prosperity and the Good Ship " Hope " , Captain Eomance, comes to port. Benziger Bros., 85 cents. Roma We have received the first number of Roma, a new illustrated His- tory of Rome. Should the succeeding numbers equal this in the excellence of the illustrations and the interest of the reading matter we augur every good omen for the publication. The author knows his Roman History well, and, better still, knows how to east about the dry and familiar facts an in- terest whieh, on beginning to read, we expected to find absent. The illustra- tions are very well chosen, are not commonplaces of history books, and really cast light on the text. " We are looking forward with real pleasure to the numbers to follow, particularly those which will have The Catacombs for their subject. Benziger Bros. Com- plete in eighteen parts, each thirty- five cents. " IN QUEST OF THE GOLDEN CHEST " . " In Quest of the Golden Chest " is Mr. George Barton ' s latest work. Boy readers will probably remember him by his interesting tale, " The Mystery of Cleverly " . Mr. Barton has chosen the setting for his tale of adventure wonderfully well. " What better could any boy ask than a journey over ocean paths and through tropical forests and countries in quest of treasure? The main scenes are laid in picturesque Cuba which the author describes with a vividness which only comes with perfect familiarity. The characters are well drawn. Bill Rambo, the evil element of the tale forms a singular contrast with Job Singleton, the mate who stands for everything which is honest and straightforward. Paid Parker, the youthful hero is drawn to be every- thing which in a hero is expected. The book is attractively bound in blue cloth and sold by Benziger Bros., publishers, for $1.15. The world at large Portola has its greatest quad- riennial event in tlie Olympic games. Among the festivals of the Pacific Coast, and of California in particular, is one, also occurring every four years, which celebrates the advent of Don Caspar de Portola to the shores of golden California. Portola bears the same relation to this side of the United States that the time-honored Olympic games bear to the outside world. It is typical of this western country. It is a period of open handed hospitality and care-free merry making, during which the people of San Francisco demonstrate even more strikingly than usual their active, progressive disposition, and indisput- ably establish their reputation for ver- satility of enterprise, and their ability to furnish out a carnival which is de- serving of mention among the world ' s best. The Portola festival is constructed about a theme which of itself is sug- gestive of romance. As if by magic the fairy realms of the past are resur- rected and laid open for wide-eyed moderns to visit, while for the nonce the pressure of present day business is disregarded. Don Caspar and his fol- lowers again become corporal beings. With their coming the entire city throws itself into a great fiesta, which, despite the lapse of years, still retains a flavor of the days of haciendas and ranehos. So infectious was the carnival spirit, that even Santa Clara ' s walls were not impervious to its penetrability. The faculty very generously granted a va- cation extending from noon of the twenty-first to dinner-time the Friday following. Practically every student availed himself of the opportunity, and hied himself northward to the center of attraction. Many and thrilling were the adventures encountered by the stu- dents as " Gasparites " . Suffice it to say that the time between the depart- ure Tuesday and the reassembling at dinner Friday evening, contained sufficient variety to satisfy everyone until the Thanksgiving holidays mater- ialized. The students were most appreciative of the generosity of the Faculty in granting the very welcome respite, and extend their most hearty thanks for the concessions. 106 THE REDWOOD. 107 The Student Body The Associated Stu- dents of the Universi- tj of Santa Clara held their second meeting of the scholastic year on November second, with Presi- dent Rodney A. Yoell in the chair. After a short talk, in which Mr. Yoell urged the members of the student body to air their opinions or grievances at tie regular meetings, instead of hold- ing forth in the yard, the regular order was carried out. Chief among the matters discussed was the awarding of block " S. C. ' s " to the members of the Varsity football and baseball teams. In the past the blocks have been presented to those participating in what is known as the " big game " , now held with the Uni- versity of Nevada. Relative to this was a proposed amendment to the constitution by Mr. B. Fitzpatrick. When read by the secretary, Mr. McKinnon, the proposed amendment was as follows: " That all students who take part in at least two-thirds of the varsity base- ball and football games shall be award- ed block numerals. " The proposal was prompted by sev- eral substantial reasons, chiefly these: Some players, owing to injuries or other causes, are prevented from play- ing in the Nevada game, despite the fact that they have participated in most of the previous games. Never- theless, they are, by reason of their former services, entitled to some re- ward. Also, that occasionally players have an opportunity to take part in the big game largely through luck, — in some cases when they have played in only one or two of the preceding games. While the reward is not be- grudged them, yet it is hardly fair that those who have been playing steadily during the season, but, for the reasons above stated, are unable to play against the University of Nevada, do not re- ceive a block. In our opinion such an amendment is exceedingly logical, and would in- sure recognition to those who by their work on the teams have merited it. On the other hand, some difficulty will un- doubtedly be experienced in regard to baseball players — more especially the pitchers. The pitching staff generally consists of at least four men. It is ob- viously impossible for each of them to play the prescribed number of games. However, some sort of provision will in all probability be made for them. If this proves to be the case, the amend- ment will be a wise and commendable step. The proposed amendment was later posted on the bulletin board for the consideration of the students, and will be passed upon at the December meet- ing. A distinguished visitor was Mr. Wm. J. Bush, in the capacity of representa- tive for the second division, or younger preparatory students. It was " Joe ' s " first appearance in this role, and it must be acknowledged that he per- formed it very creditably. After a few words by the Athletic Moderator, Fr. Eline, the meeting ad- journed at about a quarter of ten. 108 THE REDWOOD. The second game with All Blacks was disappointing the New Zealanders only as regards the unfavorable weath- er conditions. The venerable Jupiter Pluvius seemingly entertained a strong antipathy to the holding of the contest, and neglected to close his rain taps during the whole of Tuesday night, and even up to Wednesday noon. A cancellation of the game was consid- ered necessary several times, but on the assurance of Fr. Ricard that there would be no more rain until night, the match was played on Wednesday, the twelfth of November, as scheduled. Uncertainty as to whether or not the game would be played, combined with the chill, damp air, doubtless detracted greatly from the attendance. Never- theless the crowd that was present at the hard-fought contest was the largest that has witnessed the playing of the Varsity on the home field this season. Much credit must be given to both the players and the rooters. The New Zealanders, are, to say the least, very formidable opponents, under any con- ditions ; but under the conditions which prevailed at the time the odds were ap- preciably increased. Whole-hearted rooting, too, is difficult, but Santa Clara ' s loyal boosters were in evidence throughout the game, and did much to hearten our players. We were fortunate in having the visitors as guests at dinner after the game. Later an impromptu entertain- ment was tendered them in the theatre. While necessarily short, the program was none the less enjoyed. Student Body President Yoell made a brief ad- dress to the All Blacks. He aptly re- marked the fact that a defeated team is seldom really grateful to the victors, but that none the less, Santa Clara was grateful to its conquerors ; first, for having had an opportunity of playing with the world ' s greatest ag- gregation of rugby exponents; and secondly, for the kindly interest dis- played by them, both in the two games we have played together, and their most helpful coaching. Mr. Yoell voiced the sentiments of the entire stu dent body in this, and also when he thanked the visitors again for their unselfish teaching of the more involved scientific features of rugby. The ad- dress was typical of President Yoell ' s spontaneous eloquence and unfailing tact. Following an amusing reel of motion pictures came Byrne A. Marconnier, with James Coyle at the piano. He rendered several songs most creditably. Mr. Marconnier is to be congratulated both on his excellent voice, and his ar- tistic rendition. The principal performers of the eve- ning were Messrs. Putnam and Russell, two talented young students from San Jose. Mr. Putnam is an accomplished violinist, while Mr. Russell, in popular phraseology, can certainly " tickle that box " . Ragtime was judiciously inter- mingled with selections of a more seri- ous nature. After giving a number of encores they were joined by three fel- low artists, making an excellent quar- THE EEDWOOD. 109 tet, the parts being taken as follows: Roy Emerson, first tenor; Russell (at the piano), second tenor; Macaulay, baritone, and Irvin Burns, bass. Prom this point on, the quartet and " Putty " occupied the limelight. When at last they were permitted to retire, George Nicholson, chief yell leader, called upon the visitors. They contrib- uted their share of the entertainment in the form of songs and their strange native yells, winning vociferous ap- plause. To the untrained American ear the yells greatly resembled those given by the Australian Waratahs last year. The New Zealanders crowned their efforts by singing " For He ' s a Jolly Good Fellow " , in Maori, at the conclusion of which a veritable storm of approval broke out. It was growing late, and with evi- dent reluctance Mr. Nicholson an- nounced that the visitors ' train would leave shortly. So, after a last ex- change of yells, the All Blacks depart- ed, bearing with them the friendshi]-) and gratitude of every one at Santa Clara. The only accident of Sympathy any seriousness in the game occurred when " Louie " Milburn, star center three- quarters, was kicked in the head by one of the All Blacks. At first con- cussion of the brain was rumored, but it was later ascertained that the story was without foundation. Milburn has played an exceedingly brilliant game throughout the season. His injury, which unfortunately oc- curred in the last game, brings forth much sympathy from his associates on the team, The Redwood staff, of which he is a member, and the student body at large. We rejoice greatly to hear that he is rapidly recovering, and will soon be with us again. pis - f sr FOOTBALL. All Blacks 42. Santa Clara 0. After the defeat at the hands of Cal- ifornia the football team began hard training for the game with the All Blacks which was to be played at the Stadium in San Francisco, the opening day of Portola. Although we were handicapped by not having a coach, the team, under the leadership of Cap- tain Voight and the assistance of Tom- my Ybarrondo went into the game in the prime of condition. It was a cold, foggy day, in fact just the kind of a day the All Blacks prefer as this is the kind of weather they have been accustomed to ; so as a result they put up one of the best games of their year. Promptly at 3 :30 P. M. the Santa Clara squad appeared on the field be- fore 10,000 spectators, followed by the All Blacks. After a discussion be- tween Captain Voight and Captain McDonald of the All Blacks, Referee Reading blew the whistle and the game was on. The All Blacks were kept from scor- ing for the first twelve minutes by the great defensive work of the Santa Clara fifteen, but finally, after a drib- bling rush the ball was picked up by one of the All Blacks who scored the first try of the day. However, as the Varsity had held the All Blacks so long without scoring it gave them confi- dence and as a result they opened up the game more, and instead of playing defensive ball played offensive and many times threatened the All Black goal to such an extent that they had to exert all their efforts to keep the Santa Clara men from scoring. It was then that Santa Clara kept the ball in the All Black twenty-five yard line longer than any team the All Blacks had competed against so far in the sea- son. The All Blacks, however, were not long in forcing the ball back to the Santa Clara line, and before the gun went off terminating the first half, they managed to score two more tries, making the score 9 to 0. This was a 110 THE REDWOOD. Ill big surprise to everyone as the All Blacks had never been held down so before in the first half. Several times during this half the Santa Clara backs startled the spectators by passing rushes which started at the half-back and ended with the wing, but owing to the masterful work of the All Blacks they were unable to score. In the second half the Santa Clara team came to the field with a great deal of confidence owing to the great fight they had put up, but evidently the vis- itors were aroused at the earnestness of their opponents and fearing a score, started the half with all their vim and speed which resulted in a series of tries, one right after the other. After this the Santa Clara fifteen settled down again and resumed their hard uphill fight, but to no avail, for the New Zealanders were started and when they get started nothing can stop them. When the final gun exploded they had scored a total of 42 points. But this does not tell the tale, as it was a good game from start to finish, full of ex- citing rushes and plays on both sides. The New Zealanders said after the game that Santa Clara put up the best game of any team they had competed against and predicted that we would have many men on the All American team. There were only fifteen men used on each team and they lined up as follows: All Blacks Position Santa Clara Cuthill Fullback Ramage McGregor L. " Wing Meadows E. Roberts Center Three-Quarters Milburn Stohr R. Wing Curtain Grey Five-Eights Ybarrondo Mitchinson Five-Eights Concannon Taylor Half Back Harkins Williams Forward Gilman Sellers Forward Quill Downing Forward B. Fitzpatriclc Wylie Forward Coschina Dewar Forward Stewart McDonald Left Breakaway Voight Cain Lock Kiely Murray Right Breakaway J. Fitzpatrick Referee, Mr. Reading. Santa Clara 21. Nevada 3, As our game with Stanford was called off a long intermission inter- vened between our game with the New Zealanders and that which followed with Nevada on Mackay Field in Reno, November 8th. As this is our big game of the year the men all worked hard to get into condition, and as three of our stars, Ybarrondo, Ramage and Curtain, were ineligible to compete in the con- test, there was a big hole left in the team. However, as the competition for the vacant places was keen, we devel- oped a team that the university could be proud of, and as a result on Friday afternoon the Varsity left for Nevada with nineteen men, accompanied by Father Eline, Moderator of Athletics, and Trainer Yoell. The game was scheduled for 3 P. M., and Santa Clara was the first to ap- 112 THE REDWOOD. pear on the field. After they had limbered up the Nevada squad came running from the club-house amid the yells of their supporters. They went up and down the field once in a little practice, after which their graduate manager, Si Ross, who had been chos- en to referee the game, blew the whistle and the contest was on. For the first five minutes the ball was kept in mid-field, but after that it see-sawed up and down, being in Ne- vada ' s territory one minute and in Santa Clara ' s territory the next. Dur- ing this part of the game there was not much open work on either side, the for- wards carrying all the plays. It was during one of these that Nevada scored her first and only try of the day, mak- ing it three to nothing in their favor. This gave the home team more confi- dence, and as a result they opened the game up more and put up a much bet- ter game. It was not long, however, until Santa Clara rushed the ball to Nevada ' s twenty-five yard line, and being awarded a free kick. Captain Voight, who had been putting up a great game at first five, placed the ball between the goal-posts from a very difficult angle, making the score 3 to 3. The rest of the half was rather slow, as both teams were exhausted owing to the high altitude. With only two min- utes left in the first half when the ball was on the Nevada twenty-five yard line. Hardy brought the grandstand to its feet when he picked the ball up and from a most difficult angle dropped the ball between the goal-posts with his left foot, making the score 7 to 3 in favor of Santa Clara. Nevada had been putting up a very good game, and as the gun went off they left the field with a great deal of confidence and hopes of beating us in the second half. The second half proved to be disas- trous to the home team, as they had not been playing two minutes when Meadows picked the ball up on the fif- teen yard line and went over for a try. Captain Voight failed to convert as it was a very difficult angle. Five min- utes later Watson, who had replaced Anderson at breakaway, tore down the field on a free kick awarded Santa Clara and when the Nevada fullback fumbled the ball Watson recovered it and went over for the second try of the day. Captain Voight failed to con- vert. Score, Santa Clara ' 13, Nevada 3. Shortly after this Jim Fitzpatrick, who had been playing a good steady game all the way through, got the ball on a line-out and after a thirty-five yard run placed the ball behind the goal for another try. Voight converted making the score read, Santa Clara 18, Nevada 3. The score remained this way until after the gun terminating the game went off, but as the ball was in play at the time we continued until another try scored by Archie Stewart. Voight failed to convert. This ended the game and thus by defeating Nevada 21 to 3, Santa Clara added another laurel to her crown. The line-up was as follows: THE REDWOOD. 113 Nevada Position Santa Clara Sheehy Fullback O ' Connor Delahide (capt.) L. Wing Meadows Trabert Center Three-Quarters Milburn McPhail R. Wing Hardy McCubbin Five-Eights Voight Fake Five-Eights Concannou Menardi Halfback Harkins Schultz Settlemeyer Forward Ben Fitzpatrick Hamilton Forward Quill McDonald Forward Gilman North Forward Coschina Henningson Forward Stewart Dessen L. Breakaway Watson Anderson Mills Lock Kiely Harriman R. Breakaway Jim Fitzpa+rif;]?: Referee, Si Ross. The substitutes for Nevada vv ere: Stiekney, Healy, Crowley, Walker, Sather and Webster. For Santa Clara, Schultz, Watson, Soto and Shipsey. The stars of the game were many, but those who deserve particular men- tion for Santa Clara are Kiely, Hardy, Quill and Voight. For Nevada, Captain Delahide deserves great credit for the game he put up, as does their little halfback who was injured in the latter part of the game and was forced to leave the field. After the game the Nevada squad assembled and elected McPhail, their left wing, captain for next year. Nevada certainly showed a good spirit in every respect, not only act- ing as gentlemen through the entire game, but honoring us with a dance that evening. All Blacks 33. Santa Clara 0. The following Wednesday afternoon the Varsity met the New Zealand in- vaders for the final game of the sea- son. The game was called off in the morning owing to a terrific rain storm, but as it cleared off about eleven o ' clock posters were placed around town announcing that the game would be held. It remained clear until the second half, when it started to rain again, and continued raining through- out the rest of the contest. The game was called at half past three, and with hopes of scoring against the All Blacks the Varsity be- gan the game with all its strength and vim. However it was to no avail, for after ten minutes of play the New Zea- landers scored their first try, when Sellers, a forAvard, took the ball from the ruck and plunged over for a try. Stohr failed to convert, the angle be- ing a very difficult one. After the dropout the visitors forced the ball to the Santa Clara ten-yard line where a scrum was formed. Through the good work of Quill the ball was hooked out to the halfback, where he passed to Ybarrondo who, in turn, passed to Milburn and from Mil- burn to Meadows who found touch at mid-field. From the line-out the Santa Clara forwards started a dribbling rush which neai ' ly resulted in a score. 114 THE REDWOOD. This was the nearest the Varsity came to scoring during the entire game. At this point of the game the visit- ors were given a twenty-five yard drop-out which Ramage received and found touch on the New Zealand fif- teen yard line, proving that the Rugby Union was justified in placing him at fullback for the All American-All Black game. A great passing rush took the ball down the field to our twenty-five yard line, where the All Blacks were award- ed a free kick. From the left touch- line Stohr made a wonderful kick from placement which cleared the goal- posts. Score, All Blacks 6, Santa Clara 0. The teams fought hard on the Santa Clara twenty-five yard line, but Tay- lor, the little halfback, in the midst of the scrum secured the ball and went around the left side of the pack for a try. Stohr failed to convert. Score, Santa Clara 0, All Blacks 9. From a line-out near the goal Stohr secured the ball and went over the line for an- other try, but as before he failed to convert. This made the score read. All Blacks 12, Santa Clara 0. Immediately afterward the New Zealanders got the ball in mid-field and in one of the prettiest passing rushes of the game, in which every man of the back field figured, Mitchison scored the third try of the day. Stohr converted this time from a very difficult angle. And as the ball cleared the posts the report of the pistol announced half time. Score, All Blacks 17, Santa Clara 0. At this point of the game Milburn, who had been fighting hard and had figured in several plays, fell uncon- scious as the result of a kick he had received a few minutes before. He was carried from the field and Ramage was placed at center three at the begin- ning of the next half. In the opening of the second half neither team had an advantage for fif- teen minutes, until Severidge, who re- ceived the ball from the ten-yard line, went over for a try. Stohr again failed to convert, making the score 20 to 0. Severidge again scored a few minutes later, receiving the ball after a long passing rush. As Stohr had been having great difficulty in trying to convert, Dick Roberts tried the try, but failed. Score, All Blacks 23, Santa Clara 0. Stohr was the next man to score after two attempts at crossing, the first being stopped by Ramage who was doing great work at center three. Roberts converted, mak- ing the score read. All Blacks 28, Santa Clara 0. Owing to an injury sustained by O ' Connor, Ramage was replaced at fullback and Hardy was put on right wing, while Curtain in turn was shift- ed to center three. From here the game continued until Harkins was in- jured and upon being replaced by " Brownie " Schultz, the game went on as before. Sellers was the last man to score, when, just before the whistle blew, Roberts passed to him and after a short run scored. Roberts converted. THE EEDWOOD. 115 making the total score read, All Blacks 33, Santa Clara 0. As a whole it was an excellent game from start to finish, and a great boost to rugby. It would be hard to pick out all the individual stars of the day, but among those who were most prominent was Ramage, who time and again saved a try by his deadly tackles. Quill, an- other man who was picked for the All American team, showed his mettle by continually hounding the ball and get- ting down on the kicks. Tommy Ybar- rondo played his usual steady game, being here and there at the same time. Curtain startled the spectators by a forty-yard run, and last, but not least, Captain Voight showed that the Rugby Union made no mistake in selecting him for the Red, White and Blue squad. The line-up was as follows: All Blacks Position Santa Clara Cuthill Fullback Ramage ' Connor Stohr Left Wing Meadows R. Roberts Center Three Milburn Ramage Curtain Severidge Right Wing Hardy Curtain Mitehinson Second Five Concannon Gray First Five Ybarrondo Taylor Halfback Harkins Schultz Sellers Forward Quill Williams Forward Gilmau Murray Forward B. Fitzpatrick Dewar Forward Stewart Wylie Forward Coschina McDonald Breakaway Voight Downing Lock Cain Breakaway Referee, Mr. Reading. Kiely Watson GAME WITH STANFORD CALLED OFF. When the game with the University of Southern California was called off there was little complaint made and likewise when the game with our neigh- bors in San Jose, the University of the Pacific, but when we were notified that our game with Stanford was called off that was enough to take away the spirit and life of any team. After being defeated by California our one hope was to beat Stanford and in case they were victorious over California we w ould still be in the run- ning for the state title. When they offered us their excuse for not playing we accepted it as it was reasonable, but after they turned around and played the Olympic Club the following Saturday it was a dif- ferent story. They held that our game with them was too close to the big game, and as they would not be able to put their best men against us, since they were afraid they would be in- jured and become incapable of com- peting in the big game, they decided that the game had better be called off. Now the question is, if they would not play us a week and a half before the big game, for this reason, why would they play the Olympic Club one week before the big game, with the same chances existing for injuries? This 116 THE REDWOOD. question still remains to be solved. However, we arranged a game with them on that date with our second team to compete against their second team. Although they were to use sec- ond team men only, seven varsity men were used at different stages of the game. The Santa Clara second team was defeated 6 to 0, but they certainly do deserve a tower of praise for the great game they put up. RUGBY A BIG SUCCESS THIS YEAR. Although we were greatly handicap- ped by having three of our big games called off, nevertheless we had a very successful year. This may be greatly attributed to the sincere earnest work of Father Eline, moderator of ath- letics, and Graduate Manager Roy Bronson. We played eight games this year, wining five out of the eight, losing our first game to California. We should have won this game, but owing to a break of luck, which was unfortunate- ly against us, we lost. The other two games were lost to the New Zealand invaders, but this was not a defeat in the true sense of the word, for we were highly praised by all the critics for th(. ' games we put up against them. Fur- thermore, the All-Blacks will go back to New Zealand remembering that we not only have football players at San- ta Clara, but that we also have gentle- men, for in our games and dealings with them everything was done in a gentleman-like way. Several of the New Zealanders in speaking of the team, considered it one of the best squads they have met on this coast, while some said we had the best team as far as good rugby playing and knowledge of the English game were concerned. By the great fight Santa Clara has put up this year it has opened the eyes of many and has now gotten where it will have to be recognized by the other Universities. This alone is enough to result in a successful season, so I will say again that we had a very successful year in rugby. THREE SANTA CLARA PLAYERS SELECTED FOR THE ALL- J AMERICAN TEAM. We certainly should be proud of " Dutch " Voight, " Art " Ramage, and Archie Quill. All three were picked for the All-American team, and if any one deserves it they certainly did. In the All-American-All-Black game Voight was continually following the ball and was considered by many as the star of that game. Ramage also lived up to his reputa- tion and gained many yards for his team mates by his long kicks to touch. Archie Quill although picked for the " Big Team " did not get a chance to show the general public that the rugby union was correct in their selection of the great little hooker. He certainly has hooking down to a science, and the THE REDWOOD. 117 success of the team this year is greatly due to his great footwork in the serum in getting the ball back to the bade field. BASKET BALL. The prospect for this year ' s basket ball team seem good, although we only have two of our last team ' s veterans on hand. However, there are several men who have registered in the Uni- versity with basket-ball reputations, and as there has been a great deal of spirit shown and with the assistance of Captain Ahern, who is fast round- ing into his old form, we should have a very successful year. What we need is competition for the positions, and if you think you have the making of a basket-ball player come out and try out. There is no disgrace in not making the first team. If you don ' t make it this year you may succeed next year. Those who have been out so far this year are, guards, Concannon, Carlson, Curtain, Leonard, Schupp and Geha. For forward, Captain Ahern, Schultz, Daley, and Stewart. Anderson and Doyle are out for the center position. Of the new men Anderson, " Brownie " Schultz, Curtain and Carlson have been showing the most speed and bet- ter knowledge of the game, but as basket-ball is just starting there is a chance for everybody to, make the team; so get out and help Captain Ahern and show some of your school spirit. BASEBALL. The baseball team is very fortunate indeed in having secured the services of Harry Wolters, center fielder of the New York Americans, to coach the baseball team. If any one knows base- ball from A to Z Harry Wolters does, and what is more he not only knows it but is one in a great many who has the faculty of teaching to others that in which he is so efficient. The prospects are very bright. In fact, baseball never looked better than it does this year. However, many new faces will be seen on the lineup. Of these Leslie Sheehan, will bear par- ticular mentioning, as he was a sure fielder and a good steady hitter. " Lit- tle " McGinnis will wear the Santa Clara uniform this year. He has the reputation of playing through last sea- son without making an error at short stop. Gill, a left-handed pitcher, who pitched great ball last year, will in all probability be one of Santa Clara ' s standbys in the coming season. There are many more who would bear a few lines, but as their faces and reputations as ballplayers are well known, it will not be necessary to mention them here. With all these bright prospects in front of us we received a big disap- pointment when we lost our worthy skipper. Art Ramage. He was the heart of the team, but as it has not been decided yet whether he will come back or not we have something to look forward to. The old standby. Tommy Ybarrondo, is acting in capacity of 118 THE REDWOOD. captain in the absence of Ramage, and no one is more fitted for the position than he. Owing to the rain we have been un- able to get in much practice so far this year, but as soon as the weather wiH permit we will start in with lots of energy and life. So fellows, show your " pep " and come out for the base- ball team. TRACK. On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 27th, some fifteen hundred people asse mbled on the inner campus of the University to witness the first track meet of the present school year. Stanford took the honors with fifty- seven points, which was largely ac- complished by the work of Norton and Grant in the speed events. San Jose Y. M. C. A. came second, followed in order by Santa Clara, Oakland Y. M. C. A., Humboldt High School, and University of California. For Santa Clara Kiely scored the highest number of points, gathering ten. He took third place in both the discus and hammer throws, second in the shot put and first in the fifty-six pound weight over the bar. In this last event Mike tried for the world ' s record, winning one inch above the present mark, which is fifteen feet two inches, but unfortunately the handle swung high, displacing the bar. How- ever, Mike views the future through a telescope, and hopes soon to stand un- excelled in " ballooning the lead. " Bert Hardy also starred, winning both the heat and finish, of the 100 yard dash, in the excellent time of 10 1-5 seconds. In the finals he defeat- ed Grant of Stanford, who won the same event in the late Portola meet. Grant is famed for his quick starts, but he met his equal in Hardy, nor could he pass Bert on the stretch. In the low hurdles Hardy again came in- to the limelight, surpassing Norton of Stanford, the winner, in speed, but losing first place on account of trip- ping over his hurdle on the inside lane of the sharp north turn. The other entrants for Santa Clara were Geo. Donahue in the high hurdles and pole vault, and Edwin Booth in the half mile. Both made very credit- able showings, considering that this was the first meet in which either had taken part, and both are looked upon as winners for next spring. There are about twelve veterans of last year with us, and as there is much good material yet untried the prospects for this year ' s team are very bright. JUNIOR NOTES. November was not less kind to the Juniors in the way of victories, than was the preceding month, the season closing with two very notable ones; which goes to show that, considering the strength of opposing teams, few High Schools in the State would come forth winners should they have played the Juniors. Not a little of this year ' s success is THE REDWOOD. 119 due to Captain Ginoeehio, whose untir- ing efforts have kept the squad in good condition, and whose pointers have done much to perfect the team ' s knowl- edge of Rugby. To members of the Varsity, especially Tommy Ybarrando, thanks are also due for their assistance in coaching the team. Moreover the interest shown by the student body in general has helped in more ways than one to inspire the players; and with such support from all sides during this season, everyone feels encouraged over the bright outlook for next year. Juniors 8. Santa Cruz 6. The first game of the month took place at Santa Cruz on November 1st. The weather, as had been predicted, was not ideal and although the muddy state of the field tended to slow up the play, a harder fought or more in- teresting game was never played. Santa Cruz used her heavy team with good judgment, and from the start played a forward game. Early in the first half, while the ball could still be handled with some degree of accuracy, a pass- ing rush ended with Carberry crossing the line for a try. Jackson added two points, which in the end brought vic- tory, by converting. Slipping and sliding about in mid-field, neither team had an opportunity of scoring until a dribbling rush carried the ball to Santa Clara ' s ten yard line; and from the ruck that followed, Pattee secured the ball and on his hands and knees squirmed over the line. The heavy ball and difficult angle made the attempt at conversion useless. With the score standing five to three, the second half opened with the Junior forwards work- ing the ball down the field with their feet. Prom a line-out, Carberry re- ceived the ball and again scored. The attempt at conversion failed. Spurred on by the fear of defeat Santa Cruz was not long in carrying the ball bade to Santa Clara ' s danger zone. From a scrum the ball went over, and after a good look, the referee decided that a Santa Cruz player had the ball. Santa Clara then braced and the game ended with the ball in the center of the field. The forwards deserved much credit for the way in which they held the heavy High School players. Despite the mud. Dodge, Amaral and Winston, played well. The backs, beyond Car- berry ' s first try which was well earned, had little chance to show. Their day was to come in the next game with St. Ignatius. Juniors 20. St. Ignatius 0, Such was the score by which the Juniors again defeated a heavier team. The months of practice showed clearlj from the way in which the backs han- dled themselves. Never were they at a loss as to how to advance the ball, their speed and tricks seemed to be- wilder the opposing team. Captain Ginoeehio repeatedly opened up the play, getting by the opposing players for long gains, one of which resulted in the longest passing rush seen on the St. Ignatius field. The passing of the backs was snappy, while the forwards kept on the ball so well that they 120 THE EEDWOOD. smothered St. Ignatius attempts at of- fensive play. Trys came in all manner of ways ; Blinn twice raced around the end; Carberry hurdled the fullback; Fitzpatrick dove across the line taking a St. Ignatius player with him; Ginoc- chio slid under the goal posts and Am- aral showed that the forwards were there by dribbling the ball across and falling on it. During the first half the ball was entirely in St. Ignatius territory, but they played a good defensive game with the result that at half time the score stood 6 to 0. With the begin- ning of the second half St. Ignatius started a rush that bid fair for a try. The pressure .however was relieved when the ball was heeled out and Ginocehio started up the field with the other backs following in position. It was a pretty sight, the ball passing from one back to another on out to the wing. It was a great play, and the city papers all remarked the fine passing of the Juniors ' back-field. Play from this time on was more open, the inside backs feeding the ball out to the wings with the result that fourteen more points were added be- fore the game was over. Among the forwards, J. O ' Neil played a great game for such a light man; Fitzpat- rick ' s speed and grit scored a try, while Amaral used his feet in real All- Black fashion. In the back field, Aur- recoechea and Ginocehio continually out-guessed the other side, while the speed of Carberry, Blinn and Todd was too muc h for the St. Ignatius ' backs to Jiandle. Diaz played well at second five, the opposition finding Demet hard to stop. Juniors Position St. Ignatius Lopez Forward Mariovitch O ' Neil Amaral Forward Carroll Dodge Forward Lennon Donohue Forward Retliers Harwood Forward Farrell Traynham Forward Lynch Fitzpatrick Forward Wilniaus Winston, Allen Forward Kii g Aurrecoechea Half-back Feeney Ginocehio Five-Eights Williamson Captain Captain Diaz Five-Eights Strehl Todd Center Three-Quarters Hanley Durney Blinn Wing Baldwin Cai-berry Wing Hoefer Jackson Full-back Kessing Rush Meadows. » AliVMNI • " To knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and of the past ' ' is one of the chief reasons for The Red- wood ' s publication. More especially is it the primary object of this depart- ment. The gates of onr Alma Mater ever remain open to the great body of for- mer students — swelled annually to larger proportions — the alumni of Santa Clara. Their doings are always of interest to their former class-mates and professors, and news of them is ever welcome, if of success, to call forth hearty congratulation, and wishes for continued prosperity, and if of misfortune, to summon up sin- eerest sympathy. This department relies largely upon the alumni themselves for its existence. Unfortunately, a slight remonstrance is due them for partial failure to keep us posted as to their whereabouts and their doings. After administering this rebuke, we settle back confident that in future the old boys will cast aside any modest scruples they may entertain, and not neglect to let us know " how the world is treating them. " ' 85 Dr. Anthony Z. Valla of Los Angeles, where he stands at the head of his profession, was with us lately for an afternoon and visited the old scenes of undergraduate days, lecture-halls and campus. Many an old story was told again with the zest that personal experience only can give. Fr. T. J. O ' Connell, who has ' 92 been assistant pastor in Ala- meda, has been lately trans- ferred and is now pastor of the com- bined parishes of Cupertino and Sara- toga. We are glad to have one of the old boys in charge of a parish so near us and hope to have the pleasure of seeing him often on the campus. 121 122 THE REDWOOD. News comes that Felix Galtes ' 94- ' 97 is cashier in the bank at Bak- ersfield and R. Avias-Faraud, cashier in his father ' s bank in Panama. ' 98 Dr. Alexander S. Keenan spent a pleasant half hour with The President and some of his former Professors a few days ago. We hear that his very extensive practice is constantly growing larger. Arrangements have been completed for the dinner to be given Monday evening, December 1st, by the Univer- sity of Santa Clara Club of San Fran- cisco, at one of the down-town hotels. A very pleasant evening is expected. The last dinner was so pronounced a success that a very large attendance will certainly repay Messrs. Riordan, McDevitt and Heffernan for their ef- forts. The San Francisco Club sets a very good pace for the clubs which have been formed in other cities. THE REDWOOD. ..DQERR ' S.. T Branch at Clark ' s 176-182 South First Street San Jose Order your pastry in advance Picnic Lunclies HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR y s CATERS TO THE THIS ( m OST TRADE-MARK -— -— FASTIDIOUS THE ARCADE THE HOME OF ROUGH NECK SWEATERS CANELO BROS. STACKHOUSE CO. 83-91 South First St., San Jose Phone S. J. 11 THE REDWOOD. Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery? Bushnell Fotografer Branch Studios: 4| pj . g j. SAN FRANCISCO , , OAKLAND an Jose, Cal. SAN JOSE BAKING CO . L. SCHWARTING, Manager The Cleanest and Most Sanitary Baking in Santa Clara Valley We supply the most prominent Hotels Give Us a Trial OUR BREAD, PIES AND CAKES ARE THE BEST Phone, San Jose 609 433-435 Vine Street San Jose, California For classy College Hair Cut, go to the Antiseptic Barber Shop SEA SALT BATHS Basement Garden City Bank Building { 111 1110 RllP11TnPll " i Tn is not always the easiest thing in the world. Never- Ulill IVllC ' UlllClLiSlil theless we have in our store a rheumatic remedy which we sincerely believe has affected more rheumatism cures than any other rheumatic remedy ZT:,:St Dike ' s Rheumatic Remedy It assists the kidneys to cleanse the blood of all impurities and rids the system of all uric acid. Remember — It has proven its worth for years. We recommend its use. W. A.. IV1A.BDBN. PHARMACIST, 1072 Franklin Street, Santa Clara, California THE REDWOOD. Telephone, Oakland 2777 Hagens MEN ' S TAILORING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WOOLENS 521 12th Street OAKLAND, CAL. TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS, FOBS, TOILET SETS, ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC.. ETC. FRED M. STERN " The Leather Man " 77 NORTH FIRST ST., SAN JOSE J. U. Says: Our spirit is one of freedom. You are free to accept or free to reject any garment we tailor for you. —Free to get your money back if you would ratlier have it than the goods. THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an eduction at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR Phone, San Jose 3802 Angelas Hotel G. T. NINNIS Proprietor European plan . Newly furnished rooms , with hot and cold water; steam heat throughout. Suites with private bath. Open all night 67 NORTH FIRST STREET San Jose, California " DON ' T WURRY " Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J, SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Resta irant, Grill and Oyster House " W 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. Shaving Accessories JOHN STOCK SONS 71-77 South First St., San Jose Our line of SHAVING Articles is complete. Safety and Common Razors of all kinds Gillett ' s Razors 5.00 Shaving Brush. 25c up Keen Kutter " 3.50 Strops 50c up Ever Ready " 1.00 Strop Dressing 10c Enders " 100 Shaving Soap 25c Sharp Shave " .50 Extra Blades, all kinds Every Razor Guaranteed Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California Vargas Bros. C-: LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies SSr rrS rnrSr. " Main Line, Santa Clara 120 V. Salberg E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. PATRONIZE= Main Street University Barbers ' clara THE REDWOOD. Qberdeener ' s Pharmacy Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards FrankHn Street Santa Clara, Cal. ROLL BROS. Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Us if You Want Anything in Our Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara Phones : Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. 959 Main Street Santa Clara S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. Sallows Rorke Ring us for a hurry-up Delivery :: :: :: Phone S. C. 13R Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTH ING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose THE REDWOOD. O ' BANNON TAYLOR MEN ' S HATTERS AND FURNISHERS 28 -WBST SANTA CLARA STRKKT SAN JOSE, CAL. Whatever comes from our store If dissatistled, let us know UNIVERSITY DRUG CO. Cor. Santa Clara and S. Second Sts., San Jose Clothes for Yo ung Men THE REAL STUFF $25.00 Suits for $15.00 $3.50 and $4.00 Hats for $2.50 Orders for Goods SaiTl ' S ClotHeS SHop will be honored g , g g j , HATS The Newest Shapes in every Prevailing Color $1.50 to $4.00 " The Quality Corner " SHIRTS Our Stock Shows Discriminat- ing Taste both in colors and designs $1.00, $1.50, $2.00 Classy Suits for Men and Young Men $12.50 to $30 Men ' s and Young Men ' s Overcoats $12.50 to $30 NECKWEAR The Niftiest Ties with the ' flowing ends, now on display 50c, 75c, $1.00 " The Store for College Togs " SWEATERS Rufnecks in all the College Styles $3.50 to $7.50 THE REDWOOD. Fall Suits and Overcoats We will sell you a suit or overcoat which con- tains the same values that are in clothes for which some men pay 45 to 50. Come, see the New Fall Fashions in Men ' s Suits and Over- coats at $15.00 to $40.00 Also don ' t forget to do your Christmas shop- ping at Pomeroy Bros. We have everything that men like 49-51 South First Street Pomeroy Bros. We Have Them ! •real ENGLISH SHAPE ' SHOE RIGHT FROM THE LARGE STYLE CENTERS IN THE EAST, MADE BY EXPERT SHOE ARTISANS WHO UNDERSTAND THE ART OF REAL SHOE MAKING. " COLLEGE AVENUE " A NEW ARRIVAL IN WINTER $5. TAN OR GUN METAL Per pi 18 to 26 East Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE THE REDWOOD. New Sunset Limited NO EXTRA FARE TO RUN DAILY to New Orleans in 3 Days Connecting at New Orleans with Southern Pacific Atlantic Steam- ship Lines and Fast Daily Express Trains for New York and the East RAIL AND STEAMSHIP TICKETS SOLD TO ALL POINTS E. Shillingsburg, Dist. Pass. Agent A. A. Hapgood, City Ticket Agent 40 East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific THE REDWOOD. MffimflflTiTlil FOR EVERYBODY NOVES AND REUGIOUS BOOKS BYTHE BEST CAHOUC AUTHORS Copyright Books Up-to-date Bindings Free by mail, SO cents per volume SO volumea ataorted, .... $23.S0 UBBBAL DISCOUNT TO THB BBV. 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How to Comfort the Sick. Rev. J. A. Krebs. Life of the Blessed Virgin. Rev. B. Rohner. Lourdes. Rev. B. F. Clarke, S.J. Explanation of Catholic Morals. Rev. J. H. Stapleton. More Short Spiritual Readings. Madame Cecilia. St. Anthony. Rev. Thos. Ward. St. Francis Assist, Social Re- former. Rev. L. Li. Dubois. The Secret of Sanctity. St. Francis de Sales. Veneration of the Blessed Vir- gin. Rev. B. Rohner. Short Meditations for Every Day. Abb6 Lasausse. History of the Catholic Church. Rev. Ij. C. Buslnger. The Sacred Heart Studied in the Sacred Scriptures. Rev. H. Saintrain. History of the Protestant Ref- ormation. W. Cobbett. The True Spouse of Christ. St. Alphonsus Llguorl. The New Testament. TMC RCDWOOD February, 1914 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: THE COLLEGE LETTERS. OF PHILOSOPHY AND A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER B. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY B. DOWNING, EDITOR OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR FRANKLIN STREET Phone, s. C. 14 SANTA CLARA San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Latest Spring Fabrics S2 Fashions JUST IN Be stylish while you may — wont be in town forever. Klassy Kuts in Kollege Klothes $25.00 = TO _ $40.00 BILLY HOBSON BILLY HOBSON ' S CORNER Fountain Alley and First Street - SAN JOSE, GAL p. Montmayeur J. Origlii Lamolle Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. 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A two years ' course in Chemistry, Bacteriology, Biology and Anatomy for prospective students of Medicine. This course begins in Junior year. ST. IGNATIUS HIGH SCHOOL ent course covering four years from the completion of standard gra y to the University. REV. ALBERT F. TRIVELLI, S. J., President. An efficient course covering four years from the completion of standard grammar schools, and preparatory to the University. THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hougii, Henry J. Crocl er, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. 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Styles for young men that are better, different; Hart Schaffner Marx new models here, ready. Great values at $25.00 and $30.00 Another make with snap and style » 4 J« w »r " i at 15.00 and 20.00 pHUg JU, dlttr. Established 1865 SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STREETS Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD, MANUEL MELLO Dealer in j " " Boots and j Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara . . O ' Connor Sanitarm ••• Training School for Nurses IN CONNECTION CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY Race and San Carlos Streets San Jose Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St, SAN JOSE Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franldin St. EiiferpriseLaunJrjCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street ALDERMAN ' S NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobacco Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice Santa Clara J M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E. MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool ZVs Cents per Cue CONTENTS IN MEMORIAM PHILIP C. DESMOND - Hilary Waters 123 UTILITARIANISM - - Henry Bentham Wallace 124 THE LASTING VISION - Frank W. Schilling 133 MEXICO - - - - Rodney A. Yoell 136 THE RAIN . - - _ Allan Browne 142 TSAU - - - - Gerald R. McElroy 143 QUATRAINS, A MEMORY - - - Rodney A. Yoell 150 SCOTTY ' S BOY - - - J . Charles Murphy 151 EDITORIAL . . _ _ 155 EXCHANGES - - - . - _ 158 UNIVERSITY NOTES - - _ . _ 161 ATHLETICS - - - - - - 165 ALUMNI _ - - . . _ 170 i 1 STAFF OF " THE REDWOOD ' F. BUCKLEY McGURRIN HAROLD R. McKINNON WM. STEWART CANNON RODNEY A. YOELL. TDiTOR GEO. A. NICHOLSON JANCIS W. SCHILLING LOUIS T. MILBUR Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIH SANTA CLARA, CAL., FEBRUARY, 1914 NO. 3 in iirmortam OF PHILIP C. DESMOND Sable clouds of dark were shifting Into daybreak ' s glory rare. Night ' s black pall was slowly drifting As the first faint beams were lifting Shadows from a soul of care. Faint a breast with fever burning, Waited Death ' s most certain call, Yet the heart within was yearning. All his thoughts were fondly turning To his Treasure, to his All. To his lips his Savior pressing, Tranquil peace o ' er mind and heart, Fondly Mary ' s beads caressing. Asking her final blessing, " Jesus! " murmurs he, and parts. Parts from friends and parents pleading That they should be spared this pain, And that prayer of interceding To the throne of grace flies speeding, Turning sorrow into gain. Than the lily none is fairer, Mary culls one for her feast. Though night darkens love burns brighter. Weary hearts may now grow lighter, Count not Mary ' s choice the least. ' Ere the Angelus bell is ringing. Life ' s thin thread is full unspun. Mid choirs of angels singing, Mary to her Son is bringing One more faithful, loving son. HILARY WATERS. UTILITARIANISM E read somewhere in Holy Writ that there is nothing new under the sun. Some might at first thought be inclined to dispute this dictum of the Inspired Book, or at least call into question its universality. But, however this may be applied to other things, certain it is that it is true of philosophy and of philosophical theories ; for nearly every new phase of thought that thrusts it- self upon an all too gullible public, will be found at base to be naught else than a resurrected theory of more than two thousand years ' standing, but stripped of its grave clothes and attired in the garb of modern science. What holds true of other theories holds true of utilitarianism, which, to be plain, is simply a modified form of Epicureanism, or Greek Hedonism. But to find out just what this doc- trine hales before itself as before a bar of justice, we must in a certain sense start from the proverbial " ovo " . That there are morally good and morally evil acts, calls for no comment, needs no proof. Moreover, morally good acts in a man make for his last end, while morally evil acts are just as certainly a hindrance to its ulti- mate acquisition. As a consequent ne- cessity then, man must know a morally good act from a morally evil act; else man leading ' man would but repeat the catastrophe of the blind leading the blind. This knowledge then demands a standard, a criterion of the morality of human actions; it demands a rule, whereby man may instinctively, as it were, distinguish an action that makes for his last end from one that would separate him from his greatest Good. That there is such a standard, such a criterion, such a rule, all again univer- sally agree. Thus far there is perfect harmony in the philosophic orchestra, but when the question presents itself as to the nature and character of that standard, then it is that the discord be- gins, and each system of philosophy in- sists upon playing its own tune. The divergence takes place at their respect- ive determinations of their greatest good. It is not within our sphere to treat of the different schools of moral- ity, to expose their tenets, point out their errors. We are dealing with but one school, the Utilitarian school, or in one word, like " linked sweetness long drawn out " , Utilitarianism. To treat this aright is quite impossi- ble unless we cast a glance at the sys- tems from which it took its rise. For Utilitarians come under the general class of hedonistic moralists, or those 124 THE REDWOOD. 125 who make the pursuit, enjoyment and production of happiness the supreme end. The one to whom this general system owes it rise, is Aristippus of Cyrene, whose span of life is inclosed between the years 435-354 B. C. The word Hedonism has been falsely taken to be synonymous with happiness, which, in the Hedonist ' s estimation, is an equiva- lent to the totality of pleasurable or agreeable feeling. But the Aristote- lean idea of happiness, is the more cor- rect one. It means the state of perfec- tion in which man is constituted when he exercises his highest faculty, in its highest functi on, on its highest good. Hedonism then makes feelings of pleasure and happiness the highest aim of human conduct. According to its teachings any pleasure is good, even though it be obtained at the price of a most shameful action; while virtue to be aught worth while must be consid- ered so only inasmuch as it is a means for obtaining pleasure. Evidently from this doctrine the happiness of the man concerned should be regarded as the chief good, while the happiness of others is either a matter of indiffer- ence to him, or if it is of any import- ance at all, it is so simply because it forms one of the elements of his own happiness. This doctrine was embraced and im- proved upon by Epicurus, who was born 13 years after Aristippus died. From him Hedonism received the name of Epicureanism. He laid down the idea that the principal virtue consists in the proper use of pleasures, or in the sifting of different pleasures as when in our analysis we so choose between them forseeing that one or other will bring consequent pain. We are there- fore to so ordain our life as to enjoy the greatest amount of pleasure with the least amount of pain. Might we not add, — this of course in parentheses — that we have here a description of the lives of most people of today. But how do the doctrines of Aristip- pus and Epicurus differ? Both surely taught that universal enjoyment was the supreme good, but differed in the conception of the nature of enjoyment, and as to how it was to be obtained. Aristippus advocated the seizing of the pleasure of the moment, untroubled by the evil results that may have at- tended our excesses in the past, regard- less alike of what pain may be in store for us on account of our present pleas- ure. Epicurus on the other hand, while he also preached against fear and re- gret, held that the object of desire was a happy life rather than a succession of pleasant moments, an organized whole, not a mere sum. Another difference is in the nature of the pleasurable state. For Aristippus its chief characteristic was excitement, for Epicurus tranquil- ity ; hence the necessity of virtue, hon esty, temperance, — the invariable con- ditions of true pleasure. Epicurus surely rose higher, and was not so gross as Aristippus. But in its purity Epicureanism has few modern adher- 126 THE REDWOOD. ents, although in its day it rivaled Sto- icism as the ethical code of the Greeks and Romans. As held by Epicurus and Aristippus, each man ' s end was his own happiness, to that end was the happiness of others subordinated. The modern phase of the theory turns a little at this point, and maintains that no conduct is worthy of moral approbation, unless in some way or other it promotes human happiness. And this brings us to ITtil- itarianism. As a definition is now in order, Ave would define Utilitarianism as that pe- culiar theory of ethics which adopts as the criterion of right, the happiness of mankind. Hence the Utilitarians find the supreme good not in each man ' s own happiness, but in the happiness of all concerned, to use their own conse crated formula " the greatest good of the greatest number " . The moral worth of an action is to be judged by the amount of happiness it will brir.g in the long run. As the ethics of the Epicurean school are simply the Hedonism of Aristippus refined imder a broa-ier idea of culture, so Utilitarianism is but Epicureanism developed under the in- fluences of modern civilization and culture. Consequently what we shall say of Utilitarianism in the way of criticism will a portion hold good also of Epicureanism and of Aristippus ' Hedonism. It is Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) who first brought the Hedonistic doc- trines into English schools of philoso- phy. And it might be noted that out of England these doctrines have found very few supporters. Hobbes ' funda- mental ethical doctrine is that right conduct promotes our own welfare, that mankind is essentially egotistic, and that each individual naturally seeks what is of advantage to himself, and that any code of morality is justi- fied, and receives its sanction from the fact that it suits the wellbeing of those who observe it. He it was probably more than any one else who laid the foundation upon which the later Utili- tarian moralists raised the edifice of their theory. Hobbes is a thorough- going egoist. But it is Jeremy Bentham (1748- 1832) who has the honor, if aught there be of honor, of founding modern Utili- tarianism. It was he too, who adopted, though he did not formulate that prin- ciple of morality, which we have al- ready quoted " the greatest good of the greatest number. " But it was one of his followers, John Stuart Mill, who dignified this system with its familiar name. Utilitarianism. In ultimate analysis Utilitarianism is Hedonism; for it teaches that every virtuous action results in a balance of pleasure. But it is a Hedonism that unites Altruism with Egoism; for it maintains that while each one ' s prim- ary care should be for his own welfare, still the interest of the individual is in- separable from that of the community But to have a more clear idea of Bentham ' s system, it might be well to note his main principles. Pleasure of THE REDWOOD. 127 course is the only good, pain the only evil; hence we derive the only stand- ard of the value of actions. But still pleasures are not to be chosen indis criminately; there is need of prudence in their choice. Attention must be paid to their (1) intensity, (2) dura- tion, (3) certainty or uncertainty, (4) propinquity or remoteness, (5) fecund- ity, i. e., capacity of producing other pleasures, (6) purity, according as they are, or are not mixed with pain, and lastly, extent; i. e., the number of persons who -enjoy them. On these bases Bentham builds an arithmetical determination of good and bad actions, of virtues and vices, to the quantity of pleasure and pain that results. But, Bentham tells us, that personal and uni versal utility are inseparable, for man cannot live and be happy ex- cept in Society. He is an essentially so- ciable being, and if each man were to play the part of Robinson Crusoe life would be quite unbearable. Hence it is necessary to procure pleasure for oth- ers, in order to receive some from them; but this altruism is but a condi- tion of egoism. Following Bentham, as champions of the Utilitarian school, came the two Mills, father and son. The father, James Mill, followed more or less in Bentham ' s footsteps, but it is in the son, John Stuart Mill (1823-1858), that Utilitarianism finds its greatest expon- ent. According to him, it is the " creed that accepts as the foundation of mor als, utility or the greatest happiness principle; holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to pro- duce the reverse of happiness. By hap- piness is intended pleasure and the ab- sence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure. " (Utili- tarianism ii, 1863). Stuart Mill, like all Utilitarians, en- deavored to prove that while every man necessarily acts in order to pro- cure his own happiness, still " the hap- piness of all concerned " must play no unimportant part. The argument by which he, himself the author of a rath- er formidable work on logic, tries to pass from the first to the second posi- tion, might serve as an example suita- ble to propose to the beginner in logic, when he is engaged in the detection of sophisms. The argument in brief is this : Each one desires and pursues his own happiness; but the sum total these individual ends makes up the general happiness; therefore the general happi- ness is the one thing desirable by all , and provides the Utilitarian standard of what is right in conduct. The con- clusion has about as much to do with the premises as a savage of Central Africa has to do with wireless tele- graphy. " As well might you argue, " says Martineau, " that because of a hundred men each one ' s hunger is sat- isfied with his dinner, the hunger of all must be satisfied with the dinner of each. " But Stuart Mill cannot bring himself to agree in all things with his master, Bentham; and to escape some of the 128 THE REDWOOD. criticism urged against the latter for making no distinction in the various l inds of pleasure, and seeing only in- tensity, duration and certainty in pleas- ure, in other words, that pleasures dif- fer only in quantity, not in quality, Mill endeavored to disprove the latter assertion. He wished to show that quality finds its way into pleasures, as well as quantity. Certain it is that Bentham erred grieviously in that prin- ciple. His arithmetic of pleasures is impossible, because there is no common measure applicable to all ; for pleasures vary with individuals. " What is for me a pleasure, for you is nothing short of mortification. How then can there be any general rule to go by? Bentham ' s calculations would show, for instance, that drunkenness is immoral, because, notwithstanding the pleasure it pro- cures, the pains of which it is the source are more numerous. But this will fail to convince a large number of individuals, who can be seen any day rambling along our streets ; their cal- culation will be on quite a different basis from Bentham ' s. Therefore this whole arithmetic is but a matter of per- sonal taste. This mistake Stuart Mill saw, and so he came to the conclusion that pleas- ures differ in quality as well as in quantity. Some are higher, nobler, and more refined, and hence to be pre- ferred to others, not for the reason that they are greater, but because they are superior in quality. " It is better, " he tells us, " to be a human being dis- satisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be a Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied. " But if Mill takes this stand he must renounce his fundamental principle that pleasure is the end of man, and the worm of morality. Some pleasures, it is true, are more desirable than oth- ers, not on account of their pleasant- ness, but on account of their purity, nobleness, disinterestedness ; in a word, on account of that which is primarily desirable. What means have we of knowing what pleasures are qualita- tively superior, unless we appeal to reason, which dictates that the satis- faction of some qualities and aspira- tions is preferable to that of others? For it is certain that if pleasure is the standard of right and wrong sensual indulgence is just as good as the no- blest form of self-sacrifice. To try then to admit quality into the choice of pleasures, to designate some as higher, others as lower, irrespective ol! quantity, the Hedonistic standard is by the very fact displaced, and some other ultimate scale of moral valuation is appealed to. The subjective worm, namely, pleasureable feeling, is made to retire in favor of some unknown ob- ject, which dictates what course the agent ought to pursue. This is the suicide of the doctrine of pleasure. Bentham, to say the least, though wrong, was more logical. Again Mill differs from Bentham in the fact that he is more of an altruist. Bentham, it is true, proclaims himself an altruist, but in many places his writings show him to be an uneom- THE REDWOOD. 129 promising apostle of selfishness. And here we come upon the irremovable stumbling-block in the path of the Util itarian theorist, namely, how is the mo- tive of self interest to be reconciled with the motive of benevolence ; if every man necessarily pursues his own happiness, how can the happiness of all be the end of his conduct? This is the flaw and the fault which entirely vitiates the Utilitarian theory, and ren- ders it odious in the mind of every thinking man. An old Greek poet has said: " Vinegar and oil in one same vessel pour, They stand apart, unfriendly, all the more. ' ' (Aeschylus, Agam. (330-331). Utilitarianism consists of a still more unfriendly mixture, a mixture of two opposite and incompatible elements. Hedonism and Altruism. For Hedon- ism, the doctrine that the end of life is pleasure is opposed to Altruism in this way. A man may take pleasure in seeing other people enjoy themselves. Nothing is more common, except per- haps the pleasure taken in enjoying one ' s own self. But if a man feeds the hungry that he may have the satisfac- tion of seeing them eat, is it the hungry or himself that he finally seeks to grat- ify? Clearly himself. If pleasure is the end of life, my pleasure is my end, and it is what I am entitled to reach, even if I do not thereby aid on the happiness of mankind. On a mere utilitarian basis, no one can show me that I am obliged, under any circum- stances, to sacrifice my good for that of others. The Altruist, on the con- trary, does not profess to act for him- self, but for society. Selfishness is, m his conscience, the unforgiven sin. But Hedonism is selfishness in the grossest form, being the mere pursuit in all things of pleasurable feeling. There- fore a Hedonist cannot be an Altruist to boot; and in trying to play his role so as to take in both characters, the Utilitarian is committed to a contra- diction. It might be of interest to note some other fallacies upon which this system rests, fallacies, which as soon as they are removed, will cause the crash of M .e entire Utilitarian structure. And with it will fall to the ground also every school of morality that pro- poses pleasure as its end. The follow- ers of this system rest upon the false assumption that the useful good is the only good. But that is openly false. The ancient Greek philosophers used to say that good was threefold, the honest good (bonum honestum), the useful god (bonum utile), and the pleasurable good (bonum delectabile). Honest good is that which of its very nature becomes man having the use of his right reason, and such a good is vir- ture. Pleasurable good is that which is sought on account of the pleasure which it brings the agent. The useful good, the only good which the Utili- tarians admit, is sought simply as a means, because as such it is conducive to either one or the other species of 130 THE REDWOOD. good; such would be the taking of a bitter medicine, for it is a means, a useful good, conducive to the end in view, health. Of these three goods, the first, bonum honestum, is the only one which of it- self is unerring; it can always, at all times, be sought. The use of the two others must be regulated by right rea- son; for bonum delectabile, although of itself it has whereby it may be de- sired, yet in practice it must be regu- lated by the bonum honestum. For sad experience has taught us that many things, though pleasurable, are by no means allowed. Finally bonum utile is sought not as such, nor on account of itself, but simply because it is a step- ping stone to either the honest or the pleasurable good. Thus I find exercise useful, but useful for some end, for pleasure, or the preservation of health. Experience has taught the small boy that it is useful to learn to defend him- self in case trouble should arise, but the end he has in view is to be able to betake himself home in a sound condi- tion. So the useful good can never be made the end of human happiness; it is a means, a means to an end, and such it will ever remain. Besides, common sense teaches that not every useful good is licit ; it might happen that perjury or homicide is useful, so that some individual might live on in pleasure unmolested. Would the Utilitarians have us believe that these things are therefore licit? Of course they would tell us that the pain and disgrace arising from the commission of these deeds would over- balance the pleasure, and thus render them illicit. But would that be true in every case? I think not, especially if the knowledge of the deed were locked in the chamber of one ' s own heart with no probability of escape. Besides what disgrace could there be in doing something good? For the Utilitarians tell us that the useful good is the only good; therefore if we find the killing of a man useful, it is on that very score good and virtuous ; and in virtue there is no disgrace. The Utilitarian considers only this life, the pleasures to be acquired here and now; what reward will be his be- yond the grave he gives no thought to find out. He is sure of the present life, he is sure of the pleasures it has, and if he makes use of them, directing the course of his life, as pleasure after pleasure beckons him hither and thither, reduously avoiding the pit- falls of the smallest pain with the same scrupulosity with which the saint avoids the shadow of «in, he has in his estimation, reward sufficient for his virtue; and the greatest virtue with him is naught else than the pru- dent choice of pleasures. That is his heaven, that is his bliss, he has ob- tained his goal. God and the fruition of God are altogether without the sphere of his thoughts and actions. Heaven holds out no attractions for him, elicits from him no sighings that his exile is prolonged. It is clear then that this is no creed for heroes, but fit only for feeble, un- THE REDWOOD. 131 generous souls; its blood is " not " yet from fathers of war-proof. The mere thought of exposing one ' s life to dan- ger, to east prudence to the winds, and to breast the tide of the onrushing river to save a drowning brother, would fill the Utilitarians heart with dismay. For what pleasure could he derive from that? In his eyes too, the martyr, who rather than sacrifice his dearest principles is willing to under- go any torments, and braves death it- self, is branded as foolhardly. If the Utilitarian has any principles at all, they are no doubt but reeds shaken by the wind. He is ready to give them up, take on any other person ' s views, provided he can get what he is looking for, and what is the search of his life, pleasure. Nor does the principle of utility that proposes the " greatest good of the greatest number " as its code of right- eousness fare much better; for in that case morality in great part would not depend upon man ' s own will, but on extrinsic and accidental causes, name ly on riches, talent, birth : — thus a king, a president, or public official in what- soever capacity, no matter how cor- rupt or immoral they be, would neces- sarily be holier and better men than simple artisans, because they are in a position to contribute more to the common good; and this would be, even though we suppose the same good will both in king and peasant as regards the common good. But even were it granted that pleas- ure and pain constitute the standard of right and wrong, this standard would still be impracticable. Pleas- ures, as we have said, are not commen- surable with one another, nor with pains; besides no human mind can cal- culate the quantity of pleasure and pain that will result from a given ac- tion. The test is impossible even when only the pleasure of the agent is to be taken into account. But when the pleasure and pain " of all concerned " are to be measured the proposal be- comes nothing short of an absurdity. Again, the criterion of moral actions must be coordinate, and must be a prin- ciple which is constant and not varia- ble, necessary not contingent, absolute and relative. Now utility cannot be such a principle; for the good which utility takes being finite, it is a con- tingent not a necessary good; it is a variable, not a constant good; it is a manifoldly relative, not an absolute good. Hence it cannot be a norm, a standard of morality; for every stand- ard, every rule is something which is fixed, determined, constant. Besides the doctrine of pleasure has no ground for moral obligation, no sanction for duty. If I must pursue my own happiness, and if conduct which leads to happiness is good, the worst reproach that can be addressed to me, howover bad my conduct may be, is that I have made an imprudent choice. Imagine how many in this wide, wicked world there would be, who would make an imprudent choice ! 132 THE EEDWOOD. The prisons, I suppose, if such would still exist, would be called " Homes of Imprudent Choosers ' ' . In conclusi on we must say that the ground principle of Utilitarianism is false. For the Utilitarian the ground principle underlying man ' s greatest happiness is either pleasure or social benevolence, or the maximum of hap- piness and minimum of pain, or the greatest good of the greatest number — in other words, it is a finite good. For it supposes the grievous error that the end of man is not God to be en- joyed in the life beyond the grave, but is naught but pleasure in this swiftly fleeting life. But it has been proved time and time again that man ' s great- est good is not a finite, but an infinite good, a good that can satisfy the crav- ing of his God-given, immortal soul; and this good is no other, can be no other, than the knowledge and love of God. HENRY BENTHAM WALLACE. THE LASTING VISION NDREW LANG peered out from the door of his hut in the Alaskan mountains into the seething pitch of the angry night. The snow at times found a resting place upon his spare form and shaggy eyebrows under which his eyes were hard and snapping, and it might easily be seen that Andy was not thinking of the whirling chaos without. At times he shivered slightly, but he did not notice the cold as in fancy he wandered back over the space of a year into the dim but unforgotten past. He saw in the murky blackness the balmy skies and waving fields of ripen- ing grain, of the old estate which had successively belonged to each genera- tion before him, and which was situa- ted in the northern part of Georgia. It was all that was left to himself and his brother, two orphans, who, for want of aught else to do, had made their way to recently purchased Alaska in order that they might test the truth of what was told concerning the fabulous riches of this hitherto despised land. The two brothers had arrived at a rapidly growing community in south- ern Alaska, and there it was that Andy became a changed man. While he was taking in the sights, out of a saloon some distance ahead, shot a short, squat greasy individual with small snake-like eyes. There was no mistaking the high cheek bones, and sallow complexion, which could only belong to an Eskimo, and as one of the prospectors afterward remarked, " Thar sure were blood in his eye. ' ' In spite of the heavy clothing which he wore, he got over the ground at a really creditable pace, and bade fair to distance his four pursuers, who were a sheriff and three miners, in a short time. " Stop the murderer, " roared the sheriff, who was in the lead of the pursuers, and when they made as if to turn aside, his voice rose again from down the street in a perfect tor- rent of profanity. " Stop thet greasy hash-slinger an ' take him dead or e-live, ' ' he shouted, upon which Andy ' s brother sprang into the middle of the street about five yards in front of the oncoming Eskimo. One blinding re- port, and James Lang writhing in his death agony, fell in a lifeless heap to the ground, and the yellow murderer, his smoking pistol in his hand, dashed on down the street. It all had seemed a huge, life-like, horrible dream. His brother now lay buried under the snow-laden earth many miles to the southward, and Andy finds himself alone in the mountains with one purpose, revenge. Yet Andy was not without the qualms of a sensi- tive conscience. In his aimless hunt through the icy deserts of the north, he 133 134 THE EEDWOOD. had met and assisted a snow-bound priest, who in return had instilled the beautiful truths of the Catholic religion into his mind, one of which proved to be a thorn in his side from the very be- ginning of the kindly Jesuit ' s instruc- tion. How could he hunt down and slay the murderer of his brother when our Lord had said " Forgive Thine Ene- mies ' ' ? He was now debating with himself for the millionth time, what he would do in ease he should meet the Eskimo. But he is awakened from his reverie by what seems to be the wail of an infant in the distance. Now and again it rose softly above the tempest, and during a lull in the shrieking of the winds he heard it die away in a sad and touching cadence of despair. Andy laughed harshly, for it was the deathly lure of the siren of the forest. The panther, however, had no wile of which he did not know, which he had not scorned as one reckless of life and limb. There was something in that call tonight, how- ever, which showed a starving despera- tion and proclaimed the animal to be on the scent of human food, and Andy was uneasy, not for himself, but for be- lated travelers in the storm. He looked at the flickering embers in the hearth, and then into the snow and wind. ' ' The storm is rapidly going down, but still there is a chance of getting lost, which means death. Yes, there is that cry again. I must go, for some poor fellow is out there probably on his last legs. " Wrapping himself in the heavy cloth- ing, without which the cold would be unbearable, and putting a knife into his belt, Andy picked up his Winchester and started for the door. He stopped, however, and coming back uncovered a crucifix which hung on the wall under a red silk handkerchief, one of his most treasured possessions. The bleeding form of the God-Man seemed to welcome him in the crueifi- cial embrace, and the lines on his face softened as he said in a low certain voice: " Oh, Christ, I put my trust in you this night, and if it be my lot to return safely, I will — I will forever give up my desire for revenge, " he added in a burst of repentant fervor. " All that I ask is that you will do by Andy Lang as he would do by you, were he the omnipotent, and you Andy Lang. " With this crude petition he once more draped the crucifix, and left the little storm-beaten shanty behind him in the darkness. He advanced in the direction from which the panther ' s call proceeded, and had gone but a hundred yards when his progress was arrested by a low guttural voice in the snow- laden branches above. " Help, I am ex- hausted and the tiger is below. ' ' Andy started. From the dim outlines of the form in the branches above his eyes traveled quickly, almost instinctively, to a dark blot in the snow but a few yards away, and met the blazing eyes of the crouching panther. A little quiver in the recumbent form, and he fired. Almost simultaneously a snarl rent the air, and a blazing sputtering bundle of fur came hurtling through the air. Andy leaped back, his knife in THE REDWOOD. 135 his hand, just as the tiger seeming to rebound from the snow in front, leaped once more at his throat. He felt the rending of the flesh on his shoulders as those villainous claws sought a death clasp, and striking out blindly with the knife, he suddenly felt the animal fall limp and lifeless at his feet. ' ' Come on down, stranger, ' ' he called hysterically, " he ' s about cashed in. " He laughed wildly, and then recovering himself, lifted a handful of snow to his burning brow. The man had come down from the tree, and though he could not see his face, Andy knew that the man was an Eskimo. " I guess you are about all in, " remarked Andy, as he bathed his lacerated shoulders in the snow. " Mebbeso you all in too? " que- ried the Eskimo. " Oh not as bad as all that, but let ' s get to my cabin, ' ' and to- gether they arrived at the small log house. Andy walked in and stirred the embers in the open fire-place to a blaze, and turning to the Eskimo, the welcom- ing smile froze suddenly upon his coun- tenance. " Great God, its you, " he al- most shrieked as before him stood the short, squat figure of the murderer of his brother. He leaped forward and the Eskimo was borne beneath him in the mad onrush, the quivering bloodless fingers seeking the Eskimo ' s throat. Andy, his face distorted with pas- sion, and in his eyes the brightness of the beast he had killed but a few min- utes before, lifted his knife slowly, madly, exultantly in air. A gust of wind whistled through the open door, and whirled the handkerchief from the crucifix above into the fire on the other side of the room. In the brighter light the figure on the cross seemed envel- oped in the glories of a million sun- sets, and the Christ looked down with a more animated smile than ere before. It was the last smile of forgiveness that seemed to shine from the heavenly countenance above. It was the awful smile that stayed the dice in the hands of the awe-stricken executioners on Calvary, and Andy ' s face went white under the unnatural flush, as once more the arms seemed to stretch toward him in supplication, in love. Andy dropped the knife, lifted his hands from the Es- kimo, and crossed them reverently on his breast, totally enwrapped in the vision. A low malevolent cry escaped the Eskimo, as picking up the knife from the floor, he buried it in the un- suspecting heart of Andy Lang. The dying man fell forward, and the glazing eyes now brightened with the pardon- ing light of a soul gone to meet its maker, and amid the death rattle, Andy ' s lips formed the words : " Father Forgive Them. " FRANK W. SCHILLING. MEXICO LAND of plenty, a land of vast wealth, and unbound- ed resources, brought to a condition of wretchedness and degradation, may epi- tomize the state of Mexico today. Torn asunder by civil strife, racked by the conflict of waging factions and to be left wantonly to the hand of the strongest contestant, may briefly be the future. Our sister republic, or rather what was our sister republic across the south- ern boundary, is indeed in a sorry plight. Adventurers roam at will; and high in power, but still in danger sits an assassin, who blusters vainly and ex- plosively for recognition. What brought this situation about? Indeed from all the cumbersome mass of muddled information it is extremely hard to determine, but looking on the situation in the light of the past and the development of recent events a fair- ly accurate but truthful relation runs thus. Mexico was under Diaz. Diaz, the dictator, he was called, a strong fight- ing type of man, who possessed an iron will and the beastlike courage to carry out any task he set. He gained his fame as a soldier, when, after the severe fighting of the ' ' Maxi- millian French ' ' campaign he won a de- cisive victory for his country at the bat- tle of Tehauntepec. On the wave of popularity succeeding this accomplishment, he was carried to the presidency amid the vivas and en- coniums of his people. With the same thoroughness he dis- played in war, he then set to work with rather mediocre material to build a staple and efficient government. His personality was magnificent, his ability was unquestioned, and from a rather loosely connected set of people he weld- ed a homogeneous nation, solid in its interior, and broad in its scope for the future. But after his third popular election it M ould seem that power turned his head. The press came under his influ- ence, and such poAverful organs as " El Imparcial " , " El Mundo " , and the weekly " El Hijo del Ahuysote " , ac- quiesced in his dictation. From the press he turned his atten- tion to small politics, and the secret police became his minions. His actions and methods of suppression may be best shown by an example. An influential young Mexican, of good family, called Berdejes, made a rather insignificant, but adverse criti- cism of the governmental action con- cerning some policy. It was made in a 136 THE REDWOOD. 137 cafe and somewhat under the prompt- ings of alcoholic fumes, yet the next day, a special agent informed him : " Senor Berdejes you have been rath- er indiscreet in your actions. " Berde- jes retort was sharp and to the point. He resented the correction and made no bones over it. Two days later he passed from a state of perfect health into death— the open secret of the capital being poison. Again, at Vera Cruz, a demonstration was on foot. Without warning, with- out trial, the Rurales rode into the city upon their active little horses. The jin- gle of their accoutrements had an omni- ous note in it. Seven men were lined up against an adobe wall and shot. Again his methods. All subtle, quiet, yet considering the psychology of the people dealt with, — wonderfully effi- cient. His fourth election was carried through with scarcely any opposition; his fifth was a fiasco, no one daring to oppose the " Iron man " . During these years he had surround- ed himself with a coterie of influential and powerful friends, which really formed the inner circle of Mexican po- litical power. These men were called the " Scientificos " . Such strong per- sonalities as Corrale and Limantour were amongst them. It was at this juncture there devel- oped a strong, but quiet feeling of de- sire for empire within the mind of Diaz. Urged by Mrs. Diaz, the Seientifieos poured honeyed words of imperial greatness into only too willing ears, and thus the seeds of future destruction were sown. About this period the Mexican gov- ernment endeavored to float a series of loans based upon concession of mineral and agricultural land. American finan- ciers were called upon, but they, with the customary characteristic ignorance of Latin-American psychology and con- ditions, refused. Europe was then called upon and only too gladly covered the field. European money flowed into Mexico, and European influence ranked su- preme in concessionary politics. ]t was then the Standard Oil Co. dis- covered the great oil-fields in the state of Tampico. The fifth absolute election of Diaz followed soon upon the discov- ery, and under pressure from the Seien- tifieos the choicest concessions were awarded to Europe, and Americans were potently under the displeasure of the administration. There now entered upon the field of politics a very peculiar man. Francesco Madero. The Maderos were a promi- nent and wealthy family, large land holders, and rather inclined to Ameri- canisms. Francesco was educated in America, he became imbued with Amer- ican ideals and dreamed for his country, which he loved passionately, a state of political freedom as found here in the United States. He expressed these freely and logical- ly with all the charm of Latin literary grace in a volume called " Democraeia en Mexico " . The success of his book was instantaneous and he became a na- 138 THE REDWOOD. tional figure of such magnitude as to oppose Diaz on his sixth election, after a rule of thirty-three years. Amongst the political tenets held to by Madero was a " Land-plank " , urg- ing the restitution of lands to the peons. This plank, since it was based upon ab- solute justice, became instantaneously popular to such a degree, as to insure Madero ' s election. Imagine then the consternation of the country, when, without any warn- ing or trial, Madero was clapped into jail, his constituency shattered and Diaz again elected. As soon as the election, if it can be called such, was over, he was liberated, and came to America. When in Texas, he plotted rebellion, feeling, with all good reason, a robbed, injured and out- rageously treated man. Such was the situation and it only needed a torch to set things off. This was supplied by rather peculiar cir- cumstances. At a lumber camp, owned by British interests, in the State of Sonora, aboiit two hundred peons went on strike. They were not even recognized, and a peon was told to hose down some buildings. " While he was at his task the strikers taunted him and he turned the full high pressure stream upon them. Chaos was loose. They attacked the man, killed him and burned the build- ings. Leading them was a giant in phy- sical proportion, named Orozoco, who had formerly been a teamster in the United States. He organized the band, attracted great numbers, armed them in some fashion and completely terrorized the state to such a degree that Gen. Huerta, commander of the Federal army, placed the entire district under martial law. Madero then saw his chance and with a well-armed force, joined fortunes with Orozoco on May 10th, 1910. Fighting with skill, fierceness and in- tensity, he defeated the Federals time and again, ultimately gaining a great victory and control of all Northern Mexico by capturing the important city of Juarez. Consternation now filled the ranks of the Federals and Diaz, under the pressure of future inefficiency of his army abdicated, then took his immense personal fortune and left Mexico for Europe. Madero was the proclaimed provi- sional president of Mexico and received recognition by the great powers, the first being the United States. But Madero was imprudent, and dur- ing the stress of the revolution he made too many promises and affiliations. Dis- sensions arose within his own ranks. Orozoco hated Pinas Juarez, the close friend and provisional vice-president of Madero. He made demands upon Ma- dero, was refused and again took the field, this time against Madero, his former comrade in arms. Huerta was still the commander of the Federal army, and he made a rath- er half-hearted campaign in favor of Madero. But black treachery showed in the man. The still conspiring Scientifieos got THE REDWOOD. 139 his ear and their advice, plus money from Europe, turned him and General Blanquet, second in command of the army, against Madero. Still feigning friendship for him, these two worthies gradually retreated until Orozoeo was within striking dist- ance of Mexico City itself. Orozoeo then went to Madero and told him that if money were given him to pay off his soldiers he would cease his efforts at gaining control of the government. Madero, never suspecting duplicity, agreed to this and made the fatal mis- take of not knowing his people. A large sum was paid. Orozoeo, who im- mediately returned to his troops, paid and encouraged them and marched straight upon the capital itself. This was in January, 1911. Orozoeo came to the city, and pre- pared to lay siege to it. This was the opportunity Huerta had waited pa- tiently for. He spread reports broad- cast concerning the timidity, the ideal- ism and the impracticability of Madero, until even the people themselves began to doubt him. Then came the final clash. It can hardly be termed a " coup d ' etat " , the deed reeks too much of vile Michea- vellian nastiness. For three days Ma- dero suspected the loyalty of his friends. One morning he came to his office. His secretaries advanced to- wards him, as if to give the customary Mexican salutation of an embrace. He expected to receive it, but instead was attacked. Madero shot one, but was soon overpowered and cast into prison, well knowing his fate. This precipitated the riot which was to follow. Felix Diaz, nephew of the deposed dictator, took the field, and General Huerta joined his forces with those of Diaz. The National palace was attacked, the city bombarded from the outside and inside, everywhere was carnage, pillage, and rapine rampant. Smoke obscured the sky, cries of the wounded filled the air, and after two days of fighting a truce of twelve hours was agreed upon by all sides, in order that they could pile up and burn the dead. A heap of human bodies, about one hundred and fifty in number, was placed in Balederos street, in front of the American Consulate, and ignited, probably with the idea that the fumes of burning flesh would offer a pleas- ant insult to American diplomats. But Huerta was not through yet. His one stumbling block lay in the life of Madero, who at that time was lying in Belim jail. Early one morning he was removed from his cell and placed in a limousine. The moment he stepped into it, he must have known his fate, for the other pas- sengers beside him were two corpses picked up from the street. The car was driven outside the city a distance, and, according to all con- cordant reports, current in the capitol at that time (the terrible ten days), Madero was set up against a wall and 140 THE KEDWOOD. shot. After he fell shots were fired into his back and his body riddled with bullets. The corpse was then taken to the city and the report given out that while en- deavoring to remove him from a place of danger to one of safety, a band of marauders attacked the car and killed Madero. The two bodies were offered as proof of this episode, but the mind of the knowing ones in the city, refused to ac- cept the tale. To every one cognizant of the facts, Madero had been heinious- ly assassinated. Huerta then took over what was called the government, that is to say, he gained all power within the city and quelled enough of the disorder to make it appear as though chaos had been sup- planted by the rule of law. No sooner had he gained this posi- tion than most of the great powers holding concessions or expecting them, recognized him and his government, thus giving a semblance, but only a semblance, of international integrity and " eclat " to the entire affair. This being done, Huerta, backed hea- vily by Europe, by England in particu- lar, has vainly endeavored to quell the disturbances, which, like bubbles arise, swell, shine and then break, frequently of their own accord, but only to be fol- lowed by fresh and ever reoccurring effervescences. Huerta will never be able to quell these revolutions, within a revolution. There are many reasons why this is true. Three predominate. Firstly, he is not a man of sufficient scope of intellect and personality to do anything in the " squelching " line him- self. He is an instigator of intrigue, but not the successful consummator of one. Secondly, he is a traitor to his friends and absolutely without a touch of even personal honor. This is proven by his entire position during the last three years. For no set time has he ever maintained a solid front on any situa- tion save that of " Huertegoism " . The people know this and no man of any po- sition, or standing, in Mexico, save that of power or political influence, can be found rallying about his banner. The third is England. She refuses further backing, both governmental, if it was ever given, private, which was certainly given. Lord Cowdray, of oil fame and the Pearson interests, rep- resenting the great mass of English in- vestments has utterly disgusted the diplomatic world of London and the spirit pervading the court of St. James is that no amount of land, wealth, or oil is sufficient compensation for an un- friendly breach between the two great English-speaking nations. The saying that blood is thicker than water is true, mayhap the English have carried it further and are thinking " Blood is thicker than oil. " This sentiment, and similar ones, have been openly expressed in the great British dailies, " The Times " , " The Standard " , and others. It is needless to enter into the why and wherefore of such an apparent change of front, but THE REDWOOD. 141 suffice it to say that it more than anni- hilates any hope of the ultimate effi- ciency of Huerta ' s regime. With this condition understood, one can readily see Huerta ' s motive in de- claring his inability to protect foreign- ers and Americans in particular. Hence the exodus northward and the real problem of intervention. Intervention is the fly in the oint- ment. Generally speaking there are three primary principles which give one power the excuse, or right to inter- vene in the civil affairs of another. Firstly. In the name of common humanity or the duty of the strong to protect the weak. Secondly. A power must act to gain proper markets and fields of exploita- tion, or it soon ceases to lead; witness the fall of Prance before Germany. Thirdly. The duty of a state to pro- tect its citizens while on foreign soil. As regards the first we have waited too long to justify any action on that score. In the second place we need no fur- ther markets if we properly handle those which we already possess. And as for the third we have neg- lected far too many cases in the past, to make an effort sustaining any of the present. Yet there is a reason why we should intervene, a reason which not only gives us a right, but postulates the necessity of such an action. That is, — as the score of a national affront or insult. Of all the nations marked out for in- sult by Huerta the United States came first. Our ambassadors have been slighted, the press has reviled our mo- tives, and our integrity, yet, ultimatum after ultimatum was subjected to laughter and derision. The only ultimatum that the Mexi- can clique in power will understand, is the ultimatum of the mailed fist. It is useless to endeavor to carry on diplomacy with brigands, and if it be true that one can not make a silk purse out of a sow ' s ear, how much more must it be true that from a cut-throat you can not make a man of honor and in- tegrity? These facts are true, — any one con- versant with the situation will admit them. That the country is in chaos and anarchy is patent. That the powers possessing the upper hand are inefficient is also equally clear. And since these situations most cer- tainly need adjustment, and our na- tional honor is involved in the muddle, let us, as a nation, be fair, — intervene, for our own good, establish a decent election as we did in Cuba, and come back home with the clean banner of a good deed well done. RODNEY A. YOELL. THE RAIN Dribbling drearily, Beating unwearily, Whirling and swirling against the pane. Anon it rushes, Then silent, then gushes. Overwhelming all Nature with might and main On the roof it patters And dances and clatters, Demanding an entrance if aught it may. Blindly eddying, Tearing and flaying, AU the leaves of the maple away. Triumphantly arrogant, Beats on the adamant, Leaving by little and little its mark. Superbly importunate Spares no unfortunate Making the whole earth chilly and stark. In its wanton impiety. Knows no sobriety Leaps lightly over the low garden wall. Busily blustering, Ruthlessly rustling Lilacs and roses before it fall. Yet rain in its falling Forever is calling 2o Spring to arise and raise up her head. So God ' s sweet grace raineth; To him who restraineth A Spring sempiternal awaits him when dead. ALLAN BROWN 142 THE TSAU ANAGER LOCKE of the London Horticultural So- ciety sat thoughtfully in his study. Spread out on the desk before him lay a map of Japan. Opposite, a clear-eyed, clean-cut young man of twenty-five or six, leaned his elbows on the desk and intently followed the route of the manager ' s pencil. A red cross marked the island of Quomoto, a small island to the southwest of the Ryu Kya or Sleeping Dragon group. The manager looked up at last and ad- dressed the young man. " Do you think you can do it? " " I ' ll try, sir, " was the answer. The President of the L. H. S., hearing of a species of orchid peculiar to this island and as yet unknown to the world had determined to have it for the Lon- don Gardens. He made his wishes known to the manager and that official in turn consulted young Moulton. Moul- ton was one of the new men, but he had shown great promise and Mr. Locke, the manager, had already cast a favor- ing eye on him. " How soon could you start? " que- ried the manager. " The first of the week, " answered Moulton eagerly. ' ' You ' 11 have to engage your passage and see about your outfit. You ' d bet- ter pick out one of the men from the department to accompany you, as you judge best. You ' ll want some good walking clothes, and ask the treasurer to give you a bill of credit to the con- sul at Kelung. They say everything ' s peaceful in that part of the globe, but you had better not go unarmed. " " Thank you, " said Moulton, making ready to leave. " Drop in tomorrow morning, and bring your companion, " directed the manager. " Yes sir, " replied Moulton, fumb- ling the door knob in his eagerness to be gone and find his friend Jack Craw- ford, to impart to him the good news. That afternoon, Jack and Bob en- gaged passage on the steamer Ceylon for Kelung, Formosa. Having seen to their outfits, khaki suits, leggings, leather boots, automatics and cartridge- belts, they went to their rooms to await the arrival of their purchases. The re- mainder of the afternoon was spent in admiring each other in their newly ac- quired outfits. Next morning found them eager for their interview with the manager. They went over the plans briefly, which were these. They were to sail from London Monday morning via the Mediterrane- an, through the Suez Canal, Indian Ocean, skirt the Coast of China as far as Formosa, and land at Kelung. The journey would take all of a month ' s 143 144 THE EEDWOOD. time. Arriving at Kelung, they were to wait for the trading vessel to take them to Quomoto. Once at Sada, which lay at the southern end of Quomoto, they were to start immediately upon their quest of the orchids, high up in the mountains. Nor were they to de- part until they had secured specimens of the flower, and then they would re- turn as they had come. Upon being made thoroughly ac- quainted with the plans the two young men arose to depart. The manager shook hands with each, gave them his best wishes and bade them goodbye. The door closed after them and Mana- ger Locke smiled, a trifle sadly per- haps, and said half aloud as he re- sumed his study. " Poor boys ! I hope they have a good trip. They think this is going to be a prolonged picnic, but if I ' m acquainted with the interior of those small, half- civilized islands half as well as I think I am, they ' ll have excitement aplenty before they see an Englishman again. ' ' II. They were two highly excited young men that descended the gangway at Kelung. Being impatient at a delay of five days owing to a storm encountered on the Indian Ocean, they proceeded at once to the British consul. This worthy proved to be a genial, middle-aged man, most willing to help them to the full extent of his power. With his aid they found a trader which was to sail the following Thursday. As they were about to leave the pier, the consul warned them. " Boys, " he said, " you ' d better take a little tip from a man who knows something about Japan. I have a sneak- ing suspicion that you ' ll find excite- ment on the island, and a good deal of it. You take my advice, and be mighty careful of those heathens. In the Chronological Eecords, you ' ll find the ' Age of the Gods ' , as being prior to 600 B. C, and consequently of the past, but let me tell you right now, these smart professors that write about these rec- ords don ' t know interior Japan. ' ' With this bold, but well meant ad- vice he wished them a favorable jour- ney and a speedy return. Thursday evening, and they were well on their way to Sada. It was about one hundred miles from Kelung, but it took the slow Oriental trader all of two days to make the trip. They landed at Sada, a small village made up en- tirely of bamboo huts with rice- thatched roofs and small narrow doors and windows. Making their way to the native hotel, the only one the village afforded, they engaged a room and set about to look for a guide. This proved to be very difficult, but the proprietor promised to find a suitable one on the day fol- lowing. They now began to examine into the luxury of their room, which proved a complete surprise. It was about twelve feet square, with lattice walls, over which leaves of a native plant about the THE REDWOOD. 145 thickness of paper were stretched. The floor was of hard wood, and to the ad- venturers ' amazement, highly polished. Near the center of the room were two small rugs, and close at hand two larger ones. Upon asking the whereabouts of the beds, the proprietor pointed to the larger of the rugs, and advanced the information that the smaller ones were to sit on, the larger ones being used for sleeping purposes. Laughing loudly, they accepted the situation and pre- pared to retire. The next morning they were called to look over the various guides that the village could offer. The first was an old gray-haired man, who came up to them, hobbling along with the aid of a stout cane. The next, a younger one, but knowing no English. Three others presented themselves during the day, but for one reason or another they were each dismissed in turn. So evening found them with no guide, and extreme- ly anxious to start on the morrow. After several futile attempts to coax sleep on the all but comfortable mats, they decided to take a short walk about town. A small kawa struggled through the village, and turning their footsteps idly in this direction they soon found themselves on its banks. From the clear Oriental sky the moon shone brightly down on the waters as they sought the peaceful depths of the East- ern Sea, now sparkling on them as they leapt huge boulders, now reflecting its rays from the bosom of some placid pool. It was near one of these pools that they chanced to pass, and hearing a wail as from a young child they stopped to listen. Then hearing a voice chanting the death song from " Kojiki " , or " Record of Ancient Things " , they approached cautiously, and surprised a man almost in the act of throwing the living body of a small child into the pool below. " What ' s the trouble? " growled Jack as he came hurriedly forward. The man informed him that the child was a girl, and as money was low she was only a means of expense and might as well be cast into the waters of the kawa. Upon asking how much it would take to keep her, the man seemed sur- prised and answered that it would take but a penny a day. They gave him two crowns and told him to keep her. Then a thought entering Bob ' s head, he asked the native if he knew the country well, and receiving a favorable answer, in a short time the boys had procured a guide. Being told what the object of their mission was, the guide told them that he could prepare all that very night and be ready to start on the mor- row. The next morning as Bob looked through the screens of his window, he saw the guide standing in front of the hotel, holding a dwarfed donkey by a crude bridle, and examining the pack- saddle strapped safely on the animal ' s back. It was yet early morning as they passed through the village and followed the narrow road out into the country. At first they passed numerous little farms where the native inaka cultivated his small possessions. The mountains 146 THE REDWOOD. lie about twenty-five miles distant from Sada and the little party of three planned to camp beneath their forests the second night. They walked steadily all day and halted only for lunch on the banks of a small kawa. By evening the farms had given way to the more rugged country of the foothills, and that night, their first night out, was a novelty for these two young men. The guide entertained them with the stories of a tribe which was commonly supposed to inhabit the mountains somewhere in the interior, and told of their weird customs, their gods, the chief of whom was Tasu. The priest of this god was rumored to be barbar- ous in his efforts to appease his god, often offering human sacrifices. It was with heads whirling that at last they settled down to sleep. The next day they set out on their toilsome journey up the mountain side. Climbing steadily all morning they reached the summit, and passed on a few hundred yards till coming to a spring they made camp ' midst the beau- tiful small trees which are so common in southern Japan. All that day they lounged about, making themselves as comfortable as possible. That evening they asked the guide all sorts of questions concerning the neighborhood. They were informed that a deep valley lay nearby in which myriads of flowers blossomed and shed their delightful fragrance on the bur- dened air. Yokimura said that he had never been in the valley himself, but had merely gazed at its wealth of beau- ty from the rim. They were conversing easily, when from the eastward a shower of sparks threw themselves into the air, and a distant rumble shook the island. Turn- ing to the guide they asked what it might be, and were answered that it was the volcano Chitoto in eruption far out to sea. They watched the specta- cle for some time and then retired. III. Moulton stirred uneasily in his sleep as the first drops of rain heralded an approaching storm. Somewhere in the darkness a twig snapped and he awoke. His heart was beating wildly as he sat up startled as one sometimes awakes from a troubling dream. He looked cautiously around. Jack was sleeping soundly and he was about to lie down again when he discerned a figure crouching at the base of a nearby tree. Suddenly the crouching figure sprang, landing squarely on Moulton ' s shoul- ders. A series of yells rent the air. Moulton struggled to his feet only to be pulled down again by many hands which clutched at him from the dark- ness. Looking about he saw similar struggles going on about Jack. It seemed but an instant, and yet his hands and feet were securely bound, and when he was raised from the ground he saw that they were sur- rounded by a strong guard. The dawn was just beginning to lighten the eastern sky when the proces- sion started. The captives were marched THE REDWOOD. 147 across a narrow space of level ground and into the valley. As day broke they were able for the first time to see plain- ly the features of their captors. They were small men, even for Japanese, and had long muscular arms and broad, powerful shoulders. Contrary to the prevailing custom they wore long beards and their heads were closely shaven. At last, shortly after the sun had peeped over the edge of the valley they approached numerous little huts built in a half circle around a larger hut, with the side facing the rising sun open. Upon passing this their attention passed to a stone altar, upon which the statue of a man sitting cross-legged and ap- parently staring at the sun, had been carved out of wood. Yet they did not stop here, but were led to a structure more imposing than those surrounding. Here they were brought to a stop while one of the Japanese spoke to a man at the entrance. They had almost forgotten their guide up to this time and turned around to look for him. But no guide was in sight. ' Confound it, 1 11 bet that scoundrel ran off and left us, ' ' said Jack angrily. Further conversation was stopped by the arrival at the entrance of the dwell- ing of a slim little man with immense silken robes that seemed to float along on the air as he moved. His head was covered with a curious cap and his face was concealed by a large silken mask. To their immense surprise he addressed them in fairly good Eng- lish. " Ah! So my men have caught you white people at last! Me, Tanyaku, high priest of Tasu the great and holy, have taken you whites, and tomorrow as the golden rays of shining Myau, the messenger of Tasu, fall upon the sacred shrine, you shall be sacrificed. Have you not noticed the recent eruptions of Chitoto ? Tasu is displeased. You will make all things well by your death. It is well. " The two turned cold as the thought of what their guide had told them of the horrible customs of this priest of Tasu entered their minds. They were at la,st led away to a small hut, where all their belongings were taken from them, bound more tightly and laid on coarse rugs. The day was spent in silent agony, broken only at noon when a guard en- tered, bearing a dish of boiled roots. He loosened their bonds for a few min- utes, but, as they showed no inclination to eat they were again bound and left to themselves. The long day finally ended and night closed on captives and captors alike. Sleep would have been welcome, but their distress of mind and the bonds which cut their wrists and ankles like knives, drove all chance of rest from their tired bodies. They had lain this way for probably two hours, when the door of their hut opened softly, and a figure slipped in. They could have shouted for joy as they recognized the figure as their guide. He cautioned them to be quiet and then told them to trust him and he would liberate them 148 THE REDWOOD. in some way or other. They were for escaping immediately, but Yokimura convinced them that this was impossi- ble. The place was well guarded, and only his language and appearance per- mitted him to come in. He left them, promising to do all in his power to save them. " It takes a Greek to meet a Greek, " said Jack. " Wonder how he ' ll work it? " IV. " At midnight the guards should change, " reasoned Yokimura, as he stole quietly up to the house of the priest Tanyaku. A sentinel nodded drowsily at the door. Our guide watched for nearly two hours near the corner of the house, and found he had not been mistaken. A guard came sil- ently down the path, and one of the last watch hearing his approach walked out to meet him. Giving and receiving a passing salute, he kept on down the path and through the gateway to his quarters. It required but the short space of a minute in which the door was left unguarded for Yakimura to slip noiselessly in. A regular Japanese dwelling it was. A long hall ran through the center with rooms on both sides. Removing his sandals, the intruder moved noise- lessly down the matted hall, peering in at each door until he reached the room occupied by the high priest. Softly the light door swung back, and Yakimura knelt beside the sleeping form. A cloth was thrown over the face of the sleep- er. He dealt a quick sharp blow over the heart. A short gasp, and the high priest passed into the presence of Tasu. Removing the robes of silk and don- ning them himself, Yakimura dragged the body into a corner and searching the room, easily found the cap and mask that completed the costume of Tasu ' s servant. The ruse would un- doubtedly pass muster, and a smile passed over the wily face of the guide. In another corner were found the cloth- ing and arms of his masters, all of which he hid about his clothes. Now for the crucial test. V. The whole village was astir as the morning light crept into the valley, and the new high priest made his way to- wards the temple to offer sacrifice. Already the two victims were before the image, and near them a broad-shoul- dered Japanese stood, a curved broad sword held tightly in his powerful arms. The rest was easy to surmise, and Jack was first led forth, and his head placed upon the great block of stone before the altar. The first chrome rays of the sun showed over the tree tops and cast a weird flickering light over the sol- emn little gathering. Advancing, the executioner measured his stroke and raised his sword. It cast back the sun ' s ray as it hung in mid-air and would have fallen but for the stern voice of the priest. " Stop " he commanded, and all eyes sought the speaker. At this the two young men who had THE REDWOOD. 149 given up all hope, turned their gaze for the first time upon the priest. Some- thing familiar in his bearing, and yet — yet ; then it (jame to them in a flash ! They nearly betrayed themselves by their eager expression, but caught themselves just in time. The priest was speaking. " Listen, all ye people! The high priest, Tanyaku speaks ! Last moon- light night there were no angry signs from immortal Tasu. Behold! The Great One is appeased by the capture of these persons. I shall retain them as a permanent offering. The high priest has spoken. It is well ! ' ' The worshippers of Tasu heard, and offered their adoration to Tasu in sil- ence. Bob and Jack were taken back to their hut and again confined, but now they had no fear. Left to them- selves, they began at once to fret and worry over the delay in securing the orchids. The guide returned to the house of the high priest and spent the remainder of the day in solitude, fear- ful of discovery. After dark the guide-priest put on his own garments once more and biding his time stole from his lodgings to the hut of the prisoners. Here was a man on guard, but stealing up from behind he dealt the man a stunning blow with the butt of Jack ' s revolver. Entering, and quickly severing the orchid hunt- ers ' bonds, he bade them to follow. Each felt more secure now as they gripped their automatics in their hands and stole out into the night. Scarcely had they gone two hundred yards than a voice cried out before them, and a sword flashed in the star- light. But it never found its mark, and suddenly answering cries came from both sides of the road, and with them the criers themselves brandish- ing swords or spears, in a threatening way. The boys sent three or four shots into their midst and plunged into the thick underbrush after their guide, who led them quickly up the mountain side. Turning after some time, to listen for their pursuers and hearing nothing, they went on their way unmolested. Crossing the top of the range near to their old camp Moulton turned to Jack. " The flowers! " he exclaimed. " Hang it all, I ' d completely forgot that such things existed. " " Well I guess we ' ll have to look somewhere else for them; I didn ' t no- tice any down there anyway, " said Jack listlessly. Upon reaching their old camp they noticed the guide placing a number of curious little bulbs in a rice sack. " What have you there? " queried Jack. " Just a little present, " returned the guide. " Plant these, and you shall have beautiful Tasu blossoms. You were right that the valley is the only place they grow. Me thought me get. Maybe you have no time. " The humor of the swarthy little guide was lost on the two Englishmen. 150 THE REDWOOD. Four months later, instead of bios- sul ' s office at Kelung, and in the val- soming in one sequestered place, the ley sacred to Tasu the immortal, Quo- Tasu orchid grew in three: — the Lon- moto. don Horticultural Gardens, the Con- gerald r. Mcelroy. QUATRAINS, A MEMORY Through trees soft sighing Hows the wind of life, And ripples shudder o ' er pools of blue. Qrey sedges quake and leaflets fall full light While grief conies as my thoughts return to you. A vintage seems my life, yet when I sip The mellow golden red of all my joys. Sad ashen memories of my past like lees and dregs Float to the lip, and then my palate cloys. For I am weary now of seeking love And asking joy while all about is pain, Where every friendship formed must end in death. And loss shall foUow everything we gain. Yea loss must follow everything we gain, 80 sure as mountain winds bend low the pine. Till death with fingers questing from the grave Lifts us the bawl of her dread Anodyne. RODNEY A. YOELL. SCOTTY ' S BOY TOWN on the busy water- front, where whistles screamed and engines puffed, where hoarse fog horns bellowed and mon- ster trains roared by, down where the great steel drawbridge emit- ted groans of protestation now and then, old Scotty held forth. By day he could always be seen some- where along the section of track which he tended, with his faithful old dog Bob ever at his heels. Night never failed to find him in his snug little one-roomed cabin a short distance from the wharf. Many a dull evening was I lured to his tiny home by the cheery light which shone through a solitary window. On this particular night the rain was falling in torrents and the wind whistled through the rigging of the va- rious craft at anchor nearby. I slowly pushed my way against the gale and at last, reaching Scotty ' s door, I knocked loudly. A hospitable voice rose above the howling storm, " Come on in. " Old Scotty was in a reminiscent mood tonight. I could tell that as soon as he uttered those words, for when he spoke with a Scotch accent I always knew that he was dreaming of days gone by. The little stove was blazing away right merrily and Scotty was sitting near it with his legs crossed. " Down Bob ! " he ordered his shaggy old dog which had risen half threaten- ingly on seeing me. " ' Tis so long since ye ha ' come that old Bob had most forgotten ye, " he said. " Oh, I ' ve been too busy to come around, " I answered. As I removed my dripping raincoat he limped over to his cupboard, for Scotty was growing old and rheumatic, and took out a large jug. " Here have some of this gude Scotch whisky, ' twill warm ye up a bit, " he said. I took a draught ; then he set the jug on the floor and got into his chair again. " And what ha ' ye been about that ha ' kept ye sa ' busy? " he questioned, as I seated myself near him. " Well, I have taken up a correspond- ence course in structural engineering, ' ' I explained, " and I ' m putting in most of my spare time studying. " The old man looked thoughtful for a brief moment, then he rose and tossed a length of wood into the red little stove. ' ' Weel now, glad I am that ye are at- temptin ' to make suthin ' of yerself, " he said, sitting down again. 151 152 THE REDWOOD. ' ' ' Twas just twenty year ago that ma ' Eobbie got the bee in his bonnet same as ye. " He struck a match to his cob pipe and sat gazing into the crackling flame. • ' Yes, just twenty year ago, " he re- peated, half to himself. Then he slowly drew the pipe from his mouth and turned his gray Scotch eyes on me. " Lad, there are none about now that know about ma ' Robbie. None but my- self and old Bob here. " He reached out and patted the shaggy head of the old dog dozing by his side. Bob, upon hearing his name spoken, started. Then when the old man caressed him he gazed up into his mas- ter ' s eyes with a look so sympathetic and so sorrowful that I am sure he must have divined what Scotty was saying. " See how well Bob remembers, " he said, and I marveled at the almost hu- man understanding existing between man and dog. " Ma ' lad loved this old fellow too, " he continued, " yes, they grew up to- gether, ma ' Robbie and ma ' Bob. " " He was na ' what you might call a clever lad, " he went on. " His teach- ers said he was lackin ' in many things. But engineering was one thing he took to. Well sir, he could sit by the hour and explain to ye how the steam cars and the ferryboats worked. Nothing about them that he didn ' t know. " As the old man warmed up to his subject the Scotch accent gradually dropped away. ' ' One night he come home all excited. He saw an ad in the paper of some kind of study of structural engineering. The course could be taken at home and he wanted right bad to take it up. " Seeing a chance for my boy I scraped together some money and gave it to him. ' ' Then came months of hard work by day and study by night for ma ' bonnie lad. And what studying ! Far into the night he would sit up. No little point would he allow to escape and every smallest detail must be worked out to his full satisfaction. " Nine long months of this and then an announcement came out in the pa- pers that Pacific Northwestern was to build a drawbridge across the river here, and wished engineers to submit plans for its construction. " That night Robbie came home flushed with excitement. " ' Dad, I try for that, ' he said to me. ' ' Nights of planning, figuring, draft- ing, discarding and starting anew fol- lowed. Mixed in were nights of dis- couragement and setbacks, he told me afterward. But these fits were over- come, until one night he came home from work downcast and completely disheartened. " ' Look at the fellows I ' m up against, ' he exclaimed gloomily. ' I don ' t see any use in going on. ' " ' Go out into the night air, lad, ' I advised him. ' Go out and breathe some of the salt of the sea. ' " He walked out in silence and hours passed before his return. THE REDWOOD. 153 " I was in bed when he strode in. His step, before heavy and dragging, was now firm and strong. He banged the door shut and seeing that I was awake he moved to the window slowly. " I like best ' to think of Robbie as I saw him then, hands clasped behind his back, in deep meditation and the sil- very moon lighting up his clean-cut features as he turned to me with a passionate expression. " ' Father, ' he said, ' I went out into the night air as you told me. I was despondent and hopeless. I walked along the wharf and heard the restless moaning of the ocean and my heart bounded. Then the sharp sea breeze hurrying by, struck my cheek and my blood tingled in every vein. " ' I looked up at the starry heavens and some mysterious hand seemed to have taken me to another world. " ' I saw a great engine tugging amain and tons of solid metal flew apart at its touch. " ' An irresistible force moved on- ward and huge skyscrapers crashed down in its wake. " ' A quivering lance shot out and cleaved in twain a range of lofty hills. " ' And mountainous ships, impelled by some unseen force drew near. Where they anchored a towering crane swung out over the glassy waters and reflected below were mighty steel grips that clenched and held. ' ' ' Back and forth they swung. Swift- ly and silently they did their work. " ' Now, my arm trembled, for in my hand was the source of Power. " ' Then all vanished, and I came back here to try once more. ' " Not another word, but he seized his pencils and charts, grasped his books and his squares and worked. How he did work! " Hours passed, the sun rose, and still he worked on. Day waned and twilight drew near, but still he ceased not. The night fled by and another sun was peeping over the hills when he jumped up with a yell of delight. ' ' ' There it is father, my plan for the drawbridge, ' he cried. " I looked at it and even my inex- perienced eyes could see that it was a masterpiece. " Then the boy threw himself on his bed and slept. ' ' Two weeks later this announcement appeared in the papers, ' Pacific Northwestern accepts Robert Ander- son ' s plan for drawbridge. Fame and Fortune await son of poor switch- man. ' " " The building of the bridge com- menced in the springtime. A mon- strous task it was with its tons of steel and cement and piles. But at last the great drawbridge stood finished and people came from far and near to view the immense structure. " The first test was a success and thousands shouted as for the first time the steel jaws parted and a stately ship passed through. Then down they closed again. A slight flaw, a little stretch somewhere and they overlapped and failed to lock tight. Robbie rushed out headlong and stood 154 THE EEDWOOD. right on the tip of the beam, seeking the cause. The excited engineer, jerk- ing the levers to raise the bridge once more, failed to see him. " Slowly, slowly the great arm rose. Slowly, slowly and my Robbie was clinging to its shiny side. Slowly, slow- ly and my Robbie ' s grip was failing. Slowly, slowly and my bonnie lad plunged to the stretching girders far, far below. ' ' Old Seotty stopped. ' ' Hist ! Listen close ! Ye can hear it now, ' ' he whispered leaning forward in an attitude of strained listening. Sure enough a harsh rasping moan rose above the din of the raging storm out- side. For a brief moment it reigned, wild and strong, then it thinned out and was lost in the thundering blast. Old Seotty sank down in his chair and gazed into the dying embers of the forgotten fire. An inexpressible sadness crept into his tone. " ' Tis ma ' Robbie ' s bridge, " he said quietly. Just then the old dog, lying so still, rose and placed his warm paws on his master ' s knees. Old Seotty looked down at him. ' ' ' Tis oor Robbie ' s bridge, eh Bob ? ' ' he repeated sadly, running his fingers through the aged dog ' s shaggy coat. And the deep brown eyes that looked so lovingly up into his, echoed back plainer than words ever could, " Yes, ' tis oor Robbie ' s bridge. " J. CHARLES MURPHY. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR _.-_--.- RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER - - - - - - HAROLD R. MCKINNON, ' 14 ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER ----- GEORGE A. NICHOLSON ' 16 ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS -_-----. WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 ALUMNI -------- FRANCIS W SCHILLING UNIVERSITY NOTES ------- F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 STAFF ARTIST - - - - - - - - -A. B. BURBANK (CHAS. D. SOUTH, Litt. D., ' 01 ALUMNI CORRESPONDENTS - - - - j _ , EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 50 a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL COMMENTS Vice Ridden Drama It is a far, long cry from the old " Globe " theater of Shakes- peares ' time and the subjects produced therein, to the modern stage, as we find it exemplified here in America today. Yet, by a little analysis, one finds the basic principles actuating both institu- tions to be similar in a high degree. Or rather let us put it this way. The mo- tives which gave rise to and supported 155 the Elizabethan stage, are still funda- mentally the real causes which excuse, more or less, our modern fabric woven for and by the drama. These two cardinal facts predomi- nate. The people wish to be amused, and, secondly, no one is going to amuse them for nothing. Save for a few subsidized opera- houses and one or two insignificant at- tempts at a purely non-mercenary poli- 156 THE REDWOOD. ey, all our theaters are frankly founded for the purpose of making money. Now the last citation is not a charge, for we are all rather tainted with this spirit ourselves, each one in his or her own particular field, looking for some M ant to be supplied and the opportun- ity of supplying it — in lieu of something of a material nature. But while this is true, yet it should offer no reason for such filth as is fre- quently seen advertized on our bill- boards of today. Plays, or rather the motifs of plays, seem to run in cycles. We have had our series of western plays, our " problem plays ' ' , our war plays, our crook plays, our detective plays, and now our white- slave plays. When we dealt with " problem plays " the matter was delicate enough; when we descended into the doings of scoun- drels and thieves, we thought we had " gone the limit, " but now one finds the hands of the playwright and mana- ger dipped into the ' ' demi-monde ' ' , let- ting the filthy, sordid events of such an existence drip oozingly through their rotten fingers with the excuse for their handfuls, " the public needs en- lightenment. ' ' The public does not need enlighten- ment on such subjects. The trouble is the public is too enlightened on them. Ask many a city boy, and not a few city girls, and you would receive infor- mation that is fit only for the ears of a vice commission. Now then, take such matter, costume it, set it up, produce it and act it. What is the result? Plays like " The Lure, " " The Traffic " and " Any Night " , all simply little reproductions of rotten- ness ; granted, not true, but still repro- ductions of filthy immorality. If the literature of a nation, and par- ticularly its drama, reflect the national traits and psychology of the people, then what in the name of reason are the conclusions we are to draw from such a phenomenon? If this is true had we not better cease advertising our wretchedness and clean up shop? To fall back on " enlighten- ment " is puerile, for, as Prof. Hugo Munsterberg aptly remarks, " Look at the audiences attending such plays, and then ask yourselves what enlighten- ment on such subjects do they need? " None, absolutely none. Why Not a A short time ago, in Scientific one of the laboratories Society? of the University, a group of students studying together for their examinations, realized the benefit to be derived from co-operation, and suggested that an organization be form ed for the purpose of encouraging undergraduate interests along scientific lines. We have our " Reading Rooms " , our " Pool Rooms " , our debating clubs, all militating towards some definite end of service. Why not turn the same idea into the scientific field and organize a club from the Physics, Engineering, Chemis- try and Biological classes? THE EEDWOOD. 157 Sucli an association would serve a good end and at the same time afford profitable opportunities for the ad- vancement of these various depart- ments. Just at present sun- c J spots seem to be caus- Sunspot . g considerable amount of excitement, both scientific and scholastic. That they should in- vade the realms of astronomy is but natural, since our own Fr. Ricard, the Padre of the Rains, has practically proven their influence with terrestial meteorologie conditions. When the weather bureau took cog- nizance of his work, we were not vastly surprised, yet little did we think that the same subject would prove a bone of contention in the joxirnalistic world. But so it did. The High School Preparatory depart- ment of the University became extreme- ly desirous of having a journal of its very own. To insure the success of the publication, they chose a splendid title. The Sunspot, and organized a staff that would do credit to the press rooms of a metropolitan daily. However, it seems that the project has been abandoned and some few words of discontent directed against " The Redwood " , have filtered their way into the sanctum of the latter pub- lication. It is in answer to these half-veiled charges that we publish our views on the matter. In the first place an institution of this size can not support two publica- tions of first quality. There are sev- eral reasons for this, but predominant is the lack of good literary contribu- tions, and second, the inadequacy of a paying advertising field. In regard to the former, " The Red- wood " needs all the matter it can get. The excuse that high school contribu- tions are not wanted, is puerile, for in point of fact some of our best contribut- ors are still in their pre-collegiate courses. If any article coming from the insti- tution is worth publication " The Red- wood " claims it on the grounds of pri- ority. Furthermore, any member of " The Redwood " editorial staff is ever willing to lend his criticism and aid to a desirous and earnest contributor. Thus, no fault can be found with the " personnel " of the publication. Another point mentioned concerns the advertising. Advertisements are difficult to obtain at best, but, with programs, high school papers. Parish Record, and college magazine, all after ads, many and many a firm absolutely refuses to advertise in any medium save the daily papers. These considerations being true, it will be readily seen that " The Red- wood ' s " position on the matter is a just one, aside even from the advisa- bility of the undertaking. We admire the spirit underlying the scheme, but sincerely hope that it will be, brought to the support of the four- teen-year-old Student Body organ, " The Redwood " . o In glancing over the Exchanges for the past months we were pleased to note the comparative absence of " Christmas Tale " . Good Christmas tales are always pleasing, but they are jewels and as rare. The Christmas tale we refer to is the bare plot, brushed and then immersed in a dye of " Yuletide Spirit. ' ' Such stories not only infested Col- lege journals, but were to be found in the larger and public magazines. In our pile of Exchanges we find but five or six offenses, a very creditable show- ing. University of Texas Magazine I cannot give praise high enough, nor en- comium willing enough in appreciation of " The Magazine " of the University of Texas. It is a won- derful little book, neatly printed and a model of its style. Filled with clean, pithy stories it is an oasis in the desert of many other dry Exchanges. The poetry is splendid, especially a humor- ous little dialect song " Gittin ' Way Frum Dah. " It is the wish of the Ex- change Editor that all the journals he reads were as pleasing as " The Maga- zine " . The only possible fault is the lack of departments. Loyola Magazine I cannot say that the " Loyola Magazine " of Chicago, is the effort I expected it would be. The stories fail to raise themselves above the mediocre and the poetry is little better. The only redeeming feature is the depart- ments, the most noteworthy being the Alumni. I am inclined to think that the number is the output of an " off " month, and I am confident the next numbers will be better. ,j . ,_. Viewing the situa- Univ. ofTenn. . . i r, -, ., _ . tion from the favored Magazine ... . position of a man up a tree " I can see no adequate reason why the University of Tennessee should put out such a poor book. It contains naught but inconsequential wanderings in the shape of " informal essays " and insipid stories of the Laura Jean Libby type. A few verses of inane poetry fill the spaces at the end of articles. The 158 THE REDWOOD. 159 best, and in fact the only meritorious work in the sheet is " Traumerei " , an appreciation of the famous melody of the same name. The typographical part of the magazine is very poor. I noted numberless errors in the spelling alone. The University of Tennessee is an in- stitution of handsome repute; some of the brainiest men in California were trained there ; but it is poorly repre- sented by the ' ' University of Tennessee Magazine ' ' . It is " The Red- The Martian wood ' s " pleasure to welcome the " Marti- an " and the " Borromean " to the ranks of college journals. We feel a certain sympathy for those initial efforts so humbly marked Vol. I, No. I. The " Martian " is beautifully printed and resplendent in a handsome brown cover, embossed with red and gold. It is pub- lished by the students of St. Martin ' s College, Lacey, Washington. The de- partments are very well done, but the stories are a bit below par. That it will improve with time is a certainty. The Borromean The " Borromean " is a bit disappointing, judged by the " Mar- tian " . The " Borromean " is hardly more than a catalogue, or prospectus, and would be such were it not for the stories and poems interposed between copies of programmes and essays on St. Charles Borromeo, after whom the school is named. Still " The Redwood " hopes both these beginnings will not end here. Every year magazines in the Vol. I, No. 1, make their bow and dis- appear like asteroids in the firmament of College journals that shine and pass into oblivion. There are the few that stay to become fixed luminaries and we hope the " Martian " and the " Borro- mean " will be with us from now on. _,, The " Springhillian " c, . . .,!• for January is replete Springhillian .,, -, with prose and poetry of a high order. A poem by the late Pr. Ryan, the poet-priest of the South, oc- cupies the most prominent place. His glory is shard by a medal essay, the work of the Editor-in-chief, entitled ' ' Marquette ' ' . While extremely authen- tic and instructive, it leans too close to the " prosy " , so much so that a good deal of the red-blood in the life of Fr. Marquette is lost. Athletics is the most prominent amongst the well-edited de- partments. We have seen better issues of the " Springhillian " , but such a statement is far from derogatory to the January number. Conzaga The Editors and the Business Manager of the " Gonzaga " are to be congratulated on their Christmas number. We read with delight the stu- dious essay, " Notes On A Text-book " . It is ably done, evidencing deep thought and good expression. Very readable 160 THE REDWOOD. poetry and our friend the " Christmas Story " balance with the well-prepared departments in one of the month ' s best periodicals. The " Tattler " is an- The Tattler other example of what a college magazine can be. Full of personality, overflowing with clever stories, pretty verse and studious essays, it is a much better mag- azine than the inherent conceit of the male would care to admit. Randolph- Macon Woman ' s College must be proud indeed of its magazine, notwithstand- ing the clever pages entitled " The Hammer " . Such a department, when properly conducted, as in this instance, is a powerful factor in making a col- lege paper popular with the student- body. When a paper is popular with its student-l)ody its support is guaran- teed and success follows. Hence " The Tattler " . We have received the following Ex- changes: " The Campion " , " The Expo- nent " , " St. Peter ' s College Journal " , " Williams Literary Monthly " , " The Collegian " , " Fleur-de-lis " , " The Via- torian " , " Mills College Magazine " , ' ' Blue and White " , " Notre Dame Quar- terly " , " St. Thomas ' Purple and Gray " , " Georgetown College Journal " , " The Spectrum " , " St. Joseph ' s Lilies " , " Xaverian " , " Withworthi- an " , " Ave Maria " , " Young Eagle " , " Morning Star " , " Dial " , " Mt. Angel Magazine " , " Atheneum " , " Laurel " , " Occident " , " University of Virginia Magazine " , " Mercian " , " Courier " , " Academia " , " Holy Cross Purple " , " D ' Youville Magazine " " The William and Mary Magazine " , " Pacific Star " , " Columbia University of Friburg, So- lanian " , " Villa Marian " , " Notre Dame Scholastic " , " Ignatian " , " Loyola Mag- Holiday Vacation It was on the twenty- first of December that Santa Clara ' s students seized grips and suit-cases and " lined out " for the depot. For two solid weeks " trig " , physics, philosophy, and all kindred trials were to lie in undis- turbed quiet, while text books, texts, and technicalities were to be forgotten. As the ear wheels clicked cheerfully over the rails, the familiar " Christmas spirit " took hold of us with all its old time zest. The long journey home seemed interminable. Each stop seemed an extravagant waste of invalu- able time. At last, despite our gloomy forebodings, the well-known land- marks began to put in an appearance; then, with a mighty clatter we tore through the yards. For the first time in our recollection our very old friend Kris Kringle aban- doned his ruddy face, bounded on all sides by cottony-looking whiskers, which have been his most distinguish- ing feature for years, and assumed in- stead a countenace pronouncedly Ethi- opian, adorned with the whitest molars and the cheeriest smile with which, I verily believe, a travel-wearied youth was ever gladdened. His kinky head was crowned with a trim cap, and about his portly middle, in sharp con- trast with his ebon face, was a impos- ing brass-buttoned coat graced with the word " Pullman " . Two weeks can scarcely be made to last indefinitely, however, and the days flew by with the rapidity of the proverbial greased lightning, until one morning we found ourselves searching about for the return ticket. Then came the reunion at old Santa Clara, with its hand-clasps and ex- change of experiences. It took but a day or two to fall back into the accustomed channel, and with minds refreshed we plunged boldly into the task of preparing for the mid-year exams. At the meeting of Student Body the Associated Stu- dents, the proposed amendment to the Constitution relative to the awarding of ' ' blocks ' ' to Varsity foot-ball and base-ball players, was found to contain several undesirable features. Accordingly it was voted down and a new one, proposed by Mr. Lawrence O ' Connor, substituted for consideration. This applies merely to the foot-ball players and will be passed upon at the next meeting. Base-ball players, it was decided, will continue to 161 162 THE REDWOOD. receive their blocks under the old re- qiurement ; namely, participation in the annual big game. A special meeting of J. D. S. the J. D. S. was held on the night of Janu- ary seventh, a few days following the resumption of scholastic activities. No debate occurred on this occasion, as the time was devoted to the election of offi- cers for the second semester. Father Whelan continues to preside with all his customary ability and soli- citude for the welfare of the society. The results of the elections were : Thom- as Kearns Jr., Vice-President; B. Erie Sehnereger, Secretary; Ed. O ' Niell, Treasurer; " Unk " Shaw, Sergeant-at- arms ; F. B. McGurrin, Assistant Secre- tary and Treasurer. The debate of January thirteenth was, " Resolved: That Labor Organiza- tions are to the Best Interests of the Workingman " . Affirmative, B. E. Sehnereger and " Algy " Allen; nega- tive, Edmund Kearns and Harry Jack- son. The debate, which marked a tem- porary cessation of the society ' s activi- ties during the repetitions, was decided in favor of the affirmative. Football Banquet As a fitting close to the successful nineteen- thirteen foot-ball sea- son came the anual banquet, held on De- cember ninth. The efforts of Father McNamara and James Lyons in regard to appointments were amply repaid by the success of the affair. The long ta- ble was decorated with red and white ribbons, and the center occupied by a large foot-ball. Smaller foot-balls served as favors. The place cards, a series of clever drawings by Father Egan, were apt caricatures of the play- ers whose names they bore. As for the edibility of the banquet itself, — to say that it surpassed, impossible as this may seem, those of previous years, is the highest recommendation that pre- sents itself. No little importance is attached to the foot-ball banquet for the reason that it is there that the man who is to lead the Varsity through the encoun- ters of the following season is chosen. This year ' s choice was Michael Kiely, whose presence on the field has been to us a dispenser of confidence, and a source of apprehension to our oppon- ents. Kiely has the good wishes of every, one and we believe that he can " deliver the goods " in the same irre- proachable manner as his predecessor, Guy Voight. Besides the members of the team, there were present Fr. Eline, the ath- letic moderator, to whose untiring ef- forts we owe a debt of gratitude, and several others of the Faculty; Chaun- cey Tramutola, since appointed Grad- uate Manager, who was himself a grid- iron star, and President of the Student Body in 1912-13, and others. Royal A. Bro ' nson, who will leave shortly to com- mence the practice of law, acted as toast-master. THE REDWOOD. 163 Illustrated Lecture Mr. C. B. Turrell of San Francisco, the well-known authority on the California of the past, enter- tained the students at an interesting illustrated lecture on December six- teenth. The first part of Mr. Turrell ' s talk related to the early Spanish settle- ments and missions. This was followed by an account of early mining opera- tions in the state. Despite the fact that the hall resembled a cold-storage plant as regards temperature, and that trou- })le with the projector prolonged the entertainment until a late hour, it was none the less enjoyed, and we wish to thank Mr. Turrell most heartily for his kindness. Feast of The feast of St. John St. John Berchmans on Novem- Berchmans ber twenty-third is al- ways a red letter day to the members of the Sanctuary Society, which has this illustrious saint as its patron. In the morning Eev. Walter Thornton, S. J., the President of the University, cele- brated High Mass in The Memorial Chapel. At the evening services several new members were admitted into the Society, Pr. Thornton again officiating. Those received were: Prank E. Browne, W. A. Irwin, P. M. Conneally, Thomas J. Conneally and Raymond W. Callahan. Following the reception a banquet was held in the refectory, at which J. Peter Fitzpatrick was toast-master. He spoke for a few minutes on the general subject, " The King ' s Bodyguard " , and then called upon the various speakers of the evening, who responded as fol- lows: " The Guard on Duty, " Ernest Schween. " The Guard as Sentinel, " James J. Lyons. " The Guard Off Duty, " George A. Nicholson. " Our New Members, " Michael J. Leonard. When God, in His In Memoriam infinite, inscrutable wisdom, saw fit to summon Philip Desmond into the mys- terious Beyond, our hearts filled to overflowing with sorrow and a poig- nant sense of our loss. An admirable student, a congenial companion, a constant, unfailing friend, one who, in every sense of the word, was a Santa Claran and a credit to his Alma Mater, our friend went to his Maker on the tenth of January, but a few days after our return to school. His virtues are to be admired, his piety to be imitated, his memory to be cher- ished as a gem ; and the angelic manner of his death to be desired for ourselves. His unexpected demise came as a sudden blow to us who left him appar- ently in the best of health, and his host of friends, comprising as it did practi- cally every one in the University, felt the misfortune keenly. He had been a student in the prepar- atory department up to three years 164 THE REDWOOD. ago, after which time he was attending school in Los Angeles, his home. Last September he returned to Santa Clara, and to the friends who had not forgot- ten him during his absence, and entered Freshman Letters. Father Thornton represented the University at the interment, while a floral piece in red and white was the offering of the students. His fellow classmen, the Freshmen, also drew up a set of resolutions, which are repro- duced in this issue. The flowers and condolences merely convey in some measure what neither flowers nor words can fully express — the love and esteem which Philip Des- mond had ever possessed and constant- ly merited, and the deep sympathy which we extend to his bereft parents. Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God in His infinite wisdom and the in- finite goodness of His Providence to call from among us our beloved class- mate, Philip Cornelius Desmond, and Whereas, The sense of our loss at see- ing one whom we had learned to love taken from us in the flower of his youth is deep and lasting, and our regret most sincere over losing a companion whom we hoped to meet often in the way of life. Be it resolved. That we, his fellow Freshmen in the University of Santa Clara express the deepest pain for our great loss and offer our sincerest con- dolence to his afflicted parents, pray- ing that God will lighten for them in His mercy the great burden of grief this sorrow has brought them, and Be it further resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon the minutes of our Class Organization ; that they be published in The Redwood; and that a copy of them be transmitted to his be- reaved parents as a witness to the esteem in which we have held and shall always hold their dear son, our de- parted classmate. James D. Curtain, Joseph A. Aurrecoechea, Francis H. Ste wart, Committee. BASE-BALL SCHEDULE, 1914. Santa Clara vs. Eager ' s Stars, at S. C, Sunday, Jan. 25. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Palo Alto, " Wednesday, Jan. 28. Santa Clara vs. Santa Cruz, at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 1. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Palo Alto, " Wednesday, Feb. 4. Santa Clara vs. Pensacola, at Santa Clara, Saturday, Feb. 7. Santa Clara vs. Burlingame, at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 8. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Palo Alto, " Wednesday, Feb. 11. Santa Clara vs. St. Ignatius, at Santa Clara, Saturday, Feb. 14. Santa Clara vs. Ireland ' s Independ- ents, at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 15. Santa Clara vs. California, at Berke- ley, Wednesday, Feb. 18. Santa Clara vs. California, at Santa Clara, Saturday, Feb. 21. Santa Clara vs. St. Ignatius, at Santa Clara, Sunday, Feb. 22. Santa Clara vs. Vaughan and Fra- sers, at Santa Clara, Sunday, March 1. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Palo Alto, Wednesday, March 4. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Santa Clara, Saturday, March 7. Santa Clara vs. All Star Southerners, at Santa Clara, Sunday, March 8. Santa Clara vs. Sacramento, at Sac- ramento, Saturday, March 14. Santa Clara vs. Sacramento, at Sac- ramento, Sunday, March 15. Santa Clara vs. Pensacola, at Goat Island, Wednesday, March 18. Santa Clara vs. Stanford, at Palo Alto, Saturday, March 22. Santa Clara vs. California, at Berke- ley, Wednesday, March 25. Games remain to be played against St. Ignatius, Nevada, Occidental and Oakland Coast League at Pleasanton, but as yet no fixed dates are set for them. Varsity Base Ball. The Varsity team, under the able guidance of Coach Wolters, is being quickly rounded into shape for its reg- ular schedule of games, and prospects 165 166 THE REDWOOD. for a well developed club for the open- ing of the 1914 campaign were never better. While the string of victories and un- precedented success of the past two months surpassed the fondest hopes of the Student Body, it may be safely stat- ed that the coming season will find a team worthy of mention, battling for the honors of the Red and White. The first practice since the holidays took place on the 9th of January, and many aspiring candidates were present trying to win positions on the team. Of course, the process of weeding out the likely performers will be a very difficult problem, as the new material, as well as the veterans, possesses great ability. The catching department will be well fortified with Captain Art. Ramage and " Dutch " Harwood back. Added to this array of talent, Casey will be on hand in case of emergency. On the able shoulders of Dick Whe- lan, Stewart, Voight, Leonard, Car- berry and Watson will fall the burden of the pitching department. Dick Whelan, entering upon his first year as a pitcher, gives every promise of developing into one of the best who have represented the Red and White. Stewart and Voight, two veterans of last year ' s team, possess remarkable coolness in pinches and have speed and curves without number. They should be heard from soon. Leonard, Carberry and Watson will add greatly to the strength of the pitch- ing staff. On paper, the infield promises well. In fact, critics have proclaimed it the best combination that has ever repre- sented the Mission University, which is saying a great deal. On the initial corner there is reliable Tommy Ybar- rondo of foot-ball fame, who will re- ceive the fast ones from such stars as Zarick, the dimunitive second baseman, who has already covered himself with glory in former years, and Tramutolo, who has safely guarded the difficult corner for the past four years. The short field will be ably watched over by McGinnis of Sacramento High School. The outfield will be guarded by Shee- nan, Meadows, B. Fitzpatrick, Milburn, Bodefeld, Schultz, Hurd and a host of others. Santa Clara 8. Union Iron Works 2. The Varsity team won its initial con- test against the fast Union Iron Works ' nine, from San Francisco, by a score of 8 to 2. The principal feature of the game was the pitching of Dick Whelan, the big southpaw twirler, who is being quickly developed by Coach Wolters. Sheehan, the new outfielder from Sac- ramento, made his debut on the home grounds and won the applause of the spectators by getting a home run and by throwing a runner out at the plate after a remarkable catch. The clever fielding of Tommy Ybarrondo, and the hitting of ex-Captain Zarick and Tram- utola, were great factors in defeating this fast team. The score : THE REDWOOD. 167 SANTA CLAEA. AB. R. BH. PO. A. E. McGinnes, ss. . . . 4 1 1 3 Meadows, cf 2 1 Zarrick, 2b 4 1 2 1 1 Ybarrondo, lb... 4 1 1 13 1 Sheehan, If 3 2 1 2 1 Tramutola, 3b... 4 1 2 2 7 1 Harwood, c 4 118 12 Schultz, rf 3 110 Whelan, p 3 1 1 Totals 31 8 9 27 15 4 UNION IRON WORKS. AB. R. BH. PO. A. E. Cohen, cf 4 10 2 Boyle, 2b 4 2 3 Camay, ss 4 14 Lagorio, lb 4 2 8 1 Kelley, 3b 4 1 1 3 Coleman, c 4 1 2 8 Bowen, If 3 2 2 Markovieh, rf . . . . 3 1 1 N. Kelley, p 3 2 2 1 Totals 32 2 5 27 15 1 Santa Clara 8. Nag-le ' s All Stars 3. On December 14, Nagle ' s All Stars were successfully repulsed by the 1914 varsity team, by the score of 8 to 3. Among our opponents were such fam- ous players as Wolters, Chase, Pope, Arellanes and Coltrin, but batters of such caliber did not terrify Dick " Whe- lan, as Wolters, Chase and six others fell victims to his speed and curves by being struck out. The collegians started scoring in the first canto. McGinnis walked, Meadows sacrificed him to second, and when Zarick hit out a single, McGinnis scored. Whelan held the opponents scoreless until the seventh, when errors and wild- ness accounted for two runs. But at this stage of the game our men took a liking to the curves of Pope and secured four more runs. Prince Hal Chase mounted the hill- top in the ninth with a confident smile on his face, but grew more serious when Harwood cracked his first bender against right field fence for a two bag- ger and a hit by McGinnis scored him. NAGLE ' S ALL STARS. AB. R. BH. A. PO. E. Coltrin, ss 4 1 3 Wolters, cf 3 1 Chase, lb, p 4 1 8 1 Smith, If 4 1 3 Nagle, rf, lb 3 3 2 Arellanes, 3b 5 2 Reeder, 2b 2 10 3 2 1 Thurber, c 1 1 1 7 1 Pope, p 2 1 Killilay, p, rf . . . . 2 1 Totals 30 3 6 9 23 3 SANTA CLARA. AB. R. BH. A. PO. E. McGinnis, ss 4 1 3 1 Meadows, cf 4 1 1 1 Zarrick, 2b 4 1 2 3 4 2 Ybarrondo, lb... 3 6 1 Sheehan, If 3 1 Tramultola, 3b. . . 3 2 1 5 2 Harwood, c 4 2 2 2 13 Bordefeld, rf 4 Whelan, p 4 113 10 Totals 33 8 9 14 27 5 168 THE REDWOOD. Summary : Struck out, by " Whelan 11, by Pope 3, by Killilay 1, by Chase 2. First base on called balls, " Whelan 9, Pope 3, Killilay 1. Two base hits, Har- wood, Chase, Smith. Umpire, Cunan. Santa Clara 5, All Stars 3, The varsity ball team commenced its 1914 campaign by easily defeating the San Jose All Stars, score of 5 to 3. Santa Clara got its first run in the initial inning after two were laid aside. Zarrick lined a single over second base and scored on Tramutola ' s three-base hit into right field. The All Stars evened up matters with two in their half of the opener. Reeder hit to right. Smith to center and Harry Wolters was passed, Lamarra followed with a stinging double, which scored both Smith and Reeder. With the score standing 3 to 1 against us we came back in the seventh and took the lead. Milburn opened the inn- ing by hitting sharply to left. Emer- son was safe on Pope ' s error. Whelan, batting for Stewart, drove a terrific liner through short scoring both run- ners. The pitching of Leonard, during the eighth inning was the principal feature of the game, as with Wolters and La- marra on first and second and no men out, he easily held the big leaguers from scoring. The score: ALL STARS. AB. R. BH. PO. A. E. Coltrin, ss 5 1 1 3 Reeder, 2b 5 112 2 1 Smith, cf, lb 2 2 12 AB. R. BH. A. PO. E. Wolters, lb, p. ... 2 9 Coyle, If 1 Lamarra, ss 4 1 1 5 1 Wheeler, rf 4 Martinelli, c 4 9 Pope, p 3 2 3 1 Gaines, If 3 1 1 Williams, p Totals 33 3 5 27 13 3 SANTA CLARA. AB. R. BH. PO. A. E. McGinnis, ss 3 1 2 1 Bodefeld, rf 5 Zarick, 2b 4 1 3 4 3 2 Tramutola, 3b. . . 4 2 1 4 1 Sheehan, lb 4 9 Harwood, c 4 1 1 3 Milburn, cf 4 1 1 4 Schultz, rf 3 1 Stewart, p 2 1 2 Emerson, If 2 1 Whelan 1 1 1 Watson, p 1 1 Leonard, p 1 Totals 38 5 9 27 14 3 Whelan batted for Stewart in seventh. Basket Ball Notes. Under the able leadership of Captain Ahern, the varsity basket ball team has shown fair form, and promises to be su- perior to last year ' s quintet. In the games already played this season, the record made is well deserving of praise, and there promises to be, a winning team to represent the Red and White. THE EEDWOOD. 169 Although there are but two veterans, the new material has been developing fast, and at the present time there is an evenly balanced team. The large number striving for posi- tions has shown wonderful ability and before the final quintet is selected to play Nevada, the picking of the team will require much deliberation. The positions of guard are held down by Curtain and Carlson, two freshmen, while ex-Captain Voight and James Fitzpatrick are stationed at center. Captain Ahern has been performing remarkably well at forward and has an equal in " Rudy " Sehultz, the star of last year ' s Columbia Prep. team. Among the new material, who have been showing up well, are Soto, Kelly, Sehuppe, Carberry, Leonard, Stuart and Trabucco. Up to the present writing our quin- tet has succeeded in winning three out of five games played. Basket ball is considered a minor sport here, nevertheless, it is receiving considerable attention. AlA MNI Hon. John T. Hudner, B. ' 76 A., 76, drifted back like all the rest to the calm and peace of the campus last week. Jack was heard to make the remark that " The same old spirit predominates, " and a bett er judge (or rather lawyer) can not be found. Although an active practitioner in law, Mr. Hudner is lead- ing a life of semi-retirement after a brilliant and strenuous career of 9 years as District Attorney of San Benito County. Mr. Henry Hoffman, an ' 78 alumnus of ' 78, was the re- cipient of much attention at the University of Santa Clara last Sat- urday. Henry is in the real estate busi- ness in San Francisco, where his name goes hand in hand with honor and in- tegrity. ' 02 for Mr. Stanley Hiehborn, Ex. ' 02, who has dropped down into the Santa Clara valley few days with his wife and chil- dren, has been the guest of some of his numerous friends. Mr. Hiehborn may be expected to pay a visit to his Alma Mater in the near future. ' 03 James A. Bacigalupi, A. B., ' 03, one of San Francis- co ' s most prominent young attorneys, was in San Jose last month. He won a very hotly contested case that attracted the attention of the en- tire county. Before leaving for the city he visited his Alma Mater and spoke a few words to the Sophomore class in Oratory. Harry Wolters arrived to ' 06 coach our team during the winter months. Harry has a world-wide reputation as a baseball player, and is a member of the N. Y. Americans. He has had a good deal of misfortune last season on account of his broken ankle. He expects to be in fine trim for next season. The team, as we 170 THE REDWOOD. 171 see in the Athletic Notes, is fast round- ing into shape under his guidance. ' 06 Martin V. Merle, A. M., ' 06, is now managing the publicity department of the Alcazar Theater, San Francisco. Mar- tin, it will be remembered, wrote and staged The Mission Play last year. We read that he sold his right for moving pictures of his play the Light Eternal, to the famous Players Film Co. Mar- tin will be down to stage the great Passion Play in 1915. Mr. Ramon Armendariz, ' 06 Ex. ' 06, is another of the old boys that paid us a lit- tle visit last week. Mr. Armendariz occupies the position of cashier in the Bank of Sonora, Chihuahua, Mexico, and has given us the pleasure of a lit- tle intelligence on the distressing " Mex- ican Situation. " Mr. Frank Heffernan, A. ' 08 B., ' 08, was a welcome visit- or to the campus last week. Frank was here to make arrangements for the next meeting of the Santa Clara University Club, to be held on the 18th of February, in San Francisco. Mr. Edward J. Condon, ' 09 Ex. ' 09, appears in our notes through the courtesy of the Oregon Press. Ed. is in the insurance business and shows the same aptitude as when in Sophomore at Santa Clara he sought the honors of his class and was suecessfiil. He has been lately con- nected with Robert F. Noonan and they have been managing many large deals under the name of the Condon- Noonan Insurance Co. ' 11 We have just heard from J. T. Irilarry, A. B., ' 11, who is connected with the French-American Bank of San Fran- cisco. Jack was a premier ball-player and very popular about the campus. He promises to come down and pay the old school a visit, which we are eagerly awaiting. Edward G. Whelan Ex. ' 12 12, was a visitor to the cam- pus in December. He is a junior in the Medical department of Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. " Ham " , as he was affectionately known, immediately on his arrival be- came the center of a welcoming throng of all the " old guys " that threatened to disrupt classes. Ed says he likes it in the east, but the weather is rather poor. Martin P. Detels, A. B., ' 12 ' 12, has been pursuing his law course at Stanford Uni- versity with the same marked success and credit to his Alma Mater as in the 172 THE REDWOOD. days of old, when on the gridiron he booted the Red and White to victory over the large white S that now guides him along the path of knowledge. One of the greatest features in the history of the Alumni Association, was the dinner given by the Alumni Club of San Francisco a few weeks ago. The contests on College Battlefields were once more fought and won, while tales of daring escapades in which the old fence came into prominence, went mer- rily round the board. The Rev. Fr. Ses- non, A. M., ' 13, told of experiences in the East, and all his words were eager- ly received, for Fr. Sesnon is renowned for his wonderful voice and vast fund of general information. The Rev. Fr. Galvin, also an alumnus of great worth, who received his B. A. in ' 98, related the horrors of Molokai, and the con- solation of the works carried on there. Remarks from Fr. Thornton, and oth- ers, ended the most successful banquet which has been held as yet this year. THE REDWOOD. Doll ' s Home Bakery %Zf:t?!::rf ' Sanitary Methods Our Slogan Y Next door to Colonica ' s Candy Store Delivery Service HERBERT S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR y s CATERS TO THE TRADE-MARK ---- -- - FASTIDIOUS THE ARCADE THE HOME OF ROUGH NECK SWEATERS CANELO BROS. STACKHOUSE CO. 83-91 South First St., San Jose Phone S, J. 11 THE REDWOOD. Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS Bushnell Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. The Avenue A classic English style, with non-visible eyelets. Low, broad heels, and a real Eng- lish toe. The " New Shade " Tan (r;|- f or Blucher Gun Metal, pO.Ul Agents, Florsheim, and Johnson Murphy Shoes 18 TO 26 E. SANTA CLARA ST., SAN JOSE For classy College Hair Cut, go to the Antiseptic Barber Shop SEA SALT BATHS Basement Garden City Bank Building TRADE AT HOME We Sell Drugs and Medicines at San Jose Prices We deliver promptly MADDEN ' S DRUG STORE, Santa Clara THE REDWOOD. Telephone, Oakland 2777 Hagens MEN ' S TAILORING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WOOLENS 521 12th Street OAKLAND, CAL. TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS, FOBS, TOILET SETS. ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC., ETC. FRED M. STERN " The Leather Man " 77 NORTH FIRST ST., SAN JOSE " See that fit " Our Spring line is a masterpiece. The rare beauty of the patterns shown, together with the rich assortment, makes an appeal to the most fastidious. Get your Spring suit now. J. U. WINNINGER 11 SOUTH FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR THE JEWEL BAKERY 1151 Frankin St., Santa Clara " DON ' T WURRY " Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J, SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Restaurant, Grill and Oyster House w 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. " THE HASTINGS " Spring styles in Men ' s and Young Men ' s Suits and Overcoats are now on dis- play, combining all the new fabrics and colorings. $15 to $35 Hastings Clothi ng Co. Post and Grant Avenue San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD. 4 - Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Sallows Rorke Ring us for a hurry-up Delivery :: :: :: Phone S. C. 13R Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. ROLL BROS. Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Us if You Want Anything in Our Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Phones : Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to S p. m. 959 Main Street Santa Clara San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose THE REDWOOD. S h 3. V i n £ " " ° SHAVING Articles is complete. - Safety and Common Razors of all kinds ACCCSSOnSS Gillett ' s Razors ;g5. 00 Shaving Brush. 25c up = Keen Kutter " 3. SO Strops 50c up Ever Ready " 1.00 Strop Dressing 10c Enders " 100 Shaving Soap 25c THE Sharp Shave " .50 Extra Blades, all kinds JOHN STOCK SONS 71-77 South First St., San Jose Every Razor Guaranteed Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California VargasBros. C- LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies l 7ere;ro ' u T ;Te .? Main Line, Santa Clara 120 Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. PATRONIZE— . Main Street University Barbers clara THE REDWOOD, THE ENGLISH LAST Is the final word in classy shoes for young men. See the McK shoe. It ' s got the character in every line — the flat shank, the flange heel, the blind eyelets. It ' s $6. There are others at $4.00 and $5.00 S. First St. BACON ' S CaL Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ FISH AND POULTRY MARKET E. PEREZ J. BUDNA, Proprietors 77 E. SAN FERNANDO STREET, SAN JOSE PHONE, SAN JOSE 1870 LOUIS PEREZ, Manager THE REDWOOD. FAST TIME TO Denver, Om aha, Kansas City Chicago and the East PACIFIC LIMITED From SAN FRANCISCO 10:20 a. m. SAN FRANCISCO LIMITED From SAN FRANCISCO 5:00 p. m. OVERLAND LIMITED DE LUX From SAN FRANCISCO 4:00 p. m. TO CHICAGO IN LESS THAN THREE DAYS Protected Throughout with Automatic Electric Block Signals Railroad and Steamship Tickets Sold to All Points A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific THE REDWOOD. O ' BAIVIVON TAYLOR MEN ' S HATTERS AND FURNISHER 33 WEST SANTA CLARA STREKT SAN JOSK, CAL. Whatever comes from our store If dissatisfied, let us l now UNIVERSITY DRUG CO. Cor. Santa Clara and S. Second Sts., San Jose DRAWING INSTRUMENTS T Squares, Triangles, Etc. TO SUIT EVERY NEED and POCKET BOOK The Frederick Post Co. 537 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. STUDE NTS The Redwood depends upon its advertisers for its existence. It is up to you to support those who support you Send for your folks! Low Rates from the East TO CALIFORNIA On sale March 15, 1914 To April 15, 1914 You can deposit money with any Southern Pacific Agent Write or call on us for information A. A. HAPGOOD, E. SHILLINGSBURG, City Ticket Agent Dist. Pass. Agent 40— East Santa Clara Street—40 Southern Pacific TMC DCDWOOD March, 1914 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead - ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER B. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY B. DOWNING, EDITOR OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR FRANKLIN STREET Phone, S. C. 14 SANTA CLARA San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Latest Spring Fabrics ind Fashions JUST IN Be stylish while you may — wont he in town forever. Klassy Kuts in Kollege Klothes $25 .00 — TO == $40.00 Suits made to order 20 to 40.00 BILLY HOBSON BILLY HOBSON ' S CORNER Fountain Alley and First Street - SAN JOSE, CAL. If you only knew what Mayerle ' s German Eyewater DOES TO YOUR EYES YOU WOULDN ' T BE WITHOUT IT A SINGLE DAY At Druggisu. 5 c or 65c by Gcorge Maycrlc, German Expert Optician 960 Market Street, San Francisco Get your Easter Suit from " Sam " $25.00 Values for $15.00 Snappy English Suits— Nice Conservative Makes in Blues, Greys, Browns, Tans and Pencil Stripe Hats to Match at $2.50 16 E. Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CAL. Sam ' s Clothes Shop THE REDWOOD. Dr. Wong Him Residence 1268 O ' Farrell Street Between Gough and Octavia Phones : West 6870 , Homes 3458 oau Francisco, Cal. UNIVERSITY of ST. IGNATIUS SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following Departments: A — COLLEGE OF LETTERS, SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. A four years ' college course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B — THE COLLEGE OF LAW. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and beginning Junior Year. C — THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering, and beginning in Freshman year. D — THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course in Chemistry, Bacteriology, Biology and Anatomy for prospective students of Medicine. This course begins in Junior year. ST. IGNATIUS HIGH SCHOOL ent course covering four years from the completion of standard gr£ y to the University. REV. ALBERT F. TRIVELLI, S. J., President. An efficient course covering four years from the completion of standard grammar school; and preparatory to the University. THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocl er, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Xhp i nti f ] Vf Invites you to its rooms 1 lie oaULa V iaiCl to read, rest and enjoy a T-. y- T- -pj y T TQ cup of exccllent coffee y yjr PLjLj V I UID open from e a. m. to 10:30 p. m. Quality Tailor BETTER ADVERTISED BY HIS $25.00 SUITS FOR " STUDES " 67-69 S. SECOND ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. THE HOME OF= HART SCHAFFNER MARX CLOTHES Young Men ' s English Models for Spring 1914 are ready Spring s, int. SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STREETS Established 1865 Founded 1851 Incorporated 18S8 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR Bank of Italy Building 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD MANUEL MELLO ,S55j Dealer in j ' Boots and j ° Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara O ' Connor Mariuni Training School for Nurses IN CONNECTION CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY Race and San Carlos Streets San Jose Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWELER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnisiiings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. Enterprise laidrjCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s SantaClara 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street ALDERMAN ' S NEWS AGENCY Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobacco Baseball and Sporting Goods Fountain Pens of All Kinds Next to Postoffice Santa Clara M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool 2 A Cents per Cue ■ - CONTENTS SPRING - - ACROSS THE RIO GRANDE A MAN OF THE NORTHLAND THE LOST BALL DAY DREAMS THE STORY OF POINT LOBOS EDITORIAL TO. H EXCHANGES UNIVERSITY NOTES ATHLETICS ALUMNI - - . - E. V. Fuchs Rodney A. Yoell Edward E. Nicholson F. Buckley McGurrin Rodney A. Yoell Francis H. Doud Victor A. Chargin 173 174 180 183 188 189 191 194 195 198 201 209 Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIII SANTA CLARA, CAL., MARCH, 1914 NO. 4 Spring In welcome Spring ' s refresKing breeze, niie awakening groves sweet tidings Kear, Whilst nature silent decks e leas. Of summer ' s leaf ) galleries niie sKrill-voiced ja}) now longs to sKare, In welcome Spring ' s refresKing Lreeze. To ofker climes stern Winter flees, niie brooks uncKained a smile now wear, WKile nature silent decks (ke leas, niirougK Winter ' s fading coat of fleece One mountains smile wim foreneads bare, In welcome Spring ' s refresKing breeze. ' Kleadi skies of blue 4ie busj) bees. To opening buds wi4i J03) repair, WKile nature silent decks me leas. Deam turned to life, eacK mortal sees His Maker ' s glorj) painted fKere, In welcome Spring ' s refresKing breeze, WKile nature silent decks fKe leas. E. V. FUCHS. ACROSS THE RIO GRANDE HE veracity of his- torians has often been called in question. In- deed it is scarcely possible that any event of world im- portance is ever thoroughly agreed upon by men who transcribe the rec- ords of the past. Dates of births and deaths are fre- quently found disputed, but far greater than all is the ensuing wrangle over an interpretation of events following facts. The error of Post hoc ergo propter hoc, seems to have ensnared many but his- torians fall into the meshes of the fal- lacy with far greater ease than do other mortals. It is claimed that a historical sum- mary should never be written regard- ing a series of events until some fifty years have elapsed. This, in a certain measure, is true, yet the value of a. critique, written at the time of action, may not only have some positive worth, but also bear a modicum of interest. In the February number of The Eedwood an article appeared, entitled " Mexico, " written by the author of this present paper. It was not his in- tention to do any further work upon the subject, but the article was solely the result of an opportunity afforded him to record various opinions and im- pressions related by a former resident of Mexico, (not a mere transitory tour- ist), who is closely connected with peo- ple high up in the affairs of concession- ary politics in the capital of the Mexi- can Republic. Letters were used and the personal narrative was perhaps the chief source of information relied upon in the prep- aration of the article. It was but natural therefore that the facts related should be, in a certain measure, made to conform to personal opinions and lend their support in favor of impressions which, while sincere enough, were perhaps rather partisan. That this is the case is by no means certain, yet since the publication of the aforementioned contribution another side of the question has come under the writer ' s observation. In the former case, the information was " anti-Huertist, " in the present ar- ticle, a view is given, which, while it is held extensively south of the Rio Grande, is hardly mentioned in current American periodicals. This is the opinion of a Mexi can of superior position who has been educated in one of the best of our western American Universities, and is frankly in a position to give authentic informa- tion regarding the situation, from its beginning down to the present day. 174 THE REDWOOD. 175 Diaz in 1909 controlled Mexico. For over thirty years his rule was supreme, but towards the end, under the advanc- ing pressure of age, the iron grasp he held over his nation, gradually became less personal, and was delegated to such men as Limantur, and R. Corral, the Vice-President of the Republic. These men were held to be leaders of a clique known as the Scientificos, but their influence, while admitted by both pro and anti-Huertists, is rather a hard and shadowy thing to trace. Diplomacy at best is a delicate thing to fathom, but when diplomacy plus a weakening power is covered over by a cloak of concessionary bribes, no mat- ter how filmy, the difficulties of arriv- ing at the truth of matters, is increased a hundred fold. Yet this much seems to be conceded by both parties. The odor of bribes, in varying degrees of intensity, certainly filled the breeze of Mexican politics during the last few years of the Diaz regime. The high hand of despotism showed itself frequently throughout the land, but by the rank imprisonment of F. Madero, just prior to his possible politi- cal victory, a flame of indignation swept the land which needed but little fuel to keep it burning. This fuel was supplied, but in a way over which some considerable doubt seems to exist. In Sonora, a northern state, a labor agitation has been regarded as the beginning of the trouble. In the opinion of the writer, the ex- act, precise commencement of the diffi- culty will never be known with certain- ty. As far back as 1908, armed riots occurred in various places, and publica- tions in the United States will be found which recorded them. Yet specifically, all recent troubles seem to date from November, 1910, when Madero crossed the Texas border into Mexico and joined forces with one Pasqual Orozco, who was then heading a band of rebels opposing Gen. Huerta, the commandant of the Federal army in Sonora. This latter state being un- der military law owing to the Atila- like operations of Orozco. When Madero joined forces with Orozco things became vastly more dif- ficult for the Federal army to control. Madero managed his campaign with consummate skill, and after fighting for almost a year inflicted defeat after defeat upon the Federals, finally end- ing them all by taking the city of Juarez. He had been opp osed by both Huerta and Gen. Villar, the latter a soldier of some note, acting directly under the ap- pointment of Gonzales Cosio, the then minister of war. After this crushing defeat, Diaz seems to have lost faith in his army. Perhaps the stern old man realized the treachery, the intriguing, and future villainy which would be in- dulged in, and thinking that he might not be able to cope with them suc- cessfully, did the more prudent thing of leaving his office and his country. His immense personal fortune he took Avith him and now in Europe enjoys peace and security, while the throne he once held runs blood. 176 THE REDWOOD. After the resignation of Diaz, De La Barra became Provisional Vice-Presi- dent. He had formerly been Ambassa- dor to the United States, and was a man of distingiiished personality and talents. This occurred in September, 1911. An election was held and Fran- cisco Madero was raised to the Presi- dency of the Republic. " With him, and elected by Madero ' s own fiat, was Pinos Juarez, as Vice-President. He had formerly been Governor of Yuca- tan. For some reason, it seems, that Jua- rez was highly unpopular and in dis- favor with a great number of Mexican leaders; the Catholic party especially opposed him; but running as he did with Madero, his election was an as- sured event. If Madero had taken the advice of a great many people, De La Barra would have taken the place of Juarez; but the fates decreed it other- wise. Orozco, enraged at the election of Juarez, whom he hated bitterly, broke off his allegiance to Madero and took the field against his former comrade in arms. At home the influential journal " El Pias " , under the editorship of Sanchez Santos, stirred up a popular mistrust against Madero ' s efficiency. At this juncture, it is affirmed by a great many, Francisco Madero became weak and vacillating, a clique styled " La Porra " , assumed an appearance of doing little, but under the guidance of Hay, a former congressman, and Gus- tavus Madero, this coterie really man- aged, or mismanaged the affairs of state. It was in the early part of 1912 that Orozco revolted against Madero, and for quite a long period he gained ground steadily throughout the north- ern states, Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and some others. The minister of war under Madero was General Salas, an apparently brave but really inefficient man. His hand- ling of the campaign against Orozco, was miserable in the extreme ; and after a crushing defeat inflicted on him, at Eellanos, about Coahuila, he commit- ted suicide. This catastrophe greatly weakened Madero ' s position. In place of Salas, the administration sent Huerta to take the field against the rebels. By drastic military operations he gradually broke down the rebel opposition and finally, towards the latter part of 1912, forced Orozco to leave the field. But Orozco was not the only thorn in the side of Madero. Early in July, Felix Diaz, a patriotic, but rather short- sighted Mexican of influence, started a counter revolution against Madero on the grounds of inefficiency. Just why Madero failed to measure up to the former high opinion which the public at large held regarding him, will probably never be thoroughly clear to the Anglo-Saxon — or non-Latin mind. The Mexican ' s psychology is dif- ferent. If he hopes, he hopes high; if he is disappointed in a trust, he takes it strongly to heart, and for some THE REDWOOD. 177 strange racial reason, frequently seeks to express this disappointment in the form of a revolution. Felix Diaz ap- parently had nothing to justify his ac- tions. No overt act had been commit- ted by the administration up to that time, yet with an almost impudent dis- regard for the weflare of his country, that is, the welfare of the masses — the peons,- — he poured more oil upon the flames and launched a revolution at Vera Cruz. To meet and counteract this out- break Madero lapsed into methods of barbarism. Some claim, that " La Por- ro ' ' planned the stroke. However that may be, General Veltram, of the Feder- al army, entered Vera Cruz under a flag of truce, met Diaz, captured him, and by this coup of treachery, was able to send him in chains to Mexico City. But the capture of Diaz only compli- cated matters. General Mondragon, a friend of Diaz, plotted in conjunction Math General Bernardo Reyes, a series of moves by which Diaz could be liber- ated. How Diaz was able to join them is a secret, yet the wings of rumor bear a tale concerning the bribing of a guard who liberated Diaz for several hours one night in order that he might effect his own escape. These things will never be known fully. They are dark and un- fathomable mysteries. Plot and coun- terplot are so interwoven that it is with difficulty the full design can be dis- cerned. Yet, in some manner or other various army officers were cajoled or bribed into the intrigue, and a force of some two thousand men joined Mondra- gon. Almost instantly firing began. From a scene of comparative peace Mexico City was turned into a veritable sham- bles. Belim prison, a hell-hole in the city, was stormed and taken, the pris- oners were liberated without discrimi- nation, and the very lees and dregs of Mexican humanity were turned loose to sport their passions under the cloak of a movement to better their country. General Reyes was to have marched to the national palace, and there, if bribery had done its work, the troops inder General Villar would join him. So deep, however, had treachery un- dermined the fabric of the people ' s honesty that while Reyes was even sup- posed to be joining a fellow revolution- ist he was shot in the back, like a dog. Mondragon and Diaz failing in their attempt to gain the national palace turned about and took the arsenal by storm. From the roof of this building a rain of shells was sent at the palace, but it stoutly held out. This is the period known as the " De- cina Tragica " , or terrible ten days. It will always be memorable in Mexican history. In those ten days men of the same race shot one another down in the streets of their national capital, yet the pathos of the thing lies not in this but in the fact that so very, oh, so very, very few, ever really knew the cause for which they died. So terrible was this inhuman carnage that a truce was declared and bodies 178 THE REDWOOD. were piled high upon each other, kero- sene was poured on them and the torch lit. Near the end of this struggle the Fed- eral army began to lose faith in Madero. They suspected " La Porra " , they knew of the schemes and fabrications, and worst of all, they saw methods em- ployed that at heart they knew would never benefit their country. A delegation was formed consisting of two distinguished officers, Col. Gem- enos Reverol and Major Isquierdo. These men went to Madero and in the name of the army they demanded his resignation. It is probable that a quar- rel arose, for in the end, Madero be- came enraged and drawing a revolver shot them. Astounded by this action, General Blanquet, who had just arrived in the city with his troops from Morelas, in the name of the army, took Madero. The taking was done by treachery, yet, for two nights Madero feared for his life and it is asserted that the night be- fore his capture he slept on the floor of the national theater in order to avoid assassination. Full well did he know his fate, yet it seems strange, that, no matter how many crimes a man may be guilty of, he should have to be killed by a subter- fuge that amounted to little better than an assassination. And all this in order to promote the cause of justice. Madero may, and I say may advised- ly, have been guilty of seeking to fur- ther his own ends. Still, inefficient as he showed himself to be, subsequent to his election, no excuse can justify be- fore humanity the fact that they stood him up against a mud wall and without a trial, shot him. According to Mexican law the Secre- tary of State becomes President upon the death or absence of a President or Vice-President. Hence the moment the bullets tore through Madero ' s brain Lascurain became elevated to the Pres- idency. But Lascurain seems to have been a puppet in Huerta ' s hand. Perhaps he was a humorist, anyway he showed a real flash of wisdom by remaining President just one half an hour. Before he resigned, however, he ap- pointed his successor, the chief instiga-. tor of all, Huerta, as the President of the Republic. Thus on a gross and palpable techni- cality Huerta assumed power. Immediately the European govern- ments recognized him and Japan fawn- ed upon him to such an extent that the latter dispatched Diaz, the trouble- maker, to that nation, as an especial ambassador. The other fire-brand, Mon- dragon, he got rid of by sending him to Europa, and thus the field seemed cleared and cleansed. But yet was the unfortunate nation to undergo further misfortune and travail. Revolutions broke out North, South, East and West. Wherever a leader could get arms, he organized a band, proclaimed himself a patriot and marched to the succor of his country. The rag tag and bobtail of every state is under arms, until now, at the THE REDWOOD. 179 present writing, a veritable hell ' s caul- dron seems seething. Zapata is in the South, Villa in the North, and Obregon in the East. Can Huerta stem the tide? No, he can not. He has no more money, no hope of raising any, and, further, the revocation of the embargo on arms by President Wilson, has so complicated matters that it would take all the sol- diers in Mexico, commanded by a Por- firio Diaz, to end the trouble. Thus we see, from an impartial view- point what a complication the situation is in. Let us for a moment recall the list of names involved. No minor actor is named ; only those who rank as stars. Porfirio Diaz, Limantour, Corral, Vil- lar, F. Madero, G. Madero, De La Barra, Penos Juarez, Orozeo, Salus, Felix Diaz, Veltran, Reyes, Mondragon, Blanquet, Lascurain, Zapata, Obregon and Villa. In scanning this list can we find any name, other than De La Barra who has not been either directly or indirectly involved in affairs of treachery? It would seem from a study of the subject that rottenness characterized the ac- tions of most of them. First under one flag, then under an- other. Now fighting side by side with a man and next helping to assassinate him. Is there any man who has any grasp of the situation in Mexico that can be fully trusted? It would seem not. Hence internally no real hope can be found for Mexico. The policy of " Watchful Waiting " may look in vain, while in the meantime valuable foreign interests are suffering. At any mo- ment some brigand may perpetrate a crime that calls for our acting, and as- suming protection over all foreign citi- zens, since the Monroe Doctrine, that shibboleth to European powers, blocks any definite action on their part. With this impending it can not be long before the United States must de- clare itself. We have a duty to our- selves and a duty to humanity. Speaking broadly, the entire country of Mexico from the Rio Grande to Nicaragua is not worth the bones of one American soldier, any more than any foreign conquest, yet if we would as- sume obligations we must be prepared to face them. And obligations will come. Either we must recognize Huerta, or else see in him a brigand and deal with him accordingly. If the former is the ultimate action of the government the sooner the bet- ter; if the latter, intervention is ine- vitable. But act we must and whichever way the administration turns, let it be care- ful that it keeps it fingers away from a fire which has apparently consumed every vestige of political ability the Mexican people ever possessed. And by that I mean, if intervention comes let it be an intervention for paci- fication only; or if a recognition, a re- cognition to some power of decent capa- bility .In either case we will have done our duty. There is no tertium quid. RODNEY A. YOELL. A MAN OF THE NORTHLAND AY off up there in the land of the Midnight Sun, the land which some say God forgot, there ' s a little village called Koheka. Two hundred miles east of the Yukon dis- trict it lies on the bosom of that great white waste. The population does not exceed forty, and few men save the in- habitants know of the existence of the village. Yet it has, or rather had, one noted charcter, and that was Koheka Pete. The cognomen does not denote a characteristic but was bestowed upon him by the people of the little town as an honor, and that rather to themselves than to him. And they have never for- gotten him, for in the little graveyard there ' s a headstone over his grave which says " Here lies Koheka Pete who did unto others as he ' d have them do to him. " When the bad winter struck the vi- cinity in ' 97, Pete had been living there for eight years. Every one knew his history from the time he arrived with his squaw and pardner, from the Yu- kon, as he stated, but beyond this all was a blank. When they came, the hard, cold hand of winter had closed over the land, so they built a walrus hide tepee just outside the town and waited for the ice to break. Early the next summer, when the first sun ' s rays filtered over the hori- zon the Squaw began to build a perma- nent camp. Each morning Pete and his pardner started for somewhere in a Northerly direction. The pardner whom they called Joe Topac, or Topac Joe always returned at high noon, but Pete never was seen till late at night and how he ever found his way to the village in the dark from the distance he was sup- posed to have gone was a mystery. They got gold from some hidden source, for they had no money when they arrived, yet throughout the summer they were never without heavy pokes. One night, in a fit of drunkenness they started arguing about a radium mine which caused the Aurora Borea- lis, and when Pete ' s Squaw came for them as she did each night about twelve o ' clock, the men were circled five deep about the two and staring open-mouth- ed at them. She stood outside the circle for a moment listening to the talk, and then shoving t he men aside, shot a queer look full of meaning at Pete and told him that it was time to come home. It took the excitement of that night fully a month to cool down, but after four weeks of fruitless searching for the pot of gold at the foot of the Aurora Borealis in place of the rainbow, things settled and Koheka lay quiet under her snowy blanket. Pete, in his quiet, taciturn way, grew 180 THE EEDWOOD. 181 into the village and into the hearts of its desolate habitants as well. Pete ' s Squaw always seemed happy and every passerby could hear her singing at her work. But in Joe was an insoluble puzzle. No one but his pardner could fathom him and he would assert noth- ing. Joe was very quiet while sober and supremely happy while under the influence of that fiery trading post liquid that men see fit to call " Hooch " , but at neither time would he speak more than four words in succession. For five years they lived in peace and quiet until one night Koheka, re- turning from his day ' s wanderings came running into camp with a gun in his hand looking for his mate and pard- ner. Then he ran out again into the night swearing and cursing Joe and the squaw. The next day he returned. When they asked him if he had seen either of the missing pair he shook his head and cursed. That night he drank till he lay on the floor in the rear of the saloon mutter- ing to himself. Some of the men bent over him and heard him raving of some- one being his best friend and of his faith in mankind being broken. They heard him swear that if he ever laid hands on Topac Joe, dead or alive, he would tear him limb from limb and throw him to the wolves. Two days later he moved his camp far out on the frozen tundra and after that never appeared in Koheka except for supplies. When he did appear he would walk straight to the store, name the canned stuff he wanted, and then stand in silence until they were set on the counter, then he would pay for them, pick them up, and turning, de- part without a word. One day, a native, returning from the Yukon District, told him, on his weekly visit to the store that he had seen a pair in Yukon which looked like Joe and his squaw, and asked to see the locket containing her picture, which Pete had always worn about his neck. Pete stood for a moment in silence, and then closing his big hands on the stock of the rifle that he had carried since that day, till it almost cracked, and drawing back his lips in a snarl, replied, " He took it. " By he, every one knew that Pete meant Joe. That was the last seen of him in Ko- heka for two months, so they concluded that he had gone to the Yukon. When he returned they asked him if he had seen either of them, but he only shook his head and bared his teeth as before. So Pete lived on for two years. Then in the middle of that bad winter of ' 97 he stopped coming to the store. Think- ing of his queer habits and fearing that he was sick, several of his friends went to his cabin, but he was not there. A month later they went again. This time the tepee and all were gone. Much was said and many conclusions drawn explaining his disappearance, but in the course of time only the memory re- mained of Koheka Pete. One day, eighteen months later a man wandered into camp half starved and shivering with the ague. It was 182 THE REDWOOD. Pete. They put Mm on the counter in the store and poured brandy down his throat. This seemed to revive him a little and they took him to a cot in the rear of the store. As they lifted him, he muttered something in a broken tone about coming back home to die. The quack camp doctor came and bent over him for an instant, holding his wrist. Then he shook his head and said " Maybe half an hour, maybe half a day. " They gave him more brandy with a sleeping powder, and he soon fell into a troubled doze. The store keeper. Old John, Pete ' s best friend in camp since Joe left, sat by him as he slept. He re- mained in a sort of stupor until nearly twelve o ' clock that night, just about the time his squaw used to come for him. Then he awoke and putting his hand up, began to feel for something about his neck. He tore something from a cord which the store keeper could not see and then lay in silence for a few minutes with his lids half closed. Suddenly he began to mutter about something that he had done. Then his speech became clearer and Old John bent forward to hear what he was say- ing. " One day, just before I disappeared, a year and a half ago, I found a man lying in the snow about ten miles from my tepee. He was almost dead. I went back and got my camp and moved it to a spot near where I found him. For five weeks he hung between life and death and during that time I nursed him as a mother would her babe. I didn ' t leave him for more than half an hour at a time for the first two weeks. Then he seemed to get a little better but there was something about him, some- thing in his eyes that made me know he couldn ' t last long. For ten days at a time I didn ' t get a chance to close my eyes but sat beside his bed night after night, day after day. When he drop- ped asleep for a few hours I went out to look for something to eat and during the whole time that we stayed out there I lived on wolf meat. I knew that he couldn ' t stand this, so I gave him all the canned things I had. Then for a time he seemed to be getting better but that death-like look never left him. Yes, it ' s God ' s truth, I carried him clear to Yukon. I knew he couldn ' t get better out there, so three weeks later I started for Yukon with him on a sling on my back, I ' ll never forget the trip. Day after day, for over a month I waded through the snow with him on my back, hunting for food by the light of the midnight sun as he slept. But it wasn ' t any use. Two days before I could have reached the Yukon he died. I came back one night from hunting and found him dying. But before he died he gave me this. " The object which Pete had taken from about his neck dropped from his hand and Old John picked it us. It was the locket containing his wife ' s picture. The old man bent closer to him and said softly, " And the man ? " ' ' The man was Topac Joe. ' ' EDWARD L. NICHOLSON. THE LOST BALL ITH mid-August had come its usual torrid weather ; cloudless, breathless days, dur- which the infrequent zephyrs were as wel- come to the suffocating urbanites as a drop of rain to a parching desert. The broad, well-shaded veranda of the Country Club provided a most desira- ble oasis, and thither some modern Ar- gonauts, in the shape of a group of white-flanneled business men, had hast- ened. Like the fabled wanderers, too, they stood in dire need of refreshment, and accordingly, as they sank luxuri- ously into the depths of the cushions with which the Avieker lounging chairs were generously supplied, each sent a verbal plea to the immaculate guardian of the club ' s buffet. Business cares and casual worries vanished magically in clouds of frag- rant tobacco smoke, and much-berated Dull Care lost her sinister aspect be- neath the subtle influence of cooling beverages skillfully compounded. Salisbury, the eldest of the group, was discoursing with his customary levity on current happenings, to the in- tense, though well-concealed delight of his auditors. The sparkling flow of his words continued for some time, to be suddenly interrupted by the sharp crackling of gravel on the drive. A high-powered roadster, resplendent in brilliant colors and glittering nickel, swung swiftly around and drew up at the steps. The first to alight was a v ell-tanned athletic appearing young chap, of per- haps twenty-five or six years, who, with inbred gallantry, gracefully as- sisted his companion to the ground. She was an unusually attractive young woman, becomingly clad in white buck- skin shoes, trim linen skirt, and bright colored blazer jacket. From beneath her snug-fitting Panama hat curled re- fractory tendrils of golden hair, form- ing a radiant halo for her sensitive face, which drew its principal charm from a pair of deep blue, wonderful eyes. As the striking couple sauntered along the veranda they became imme- diately the focus for languid eyes. " That, " said Salisbury, in response to the mute queries of his companions, " is Robert Saunders, and wife, but re- cently returned from abroad. Saun- ders, you know, annexed the champion- ship out here last season. And the championship wasn ' t all, by the way. " Upon being pressed for particulars, he ordered " another of the same, " carefully selected a fresh cigar, and, after settling back comfortably in his chair, proceeded to unfold this tale : " To explain fully the why and 183 184 THE EEDWOOD. wherefore of Mrs. Eobert Saunders, I must refer to tlie match for the cham- pionship, and as what I may term an in- sider ' s account of the match would lack completeness were mention of said lady omitted, you can readily perceive the two to be rather strikingly affili- ated. " Competition for the cup last year was unusually keen. In the semi-finals, which occurred about the first of Sep- tember, Saunders rather unexpectedly defeated his opponent — a queer, tubby little chap named Hill — and found him- self against John Larkins for the cham- pionship. " You all know John — he ' s been win- ning matches and gobbling up trophies hereabouts for the last ten years. Saun- ders, on the other hand, while appar- ently possessing the necessary qualifi- cations, was practically a new-comer here, and despite rumors of some rath- er good winnings farther east, he was not much of a favorite — that is, of course, as regards wagers. " Yes, but what about Mrs. Saun- ders ? ' ' interrupted young Jimmy Carl- ton with his carefully cultivated drawl, " I ' m getting awfully serious. Speed up, Salisbury. " " Now pray don ' t become impatient, my impetuous young friend, " answered Salisbury, his dignity a trifle ruffled, " all in good time, you know. As a matter of fact, I was just about to in- troduce the lady. ' ' The younger set was fully aware of the attachment existing between Eomo- la Houston — the lady who just now caused such a ripple in the placid pool of our repose — and our statuesque friend Robert Saunders. Throughout the summer they were together almost constantly, and an announcement was evidently forthcoming. But apparent- ly Robert and the lady came to some ■ sort of passage-at-arms, and as a con- sequence began to keep painstakingly aloof from each other. ' ' I have now brought my story up to the point of starting — rather a topsy- turvy form of procedure, I ' ll admit — and again we find Saunders matched with John Larkins. " September third was the date ap- pointed for the championship play, and I managed to close my desk like the Arab and silently escape from the of- fice rather early that day. • I arrived at the Club about luncheon time, just as the players were completing the first eighteen holes. As the majority of you veranda golf enthusiasts are aware — pardon me, Jimmy, I almost forgot the match you played last month — the semi-finals and finals here are played off in thirty-six hole matches. " Our estimable friend, Williams — who, by the way, may bring me another one of the same with a bit more mint — was setting one of the tables for my luncheon. During the century, more or less, which necessarily accompanies such an operation, I wandered casually about the lawn. In the course of my ramblings I stumbled rather awkward- ly into the presence of Miss Houston, who, comfortably installed at a table beneath some trees, was apparently ab- THE EEDWOOD. 185 sorbed in the pages of a magazine. She seemed to have more interest in the match, however, than for either the magazine or my conversation, and so I took my departure after a few casual words. " The match had now reached the ninth green, and after holing out the players entered the club-house to have a bit of luncheon after playing the sec- ond eighteen holes. Larkins, as I as- certained from the fore-caddy, was three holes in the lead, and Saunders ' chances seemed rather slim. " Bob soon crossed the veranda and approached Miss Houston, who immedi- ately busied herself with the previous- ly mentioned magazine. He stood for a moment at her side, and then, pluck- ing up spirit, addressed her. For the first time she seemed conscious of his presence, but unbending slightly, list- ened for a moment to his hurried Avords which — inveterate eaves-dropper that I am — I was unable to catch, and then answered him in a manner which caused him to wilt visibly. He turned slowly away, as dejected a figure as I have ever seen, but his face assumed a slightly less siiicidal expression as she added as an after-thought some words which evidently bore some allusion to the match. " The fore-caddy turned his impu- dent face toward me and said: " ' Gee, Mr. Saunders certainly is in wrong ! ' " Despite his presumption, I could not but agree with him. " By this time Williams had succeed- ed in securing from some far distant source sufficient food for a hasty lunch- eon, and I busied myself therewith, for- getting for the nonce Saunders and his amorous difficulties. " After luncheon the match was re- sumed, and I joined the gallery which followed the players around the course. The first six holes of the second leg found them in the same relative posi- tions — Saunders three down. On the seventh he succeeded in holing out in three to Larkins ' four. The eighth they split. On the ninth Saunders again de- feated his opponent. " Nine holes now remained in which to decide the match. Both men were playing excellent golf, each in his char- acteristic fashion. Larkins, the veter- an, was cool — frigidly so, in fact. He paid but little attention to his opponent or to the gallery, which last had in- creased appreciably with the closeness of the play. Saunders, on the other hand, while not infrequently making sensational shots, betrayed considerable nervousness. More than once I detect- ed his glance stealing toward a dimin- utive patch of white among the trees across the course. " On the twenty-eighth Saunders un- fortunately dropped into the tall, and lost out by two. The strain was begin- ning to tell on him, as one could per- ceive by the number of cigarettes he consumed. But this was our first op- portunity of seeing him in an uphill struggle, and naturally we lacked the 186 THE REDWOOD. confidence which we now place in him. He took the twenty-ninth in great form, and tied Larkins on the thirtieth. " His plucky struggle had attracted new spectators, and the now large gal- lery was brimming with excitement. Not a few of them were cognizant of the unfortunate trend his affair with Miss Houston had taken, and with their inherent admiration for the romantic figure, sympathized with him. He seemed aware of this, and as he took his driver from the caddy he squared his shoulders with fresh resolution. " Larkins teed up and drove with that free, loose-jointed swing which is the envy and the despair of half of you. It was a beautiful drive, and land- ed fair in the center of the course. Bob then sent his ball, planted his feet firm- ly, and let go with a drive that topped that of Larkins by forty feet. " They played that hole in bogie, Saunders winning with a putt from the edge of the green. So, at last, with but four holes remaining, he was ' even with the board ' . " That you may not find my story wearisome, I will content myself with saying that those four holes were the best ever played on these links. Saun- ders won the thirty-third, Larkins the next two. All that now remained for Bob was a fighting chance, and the way he took advantage of it was really the nerviest bit of playing it has ever been my good fortune to witness. " Larkins got off on the last hole with a wonderful drive. His ball soared up and up, disappeared for a long mo- ment in the blue before hitting the turf and ascending the hillside in lively bounds — a mere leaping pin-point against the emerald verdure of the fair green. The veteran seemed well satis- fied, but Saunders, grasping his driver firmly in his sinewy brown hands, put his whole being into his stroke, and V hen the ball at last found a resting place it was but the distance of one of Jimmy ' s putts from the other. " They found the green in another mashie stroke, and lay side by side not six feet from the hole. Larkins then carefully prepared his ground, and with infinite care sighted the shot. His ball rolled straight as a die across the velvet green, and dropped into the cup. " Here it was that Saunders either lost the hard fought battle, or — but vfhy the delay? The fact remains that he didn ' t, and his touseled head straightened quickly up as his fall, after hanging for a century-long sec- ond on the edge, rolled in. The match was tied. A deciding hole must be played. " Father Time hasn ' t dealt as kindly with me as you young bloods, who have so far escaped his touch, may imagine, and following the match for eighteen holes had rendered me entirely incapa- ble of further perambiilation. So I thereupon resigned Saunders to his fate, and strolled slowly — how else could I, on an afternoon early in Sep- tember — back to the club house. " Miss Houston was still ensconced in her chair, and, as it semed to me, stifled a query as to the fortunes of war at my THE REDWOOD. 187 approach. With a sigh of intense re- lief, I sank, or rather collapsed, into a chair at her side. " From our position we could just make out the movements of the players. They drove, and strode along the fringe of trees. A second shot followed. Saun- ders ' caddy stood heside his ball, wait- ing for the match to come up. But something had evidently gone awry, and Lar kins ' shot was not forth-com- ing. The fore-caddy — that impudent rascal whom I mentioned some time ago — was diligently prying about among the weeds. He was soon joined by Lar- kins ' caddy, and later by that hardy sportsman himself. " To all appearances it was a case of lost ball. Saunders and his caddy had now joined in the search, but to no avail. The ball was lost, and the match consequently forfeited to Saunders. We could discern him protesting vigorously against such a termination of the match, but honest old John Larkins would have none of it, and insisted upon abiding by the rules. " " And so, I suppose, Saunders re- turned in glory to take possession of the lady? " inquired Carlton. " A moment, please, " returned the narrator, with a quieting gesture. " After the trophy, brimming with champagne, had gone around, and the usual congratulations exchanged. Bob stole away from the roisterers — those ever present satellites, who, having no hand in any undertaking of moment, even a golf match, are always eager and anxious to ' be in at the death ' — he stole away, as I said, and found Miss Hous- ton ' s shady retreat. Somewhat sheep- ishly, he stood gazing down at her, but the look vanished from his face as she rose and extended her arms. " Now, while I am admittedly a pry- ing old codger, there are some things that I cannot bring myself to look upon. This was one of them. Therefore, I turned modestly away, and strolled to- ward the caddies ' locker. That same fore-caddy had just completed the de- struction of a large bottle of ginger ale, and now I ' ose slowly from the step on which he had been seated. Something furtive in his actions caused me to halt suddenly, and to draw back into the shelter of a large rose-bush. A wave of comprehension swept over me as he quickly extracted a golf ball from his trouser pocket, and after ' winding up ' in the most approved fashion, sent it sailing into the creek. Greatly relieved, he snapped his fingers, and was pucker- ing his lips to whistle as I confronted him like some modern Fury. " ' What ball was that? ' I demanded sternly. " ' Oh, that? ' he returned, quite un- necessarily, ' why that was the lost ball. ' " And will you believe it, my con- science hasn ' t troubled me one bit? " F. BUCKLEY McGURRIN. DAY DREAMS I saw tKe sunligKt glint Ker Kair, And flame in colours golden brown. I watcKed tKe mind ' s play in her eyes As thoughts arose and then sank down. To day dream in the warm sunlight Beneath a cloudless summer sky; To hear a bird ' s song in a tree When danced to by a butterfly; To weave sweet dreams of faery things, But live apart with eyes wide ope ; To fashion fancies from spun gold And then crown all with childish hope; To live with every summer ' s day, And as some leaf borne by a stream; To float with ease o ' er every care Wrapped in the sweetness of a dream, Ah that is life! we all have lived And know of sorrows soft and wild. How friends we loved have come and gone Like musings dreamt of by a child. RODNEY A. YOELL. 188 THE STORY OF POINT LOBOS HE bright moonlight peered shyly through the delicate lacework of the grapevines down into the terrace where sat a group of hooded figures habited in the garb of the Order of St. Francis. It was short- ly after the establishment of the mis- sion among the Indians on the Mon- terey Peninsula, about the year 1776. In their childlike simplicity the natives had quickly received the religion of the Padres into their hearts, and the knowl- edge of the one, eternal God made them docile and tractable, filling the great void in the spirit which is to be found in every heart that does not know its Creator. They had set to work with a will, and under the direction of the Friars, the old adobe mission rose from the earth to remain to the present day as a hal- lowed and venerable landmark in the now historic City of Monterey. Their villages were scattered about the prim- itive cathedral, and they loved nothing better than to attend the services in the Mission Church, to see the Saviour reverently elevated in benediction ; the odorous cloud of ascending incense too was a never-failing source of interest to their innocent minds. Thus it was that a fragrant moonlit autumn evening found the successful Padres gathered during their recrea- tion in the terrace of the Mission. The saintly Fr. Junipero Serra was sighing happily, if one may sigh happily, in the thought of his faithful children whom he had brought to the feet of Jesus Christ, and no other sounds than the soft washing of the sea and the croon- ing of a Spanish melody by a servant brought from Europe, disturbed the peaceful silence. Suddenly a low, muffled series of dis- cordant vibrations struck upon the air, and the very zephyrs seemed athrob with the stirring unmusical melody; it was the booming of the tom-tom. A dist- ant rapid trumming is borne on the breezes and the dance is plainly on. Faint, blood-curdling yells stab the night, and the Fathers are noticeably disturbed. They had realized that this form of amusement, known as the snake dance, often culminated in brute mad- ness and murder; and, although they had strictly forbidden it, the dance of tonight seemed to carry a sort of pur- posefulness and deliberation. Strangely, the sounds did not grow fiercer as time went on, and a deep plaintive moaning is to be heard at times, as if in solution to the riddle the patter of mocassined feet is heard, and Pablo, the Spanish servant, comes dashing into the terrace and throws himself on his knees at the feet of Fr. Serra. He swallowed a few times, got his breath, and hurriedly told his story. 189 190 THE EEDWOOD. ' ' 0, Padre, Padre, all it is unwell in tlie village of Carmel. The big chief who rules the Indians does intend to kill his son for some crime of which I know nothing. He has proclaimed a solemn fandango for the w arriors of the na- tion. Hark ! It is finished. The chief- tain will kill his offspring on the large rock that extends out into the waters. Haste thee. Padre mio to the Point of Lobos; the son, he must not die. " The priests had listened with horror to the tale of the Indian ; with one accord they knelt and replied to the fervent Ave Maria of the saintly Father Serra. The latter arose, and a soft shaft of moon- light silvered his snowy hair, while the deeply-lined ascetic countenance and the luminous eyes bespoke his noble de- cision. " It is for you to remain here, my brothers. I will deliver to the an- gry chieftain the fifth of God ' s most holy laws. " Point Lobos lay black and silent in the arms of night, like some vast guar- dian of the peinsula against the at- tacks of the surging deep. There, near the edge of its stony profile, two hu- man beings stood out against the star- lit round of the heavens. One of them, the younger, stood stripped and bound, chanting the death song with all the stoicism of his noble race; the other stood with knife upraised, all the stern- ness of primitive justice gleaming in his wrinkled old features. The chant v as ended, and the steel glittered in the moonlight over the heaving, cop- per-colored breast of the son. Sudden- ly a step is heart, and the Holy Father Serra comes forward with slow stately tread, his crucifix held above him. The chieftain paused, but, though shaken, his purpose was not one whit changed. He gazed impassively as the other spoke. ' ' My son, my son, wouldst thou tempt the anger of thine own heavenly Father in taking the life of him v ho is entrusted into thy care? Have not my own teachings of his mercy moved you ? ' ' The chief then spoke : ' ' Though this is my son, he hath merited death by the hands of God and the hands of man. God is not displeased with the instru- ment of his righteousness. " Once more the dagger rose, but not to fall. " Hold but a minute, " said Serra, for he had seen a cloud drifting rapidly toward the moon. " Behold the displeasure of God; He doth deprive thee of light, " and the cloud slid slowly over the face of the moon, leaving the earth in dark- ness. The emotionless chief of a mo- ment before is face downward on the rocks acknowledging the judgment of God, while the Priest of God is on his knees in a prayer of thanksgiving. It was no miracle, but a mere coincidence, that was afterwards explained as such. Below the moonlight t rembled over the sable sea, playing on the sand where the shadows of the cliff formed dark, grotesque figures in its milky whiteness ; a sweet halo of silver hung over the cape where the hearts of two kneeling Indians rose in sacred com- munion with God, and the towering fig- ure of Serra with the crucifix out- stretched is bathed in the aureola-like radiance of the moon. FRANCIS H. DOUD. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR ..__---. RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER .-____ GEORGE A. NICHOLSON, ' 16 ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER ------ EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' 16 ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS -------. WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 ALUMNI -.. FRANCIS W SCHILLING UNIVERSITY NOTES - - F. BUCKLEY MCQURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' 15 (CHAS. D. SOUTH, Litt. D.. ' 01 ALUMNI CORRESPONDENTS - - - - j ,,,. ,. LEONARD, A. B., ' 10 EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. 50 a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL COMMENT A ru 4. -. .„ When the United What are we „+ 4- - 4. a- . ff. Af. ' f States decided to dig the Panama Canal, the world at first greAV interested ; thought that it was too large an undertaking to be successfully consummated, and final- ly became forced into a surprised posi- tion of inquisitiveness. " What are you going to do with it? " is the real question the various powers are asking, but none are so importunate as England. It seems queer that nego- tiations should have to be conducted with supposedly " friendly powers " , over such points as our right to fortify the canal, or give its use free to our merchant marine. But such misunderstandings seem to have arisen. Yet all the more surpris- ing is the attitude of a certain faction, not confined particularly to any spe- cial political party who, here in the United States champion the cause of aggrieved foreign nations. 191 192 THE REDWOOD. It is really surprising, when one actually considers a hypothetical re- versal of the case. Just turn the ta- bles around and ask, how would Eng- land or Germany deal with us under similar circumstances? We have had several occasions to observe how Eng- land has treated us when she held, or thought she held, the tipper hand. And the conduct of Germany in " affaires diplomatiques " seems never to have been characterized by gentleness or magnanimity. True, subtleties have been indulged in, but a genuine feeling of sympathy for the underdog — never ! Now then, simply because a few clauses in certain treaties, are capable of distortion, or owing to ambiguities, disputes arise, we are asked by this faction to tax our own ships, and fur- ther, to leave open to assault one of the greatest military accessories this coun- try possesses. No grounds can really be given for this course, either financial, military, diplomatic or otherwise. A few vague phrases very malapropos, such as " our duty to our fellow citizens of the world " are the only defenses its pro- ponents seem capable of mustering. If we did not build the canal to help our own marine over those of other powers, what did we build it for? Or again. If it is an aid to us in time of war, is it probable that an antagonis- tic power would leave it unharmed? These questions admit of no answer other than one favorable to the " free tolls " , and " an adequate defense. " Let us hold to our intention and suc- cor our merchant marine, which, as every one knows, needs it badly enough. Furthermore, let us fortify the canal in such a way that we can say, " We ' ve not only built it, but we can hold it. " These two things done, the canal will be a benefit to the country. If they are not done, it looks pretty much as if we bought a white elephant and in- tend to keep it. What We Need For several past the University has been particularly for- tunate in having a number of stars along athletic lines, whose names and achievements, are well known to all followers of athletics. The school has relied upon them in many games and meets, to bring victory under Santa Clara ' s banner, and it must be said, they have done nobly. Yet there is a certain disadvantage in a system of athletics, or rather an athletic policy which strives rather to build up and maintain stars, than to form a well-balanced team. This disad- vantage is strikingly shown by this year ' s track team. Last year, and the year before, our team numbered several men who were each capable of gaining from ten to twenty points in an average meet. This, in itself, was an admirable thing, yet sufficient precautions were not taken to provide for coming years. THE REDWOOD. 193 and second or third place men, who, with a little proper coaching might later on have developed into winners in their various lines, were not given the attention their importance should war- rant. The result was that Nevada, with a well-balanced team and only a few (in fact only one " star " ), almost gave us a trouncing. This year the defects of the system are shown by the small number of vet- erans who are left, and the exceedingly small number of aspirants who have ever had the advantages of proper coaching. Through circumstances " over which we had no control " , to use the con- ventional phrase, we have lost nearly all our " big " men and the result is, a rather dismal outlook. But yet these things do not necessar- ily mean a poor team. If a large num- ber of recruits offer themselves, it is possible to whip a very fair team into shape. There is one thing in favor of a new man on the track; no one ever knows what he really has in him until he tries out. Some of the finest ath- letes the school ever had, needed quite a lot of argument before they could be induced to make an attempt. With Dad Moulton and Capt. Bert Hardy in charge of things, there is every advantage in favor of a begin- ner. Both are gentlemen of wide ex- perience, and both are extremely anxi- ous to do their best for the school. All they need is material to work on, so let ' s get together and do our share. Lincoln Beaehey, Beachey California ' s " scorner of the ground " almost met his death in the southern part of the state some weeks ago. While he has our sympathy for the bruises he sustained, and our congratulations on the fact that he may continue to play on the admiration of the less nervy pub- lie — yet we might venture to say that one our leading dailies has lost sight of the limitations incumbent on the praise given. After the accident said daily describ- ed the event in a pathetic " hero-wor- ship ' ' fashion — in effect, thus : The death courter had just finished six or seven of his famous revolutions, when, at an altitude of some five hundred feet, the government of the machine passed beyond his control. Beachey was falling — and directly upon his ob- servers. Realizing the dreadful re- sults that would inevitably befall his well-wishers, and prompted by motives founded upon the purest disinterested- ness, he made one final desperate ef- fort and succeeded in averting the course of his machine and steered it into a neighboring tree. His minor lacerations were painful, but the crowd had been saved. It sounds a good deal as if the reporter would have been the victim if the plane had sped its way. This is an American proclivity. The idolatry of speed fiends and men who tie themselves to sky rockets and sub- mit to being shot from a cannon, has 194 THE REDWOOD. been illustrated not infrequently of late. It is not reasonable. These men are not promoting science. The science of aviation deals with flying " right side up, ' ' and the lives that are sacrificed in trying to pervert this order, are sacri- ficed in vain. The fact that Lincoln Beachey deems it wise to toy with his existence, should not, we maintain, in- spire the awe of the masses. TO H. TKe somLre sKades of nigKt are slowly drawn, A -world in darkness gives itself to rest, But e ' re tKe patKs of slumber-land I " wend My Keart reflects — on tkougkts of tKee, I feast. In silent gratitude, O Lord, I pray And tkank TKee for Thy guidance o ' er my way- Unceasing ever-watcKful. Mow I give My sinful soul to keep — tonight, and aye. Her soul so fair, do I commend to TKee, TKat TKou, tKis nigKt, o ' er Ker may watcKful be. VICTOR A. CHARGIN. When one looks at the splendid array of college magazines that come into our office he is struck by the labor, the thought and taste they show. The cream of each student-body ' s lit- erary effort is there displayed ; the hap- penings of interest upon the campus are recorded; the spirit of the college is typified. The college magazine fulfills a very important duty. It serves to start the flow of latent genius in the student by offering recognition for his efforts how- ever meager; it gives him confidence; it mirrors the work of the college. The Purple The Purple of Holy Cross College makes its monthly bow and receives its usual warm welcome. This month (February) it is replete with very choice specimens of modern ora- tory. They were delivered on the oc- casion of welcoming David Walsh back to his Alma Mater as Governor of Massachusetts. They make very inter- esting reading, particularly Gov. Walsh ' s reply. He spoke with all the earnestness of an extemporaneous speech, yet here and there is pathos when he mentioned bygone days. His genial character shows in one passage most strikingly. He says, " — but I re- fuse to be serious. I am not going to be governor tonight, but just Dave Walsh of Holy Cross. " From what we know and what the speakers say about him he must be a wonderful man — and H. C. C. is surely proud of him Besides the speeches there are a few poems and articles that attracted our attention. Foremost of these was enti- tled " Under the Rose. " We have no- ticed this writer ' s work in past num- bers and we are very desirous of com- menting on its excellence. He writes as though he were writing an editorial, yet he is able to unbend in a greater de- gree because he is not. He is a free lance. He plys his pen like a lash, stinging hard and then throws the salt of discerning wit into the wounds. In the February number he upbraids the students that compare " home towns " with Worcester, or home towns with others ' " home towns " , always to the detriment of the latter. We have learned our lesson. 195 196 THE REDWOOD. The Purple is a very clever journal and what is more it is consistently clever. Dial Now conies the Dial from St. Mary ' s, Kan- sas, with its mathe- matically precise cover. Staid and straight as you are, Friend Dial, we find you as full of good as the pro- verbial nut is of meat. The Dial is dis- tinct among the journals we receive, having a demure little manner, yet at the same time has many features that larger books would do well in emulat- ing. One of the most pleasing touches in this book is the custom of placing a bit of verse to the month of publication either on the cover or on the initial page. The verse itself is not uniformly meritorious, but the idea is original. Originality is such a joy, except the Fra Elbertus kind, and we are always ' ' The Making of the Movies " , is a very good short story, but very short. Be- sides the poem on February, already commented on, the lovers of the muse have two more bits of verse on the ab- breviated month. Creighton Chronicle In reviewing the Creighton Chronicle we became more interest- ed in the general make-up of the mag- azine from a typographical standpoint than in the literary side. Pages of large, clear print interrupted by a number of good cuts, made a decided impression as to the service of the printer and business manager. The business manager also comes in for more credit on the manner in which he arranges the advertisements. By his method the small advertiser is not slighted, nor does the large advertiser lose effectiveness. Turning to the literary side of the magazine, the things idealistic from things mercenary, we wish to comment on the writers of the articles. Far be it from us to publish your magazine, but we think that the monopolizing of all the space by the Alumni is not the wisest plan. Occasional articles by Alumni should be welcomed, but to the exclusion of student work — never ! Not- withstanding the weekly the University puts out the Chronicle is the place for the deeper labors of the pen wielded by the student and not by the Alumni. The matter as contained in the Feb- ruary issue is of the highest order, as may well be expected. The departments are perfect, but why not call it the Creighton Alumni Chronicle? We have the Villa Villa Marian Marian in its simple blue and white, full of the pristine sweetness of the convent. With its pretty sweet little stories, told in such a dainty manner, it sweet- ens the sometimes bitter draught of ex- changes. But why is it a quarterly only? THE EEDWOOD. 197 Old and dignified is William and wiUiam and Mary Mary Magazine . Magazine. That there is no falling off from its high standard of excellence is evi- denced by the matter contained in the February number. The major portion of the book is taken up by a thrilling tale full if im- possibility, but very interesting not- withstanding. It is captioned ' ' It Hap- pened in Hotel de Box. " The hotel is an empty box-ear on an isolated siding, the hero a rich man ' s son, clever in his own line. He is a regular hero with the touches of grey on the temple, and all the others " props " . The lady is from the upper regions of society, with un- equalled good looks, brains and other incongruities. They meet and the busi- ness of getting violently in love with one another follows, and so on till they meet in the last embrace with " they lived happily ever afterward " stuff. Several good poems and well written essays complete the issue. It is our humble opinion that this Virginian ranks with the best of college maga- zines. FRAILTY. Fair drooped the lily in her perfumed bower And caught the radiance of the new- born day; But fairer far and purer than the flower The dewdrop flashed that next her rich heart lay. The morn ' s clear sunlight glistened there, compress ' d In lily cup, not blinding as that light Directly seen, but holding all the best Of heaven ' s rays together soft and bi ' ight. When lo, a rude and chilly eastern breeze Burst from the gates of the false orient fire. Rushed reckless by to kiss the sobbing trees, And, passing, flung the dewdrop in the mire. She lost her beauty in that moist em- brace For beauty is not, when ' tis out of place. — Donald V. Chisholm, in George- town College Journal. MAGAZINES EECKIVED. The Magazine, The Campion, The Gonzaga, The Exponent, The Tattler, St. Peter ' s College Journal, Williams Literary Magazine, The Collegian, University of Tennessee Magazine, Fleur de Lis, Blue and White, Viatori- an, St. Thomas Purple and Gray, Georgetown University Journal, The Spectrum, Xaverian, Whitworthian, Ave Maria, Young Eagle, Morning Star, The Dial, Mt. Angel Magazine, Athe- num, Laurel, Occident, University of Virginia Magazine, Mercian, Creighton Courier and Chronicle, Academia, D ' Youville Magazine, William and Mary, Pacific Star, Villa Marian, So- lanian, Notre Dame Scholastic. I f Initt rBitg Not B _,. , . , The hundred and Washington . anniversary of and Lincoln the birth of America ' s Martyred President, Abraham Lincoln, was unpretentiously celebrated at Santa Clara on February twelfth. A generously granted holiday marked the occasion, and at noon an extemporan- eous tribute was paid to the great man ' s memory. Beneath a decorated portrait, hung on the inner side of Senior Hall, the band gathered in the arcade, and rendered very creditably several appropriate melodies. This was followed by the singing of " The Star Spangled Banner, ' ' by Mr. David Pow- er, vocal instructor in the University. The band performed to give way later to a hurriedly organized sextette, con- sisting of Roy Emerson, Alfred Kavan- agh, George Donahue, Chester Allen, with the Nevada nightingales, Curtin and Barrett, as a special attraction. They sang " Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean, " with a few interesting varia- tions. The feature of the day, however, was our past-master orator, Harry Me- Gowan, who spoke feelingly on Lincoln. Harry ' s address, while impromptu, was well received, and reflected much credit on both the speaker and the subject. We regretted that his solici- tude for the observance of the lunch hour caused him to make it short. While the " celebration " was brief and hastily prepared, it came as a spon- taneous outburst of patriotism, and evi- dence of a commendable sense of fit- ness, for which all who participated are to be heartily congratulated. Washington ' s birthday, while not marked by any special programme, was by no means overlooked. Monday, Feb- ruary twenty-third, was made a holi- day, serving a dual purpose of a day of celebration for Washington ' s anni- versary, and a sort of preparatory pe- riod for the Retreat, which followed within a few days. Annual Retreat Within its short span, February brought a number of notewor- thy anniversaries and feasts, principal- ly, exclusive of those mentioned above, St. Valentine ' s Day, Ash Wednesday, and the Annual Retreat. This last is one of our time-honored institutions, which, no doubt, is too familiar to re- quire explanations. The Retreat this year extended from Ash Wednesday 198 THE REDWOOD. 199 to the following Sunday. Fr. William Deeney, S. J., gave the instructions. Under the director- Sodality ship of Father Welch, S. J., the Sodality of the Immaculate Conception held an election of officers for the present term on February — , with the results given below: Prefect, Louis Milburn; first assistant prefect, H. J. Fitzpat- rick; second assistant prefect, Michael J. Leonard; treasurer, Nicholas Mar- tin ; secretary, Ernest Schween ; and the following appointed by Father Welch : Marshal, Edwin Booth; first assistant marshal, Joseph Aurrecoechea ; consult- ors: Thomas Kearns, Jr., James Coyle, James Curtin, William Shipsey. Sanctuary Society The St. John Berch- man ' s Sanctuary Soci- ety, Father Whelan, S. J., Director, elected the following at their semi-annual election: Prefect, Louis Milburn; secretary, Ernest Schween; treasurer, Nicholas Martin; censor, Joseph Aurrecoechea ; sacristan, James Lyons; vestry prefect, Alfred Kavanaugh; assistant sacristan, Wil- liam Irwin. , . T With the departure Junior Drama- . . tt i » en . o . of " Unk Shaw to other fields, the Junior Dramatic Society found it necessary to elect another sergeant-at-arms. The office was accordingly entrusted to Harold Harwood. By way of varia- tion, the usual debate was waived at the meeting of Tuesday, February twenty- fourth, and a mock trial substituted. To the great astonishment of both the members and the numerous visitors, it was learned that George Donahue, the Southern Adonis, had slain Mr. Wil- liam Joseph Bush, a well-known figure about the yard. Accordingly, Donahue was hailed before a court of justice, over which Father Egan, S. J., presided. The attorneys for the prosecution were Edward Nicholson and Ed. Kavanaugh ; those for the defense, James Carberry and Edmund Kearns, of Salt Lake City. Craig Howard, the enterprising editor of the " Police Gazunk " , performed gracefully as court reporter; B. P. Oli- ver Jr., was clerk of court, and Fran- cis W. Schilling, sheriff. The princi- pal witnesses were B. Erie Schnereger, Hermann Fitzpatrick, Harry Jackson and " Inyo " Smith. After a jury had been impanelled, the first witness, Fitzpatrick, was called and examined. Owing to the length of time occupied by the preliminaries, the court adjourn- ed after this interesting incident. On March third the trial was re- sumed, with Father Whelan on the bench. The remaining witnesses were examined, the lawyers ' final pleas made, and the jury went out. An agree- ment was quickly reached, and Mr. Donahue was declared guilty. Accord- ingly, he was sentenced to be hung the following evening. On coming out of the Refectory Wed- nesday we were startled to find local justice so swift, for there, from one of 200 THE EEDWOOD. the large trees in front of the chapel swung a stiff figure, while a large pla- card, suspended from the neck, an- nounced the identity of the culprit and stated the crime that had proved his undoing. It is a great consolation to us, however, to know that we have not altogether lost Mr. Donahue. His spirit is still to be seen about the yard or on the track, as cheerful and facetious as ever in the flesh. „. , . T , The Associated Stu- Student Body . Meeting , . . , regular meeting of the year on March fifth. The much-dis- cussed amendment, relative to the awarding of " blocks " to football play- ers, was voted down, after an interest- ing discussion in which Captain-elect Kiely of the Varsity, Ben Fitzpatrick, Errol Quill, and W. S. Cannon partici- pated. Kiely also spoke in regard to the turfing of the football field. Presi- dent Yoell then appointed a Finance Committee, consisting of Graduate Manager Chauncey Tramutolo, Edwin Booth, Captain Kiely, E. Coschina, and E. Boone, to set about raising the ne- cessary funds. The Secretary, Harold McKinnon, read a finacial report which was generally satisfactory. W. S. Can- non moved that the members of the Junior football team, which met with such success last season, be given a six- inch block " J " , with the letters " S. C. " beneath it. The motion was sec- onded and carried. The awarding of sweaters to the members of the basket ball team was sanctioned. They will be given to the following: Ahern, Voight, Carlson, Diaz, Amaral, and Stewart. Captain Ahern and Voight will each receive four stars. Mr. Thomas then spoke a few words concerning the sup- port the students owe to the Co-op store, after which the meeting ad- journed. House of Philhistorians The House of Phil- historians, in observ- ance of the annual cus- tom, are having their pictures taken. It is expected that the picture, which is to be a large medley, will be com- pleted by the next meeting, March sev- enteenth. Frank Browne and William S. Cannon were the committee in charge. The team which our " Alma Mater " has placed in the intercollegiate field this year to uphold the honors of the " Red and White " is considered by baseball critics, the best that has rep- resented her since 1908. Defeating such high class aggrega- tions as " Hal Chase ' s All Stars " , " Ire- land ' s Independents, " " St. Ignatius, " " The Chicago White Sox, " surely proves the strength of our team in every department. Of course the success of the team is also chiefly due to Harry Wolter, who is for the second time coaching the team. Harry coached in 1912, and dur- ing his regime, the team won fourteen consecutive games. We will, without a doubt, establish some record this year, under his guidance, as the team is far superior in every respect to the teams dating from 1908. Great credit is also due to Graduate Manager Tramutola and Father Eline, Moderator of Athletics, for their sin- cere and earnest work in arranging such an excellent schedule of games. Santa Clara 4. Stanford 4. In the initial intercollegiate game of a series of five, the Varsity played a tie against Stanford. The Mission boys sent their first run over in the opening inning. McGinnis walked, Meadows popped to Stafford, and Marco Zarick drew a free pass. Tramutola hit to Terry, forcing Zarick, sending McGinnis to third. With Shee- han up, Tramutola stole second, and when Terry dropped Dent ' s throw to catch him, McGinnis scored. Likewise Stanford celebrated in the initial inning, by scoring three runs, thus assuming a good lead. Terry led off with a walk, but was out on Day ' s infield fly. Workman hit sharply to right center for two bags and Dent sent Day across the rubber with a sin- gle to left. With the bases all occu- pied, Stewart forced in a run by issu- ing four balls to McCloskey. 201 202 THE REDWOOD. Santa Clara went along nicely until the fourth inning before gathering its second run. With two down, Milburn singled, and Stewart walked. McGin- nis scored Milburn with a sharp hit to left field. Stanford added another run in its half of the fourth on singles by McClos- key and Hover. With two gone in the fifth inning, Sheehan singled to center, and Captain Ramage connected with one of Hayes ' fast balls for a home run, thus tying the score. Owing to darkness at the end of the fifth inning, the game was called. Score 4 — 4. Chase ' s All Stars 6, Santa Clara 4. In one of the fastest games seen on the University diamond, Hal Chase ' s All Stars succeeded in winning a hotly contested game from the Varsity by a score of 6 to 4. Bobby Coltrin, the speediest short stop in the Northwestern League, open- ed the game with a double to left and Lamara ' s single advanced him to third. Wolter hit sharply to left, scoring Col- trin; and Chase scored both Lamarra and Wolter with a double to center. Santa Clara slightly evened up mat- ters in this inning and also when Zar- ick, Tramutola and Sheehan all walked in a row, and the former scored on Martinelli ' s error. In the second Reeder was safe on Mc- Ginnis ' bad throw, and scored on Mar- tinelli ' s double. In the third Pope Tramutola and when Captain Ramage hit for three bases, the speedy third-sacker reached home plate. Whe- lan relieved Voight in the fifth inning, and pitched remarkably well through- out the remaining innings. Lamarra greeted him with a two-bagger, and Wolter walked. Both runners scored on an error. This makes the fifth con- secutive game Whelan has pitched in this season without an earned run be- ing scored against him. In the ninth Tramutola hit to left, but Sheehan was out. Ramage doubled sending Tramutola to third and Mil- burn scored them both with a single to left. The fielding of Coltrin and Chase, and the pitching of Whelan and Pope, were the great features of the game. The score: All Stars 6, Santa Clara 4. Santa Clara 6. Santa Cruz 3, The famous Santa Cruz " amateurs " , aided by Hal Chase and Frank Arell- anes, had proven an invincible nine to every team which opposed them, but as the score indicates, they were easily subdued by the Varsity. The visitors took an early lead, scor- ing two runs in the initial inning, when they landed on Whelan for a couple of singles, which, coupled with an error, accounted for the runs. A three-base drive by Harwood, which scored Ramage and Fitzpatrick, and another hit by Whelan, put us in the lead. Rinaldo Williams, ex-outfielder for the San Francisco team, pitched the entire game for the Santa Cruz team, THE REDWOOD. 203 and while he was touched up rather lively in spots, showed considerable ability. After a stormy period in the first inning Whelan held the visitors completely at his mercy. The pitching of Whelan and the ac- curate throwing of Captain Ramage featured greatly, while Harwood was the individual star with the willow, con- necting for three safe hits. Hal Chase, as usual, showed up well at the initial sack, by making lightning plays in handling hard thrown balls. The score : Santa Cruz 4, Santa Clara 6. Santa Clara 13, St. Ignatius 4. The first game of our series with St. Ignatius resulted in an overwhelming victory for the " Red and White. " The Varsity registered three runs in the first inning, when McGinnis singled, and Zarick was safe on an error, and both runners scored when Ramage hit for a home run. Likewise, St. Ignatius scored in the first inning, when Dougherty was hit by a pitched ball, and gained second on Koran ' s bunt, which the latter beat out. Giannini ' s drive past second was too hard for Zarick to handle and Dougherty scored. Here Whelan show- ed his class by striking out Warren Brown, McGrath and Ford, a trio of St. Ignatius ' heaviest batters. Dorland, who started the mound work for St. Ignatius was replaced by Hickey in the third inning, but his curves proved easy to solve by the Santa Clara batters as Zarick hit safely and scored on Harwood ' s single. In the sixth inning Ramage and Fitz- patriek singled and both scored on Mil- burn ' s three base drive. Whelan scored Milburn on a sharp single to left field. Warren Brown opened the sixth inn- ing with a home run to left field. At this stage of the game Pohlman re- placed Hickey, and Ramage, Fitzpat- rick and Milburn celebrated his offer- ings by landing three safe drives. Whe- lan scored the three runners, when he hit for a homer. Santa Clara scored two more runs in the ninth, when Zarick was safe and Whelan repeated his favorite act by hitting the ball into right field bleach- ers for a home run. The pitching of Whelan with men on bases, and the clever fielding of Tramu- tola, McGinnis, Zarick and Sheehan, won the applause of the spectators on various occasions. The score : SANTA CLARA. A.B. R. H. PO. A. E. McGinnis, ss ,.3 1 1 2 4 Zarick, 2b 5 2 1 4 4 Tramutola, 3b 6 2 2 Sheehan, lb 3 2 7 1 Ramage, c 5 2 4 4 Harwood, rf ........ 5 1 1 Fitzpatrick, If 5 1 2 3 Milburn, cf 5 2 2 3 Whelan, p 5 2 3 1 Total 42 13 14 27 12 204 THE EEDWOOD. ST. IGNATIUS. A.B. R. H. PO. A. E. Dougherty, If 4 1 4 Horan, 3b 4 1 4 3 Gianniiii, ss 4 1 1 2 2 W. Brown, rf 4 1 2 2 McGrath, lb....... 3 3 1 Ford, cf 3 3 Lassater, c 4 1 2 1 1 V. Brown 4 1 1 2 1 1 Borland, p 1 1 1 Hiekey, p 2 4 Pohlman, p 1 2 Total 30 4 8 27 7 3 Summary — Home runs, Whelan (2), Ramage, W. Brown. Three Base Hits, Milburn. Two Base Hits, Fitzpatrick, Giannini. Double Plays, Zarick to Mc- Ginnis to Sheehan. Scorer: Kavan- augli. Stanford 4. Santa Clara 4. In the second game of our intercol- legiate series with Stanford, we re- peated our first effort by playing a tie game. Starting out the game with a good lead of three runs, we looked to win; but errors at critical moments spoiled the chance of victory. McGinnis start- ed off the scoring for Santa Clara, driv- ing out a home run the first time up. Sheehan reached first safely on Work- man ' s error, and came home in front of Captain Ramage, when he hit for a home run. A three base hit by Fitzpatrick in the sixth, followed by Milburn ' s double, scored the last run. Sheehan ' s error in the second brought Stanford ' s two runs in during this inning. Errors by Stewart and Tramutola, aided by Dent ' s single in the fifth inning, resulted in the last two Cardinal scores. The game was called in the eighth inning on account of darkness. The score : Santa Clara 4, Stanford 4. Santa Clara 3. St, Ignatius 4. After defeating the St. Ignatius nine by an overwhelming score, the Varsity lost a hard fought contest on our dia- mond. The Varsity maintained a good lead throughout the game until the ninth inning, when errors at crucial times evened up the score. W. Brown was the individual star for St. Ignatius, securing three hits for his team, while Harwood featured in the batting line for the Varsity. Whelan Avas in the box for the Var- sity, and he pitched admirable ball; Ramage also deserves great credit for the grand game he played. The crowd was an exceptionally large one. The deciding game will be played at Santa Clara on April 4th. Santa Clara 7. Chicago White Sox 0. The Varsity, playing one of its best fielding games of the year, and the remarkable pitching of " Pinky " Leon- ard, easily explain the manner in which the renowned Chicago White Sox were held from scoring. THE REDWOOD. 205 The strangest feature of the whole affair, perhaps, was the fact that Leonard did not strike out a single batter, depending entirely upon his fielders. In our half of the first inning, Mc- Ginnis first up, walked, and Zarick was passed, Tramutola was out for bunting on the third strike, but Sheehan, the Sox third baseman, filled the bases when he booted our Sheehan ' s ground- er. Ramage hit to Barber, who threw wild to first, and MeGinnis and Zarick scored. Harwood hit sharply to right for two bases, scoring Sheehan. Fitz- patrick hit to Barbour who caught Ramage at third. Milburn beat out a hit to short, Harwood scoring, and Leonard was safe on a hit, Milburn scoring. Zarick put an end to the inn- ing by lining out to Blackbourne, who made a wonderful catch. In the second inning Tramutola sin- gled to left, and Sheehan sacrificed " him to second. Tramutola stole third and scored on Ramage ' s single to right field. Rogge and Lathrop possessed un- usual speed, and their curves proved in- soluble by the Varsity batters. The latter last year succeeded in holding the Chicago Cubs from scoring in the two games in which he participated. The score : WHITE SOX. A.B. R. H. PO. A. B. Kavanaugh, If 4 1 1 Sehreiber, rf 4 Holstein, lb 3 1 9 A.B. R. H. PO. A. E. PingBodie, ef 3 2 Barbour, 3b 4 1 2 2 Blackbourne, 2b.... 3 2 1 Sheehan, 3b 3 1 3 1 2 Mayer, c 4 1 5 1 Jasper, p 1 Rogge, p 1 2 Lathrop, p 1 1 1 Totals 31 5 23 9 4 SANTA CLARA. A.B. R. H. PO. A. E. MeGinnis, ss 4 1 2 2 4 Zarick, 2b 3 1 5 1 Tramutola, 3b 4 1 1 1 3 Sheehan, lb 3 1 110 1 Ramage, c 4 1 1 Harwood, rf 3 1 1 2 1 Fitzpatrick, If 3 1 1 1 Milburn, cf 4 1 1 3 Leonard, p 4 1 2 4 Totals 32 7 8 27 13 2 Summary — Stolen Bases, Holstein, Ramage, Tramutola. Two Base Hits, Harwood, Lathrop. Double Plays, Me- Ginnis to Zarick to Sheehan; Black- bourne to Sheehan to Holstein. Um- pire, McCarthy. Scorer, Kavanaugh. Santa Clara 5. Ireland ' s Independents 4 In one of the most sensational and speediest finishes ever witnessed on our diamond, the Varsity scored a vic- tory over Ireland ' s Independents, by a score of 5 to 4. The climax came unexpected, as Driscoll, former pitcher of Los Ange- les, and last year the leading pitcher in the California State League, was 206 THE EEDWOOD. pitching splendid ball until Dick Whe- lan, sent in as a pinch hitter for Casey, cracked a sharp single to center. Har- wood hit to left field for three bags, Whelan scoring. Pitzpatrick lined to Sehimpf, and the third baseman found it too difficult to handle. Milburn ad- vanced him to third on an infield hit which he beat out, and MeGinnis prov- ed to be the hero by hitting sharply to right field, scoring both runners. Up to the ninth inning Driscoll had allowed us but four scattered hits. The Independents were the first to score when MacKey tripled to left and scored on Driscoll ' s single. Pinky Leonard held his opponents hitless for five innings, but in the fifth he weakened, allowing two runs; and in the sixth two more runs were scored off of his delivery. Voight ascended the mound for the Varsity, and pitched beautiful ball, and his variety of curves proved too diffi- cult for the big leaguers to hit safely. Federal League. Apart from the first team there are four high class aggregations, consist- ing of the newly organized " Federal League. " These four teams are known as the " Cubs, Athletics, Giants and Pirates, " and they ably uphold their namesakes, by the highly artificial ball they play. The name Federal usually implies Insurrecto or Outlaw; so likewise, is it about the campus, as the umpire is usually dealt with very harshly when rendering close decisions. Up to the present time the " Cubs " , under the leadership of Trabucco, are leading the league with three consecu- tive victories and no defeats, while the " Pirates, " captained by Schupp, are in second place with a percentage of .500. The cellar is still in a very doubtful condition as the " Athletics, " under " Doc " Yoell, and the " Giants, " lead by Quill, are fighting hard, although neither team has succeeded in winning a game. At the present time the organized clubs are in constant fear, because of the tempting offers made for some of their stars, and many are seriously thinking of jumping their contract to play with the " Federal Leaguers. " The most exciting game yet played was witnessed by a large number of students in which the " Cu bs " and " Athletics " battled for eleven long innings, until finally Trabucco ' s star short stop Emerson, drove the winning run across. Aurrecoechea, the " Ath- letic ' s " star catcher, figured in many brilliant plays, and saved his team from defeat by his accurate pegs to sec- ond. The " Giants " and " Pirates " opened the league with an exciting game, in which Schuppe ' s big league catcher, Phil Martin, virtually won the game by hitting for three bases, Avith the bags all occupied. Basket Ball Notes. Our annual game with the Univer- sity of Nevada was proclaimed by all THE REDWOOD. 207 who witnessed the game as the best seen on our court this year. The quintet representing Nevada are conceded by experts as one of the speediest and best organized teams on the Pacific Coast, nevertheless the score of 32 to 31, does not indicate their superiority over our quintet. Captain Ahern and Voight constant- ly won the applause of the spectators during the first half for their accuracy in throwing baskets from difficult an- gles. Diaz, Amaral, Carlson and Stewart, also showed clever team work in pass- ing, while Diaz proved himself a valu- able forward as well as a guard, by making eight points. For Nevada, Sheehy, McCubbin and MePhal were the individual stars. Our team managed to lead by a slight margin throughout the entire contest until a lucky throw by McCub- bin in the last minute of play defeated us. Santa Clara Preps 41. St. Ignatius Preps 21. In a fast and snappy game, the Santa Clara Preps, renewed with pep and fight, redeemed themselves from their first defeat, by defeating St. Ignatius by a score of 44 to 21. The game throughout was noted for its fast and brilliant plans, and the in- dividual playing of Donahue, Diaz, Car- berry and Stewart was preeminent, while the team work of the entire squad deserves praise. The playing of L. Kilkeary McLaugh- lin and McGrath of the visitors often won them applause. The teams lined up as follows: Santa Clara Preps. St. Ignatius Preps. Stewart Forward Campana Diaz Forward McGrath Donohue Center L. Kilkeary Amaral Guard F. Kilkeary Winston Guard McLaughlin Carberry Center Track. Our track team has greatly rejoiced over having acquired the services of " Dad " Moulton, the former track coach of Stanford University. More- over, Mr. Moulton ' s services are in great demand throughout the East, as his competency is fully realized. Twice, prior to this year, we have enjoyed his coaching, and two winning teams re- sulted. To Captain Bert Hardy is due great credit for his untiring labor in prepar- ing the track on various occasions for meets, and further still, he has earn- estly requested every member of the Student Body to report for practice, that another victorious team may be turned out. Among the veterans who are display- ing unusually fine form are, Coschina and Mike Kiely in the weight events; while Captain Hardy has startled the sprinters who have competed against him, by the speed he possesses. McCar- thy and Crane are exhibiting their for- 208 THE EEDWOOD. mer amount of speed. J. Pitzpatrick, the veteran hurdler, is determined to lower the record between Santa Clara and Nevada, and at his present speed over the high timber his threats appear most convincing. Among the new materia l which is being quickly developed are Donahue, Uhl, Gianella, Allen, McLaughlin, Soto, Curtin, Jackson, Lyons, and a host of others. Meets are being arranged with Stan- ford Freshmen, California Freshmen and the Pastime Club. A monster rally will soon be held to instill ' ' pep ' ' into every member of the school, as Captain Hardy expects a hard fought meet with Nevada. AliVMNI Mr. Martin V. Merle, A. ' 06 M. ' 06, the aliamnus who added to the fame and glory of his Alma Mater by writing and pro- ducing the Mission Play at the Uni- versity last year, is at present in charge of the Publicity Department of the Al- cazar Theatre. His proficiency in the line of dramatics has been shown not only in his late theatrical success, but in the singular tribute which he paid the University in the last part of the year of 1913. Luis and John Terrazas, ' 09 ex- ' 09, are recently heard of in the different capacities of student and soldier, respectively. Luis is upholding the family name in the midst of the revolution down in Mexi- co, casting his lot as a leader in the Federal army, while John is attending a business college in San Francisco. While they were here, both were known to have been earnest students and earn- est athletes as well. Mr. Dion Holm, A. B. ' 12, ' 12 is finishing his Senior year in the course of law, at the University. Dion became famous in the role of " Padre of the Mission Play, ' ' but this display of talent is only characteristic of him as he has in the past received many tokens of esteem from his Alma Mater in the form of prizes for oratory. Dion is likely to be called on in the coming year of 1915 for a further exhibition in a play which is already being written. President Wilson has con- ' 13 descended to confer upon one of the old students the position of Postmaster of Paraiso Springs. Harry McGowan, A. B. ' 13, is the honored alumnus, and it is ru- mored that the appointment is the re- sult of family connections in the White House. Hari ' y, however, has always, to our knowledge professed a decided ten- dency to Democratic ideas. We should suggest that Harry take a few lessons 209 210 THE EEDWOOD. from " Pinkey " Leonard, our postmas- ter, in the art of handling the mails. ' 13 Ed. Haskamp, ex- ' 13, sends his regards to all the boys through his younger brother Gilbert. " Blondy " , as he was familiarly known, is at present engaged in the lumber busines in Humboldt, Saseatchewan, in the record-breaking style that characterized his career in University athletics. He confidently avers that the northern wilderness and 40 deg. below zero are quite as pleasant as Dear Old California ' s Sunny Dells. ' 13 George Lyle, A. B. ' 13, is completing his course at the Hopkins Art Institute, and has thus far met with extraordinary success. The Olympic Club has been the recipient of much of George ' s at- tention in the matter of posters and paintings. His work is pronounced by the California critics to be of the finest. George is fast rounding into an effici- ent exponent of the teachings of his Alma Mater. There can be no question- as to tke value of a suit or overcoat tailorea-to-inaiviaual order oy skiUea tailors with the highest quality of all- pure voolens. Our unequalea stanaard of service- excellence and tkirty - eigkt season ' s reputation are assurance tnat clothes Ave make for you, delivered through O ' BANNON TAYLOR MEN ' S HATTERS AND FURNISHERS 28 WEST SANTA CLARA STREKT PHoj»E SAX JOSB 593 SAX JOSE, CAL.. are fully wortk tke price asked, wkick IS, after all, most reasonable. Stop in after class kours today and leave your measure. Largest tailors in the world of GOOD made-to-order clothes Price Building Chicago U. S. A THE REDWOOD. Showing Famous Players in Big Productions in Motion Pictures First Street near San Antonio, San Jose Continuous Performance HERBERT " S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Let STRATFORD CLOTHES be yours READY TO WEAR OR TO YOUR MEASURE GEORGE HOWES 19 SOTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS THE ARCADE THE HOME OF ROUGH NECK SWEATERS CANELO BROS. STACKHOUSE CO. 83-91 South First St., San Jose Phone S. J. 11 THE REDWOOD. Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. Best Quality at $5.00 per pair HERE THEY ARE, BOYS! THESE TAN CALF " ENGLISH SHAPE " SHOES WITH Rubber Soles and Heels THEY ' RE ALL T HE GO THIS SPRING AND SUMMER. — IN HIGH OR LOW CUT STYLES Established 1869 18 TO 26 E. SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE For classy College Hair Cut, go to the Antiseptic Barber Shop SEA SALT BATHS Basement Garden City Bank Building We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Madden ' s Gas and Dys- pepsia Tablets, 50c a box. Only at Frankl n St. MADDEN ' S PHARMACY, Santa Clara THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR THE JEWEL BAKERY 1151 Frankin St., Santa Clara " DON ' T WURRY " Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Restaurant, Grill and Oyster Mouse w 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. Telephone, Oakland 2777 Hagens MEN ' S TAILORING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WOOLENS 521 12th Street OAKLAND, CAL. HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards " See that fit " J. U. says I am here to serve you ; to win your patronage by the rare beauty of the fabrics and the merits of our tailor- ing, and to hold it by giving the ut- most in value and service. J. U. WINNINGER, W i S. First St., San Jose Order your Easter Suit now THE REDWOOD. Shaving Accessories JOHN STOCK SONS 71-77 South First St., San Jose Our line of SHAVING Articles is complete. Safety and Common Razors of all kinds Gillett ' s Razors $5.00 Shaving Brush. 25c up Keen Kutter " 3.50 Strops 50c up Ever Ready " 1.00 Strop Dressing 10c Enders " 1 00 Shaving Soap 25c Sharp Shave " .50 Extra Blades, all kinds Every Razor Guaranteed Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California Vargas Bros. C- LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies lS ' ' ZJ:z;T4:2Zrr. Main Line, Santa Clara 120 V. Salberg E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. PATRONIZE THE— The Leading University Shop ' " ' ' " , ' nXn THE REDWOOD. The Adler-Rochester Clothes Ready to Wear - from $20.00 to $30.00 Suits Made to Order from $25.00 to $40.00 Cunningham Son 78 South First Street San Jose, Cal p. Montmayeur J. Origlia LamoUe Grill 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS 0t )( Headquarters for College boys THE REDWOOD. Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Sallows Rorke Ring us for a hurry-up Delivery :: :: :: Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Phone S. C. 13R Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. F. O. ROLL Ravenna Paste Company Real Estate and Manufacturers of All Kinds of Insurance Call and See Me if You Want ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Anything in My Line Phone San Jose 787 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Phones : Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y No. 4 T W ■ " V 7 VH A W W DR. H. 0. F. MENTON Play iall Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p, m. But play with a Spaldmg M n nTlif e " Cork Center iSall 959 Main Street Santa Clara $1.25 each The official Ball of the World Series and the Ball that plays the same right through the game S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and c..., ee Gas Fitting RR GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Send for a copy of the Spalding Catalogue Free to any address Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. A. G. SpaMliag Bros. ?S6 Geai-y Street San Francisco THE REDWOOD. J. B. ENQS NEAT HAIR CUTTING A SPECIALTY " CALIFORNIA ' S BEST FLOUR " " KEEPS HOUSEWIVES HAPPY " AH Work Done on Premises Suits from S2S.00 up (Formerly Holmes Malinow) POPULAR PRICED TAILOlf 121 NORTH FIRST STREET Phone San Jose 1646 SAN JOSE, CAL. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ FISH AND POULTRY MARKET E. PEREZ J. BUDNA, Proprietors 77 E. SAN FERNANDO STREET, SAN JOSE PHONE, SAN JOSE 1870 LOUIS PEREZ, Manager THE REDWOOD. Low Round-Trip Fares East TICKETS SOLD MAY 12, 14, 15, 16, 19. 20, 24, 25, 26, 31 JUNE 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18. 19, 20. 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 JULY 2. 3, 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 14. 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 27. 28, 29, 30, 31 AUGUST 3. 4, 11. 12. 17. 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 SEPTEMBER 4. 5, 9, 10. 11 ADDITIONAL DATES April 29, 30. May 1 to New York City $108.50 May 3, 4. 5. 6, to Atlanta. Ga. - - 93.40 May 11, 12, 13 to Louisville, Ky. - - 84.50 August 25, 26, 27, to Detroit, Mich. - 83.50 Going Limit 15 days, trip to commence on date of sale. Final return limit three months from date of sale, but not latei than October 31, 1914. Liberal stopovers and choice of routes going and returning. SOME OF THE RATES Boston, Mass $110 50 New Orleans. La 70 00 Chicago, 111 72 50 New York, N. Y 108 50 Colorado Springs, Colo 55 00 Omaha, Neb 60 00 Council Bluffs, Iowa 60 00 Portland, Me. 113 50 Dallas, Tex 62 50 Pueblo, Colo 55 00 Denver, Colo 55 00 Quebec, P. Q 116 50 Duluth, Minn 83 30 St. Louis, Mo 70 00 Forth Worth, Tex 62 50 St. Paul, Minn 75 70 Kansas City, Mo 60 00 Toronto, Ont 95 70 Memphis, Tenn 70 00 Washington, D. C 107 50 Montreal, P. Q 108 00 (Salt Lake City and Ogden quoted on application) A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. 40 East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific THE REDWOOD. Doll ' s Home Bakery " " " Z alfd ' pa ' f ' Sanitary Methods Our Slogan Next door to Colonica ' s Candy Store BAKED FRESH EVERY DAY Delivery Service Whatever comes from our store If dissatisfied, let us know UNIVERSITY DRUG CO. Cor. Santa Clara and S, Second Sts., San Jose BERGER, BUFF BUFF.Surveying ' .i! ™ ' Instruments WISSLER Of all descriptions carried in stock DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES Special Prices to Students. The Frederick Post Co. 537 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose THE REDWOOD. " THE HASTINGS " Spring styles in Men ' s and Young Men ' s Suits and Overcoats are now on dis- play, combining all the new fabrics and colorings. $15 to $35 Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Avenue San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD. Casey is still at the bat selling Sherritas Butter SAN JOSE, CAL. The Carruther Studio RATES TO STUDENTS FINE FOTOS 26 S. First Street, San Jose Phone Sutter 1449 Take Elevator E. KLEIN ARTIST TAILOR 742 MARKET STREET Bankers Investment Building gAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 2nd Floor: Roms 213-215 Phones : Sutter 4220 t Sutter 4221 Smith, Lynden Co. Wholesale Grocers BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. THE MISSION Carrom and Pocket Billiard Parlor The Finest Equipped, Up-to-Date and Most Sanitary Room in the City A Gentlemen ' s Resort for Gentlemen G. F. SHRlDER, Proprietor 58 S. Second Street, San Jose THE REDWOOD. CLANCY CLASSY TAILOR If you wish to be dressed In style that ' s the best, Likewise neat or fancy, Just do as I say, t J Order your suit today From the tailor that ' s classy That ' s Clancy. We are so far ahead of others in style that we are lonesome No. 8 Turk Street, at Market and Mason SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. THE REDWOOD. PHONE WEST 1704 JOHN H. LINDOW TAILOR „ , ,, , 2735 CALIFORNIA STREET College Clothes and_ ear Devisadero street English Suits a Specialty sAN francisco. cal. Phone, San Jose 2102 ©flatus Confectionery, Fine Candies, Ice Cream 60 East Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CAL. San Francisco Office Oakland Office: 177 STEVENSON STREET 486 TENTH STREET Phone, Kearny 3530 Phone, Oakland 7898 Pacific Manufacturing Co, Manufacturers of and Dealers In Doors, Windows and Mouldings General Millwork FACTORY AND MAIN OFFICE: SANTA CLARA, CAL. Phone, Santa Clara 40 SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA Send for your folks! Low Rates from the East TO CALIFORNIA On sale March 15, 1914 To April 15, 1914 You can deposit money with any Southern Pacific Agent Write or call on us for information A. A. HAPGOOD, E. SHILLINGSBURG, City Ticket Agent Dist. Pass. Agent 40— East Santa Clara Street— 40 Southern Pacific THC DCDWOOD April, 1914 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER B. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. SPRING SHOWING Men accustomed to High Standards realize at once tiiat tiiere ' s quality in every detail of Hirsh-Wickwire Go ' s READY-FOR-SERVICE CLOTHES We recommend these garments to you because we believe better clothes cannot be secured, and we will be please to show you the new Spring and Summer Models. 20 upward. POMEROY BROS. 49-51 South First Street The Hotel Vendome PLUNGE Will open on or about May 10th STUDENTS Of the University of Santa Clara are especially Welcome THE REDWOOD. Phone S. C. 14 B. DOWNING, EDITOR Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make it better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. When in San Jose Look for Your College Tailor 67-69 S. Second Street WATCHMAKER ENGRAVER E. L. REIDING JEWELER Phone 4027 15 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. IF YOU ONLY KNEW WHAT- Mayerle ' s German Eyewater DOES TO YOUR EYES YOU WOULDN ' T BE WITHOUT IT A SINGLE DAY At Druggisu, 5oc. or 65c by Gcorgc Maycrlc, German Expert Optician 960 Market Street, San Francisco THE REDWOOD FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Croclcer, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. Thp Cot-»f o r lorj Invites you to its rooms 1 1 IC Oai 1 la V iai a o read, rest and enjoy a T r-iT T T T TQ cup of excellent coffee K Kjrrnil L LrUO Open from 6 a. m. to 10:30 p. m. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Dr. Wong Him Residence 1268 O ' Farrell Street Between Gough and Octavia Phones : West 6870 . Homes 3458 Sail Francisco, Cal. UNIVERSITY of ST. 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SANTA CLARA Pool 2 Cents per Cue a W ;%t a= ] s .iJfe4vmwM Pj2 - TO be a bit personal— Mr. College Man, would you not ,lllir consider it false economy to buy shoes at a dollar a pair or clothing at ten dollars a suit ? O ' BANNON 8e TAYLOR MEN ' S HATTERS AND FURNISHERS PHONE s. J. 593 23 W. SANTA CLARA ST., SAN JOSE Our exclusive local dealer in your city, would like to emphasize the fact that economy lies not in initial cost, but in the final accumulation of results. See our styles and woolens and get measured today. Prices reasonable. i iJ - Largest tailors in the world of GOOD made-to-order clothes Price Building, Chicago, U. S. A. y i CONTENTS " HE IS RISEN " - - - - E. V. Fuchs 211 THE TREND OF ANGLO SAXON LITERATURE R. A. Yoell 212 EASTER DAWN - - - - O. L. Oliver 216 THE --BANEFUL VICE OF PERSONAL OWNERSHIP " - - Harry W. McGowan 217 A GIFT FROM TITO - - Rodney A. Yoell 222 NIGHT -. - - - Victor C. Cresalia 227 THE STRAY SHOT - _ _ C. R. Kavanagh 228 EDITORIALS ------- 234 EXCHANGES ------ 338 UNIVERSITY NOTES ------ 243 ATHLETICS - _ _ - - - 246 ALUMNI - - _ - - - - 254 Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIII SANTA CLARA, CAL., APRIL, 1914 NO. 5 i t tH HtB n TKe cloud of sorrow fades From o ' er a tearfull valle}? ; and in its patK FresK sunbeams kiss away tKe sKades Of His most sacred wrath. The thrill of Easter-tide Awakes tKe Soul of Mature ; and on His way Triumpnant spreads with joy and pride Her gifts tKis Easter-day. EacK merry bell now rings To tell of precious tidings ; and songs of praise TKe crystal air so sweetly brings As Keavenward we gaze. Up in tKe boundless KeigKt Re-ecKo paeans, " CKrist is Risen " ; and Kow we fain Would see Him crowned, witK Love and LigKt Eternally to reign. E. V. FUCHS. THE TREND OF EARLY ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE HEN one, gazing up- on the bosom of some mighty river, contem- plates the origin of the stream, he in- volves himself in a train of thought, which, after follow- ing tributary after tributary, leads the observer to some fundamental spring whence wells the current, no matter how large or long. So too in contemplating the litera- ture of a people, one after much delib- eration, can fathom some beginning, some source, some fount, which in its ultimate contemplation leads a clear path of connection between the incep- tion and the consummation of the lit- erary trend of the race. The material of English " Belles Let- tres " offers such a subject, and in the study of the earliest productions in England one has no keen diiSeulty to overcome in understanding the why of the future greatness of English liter- ature. The written thought of an age re- fleets, even as a minor, the life of that age. The aspirations, the joys, the tangible realizations of a people can all be discerned, just as clearly, and with as sure a nicety, as if one were placed in that age but yet not of that With all the ground, work given, of a well-bodied, well-intelligenced, peo- ple, who are striving to do big things and are conscious of the effort, a foun- dation is laid capable of supporting any structure placed intelligently upon it. The early situation of the future English nation granted this condition, and granted it not by any tentative measure, but by a progression of ac- complishment and environment fully capable of moulding the still full plas- tic imagery possessed by the people. The people were the Anglo-Saxons, a fair-haired, but not Germanic blonde type, whose claims to survival were up- held by courage, strength, rude purity and a certain amount of proper under- standing of the fitness of things irre- spective of any circumstantial event. They lived a rather simple life, but yet not a quiet one. Many invasions were theirs to suffer, and countless warrings took place between these people and such neighbors as the Celtic Picts or Scots, the Umbrians and the Welsh. The nature of their country was not of a salubrious character. Dense for- ests covered the land, streams with marshy banks traversed many of the plains, and chill winds blew off the ocean laden with the tang of the salt sea and its largeness. But such conditions, while not evolv- 212 THE REDWOOD. 213 ing a softness of temperament, yet neither destroy nor hamper its play. Rather the contrary; the sweep of ele- ments, conditions of living and unfav- orable adventures all tend to develop the primitive and, hence, natural in- stincts of man. The bigger, deeper, finer aspects of life are intuitive to such a being, and not derivative, as they later on become to those nurtured in the lap of a more kindly habitat. The grief of a wife for a dead hus- band becomes more poignant when she alone of all her people is left to weep beside the corpse. The love of a husband is more open and sincere when he is made daily to realize that the woman is the one in- dividual human being in all his scan of vision whose lot lies identical with his. The joy of victory is keener when its attainment spells existence, and the sting of defeat far deeper when a life of vagabondage flows from its exist- ence and infliction. The natural manifestations of the world about an individual environed by such conditions becomes more mani- fest. The genial warmth of the sun is felt and appreciated, the chilling blasts cause a huddling and gathering only too well calculated to impress its expe- rience upon the mind. Hence it is no experience of wonder, which comes to one when, with the proper understanding and apprecia- tion, he reads the deepness and truth- fulness fundamentally inherent in Anglo-Saxon literature. Without becoming chronological and pedantic in form it is well to study these things even as they were devel- oped. The first brain-child of the race that we know of today must be care- fully looked upon and after that we may follow the sequence of events as we choose. Owing to an apparent crudity of lan- guage the early efforts of these people suffer our lack of proper appreciation. Yet too much stress must not be laid upon the unflexibility of the steel, but rather our incapacity to wield it. Indeed, as Andrew Lang remarks, " The early Anglo-Saxon did not em- ploy rhyme ; the peculiar cadence, with alliteration, of their verse can not easi- ly be reproduced; and there is much difference of opinion as to the prosody or scansion of Anglo-Saxon verse. Thus till we can read Anglo-Saxon easily, and while we only read its poetry through translations we are apt to think less highly of it than it deserves. ' ' This apt opinion of the very able and distinguished authority is tnie to the letter, but it might also be added that like a woman whose own natural beauty is not sufficient to carry her through successfully and she is forced to arti- ficial fumperies to keep up appear- ances, so also our minds, less spon- taneous and natural than those of our ancestors, must needs be allured by the less fundamental perequisites of a tale in order to make it intellectually palatable. 214 THE REDWOOD. Probably the earliest work that we know of in Anglo-Saxon poetry is that of " Widsith. " This is either the name of the piece itself or else, and more probably so, the name of the glee- man or minstrel who sang it through the halls. Simple and plain it commences. The poet is selling his wares, in other words he displays his goods for ap- proval and thus the poem says : " Widsith spoke His word-hoard unlocked. " And by this unlocking let it be under- stood that many tales were displayed and only awaited choice for the telling. He makes plain his capability as a story-teller by recounting his many travels which seem to include Egypt, India and all the countries bordering on the German ocean. Tales he knows of the greatness con- cerning far-famed kings, and only awaits choice to give either this story or that. One tale, that of Aelfwine, king of the Longobards, is told more stirringly than the rest. It is a tragedy whose events are both strong and striking. Aelfwine, the king, had taken unto himself a wife, the beautiful Rosamund. By quarrels a mutual misunderstanding arose, and soon developed into a deep hatred. In a tempest of rage the king, seek- ing a fit punishment for his wife can conceive no fiercer thing than that of killing her father and having her drink from a cup made from the skull. Rosamund, under force, was com- pelled to undergo this insult, and she determined to be revenged. Now enters a character similar to lago. This is the king ' s shield- bearer, who induces Rosamund to en- snare by her charms a certain strange, rugged, honest fellow, Beartheow. This she does and in his love for the queen, Beartheow misguided, and mad with passion, slays the king in his bed. The actual cause of the slaying was, however, a trap Rosamund led him in- to. He either had to be guilty of trea- son or else save himself by killing the king. The instigator of the entire affair, the shield-bearer, now thinking the field clear, makes an attempt to gain the throne. But Rosamund, seeing through his designs, in a sumptuous banquet gives him the poisoned cup. He drinks it and on realizing his deed just before it takes effect, compels Rosamund to drink it also. This done, he dies, and soon the queen, a victim of her own intrigues, sinks down beside him in the sleep of death. This tale gives us a fair insight into the character of the people. High am- bitions were afloat, court intrigues were indulged in, false friendships made and a fool is the instrument of evil. How many modern plots have been built on this foundation. It is as broad as the earth ' s surface and as true as the sunlight. THE REDWOOD. 215 The pathos of a misguided lover is carefully placed, and the final tragedy of two wicked souls, each striving to master the other and each succeeding but even in their success failing, is finally brought out. And this makes a very interesting story. Another great monument of litera- ture left to us from that time is the so-called Saga of Beowulf. This epic, for in reality it is an epic, reveals even in a more lucid way the trend and psychology of the times than does the poem Widsith. It deals with battles between men and demons, of mighty struggles for supremacy between champions, and great banquets and revelries held in dark, smoky palace halls to celebrate their victories. Rude chivalry and a trending to fair play is manifest throughout the piece, and the deep tragedy of fate inevitable pervades the last portion. The style is simple, deep, yet not crude. Indeed a solemn nobleness is in the workmanship as the last words of Beowulf show. Mortally hurt, he requests those about, " Bid the brave men pile up a mound for me, high and far-seen on the headland, that seafaring men in time to come may call it Beowulf mound. ' ' There is in this a keen analogy found in the Odyssey. Elpenor, the dead oarsman, has about the same request of Odysseus, through his ghost. And there is also a train of similar thoughts throughout all Anglo-Saxon literature. The Greek fatalism, the love of beauty and life, and the pon- dering over the then mystery of exist- ence are all present. Thus we can see products of the mind foreshadowed. Even as Greece gave forth a literature, almost unriv- aled in its magnificence, so also, under the same system of living, these rude but truly great forerunners of the Eng- lish race really laid the foundation up- on which our present magnificent structure has been reared. R. A. YOELL. EASTER DAWN Across tKe West wKere nigKt ' s last stars are paling, As morning dawns and sKadows softly flee ; TKe sun mounts KigK, Kis golden vesture trailing, Tnrougn azure air, o ' er eartK and sky and sea. And incense rare from cnalices of silver. Is wafted KigK by lilies ' every breatK, WKile teeming life in sKeatKed bud and blossom, Flings fortK in joy sweet cKallenges to deatK. OK, wondrous morn ! OK cKoir of joyful nature. Blend EartK and Heaven in a grand accord ; WKile Kuman Kearts, ten tKousand times ten tKousand, Bend low in praise before tKeir risen Lord. O. L. OLIVER. 216 THE " BANEFUL VICE OF PERSONAL OWNERSHIP " MERICAN judges, dis- crepancies in the law, and the influences and differences in view- points between judges as well as the results therefrom, are nowhere better illustrat- ed, or rather, discovered, and, after stu- dy, research, and reflection, realized, than in the small article appearing in the Law Docket for December, 1913. The Docket article contains, as it rarely does, a short story, under the heading, " The Vice of Personal Ownership " , and tells with real or imaginary truth, the ' pathetic, sad tale of comfort and peace brought into the hearts and lives of a widow and her children by the ever-present, welcome advocate of jus- tice and clemency, — a lawyer ; the latter brings news of a victory, after lengthy litigation, and judicial decision, trans- ferring property and wealth to the heirs-at-law, of whom the widow is one, by the opinion pronounced in the lat- ter ' s favor by Judge Reed in the case of Steinhauser vs. Order of St. Bene- dict 194 Fed. Rep. 289, reversing a de- cision in favor of the Order in the court below, the Circuit Court, two years be- fore. Order of St. Benedict of New Jersey vs. Steinhauser, 174 Fed. Rep. 137. The circumstances of this case, to- gether with the doctrine enunciated, and the two opposite opinions promul- gated, are well worth examination. It is now up on appeal before the Su- preme Court of the United States, and though it is difficult to conjecture what the decision there will be, the results of the two opinions handed down in the courts below are very in- teresting. A glance at the facts, and a comparison of the two decisions, the one in the United States Circuit Court in favor of the Order, the other from the Circuit Court of Appeals, one step higher, giving the property contested for to the heirs-at-law, will not be amiss : This was a suit in equity in which the complainant (below) claims the property left by the Rev. Augustin Wirth at his death because the latter lived and died a member of the Bene- dictine Order. The Defendant is the legally appointed and qualified Ad- ministrator, of Father Wirth ' s perso- nal estate protecting the heirs, and con- testing the Order ' s claim. Father Wirth, a Bavarian by birth, joined the Order in Pennsylvania in 1852, whence he transferred his stability to the com- plainant in this ease in 1887, becoming thereby a member of the duly incorpor- ated Order of St. Benedict of New Jer- sey. Being an author of some note, he 217 218 THE EEDWOOD. wrote several book,s etc., and at tlie time of his death, which occurred in Minnesota in 1901, he was possessed of about $1,500 in money, and notes, mortgages, etc., to the value of $5,000 or more, all of which represented his own earnings with his pen, and which he had always been allowed to hold and use himself, with permission of the Abbot, as the latter testified: " to use for the charitable purposes of the Or- der. " At his death then, the legal title to his property remained in Father Wirth, and according to the statutes of Minne- sota would descend to his heirs-at-law, in the absence of testamentary disposi- tion, — but the complainant here, the Order in Nevv Jersey brings this suit to have the property turned over to them as the equitable owners thereof, in consequence of the contract, vow of poverty and membership, of deceased in the corporation-Order, and the re- sult of this was, they claimed, that all his property, as Vi ell as all the property of any other member, was owned in common by the members, and belonged only to the Order. This state of facts then presented three questions for the Circuit Court to decide: 1. Is the contract established be- tween the Order and a member there- of, by the vows taken, etc., a valid one, or is it " inconsistent with the funda- mental principles of American institu- tions as expressed in their Constitu- tions ' ' 1 2. If the above contract be held valid, does its true interpretation al- low or entitle the Order of St. Bene- dict to enforce it against the property in controversy, the latter being after- acquired, or such property as came into the possession of the deceased sub- sequent to his entrance into the Order? 3. What effect upon Father Wirth ' s rights to property was produced by his joining the Benedictine Order? The questions above are answered in three M ays in the first ease in the Cir- cuit Court, and in as many different ways upon the appeal in the Circuit Court of Appeals. We shall take the first case and show the findings there- in, then the appeal with the law con- tained in that opinion will be present- ed. As Mr. Wilder, the author of the article in the " Docket " very aptly says: " There are queer possibilities in the law, — and that ' s a truth that no one knows bet- ter than the learned judges whose opinions are reversed by other learned judges. " I. Order of St. Benedict of New Jersey vs. Steinhauser, 179 Fed., Rep. 137: (a) " The Order of St. Benedict of New Jersey is a charitable corporation, chartered by the State, whose members are required by the charter to be members of the religi- ous order of St. Benedict. All members of such religious order take the vow of poverty by which they renounce the right to indi- vidual ownership of property — or, as the constitution of the society says: ' The vice of personal ownership must be cut off in the root in the monastery, so that no one may own anything of himself, except that which is given to him, or which he is per- mitted to have by his Abbot. ' The consti- tution of the corporation provides that it is agreed upon that no member shal ' l claim more than a support, but shall, as soon as possible convey all property which he then THE REDWOOD. 219 holds or thereafter may hold, to the corpora- tion. It further provides that members may voluntarily leave the order. HELD, that the contract between a member and the corpor- ation with respect to property is not in vio- lation of public policy, but is valid and bind- ing so long as a member retains his mem- bership. " In support of his contention as to the validity of this contract Judge Wilhird cites several cases, the facts of which vary greatly, but all of which uphold the validity of a contract to renounce personal ownership — even in suits to recover property brought by members of the famous " Harmony " and " Sha- ker ' ' societies against the latter. Gaesle vs. Bimeler 14, How., 589; Casely vs. Separatists Society of Zoar 13 Ohio St., 44; Schriber vs. Rapp, 5 Watts (Pa.), 351; Burt vs. Oneida Communi- ty, 137 N. Y., 346 ; Waite vs. Merrill, 4 Me., 102 ; Gass and Banta vs. Wilhite, 2 Dana (Ky.), 178; Schwartz vs. Duss, 93 Fed., 529; Baker vs. Nachtrieb, 19 How., 126. (b) " The fact that such member, who was for some years before his death, a resi- dent of another State, was permitted by the Abbot to retain his earnings and use the same for charitable purposes, did not re- lease him from his vow of poverty, nor make such earnings his individual property. " Father Wirth could have separated at any time from the Order. If he had done so, they would have had no right to his future earnings. It cannot be said then that the contract entered into between the parties when Wirth joined the Order is unconstitutional and against public policy, and fundamental American principles of holding and ac- quiring property, and liberty to own it. He could resume his right to ac- quire property for himself whenever he chose — with this right of voluntary withdrawal, whence the grounds for the above statement? He lived and died in the Order, and received it ' s benefits — therefore no rights, enforceable against the society passed from him to his heirs, or personal representatives to property in his possession. Though the property in question, considered at the time of Father Wirth ' s entrance into the order, was " after acquired " , yet at the time of his death, it was present and in possession, and as he had not repudiated the order, his vows were still existent and operated then and there to transfer to his Order whatever property he had. (c.) " Property held by a member, who died in full fellowship, at the time of his death, which was acquired with his earnings, belonged to the cor- poration, not to his heirs. " Opposed and in direct contradiction to this, are the answers to the three questions above, in the language of the opinion on the appeal: II. Steinhauser vs. Order of St. Ben- edict, 194 Fed. Rep. 289. (a) The contract here is not against public policy and contracts of similar nature have been declared valid in a number of cases such as cited below, but. (b) The contract here is execu- tory, not executed, — and is not valid as 220 THE EEDWOOD. to after-acquired property. This con- tention is supported by three cases cited by the learned judge: Baltimore Humane Society vs. Pierce, 100 Md., 529; Aspinwall M ' fg. Co. vs. Gill, 32 Fed., 697; and Hershy vs. Clark, 37 Ark. 17. The first case presented an inmate of an aged home, contracting, on his entrance, to give whatever prop- erty he might acquire in the future, to the home; in the second case a person was contracting away the future op- erations of his brains, in inventions, etc. ; and in the third, two married men agreed to give each other ' s future ac- quisitions upon the death of one to the other — all engagements, absolute, to deprive themselves of the right of per- sonal ownership in the future. (c) " The property in controversy, since the contract is not enforceable by the society, either at law or in equi- ty, goes to the heirs-at-law. " The decision, the appeal and rever- sal, have been presented for perusal, and approval, or rather disapproval. It seems settled that there is no con- troversy as to the validity of the con- tract here established as to property already had, but the whole difficulty rests with the constitutionality or un- unconstitutionality of the agreement as to after-acquired interests — and, without a doubt evolves from an incor- rect or incomplete understanding of the vow of poverty and the nature of this contract. It is entirely unneces- sary to drag religious prejudices into the controversy, — it is here considered, not from the Catholic or a sectarian point, but solely from a legal ground, — and with proper explanation the vow can certainly be upheld. The import- ant query then, is : I. Is the contract established be- tween an applicant and a religious or- der, upon the former entering the lat- ter, and the vow of poverty taken therein, void as being unconstitutional and against public policy, particularly with reference to property acquired after entrance, and the supposed re- nunciation of every American ' s right to life, liberty, and property? Every objection included under this can be refuted in an affirmative an- swer — in fact the opinion of the Cir- cuit Court (supra) has done this already : No fundamental right, of liberty or property, can not be violated when the power of rescission is ever present — when the exercise of the will is left free. As shown already one may vol- untarily leave an order at any time and thus rescind his contract or change his mind about the future ownership of his property — hence, there cannot possibly be any violation of the guaran- teed constitutional rights — the objects, and good done and derived from reli- gious orders certainly are not against public policy — ergo. Now, in this case we find as the Circuit Court says, " a member dying in full fellowship " with the contract non-repudiated — can there be any doubt about the owner- ship of the property? Again, regarding the objection that the vow relieves one of the American THE REDWOOD. 221 right of personal ownership — this again is attributable to a rebuttable understanding of the vow, it ' s contract, and incidents, including the right of voluntary withdrawal. An exemplar of this common error is contained in the " Outlook " of April 11, ' 14, in an arti- cle commenting on this case : " In the words of the Declaration of Inde- pendence the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness is an inalienable right. To allow a man to alienate these rights for a consideration paid to him and to enforce that alienation if he afterwards becomes dissatisfied with it, is to set aside this fun- damental principle of the American Repub- lic and logically would lead on to the con- clusion that a man may, by contract, prac- tically enslave himself, by putting himself, his industry and earnings under the con- trol of a master for life. " Every word of this is granted, and heartily agreed to — but like the cases cited by the court in the appeal, it is not in point — note the words the writer himself uses " if he afterwards becomes dissatisfied with it " — does he forget the right of voluntary withdrawal, — in the three cases cited there is not a single clause in any of the contracts giving the party the right to rescind at any time, as does the contract with a religious order. The right of personal ownership is not annihilated as claimed — it is merely exercised in a certain way, the mode being common owner- ship, and such mode is undeniably most consistent with the constitutional right to liberty, and tolerance in allow- ing a man to do as he wishes, provid- ing the end be good, as well as the means of obtaining it. HARRY W. MCGOWAN. A GIFT FROM TITO HERE comes a time in the life of a man who has lived life as it should be lived, when he grows remi- niscent. Thoughts of the past recall them- selves before his vision and he lives again strange scenes or perchance, tastes of the sweets from some stern adversity. Old Don Eamon was such a man. He had lived a life of romance, and knew by heart tales of love, of hopes blasted, and desires achieved. Often- times had he participated in them, and if he were wont to blow the ashes of his memory into a flame, happy was the person privileged to sit in their light and listen. We sat on the veranda of the little inn, at the forgotten village of San Bias. The moon came up from behind the purple hills, and a star, one of the earliest of the evening, semed to glow just above the gilded mission cross. The smoke from my cigarette curled with a silvery wreath into a shaft of moonlight and then wafted itself away. Reveries came upon me, and my mind wandered into times of the past, only to be held there by words from the Don. " Ah, Senor, " he said, " indeed it is a beautiful night. " " Aye, " I answered, " one of the most beautiful I have ever seen. " ' ' See how the tiles of the mission hold the gold of the moonlight, strange it is how adobe in the night time, will color itself. " I followed his pointing finger and saw the roof of the church lie in the color of beaten gold, and all so softly, owing to the velvet shadow of two large oak trees growing in the plaza. " Senor, we have many nights like this in our valley of San Ysidro, only in times past we used to hold a festival, or have some musicians play on their guitars for us. Many and many are the times I have seen such gatherings, but now all the people are changed; our men no longer live as they used to, neither do our women love the same. ' ' " Gallantry and bravery was the common thing then, — and now, why now, ' tis nothing but a money seeking. " ' ' I suppose, ' ' I ventured to interrupt him, ' ' many a fine tale could be told, if one knew the past. " " Ah! that it could. Now take for example the story of Lola Velasquez, pardon, but the night recalls it to my mind; how she was courted, loved, and then, — ah ! then ! — indeed a very pretty story. " He chuckled quietly to him- self. " And what was that? " I queried. " Some story of love? " 222 THE REDWOOD. 223 " Si, yes, by all the saints it was a love ! Dios ! but Enrico was a man. You see it happened thus " " All of four days and nights he rode, and on the fifth urged his tired and jaded pony up through the ravine and into the mountains over there in the west. " He had been pursued, and was pur- sued, yet to pass the home of his be- loved and not see her was a thought so abhorent to Enrico ' s mind that he risked death itself to hold a tryst with her. " Enrico, senor, was a thief, a mur- derer, yet withal, a man. No humble victim ever fell in his way. But let any lords of the land, great grandees, or people of station, fall into his hands and he would strip them almost to the very skin, and lucky indeed were they, if they escaped still in possession of their lives. " What turned him to the road no one could tell, yet his name was a terror from the far Colorados, to the bor- ders of Sonora. Little children were hushed by his name, and once Mass was said in Ventura to protect the mission from a raid by his band. " He seemed to bear a charmed life, Senor. Many held that the devil was protecting him. " Why, the commandante at Monte- rey, after a certain outrage committed on the Bandini, offered a reward of 1000 pesos for him, dead or alive. " And what do you think? Why, a small boy said that early in the morn- ing a dashing caballero rode up to the plaza, read the document and went slowly off. A few hours later it was seen that a knife was pierced through the paper, and underneath the words were scrawled: I will give 2000 pesos, Enrico Boreda. ' " Another time he was fired at point blank with only the glass of a window pane between him and the gun; he killed his opponent, but to all appear- ances was not even scratched. Fifty men have taken after him and he elud- ed them all, but he was caught at last, and very, very, neatly was it done. " We have an old saying here in Cal- ifornia, Senor. He who angles must chose his bait ; for a fish, a worm, — for a man — a woman! and that was the real cause of his capture. " It seems Enrico loved Lola Velas- quez, and a wonderful girl she was to be sure. A man could tire three horses out in his efforts to find her equal, not any in the whole country of all Central California could surpass her and her fame spread accordingly. " Senor, on my oath, " the old man tapped the railing of the veranda with his knuckles, " I have never seen a more wonderful pair of eyes in all my life, — and I know eyes were my speci- alty in my younger days. " Eyes may be large, soft, dark, and beautiful, yes— they are something to admire, but when one beholds two large black eyes, filled with a soul and almost translucent in their softness, then you have a woman to be proud of. Such was Lola. Her face was oval, her 224 THE REDWOOD. hair long and soft, and her voice so sweet that music fell from it, as grapes do from the vines in the ripeness of autumn. " And she in turn loved Enrico, loved him for his bravery, his chivalry, and his wild penchant for adventure. " It was rumored about that soon he was to take her away with him, — and there, in some distant spot make her his wife and live as a man should — amongst men — not as a hunted beast. " But at the particular time of which I speak, Enrico was hard pressed by the officers of the law. " He was almost taken at Santa Bar- bara and in Soledad, a small village some few leagues to the Southeast of here, his escape was so narrow that he left his favorite horse behind him. " He was drinking at an inn, when three soldiers appeared in the doorway and opened fire. He shot one and jumped through the window, breaking the glass, as he did so. In some fashion or another he escaped to the hills, but his horse, a splendid thoroughbred creature, was safely within the posses- sion of the commandante of the troops. " He was seen on the road riding a brown tired little pony and the next thing we heard of him was that he lay hiding in the mountains of the west, and occasionally kept a tryst with Lola. " Now, naturally, Lola being such a beautiful girl, more than one suitor plighted his troth to her. All to no avail ; but one, more persistent than the rest, refused to take no for an answer. " Often did he valiantly assail the ramparts of her affections, only to be repelled. This was Tito Aldenas, son of the Alcalde, and hence an officer of the law. " He was thin and peaked, bandy- legged, and not overly pleasant in man- ner, but by some strange gift of for- tune, possessed that rare quality of be- ing attractive to women. ' ' Ah, Senor, I say strange gift know- ingly. We men know nothing of the likes and dislikes of women. We say that they are fickle, yet their love once given may be as constant as a rock. " We call them clinging and affec- tionate, yet some flake of foam upon the bosom of a mountain stream is far more enduring. " Now, Tito was such a man. He played his guitar exquisitely, danced divinely, and possessed more than the average share of this world ' s goods. He might have won the affections of almost any senorita, but spurned them all and sought only after her, the queen of his heart ' s desire, Lola. " But, undismayed by reverses, Tito bravely kept the field. One night, senor, here in the patio of this very inn, he told a number of us younger fellows, and I was young then myself, that more than one path led to the castle of a woman ' s affection and it need not ne- cessarily be that of love. ' ' Soon the remark was forgotten, but by some strange fancy the sentence re- mained in my head. That night my THE REDWOOD. 225 thoughts turned from tales of Enrico, who was then in the vicinity, to Lola and from Lola to Tito. " What could he have meant? T ' was well known that Enrico possessed Lola ' s love and even that she was meet- ing him. " It was upon this that Tito laid his plans. A week or so later reports were circulated that Enrico had married a girl from Monterey. No one knew her name, but she was supposed to be wondrously beautiful. Almost every one gave credence to the tale save Lola, and she vehemently denied. He was alone and in the mountains, she would say, and " besides he knows I love him — that is enough. ' " But then one night Tito came to me and said. ' Victor, you are my friend. I have done many things for you, and by all my soul, you have dared many things in turn for me. ' " I puffed my cigarette and bade him speak on. " He continued, ' Well, do you know that my love for Lola is consuming me. I am not the man to be thwarted in anything, yet this brigand of an Enrico would seek to carry off the quarry un- der my very nose. Now, Victor, as friend to friend, and by all that you hold holy, by all the relies of the saints, v ill you do me a service tonight, and ask no questions? ' " I commenced to question him, Se- nor, before taking the oath, but he would have none of it. " ' ' ' No — no ! ' he said with violence, ' either you take the oath and do as I ask, without putting a question, or else you are no friend to me. ' " It was only on these grounds, Se- nor, that I took the oath, though I will admit now that perchance, some idle bit of ciiriosity tempted me strong- ly in his favor. In the end, however, with many misgivings, I consented. " He embraced me warmly and gave me the following direction. ' Tonight will you take a certain grey horse, which you will find waiting for you at your door, and promptly at four hours after the vesper-bell ride to the east on the road which leads to Monterey? ' " ' At the deserted hacienda you will find a man of mine disguised as a wo- man. He will give -you a certain suit of clothes, and above all a scarf. " ' Now, this scarf you will wear in plain sight, and also will take up my man behind you on your horse. " ' When you come to the ford on the San Lorenzo, ride very slowly, but turn your face to the east and let the scarf hang rather to the west. " ' Once over the ford ride hard till you are well out of sight, then dis- mount my man, and return to your home. " ' Do this for me, Victor, and no favor you shall ever ask of me will go unsatisfied. ' " Senor, I followed out every direc- tion to the letter. But the strangest part of the whole adventure was when I reached the river. The ford is a very narrow one, and the approach that night lay in a brilliant moon-light, just such a moon as we have tonight. 226 THE REDWOOD. " Well, I rode my horse slowly, as Tito told me, and just as we were en- tering the water I heard a moan from a manzanita bush by the stream ' s edge. " ' Madre de Dios, Tito, ' I heard a woman ' s voice say, ' It is the very scarf I gave him. ' And then I was out of earshot. " The next day was Sunday and to the surprise of everybody, the bans for Tito Aldenas and Lola Velasquez, who were to be solemnly united in holy wedlock on the first Sunday of June, were read out in the mission after Mass. " We looked about for Tito and found him smiling profusely, while a thous- and congratulations rained down upon him. " But Lola — ah, Senor, she was not to be seen, a sudden illness kept her within her home. " Yet, that was not the most astound- ing event of all, for two days later, the body of Enrico Boreda was found in a clump of manzanita by the ford of the San Lorenzo. " Three times had he been stabbed, and the knife was still by his side. It was an exquisite stiletto of pure Toledo steel with a mother of pearl hilt. No one had ever seen it, but myself — " " And where had you seen it? " I asked the Don. " Ah, well do I remember it, some three months before, Tito had shown it to me, as a gift for Lola. ' ' RODNEY A. YOELL. NIGHT Here witKin tKe fetid breeding place of men From3?on dark Kouse against the unlit sk37 Leaving tKe -world to muse upon its mire Of crime and sin and sname in dull repose, From 37on black sKade now comes a feeble cry A child ' s cry sKrilling faint, Kalf moan but mad. Calling unto its own to ease its Kurt. TKen tKe dark Kouse against tKe starless sk}? Is still; sounds notKing but tKe tKougKtless laugK Of some boy tripping past in J0370US Kaste. And from yon Kouse tKat rises in tKe street Above tKe noise, above tKe talk of men, A raving cry comes downward from its KeigKt, A sob, goes madly calling tKrougK tKe dark Insanely calling for it knows its sin, TKe cry of stricken man unto Kis God! And Kere a sinner sKriven, tKere a sinner sins. And Kere is blatant reverly gone mad. And tKere tKe cKildren ask in vain for bread. And in yon Kome a babe ' s first painful cry And a young motKer ' s first sweet gasp of joy. And over all nigKt scowls unfeeling, draws Her rags about Ker, turns, is gone. So smiles tKe sinful nigKt upon tKe sinful dawn. VICTOR C. CRESALIA. 227 THE STRAY SHOT EATED at the break- fast table of their lit- tle hut were Fred Randall and his moth- er. The two had lived together as far back as Fred could remember, and he could look back about twenty years, for he was now about twenty. When the morning meal was over Mrs. Randall rose from the table, and before removing the dishes chanced to look out the window of the little room that stood both for parlor and dining-room. At a glance Fred noticed his mother start for a second, then her features were overcast, and the expression was set and determined. ' What ' s the matter, mother 1 ' ' asked Fred, in some alarm. ' ' Oh, nothing, ' ' was the short, vague reply. But noticing that something had come across his mother ' s mind, Fred looked out the window to discover, if possible, the cause of her distress. The street was deserted except for a man in his early fifties, who was slowly riding down it. His head was bent for- ward, and Fred could see little more of his face than that it was covered with a heavy gray beard. This incident took place in the little Pueblo of Perro, Colorado, situated in the hills of Southern California about fifty miles from the Mexican border. It was a typical mining town, and Fred was the young foreman of the neigh- boring Bonanza Mine. Like every other mining camp it was the proud possessor of a general store, where the post office was also located, and a few saloons. Around the doors of the latter a talk- ative group of idlers was invariably to be found. The old man whom Fred had espied continued up the street in the direction of the " business section. " He was a trapper from the mountains, and came occasionally to town to sell or barter hides and to procure provisions. None knew much about him or his antece- dents ; he spoke little and his only name was " Big Jim. " And no one seemed to care much about him; for he gave trouble to none and was in turn trou- bled by none. After making some purchases at the store the stranger remained around the saloons for some time; he sat on the porch, leaned his chair against the wall and smoked his pipe contentedly. About noon Big Jim saddled his horse, strapped his bag tightly onto the saddle and started for his home in the mountains. He had not gone more than half a mile out of town when he met an Indian riding slowly along the deserted road on his way in. Tied on behind his saddle he had some 228 THE REDWOOD. 229 hides of various animals which he had succeeded in trapping. He was now on his way to town to sell them. On drawing near Jim drew up his horse and the Indian did the same. " Hello, pardner, " said Jim, his late potations having made him somewhat talkative. " You look tired. Had a long ride? " " Twenty miles up in mountain, " re- plied the Indian. " Yes, pretty long ride in this hot weather. Won ' t you have a drink? " said Jim, producing a bottle of whis- key. At sight of it, the Indian ' s face sud- denly brightened, his eyes glistened, and he reached for the bottle. Jim kept it in his hand, partially filled an old tin cup and gave it to him. The Indian drained it in one gulp. " Good, " he said, smacking his lips, ' ' give me more. ' ' And he held out th e empty cup. " Oh, you want more, do you? What do you think this is? " replied Jim, re- corking the bottle. " But I tell you v hat I ' ll do. I ' ll give you the whole bottle for them hides you got there. ' ' The Indian hesitated a moment, looked at the hides, looked at Jim, then at the bottle. Finally he made up his mind and the bargain was struck. When the hides had changed hands, seeing that he had nothing to sell in town and consequently nothing to buy the Indian wheeled his horse around and started back for his cabin in the mountains. The trapper returned to toAvn to sell his newly acquired hides. Late in the afternoon Big Jim, his business concluded, was sitting on the porch of a saloon. Thinking it was about time to go home, he saddled his horse and mounted. He swung on his horse, kicked his heels into his flanks, but immediately jerked him up, for ahead he saw a cloud of dust and a horse and rider coming at full speed. On nearer approach Jim saw it was the Indian with whom he had made the bargain in the morn- ing. Jim saw that the whiskey was leaving its effect; he had better make his escape, if he wished to avoid trou- ble. The Indian saw Jim. He rode up and reined in his foaming horse. His black eyes were like flashing fires. " You gimme my skin, " he excitedly said to the trapper. " G ' wan, you Indian, don ' t you see I haven ' t any skins? " said Jim, with an attempt at composure. " You gimme my skin, or I kill you. " " Get out of here; I haven ' t got your skin; you ' re in your skin. " " White man no can give Red Man fire water. Sheriff he say so. " With this the Indian pulled out a revolver, leveled it and shot. The bul- let passed Jim ' s head. In the meantime Jim whipped out his gun, and before the Indian could fire again shot and wounded him fatally. While the idlers from the saloons gathered around the dying Indian, Big Jim withdrew from the crowd unob- served, and once out of the way put his horse ' s speed to the test. 230 THE EEDWOOD. Fred Randall had returned from his work and was sitting leisurely in his home. His mother was in the kitchen preparing supper. He was reading a magazine; and looking up from it, his eyes fell upon a picture on the wall op- posite him. It was the picture of a man, apparently little more than thirty years of age. The face was rather thin, the upper lip covered with a dark mustache, the eyes sunken, and the chin small and pointed. It was an old photograph, and next to it was the picture of Fred ' s mother when she was young. The man Fred knew to be his father. He had never seen him, and every time he questioned his mother concerning him, she adroitly changed the subject. Fred had thus learned long ago that his questions were un- welcome, and consequently for years he had evaded it. Thinking that his father had died in a way his mother did not wish to recall, he felt that he would know the story some day. These thoughts were passing through his head, when he heard a scream from the kitchen. He rushed out, and found his mother dying on the floor. A bul- let had come in through the open win- dow and had lodged in her chest. " My God, " exclaimed Fred, " who has done this? " He lifted her tenderly in his arms; she cast her eyes lovingly upon him. Her lips moved; she was making des- perate efforts to speak, but could not utter a word. Her head drooped, fell upon Fred ' s breast. Mrs. Randall was no more. Scarcely realizing what had hap- pened, Fred laid his mother on her bed, and seizing his hat rushed out of the house to find who had done the deed. In the immediate vicinity of the home not a soul was to be seen, but about a block away he saw a crowd of men gathered, all intent upon something. They were looking at the body of a dead Indian. " What ' s the matter here? " asked Fred, breaking into the crowd. In reply to this question an old miner told him about the quarrel of the In- dian and the trapper. " When the Indian shot did he hit his man? " asked Fred, when he had heard the story. " No; he was too drunk to shoot straight, " was the reply. " Which way did he shoot? " " Down this way, " said the other, pointing in the direction of Fred ' s house. " Why? " " He may have missed the trapper, " said Fred, sorrowfully, " but he hit my mother instead. " " Hit your mother? What are you giving us? " " The bullet was stray; it entered the window of my house down there, struck and killed my mother. ' ' The onlookers now forgot the dead Indian, and gathered around Fred. " Where did the trapper go? " asked Fred. " He beat it on his horse, I suppose, gone up the trail toward Bellvale. He has a cabin, I hear, about half way be- THE REDWOOD. 231 tween here and there, " said the old miner again. " Well, I ' ll get him, " said Fred in an undertone, and he turned toward his home. Tbe realization of his mother ' s death now dawned upon him. At first he was too taken up with the desire to find out the culprit, but now he began to realize his loss. He felt uo ' ' ' that his mother was really dead, that he would never see her again, never bear her voice, never look into her eyes. He was alone in the world. And big, hot tears stole from his eyes and rolled down his cheeks. On approaching the little cabin a difficulty arose in his mind. How was he going to bury his mother, and at the same time pursue the trapper? ' " I know what I ' ll do, " he said, half aloud. " I ' 11 ask Mrs. Castro. She was always a good friend of mother ' s, and I ' m sure she ' ll tend to her. " No sooner thought of than done. Mrs. Castro lived but a short distance away, and it was not long before Fred had told her the sad news. " Sure, I ' ll see that everything is all right, " said the kind-hearted old lady, after she had given way to her first feelings of grief. " But won ' t you stay till morning? . You would only have to camp out over night if you were to start after that bandit now. ' ' ' I guess you ' re right, " said the broken-hearted Fred. And before he could say more Mrs. Castro had gone into her house, and come out with an old red shawl thrown over her shoul- ders. " Are you ready? " asked Fred. " Yes, come along, " and the two started back to Fred ' s house. In the meantime the news had quick- ly spread that Mrs. Randall had been shot, and when Fred and Mrs. Castro reached the house they found many of the women from the little town gathered around offering their assist- ance. The greater part of the night Fred spent with his mother, taking but a few hours of repose. Early the following morning he was up again. He got to- gther provisions for a few days, sad- dled his horse, and returned to the room to take, as he thought, a last look at his mother. And as he bent over that slight form, and imprinted a kiss on those lips sealed in death, a tear fell from his cheek to hers, a last token of his filial love. Almost an hour and a half passed, and Fred was pretty well up in the mountains. " I must be pretty near the cabin now that the miner was talking about, ' ' he said to himself. He rode on a little further, and then, through an o pening in the trees, set back a short distance from the road he saw an old cabin. " Ah! here it is, I guess. " He approached, dismounted and went to the door which was partly opened. Looking in he saw that there was but one room. In a corner was a small 232 THE REDWOOD. stove, and in it were still glowing the coals of a recent fire. In the middle of the room was a table with some un- washed dishes on it. " The fellow left this morning, " he said, " had breakfast here, too. Must have left in a hurry; didn ' t even wash his dishes. I wonder who he is; well, he had better keep out of my sight if he doesn ' t want to get some lead pumped into him. Oh there ' s his bed over there. I guess he never makes it, so I can ' t tell by that if he slept here. " Guess I ' ll take a look around the outside. I saw an old shed in the back when I was coming in. I suppose that ' s where he keeps his horse. He must have taken his dog along with him. There ' s the chain, but no dog. " I ' d better be starting out again; no use losing time around here. I won- der which way he went Well, if he left this morning he must have gone toward Bellvale, ' cause I never met nobody coming out, " and Fred started again. About noon he stopped at a little creek some distance up the mountain, for lunch. He was hardly off his horse a minute when he heard a dog bark, not more than a hundred yards from where he was, and a man call him back. ' ' I wonder who that is. There it goes again. He must have hit the poor dog this time, ' cause I heard him yelp. I guess the old boy didn ' t see me, or he wouldn ' t make so much noise. I ' ll go up the trail on my horse, and walk around and surprise him a bit. ' ' Riding up the trail about a quarter of a mile Fred dismounted, tied his horse to a tree, and walked around stealthily to where he heard the dog bark. As he came nearer he crawled on his hands and knees until, peeping through the brush he saw sitting be- neath a tree a man eating his lunch. He wore a heavy beard, and by this Fred recognized him to be the very same person whom he had seen pass his window the day before. In front of him stood a dog with ears erect as if he heard a noise. His horse was tied to a tree nearby, unsaddled, and munching the grass. " So here you are, " said Fred, break- ing from his hiding place, and covering the murderer with his gun. " Just put up those dainty hands of yours, or it will be the worst for you. " " What ' s the matter, boy, is there any thing I can do for you? " said the trapper, coolly. " No, you can ' t do nothing ito me now; you ' re done it already. " " What did I do to you? I never saw you before. " " Perhaps you never did, " said Fred, and with a tinge of sorrow in his voice, added: " but you were the cause of my mother being killed. ' ' " What are you talking about, any- how ? ' ' " When that Indian whom you got drunk shot at you, he missed you, but he hit my mother; and now she ' s dead. " " Who is this mother of yours, what ' s her name? " THE REDWOOD. 233 " Mrs. Randall, " added Fred. " Mrs. Ran , " the trapper eould not finish. At last he was able to speak. " Mrs. Randall is my wife. " " You ' re a liar, " said Fred, excited- ly. " I ought to know that my father is dead. You ' re just trying to get out of it, but you can ' t fool me. " " Your father is not dead. He is standing right before you. You never saw me before that you can remember, for I left your mother when you were but two or three years old, and I never went back to her since. " " Oh! said Fred, somewhat relieved, " that is why she was so startled when she saw you ride down the street, and that is why she almost cried whenever I asked about you. And she still has your picture alongside hers at home, and she never said a harsh word about you. And I suppose it was all your fault that anything came between you? " " Yes, " admitted Jim, " it was my fault. She was the best little woman in the world. And now she ' s dead ; and I caused it. " And Fred thought he could see something glisten in those cold steel eyes. " Well, I was going to kill you, " said Fred, still holding his revolver, " but now I can ' t, seeing that you are my father; but one thing I can do. The Mexican border is about forty miles away; so go, and don ' t show your face on this side of it again, or you will have some lead in you. " At this the trapper shook hands with his son, saddled his horse and slowly rode away. Fred watched him till he was hidden from view by a turn in the trail, then getting on his own horse he sadly returned home. The next day two graves were dug in the little cemetery of Perro Colo- rado, one for a woman, and one for an Indian. C. .R KAVANAGH. PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR .-.---.. RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER --_--__ EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' IS ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER - - - - EDWARD H. MCLAUGHLIN, ' 16 ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS ___--__. WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 ALUMNI -------- FRANCIS W. SCHILLING UNIVERSITY NOTES ------- F. BUCKLEY MCQURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS (CHAS. D. SOUTH, Litt. D.. ' 01 ALUMNI CORRESPONDENTS - - - - ] lex. T. LEONARD, A. B.i ' 10 EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, Si. 50 a year; single copies 2S cents EDITORIAL COMMENT Ulster vs Ireland Perhaps no crisis in recent years has been so sharp and sudden as that which shook England during the Home Rule movement of the past month. For the first time in over a century, British troops and officers have refused to do their duty in obey- ing military command and the result is that England fears a military domina- tion of the ministry, analogous to the influence of the Praetorian Guard in Rome. The real cause of the diiSculty is not far to seek. It would be needless to attempt an explanation of the Irish Home Rule aspiration. Suffice it to say that like all sane, intelligent, capa- ble people, the Irish wish to rule them- selves — not necessarily to be independ- ent, but to possess the same powers as do the Canadians, Australians and New 234 THE REDWOOD. 235 Zealanders. At present they are classed with the Hindus and natives of Bechu- analand or Nigeria in not having suffi- cient intelligence to rule and legislate for themselves. The only objection (namely incapa- bility) is the sole reason which could stand against the proposition that all people should rule themselves. In the case of Ireland, it would be the act of a fool to propose such an asinine excuse. Ireland has produced in every line of endeavor from art to soldiering, in- cluding all the various ramifications of industry, as good men as any country in the world. Why then this objection and tumult over Home Rule? Broadly it may be laid at the door of a privileged class of religious malcon- tents. The northern part of Ireland is made up to a great extent of immi- grants of English descent who in the early days of the occupation were giv- en such an advantage that no Catholic Irishman could own a horse of £5 in value. Gradually under the slow rays of enlightenment these privileged pro- testants have felt their power waning until now, — horror of horrors ! it is proposed to place native Irish Cath- olics on a plane with foreign protest- ant parasites and the result is a spo- radic revolution on the part of Ulster against the consummation of the above measure. Ulster has not a leg to stand on. Catholic Ireland, even under home rule, would never be allowed to dominate English protestant policies, yet with this ragged plea, Sir Edward Carson comes forth and whines like a sneaking jackal that " the Ulsterites would be outvoted by Catholic Ireland and hence ruled by them. " What harm, if they were Many Catholics are ruh-d by protestant gov- ernors and no hi.rm is the result; why then this fearful hubbub?. Simply Bigotry. It runs in the blood of some breeds and can be worked out only with difficulty — if at all. While it re- mains inactive,, it is best ignored, but if it becomes rampant, the proper treat- ment is stern repression. That, how- ever, is precisely what the English army officers refused to administer in ease of necessity. Bigotry and religious intolerance lie at the bottom of the entire affair. It is age-long and part of the very psy- chology of these people of Ulster. The government can never absolutely stamp it out, but by giving Ireland home rule and punishing Carson ' ' et al. ' ' for trea- son; thus such a severe blow will be dealt ignorance that it will require a long time for recuperation. The Brit- ish Empire will be the better for it, and Ireland can again hold up her head. A Turf Field The real value of ath- letics as part of a col- lege training is almost universally recognized throughout the country. No great university ever frowns down upon them, and many indeed foster them. They give to young Americans a chance to develope those 236 THE REDWOOD. characteristics, later necessary in the life struggle for existence and success. Determination, courage, and farsight- edness are the fruits of the tree, each one important, and each one valuable. Football, especially, is a college sport, and on this coast in the past five years has taken a greater hold upon the public than ever. Two reasons are given. Rugby is better for the spec- tators than the old American game, and further, more first class teams are playing it. No longer are only two teams capable of remaining in unchal- lenged supremacy. Santa Clara has propably developed more rapidly than any other univer- sity in this branch of sport, and now must be taken into consideration when dealing with coast championships. But there is one thing our team lacks and that is a proper field to train on. The game is so inherently fast that a team, training on a slow field, and get- ting used to a dirt field is at an enor- mous disadvantage when confronted by a team of equal strength which is playing and has played on a turf field. To give our team a better chance, the plan of appealing to the Alumni and friends of the University was resorted to. In accordance with this plan, the president of the Student Body ap- pointed a committee consisting of the captain of the football team, and sev- eral prominent students, to draft a let- ter and send it out, calling for some financial aid. This has been done, and up to the present time the response has been gen- erous, yet the contemplated improve- ments are expensive, and a great deal needs to be done. To those, therefore, who are interested in the University and to those Alumni who still hold ties with Alma Mater, we make an appeal. The cause is worthy, and one through which much good can be accomplished. The Coming Some poet has sung, of the Tennyson I believe, Carmelites " More good is wrought by prayer than this world dreams of. " How well he knew, and with what truth he spoke. Prayer is as natural to man, in one form or another, as is breathing. The hopes, the aspirations, the peering into a dim future, and a recognition of one ' s helplessness, all impel man to some utterances, some invocation for gifts and protection from whatever gods he holds that be. But under the enlightenment of Christianity this impulse becomes di- rected and intelligent. We know, and understand the why of our longing and the where of our going. Existence holds no black, despondent mystery, but unfolds a doctrine of hope and charity, the very keynote of which is prayer. The Creator and Giver of all things wants prayer and asks prayer. The world needs prayer, and needs it sorely. In our humdrum of business we have lost sight of these things, yet by the beautiful example of an order of nuns, they are recalled vividly to our THE REDWOOD. 237 minds. The order is the Carmelites. Since the establishment of their con- vent here considerable interest has been aroused. To the non-Catholic they appear somewhat of a mystery. To the Catholic layman they are a source of admiration and pride. The Catholic sisterhood, standing in all its nobleness and purity, is unques- tionably one of the grandest examples of constancy and devotion to principle, the world has ever seen. This to the non-Catholic. To the Catholic the prayers of these good women and their wonderful sac- rifices afford unbounded admiration. They seem to stand as a symbol of the truth, firmness, unity and purity of the church. The even tenor of their lives bespeaks peace and harmony found only in those who hold spiritual things above natural. They then serve both a practical purpose and an ex- tremely useful one. By a life of prayer they harm no one, but confer on all a blessing. That their stay here be a long one and all success be their ' s is the wish of The Redwood. Notre Dame Scholastic How the Notre Dame Scholastic has gotten by before without be- ing reviewed is more than we can ex- plain. The latest number to hand (March twenty-second) is wonderful for a weekly. We say, for a weekly, but it puts many magazines to shame that issue every month; and we might well include a few quarterlies. Be- tween ourselves and the page number, many reviewers in looking over some magazines merely glance at the title and the opening paragraph, and then, breaking the world ' s record for the broad jump, skip to the end. The story or article then considers itself re- viewed. In the Scholastic the opening paragraphs v ere too piquant, and al- together too fascinating to let them slip by as usual. One look was not enough, nor two, nor three, and before long we had finished " Called " and " Swapping Cousins. " They were two fine short stories, written perhaps, in too colloquial a style. The plot was there and naturally developed. In a more serious vein was an essay on the Inquisition. Well written, and fairly too, to all concerned. The Editors show a sense of the fitness of things when they balance their magazine in a man- ner like this, to wit: one essay, two short stories, some poetry (this not marvellously good) and a wealth of College news, etc. The asterisks denote time out to dig up the old issues of the Scholastic in order that we might hunt for other nuggets in the shape of short stories. The Scholastic is certainly a ' ' live ' ' sheet, the fruit of a " live " school. The Spectrum ing the umns. As find out It has been a long time since we have had the pleasure of review- Spectrum in these col- far as we are able to The Spectrum is the only college magazine of any conse- quence south of the Tehachapi,, and is a worthy representative of that land of sunshine and flowers, (and oranges). The Spectrum is gotten out in a very attractive manner with ample pages of heavily coated paper and printed in large black letters. There seems to be little attempt at good literature as rep- resented by the essay, and the short 238 THE REDWOOD. 239 stories are lacking in plot and good dic- tion. There is much in having a good plot, but much more in saying it nicely. Many a poor plot has been saved by being well written. By way of paren- thesis we may add that many a poor story has been saved by the promiscu- ous use of profanity and sundry dashes. The only serious attempt at litera- ture is a holdover from the commence- ment exercises, and admittedly not written for the magazine. And hor- rors ! no poetry, not an iota of poetry ! A magazine without poetry is like un- leavened bread and just about as palat- able. _,, The March Campion ry . is with us. Our atten- Campion . . „ tion was drawn from the magazine proper by the numerous cuts, picturing ice skating and basket- ball teams. These cuts of skating give us Californians a peculiar sense of envy and aversion. Thanks to the val- iant efforts of the railroads the whole world knows of our wondrous climate (at present writing it is raining) and ice skating with its delights and with its frozen noses and toes is practically unknown to us. But the bite of John Frost (you see we are not familiar enough to call him Jack) has not chilled the versatile fingers of the Cam- pion ' s writers. Pages crowded with story, poetry and essay await our eyes. The Editor especially directs us to an article entitled " A Common Sense View of Culture. " We hunted the in- dex for this article but to no avail. We presume the writer must have changed his mind as to what he would call his brain child. Our eyes lit upon another " Common Sense " paper so it was made to pass inspection. " Phil- osophy and Common Sense " is the sub- stitute and as captioned it might very Avell have the common sense part elided, for try as we would we missed it more than the philosophy article. A mere collection of definitions taken from the different text-books and elab- orated form the article. Very disap- pointing, Mr. Editor. An article with real merit, however, is entitled " Catholics and Reading " . The writer wields his pen like a ma- chine gun mowing down the ranks of religious jingoes, including their com- mander, the Menace, and ending with the rear guard of Socialism. We grate- fully acknowledge our usual Ex- changes. The Mercerian This magazine comes to us for April a strange and sorry mix- ture of good and bad. Like most of the Southern magazines, the poetry is good, but unlike most Southern maga- zines, the make-up and ensemble of the book is exceedingly poor. With due respect to its Alma Mater, the book bears its shield on one cover and an advertisement for shoes on the other. Page two hundred and sixty-eight, concluding an essay, bursts at once 240 THE REDWOOD. with full brilliancy into page two hun- dred and eighty-five. Then from page three hundred we come to page two hundred and sixty-nine. This shoAvs woeful lack of attention on the part of the editor, and an apparently hurried effort to put out a creditable book on short notice. The editorials, what there is of them, (one a really good appeal for the spirit of the old South, and the other a miser- ably trite jumble on college athletics,) can be found sandwiched in near the first part of the book, and the other departments are macerated throughout the only too long contents of the peri- odical. The headings of the departments and the cuts appear to have been drawn by either a grammar school child, or else a post-impressionist, for truth to tell, one can ' t easily make out to whether they are intended for car- toons, or the efforts of some individual who has paid for their admittance into the book. Whichever way is taken the drawings, even those unsigned, would disgrace the work of some nine-year old, with his slate pencil. So much for the arrangement of the book. Now for its literary value. In the first place, no magazine from a university, purporting to present the literary talent of the student body, ever runs jokes. These are always left to a humorous publication. Even the best high school journals relegate them to the last page, but in the Mercerian we find them scattered through the various pages. Nearly all the puns are taken from various professional week- lies, and those that are not run on this order. We quote ad libitum: Prof.: Have you read Tennyson? Cleveland: No sir. Prof.: Have you read Scott? Cleveland: No sir. Etc. Prof.: Have you read anything? Cleveland : Yes sir, I have red hair. This style of drivel is puerile, sick- ening and savours more of an ethereal lightness of intellect rather than even an attempt at a sense of humor. The two stories we will pass over; one " Right or Wrong " seems to have been written in good style, but the con- struction of the plot easily foretells the climax. Since short-story form should always mask the climax, we can not see much in the article ' s favor. A good ef- fort, but not sustained. Of two essays, one we will consider, " Sources of Hope. " The other is not worth paying attention to. The former is a good subject, but terribly handled. No consistency is shown. Economics, philosophy, art, history, and religion, are all piled together with a startling disregard for facts, and much atten- tion paid to platitudes such as " The church is interpreting scriptures, not as a solution to metaphysical entities, but as a message of truth that means the salvation of all who accept it. ' ' We ask what church, whether Cath- olic or Protestant, has ever claimed to have any other end than " the salva- tion of all who accept it? " We be- lieve even the Voodoos hold this start- THE REDWOOD. 241 ling statement made for our edification by an undergraduate who really sees hope for revealed religion. This sort of writing kills itself, but the reviewer was glad it only took five pages. This is in the main what we find wrong with ' the Mercerian. " We say these things not in malice, but in a spirit of frank criticism, hoping that the talent certainly possessed by the institution will in the future be turned in the right direction. _, „ _ , " Polly Day ' s Island " Polly Day s • ,, ,,, . J t t IS the title of a new book by Isabel J. Rob- erts. It is written for little folks, and contains almost everything that appeals to the child mind — bright, sunny char- acters, adventure following adventure, and a deal of information on a number of subjects regarding modern inven- tions and habits of animals, especially the cat. Underlying all there is found a solidly religious and moral tone, which will appeal strongly to children, and will help to counteract that influ- ence for evil which many modern chil- dren ' s books by their sensationalism work upon the little one ' s minds. " Polly Day ' s Island " is published by Benziger Brother, New York. Price 85c. We have also received a copy of a booklet, " The Scapular Medal and The Five Scapulars, " and find it a very complete resume of the conditions ne- cessary to gain the indulgences at- tached to the use of these sacramentals. Benziger Bros. Price five cents. rp, Q Miss Isabel C. Clarke, ., J , the author of " By the Citadel , T3. ,, .- Blue River, has a new novel out entitled " The Secret Citadel. " The story centers around a mixed mai ' riage. Melanie Ethrington, a young girl of an old English Catholic family marries a non-Catholic hus- band. The latter, spurred on by an atheistic Frenchman, whose tool he is, does all in his power to prevent his wife from practicing her religion. He takes her away from her family, and from all good influences. Harassed at length beyond endurance the young wife is brought to death ' s door. At the last instant the husband repents, and the wife slowly recovers her health. The story serves to point out the great risks and dangers of mixed mar- riages, the gulf that separates the one party from the other. The husband knows but half the wife, and the wife but one part of the husband. The plot is laid at Rome, England and Tunis. Miss Clarke possesses no mean descriptive and narrative pow- ers, and one is borne along with the tale, unwilling to put it down until he has finished the book. It deserves a wide circulation. Benziger Brothers of New York, are the publishers. Price $1.35. Roma By Rev. Albert Kuhn, 0. S. B., has reached us, maintaining the very high standard of the illustrations and text of the preceding numbers. This part is a most beautifully illus- 242 THE EEDWOOD. trated account of the basilicas, amphi- theatres, thermae and theatres of old Rome. Though it is the illustrations which first attract one ' s attention they are in no way superior to the excellent text. The account of the origin and development of the basilicas, in particu- lar, is complete and satisfying. We predict a very large sale for this work and congratulate the publishers on the excellence of their portion of the pro- duction and the reasonableness of the cost. Benziger Bros. To be completed in 18 parts, each 35 cents. _ _ , , Is a stirring tale for In Quest of , i -, , . , ... children, which can Adventure . f ■ a not fail to amuse and instruct them. There is just enough adventure and just enough go od human nature in the book to make it palatable. Benziger. Price 45 cents. DREAMS. While in the East the morning ' s splendor Glows upon the azure sea, In colors radiant yet tender, I wake from dreams of thee ; Dreams that through my hours of slumber Painted visions bright and fair. Fancies beyond thought or number. Thoughts as sweet as morning air. Would that Life might bring a measure Of the joy those dreams have brought Bring the peace and bring the pleasure By those forms of fancy wrought. Stay with me through hours of waiting. Dreams that ne ' er may come again. Stay with me, the long day making Hours of pleasure free from pain. B. E. R., ' 16, in March Dial. Bishop Hanna Right Rev. Bishop Hanna of San Fran- Francisco visited the University during the latter part of March to administer Confirmation to the students and to the parishioners of Saint Claire ' s. Among the Santa Clara students who received the Sacrament at his hands were: W. V. Herrin, Ralph Carlson, Lawrence Smith, Rob- ert Tremaine, Arthur W. Olcott, John E. Barrett, and Thomas Boone. The Right Reverend Bishop ' s good offices did not stop with this noble work, how- ever, and it was through his influence that we received a holiday the follow- ing Tuesday. Unfortunately, we were not favored with an address from the Bishop on this occasion, owing to the pressure of his affairs ; nevertheless we look back to his visit with pleasure, and thank him most heartily for his kindness. It is with considerable Redwood pride that we gaze Sanctum about our rejuvenated Sanctum. Far be it from us to prate of our personal af- fairs, or anything of the sort, but we simply can ' t help telling about the new wiring and drop lights, the freshly painted floor ' and woodwork, the rest- ful green burlap that covers the walls (and the vandalism of past visitors), and the " bran ' new " window shades. If surroundings, as we would believe, exert any influence on one ' s writing, the compilers of this book should show freshness as a result of the environ- ment. This " freshness, " we hasten to add, refers to editorial endeavors only. Now that we have taken the plunge, and are fairly launched on a recital of " Redwood " affairs, it may be of in- terest to our readers to know that Ad- dison Burbank, who so creditably filled the office of Staff Artist, has left us. Francis H. Stewart of Oakland has been selected for the position. Stewart, in his prep-school days, was the mainstay of the art staff on the Oakland High School paper, " The Aegis. " With his appointment, we may hope to see some new departmental headings. The present headings have served their purpose for time imme- morable, as one might almost say, and certainly they have merited by their unfailing service honorable retirement from duty. From what we have seen of Stewart ' s work, he is well qualified to fill his new position. 243 244 THE REDWOOD. At the meeting of The Ryland March thirty-first, the Debate House selected the team to represent it in the annual Ryland debate, which is to be held on May 13th. The following were named to participate : Representa- tive George A. Nicholson of Alviso, Representative William Stewart Can- non of San Francisco, and Representa- tives Miles Fitzgerald of San Luis Obis- po. The alternates are Representative Joseph Herlihy of Los Angeles, Repre- sentative Nicholas Martin of San Diego, and Representative Frank Browne of Los Angeles. The subject for discussion has not been announced, but it will probably be the Panama Toll question. The Senate ' s team will consist of Senator Harry McGow- an of Paraiso, Senator Rodney A. Yoell of San Jose, and Senator Harold P. McKinnon of Eureka. The House medley, mentioned in the March Redwood, was completed on schedule, and hung in the House with appropriate ceremonies at this meeting. It contains a photograph of each mem- ber. They (not the members), are mounted on a brown back-ground and encased with a neat frame. The pic- ture is an attractive addition to the medlies of former years. _,„.,, A recent addition to Fr. Ricard s ,, ■ _, , the equipment ot Observatory j . ard, the " Padre of the Rains, " is an observatory considerably larger than the one now in use, which is in course of construction. It will be of concrete, with a revolving metal dome of French manufacture, and will be equipped with a four-inch telescope. The obser- vatory is intended for use during the rains, when the inclement weather will not permit of the use of the larger tel- escope. Father Collins Reverend Father Col- lins, chaplain of the League of the Cross Cadets of San Francisco, visited us March thirty-first, and delivered an ad- dress in the Memorial Chapel on the evening of that date. His subject was " Temperance, " which is the primary reason for the organization of the League of the Cross Cadets. Father Collins is an interesting speaker, and one who seems to have put his whole heart into his work. Temperance is a great and worthy cause, deserving of the unselfish consideration of every young man. But as this is not intended as an essay on the subject, we will be content with thanking Father Collins, and wishing that he may enjoy the best of success. It is with deep regret that we record the death of the father of Michael J. Leonard, one of our most popular stu- dents, who is affectionately known hereabouts as " Pinky " . The sad intel- ligence arrived just after the team had returned from its last game with Stan- ford. The congratulations with which " Pinky " was being showered as a re- sult of his victory were suddenly changed to expresssions of deep sym- THE REDWOOD. 245 pathy. " Pinky " left for Santa Cruz, his home, at the earliest opportunity, returning after about two weeks ' ab- sence. We sincerely hope that he real- izes this rather tardy mention of the sad occurrence to have been preceded by our heart-felt condolence for his bereavement. Easter Vacation At the present writing the yard brims with a topic even more inter- esting than the doings of the recently organized " Mountain League. " It penetrates to the class and lecture rooms, and renders unpleasant the pres- ence of those austere reminders of our purpose here — the solemn visaged text-books. It was announced, not only by proclamation, but by the " first ap- pearance " of several immaculate ex- amples of Summer ' s head-gear. All this more or less elaborate sub- terfuge is intended to mystify the read- er as to the real subject of this para- graph; but as we find, on glancing back, that we have already divulged it, we will plunge boldly into the heart of the matter. Our Easter vacation be- gins this year on Wednesday, April eighth, and continues until a week from that date. To say that every one has looked forward to this week is, of course, superfluous. The jingle of re- cently acquired railroad fare fills the campus; the air is white with flutter- ing time-tables; the flurry of packing up reaches our Sanctum. This being the case, and knowing as we do that all this excitement will pass away before this issue appears, we will herewith drop our pen and join the tumult. Mr. Joseph Thomas, Co-Op. Store the capable manager of the Student Body store, has recently made an- other addition to his already extensive line of novelties. In this case it con- sists of a daily supply of buttermilk, which has immediately found great favor about the yard. The subject of the support we owe the store again presents itself. Already it has been spoken of on numerous oc- casions; yet another emphasizing word would not be wasted. The store sup- ports our athletics ; our advertisers sup- port The Eedwood. It is plain, there- fore, that each is entitled to a share of the money spent by the individual members of the Student Body. This share it is in our power to give them, as there is enough for both. But do not give it all to one; in other words, make a " tacit distinction, " and above all, do not adopt a neutral stand and patronize a concern which does not contribute to our support in any way. Of course this matter rests with the individual, but is it asking too much of that individual to divide his custom, purchasing from the store those things which fall natiirally within its prov- ince, and from our advertisers those articles which they can best supply? • . The 1914 season for the Varsity is nearly ended, and considering the high class aggregations they played, great credit is due to the team.. Though our victories and defeats were about evenly divided, the defeats were nearly all inflicted by professional teams. By defeating St. Ignatius, Stanford, and playing a tie against the Univer- sity of California we are considered the " Intercollegiate Champions of Cal- ifornia. ' ' Baseball critics claim the caliber of ball played by the club is of extraor- dinary class ; and many remarkable players state it is the best University ball team they ever saw in action. While stopping at Sacramento Cap- tain Ramage was praised by members of the " Sacramento Coast Leaguers " for the clever and speedy players he captained, and they stated it greatly surpassed any amateur team which op- posed them in their preliminary and training season games. Much of the team ' s success is due to the untiring efforts of Coach Harry Wolters; and moreover Graduate Man- ager Tramutola is deserving of praise for the unusual fine schedule of games he secured for the ' varsity. From present ' indications prospects are very bright for next year ' s ball team as nearly all the veterans are ex- pected to return, and with the new- comers a high class aggregation is ex- pected to battle for the " Red and White. " SANTA CLARA 5, STANFORD 1. The Varsity revenged itself in the fourth game of our intercollegiate series with Stanford by a score of 5 to 1. Whelan for Santa Clara, and Holm for Stanford were the opposing pitch- ers. Both pitched excellent ball. Santa Clara started to accumulate runs early in the engagement. Zarrick, the sec- ond man to face Halm in the initial inning, lined a home run into left field, and Tramutola followed Zarrick with 246 THE REDWOOD. 247 a three base drive into center field ; and the latter scored when Dooling dropped Sheehan ' s easy fly in left field. Stanford scored its lone tally in the second inning, when Tramutola missed Stafford ' s easy grounder, the latter taking second on the play. Dooling hit a hard ball through short and Staf- ford scored. The Varsity scored its last three runs in the sixth, when McGinnis singled through short and took third on Tra- mutola ' s hit. Sheehan hit to left, scoring McGinnis and Tramutola, and the latter scored on Milburn ' s hit. Captain Terry, the Cardinal short- stop, and Tom Workman performed wonderfully for Stanford, while the hitting of Sheehan, Zarrick and Tra- mutola, and the fielding of McGinnis was very noticeable. The score : SANTA CLARA. AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 3 1 1 1 6 Zarrick, 2b 3 116 4 Tramutola, 3b 2 2 2 12 2 Sheehan, lb 3 1 3 11 1 Ramage, c 4 5 Harwood, rf 3 110 Pitzpatrick, If 3 12 Milburn, cf 2 1 Whelan, p 3 10 Total 26 5 10 27 15 2 STANFORD. AB R H PO A E Terry, ss 5 2 3 2 Halm, p 4 2 1 Workman, lb 4 2 10 Dent, c 5 5 2 Day, cf 4 3 Stafford, 2b 4 10 2 4 AB R H PO A E Dooling, If 3 110 1 MeCloskey, 3b 3 2 3 Noonon, rf 4 2 Totals 36 1 9 24 14 1 SANTA CLARA 3, STANFORD 2. By defeating Stanford in the final game of our intercollegiate series with them the Varsity won the annual in- tercollegiate baseball series, two games out of three. This game was the closest and most interesting played between the two rival teams this year. " Pinkey " Leonard pitched his first intercollegiate game and his curves proved unsolvable for the Cardinal batters until the sixth inning, when Workman and Dent, the first two bat- ters up, were hit by pitched balls and a hit by Noonan to center scored both runners. Dick Whelan pitched the remaining two innings for the Varsity, and only seven batters faced him, this one man reaching first on an error. In the fifth inning ' ' Dutch ' ' Harwood worked Halm for a base on balls, and Fitzpatrick sacrificed him to second. Milburn beat out a bunt along third base line putting Harwood on third. Dent ' s throw to catch Milburn stealing second hit the rvinner on the arm and the ball bounced into the field, Har- wood scored. The game went along nicely until the eighth, when Fitzpatrick singled to center and Milburn bunted through the Stanford infield. Workman handled 248 THE REDWOOD. the ball and tried to catch Fitzpatrick stealing third, but the throw was wild and Fitzpatrick scored, Milburn go- ing to third. Milburn scored on Mc- Ginnis ' s grounder to McCloskey. The score : SANTA CLARA. AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 4 4 3 Zarrick, 2b 4 1 2 2 Tramutola, 3b 4 1 3 4 1 Sheehan, c 4 12 2 Ramage, c 4 1 4 2 Harwood, rf 3 1 1 Fitzpatrick, If 2 1110 Milburn, cf 3 1 2 1 1 Leonard, p 2 Whelan, p 2 Total 31 3 6 27 16 2 STANFORD. AB R H PO A E Terry, ss 5 1 6 Dooling, If 4 1 Workman, lb 3 1 7 1 Dent, c 3 1 9 1 Stafford, 2b 2 1 1 1 Day, cf 3 2 4 Noonan, rf 4 1 McCloskey, 3b 4 1 2 2 1 Maple, p 1 1 1 Halm, p 2 1 1 Total 31 2 7 27 10 3 Summary: Three base hit — Zarrick. Two base hit — Noonan. Stolen bases — Milburn, Terry Tramutola. Bases on balls — off Maple 1, Leonard 1, Halm 4. Credit victory to Leonard. Charge defeat to Halm. Scorer — Kavanaugh. SANTA CLARA 2, ALL STAR COL- LEGIANS 1. The Varsity battled twelve innings with the " All Star Collegians, " a team composed of former versatile athletes from various universities and the game proved a difficult one to win, as pitcher Hynes for the visitors pitched splendid ball and with perfect support might have won. Not until the sixth inning did the visitors secure a hit off of Stewart ' s delivery, and moreover only three scattered hits were obtained off of him during the entire game. Hynes hit a clean drive to center in the sixth, and advanced to third when Ramage threw wild to Whelan at first to catch the runner. Hynes scored on Cass ' infield out. In the eighth inning " Bennie " Fitz- patrick hit a hot liner to " Art " Scha- fer, the famous Giant infielder, but it proved too difficult for him to handle. Fitzpatrick scored, when Milburn cracked a liner into center field. Harwood led off in the 11th with a single to left, but was forced at sec- ond by Fitzpatrick. Milburn hit a long fly to Cass, putting " Bennie " on sec- ond and Stewart singled, Bennie tak- ing third. At this period of the game a very difficult question arose as to whether the pitched ball hit McGin- nis or not. The ball deflected to the ' grand stand after bouncing off the catcher ' s glove and Fitzpatrick scored. Umpire Dole ruled the ball didn ' t hit McGinnis and the game was ended. The fielding of Boechel, Schafer and Ringham of the visitors frequently won the applause of the spectators, while Zarrick, Ramage and Fitzpatrick per- formed well for the Varsity. THE REDWOOD. 249 WHITE SOX 7, SANTA CLARA 4. Terminating their 1914 training sea- son, the noted " Chicago White Sox " had to extend themselves to conquer the " Mission Lads. " Reb Russell occupied the mound for the visitors, and his world wide repu- tation quickly explains his ability as a pitcher. For four consecutive innings " Archie " Stewart, twirled unbeatable ball, but " Ping " Bodie started the scoring by hitting a terrific drive into right field for three bags. Berger scored him on a hit over second. Lord advanced Berger to second on an in- field hit. Chase sent a high one aviat- ing through the air to Milburn, but Alcock beat the throw to third. Both runners scored on Lathrop ' s hit to left. Art Ramage opened the second in- ning with a safe hit to center, but was forced at second by Harwood. Fitz- patrick hit to left sending Harwood to second. Milburn hit a grounder to Chase ,who forced Fitzpatrick at sec- ond, but when Alcock tried to double Milburn at first he threw wild, and Harwood scored. In the eighth the Varsity registered twice. McGinnis started the rally by doubling in left. Zarrick hit to left, but Collins tried to catch McGrinnis at third, and threw wild, McGinnis scor- ing. Zarrick scored on Tramutola ' s out. The pitching of Russell, and the fielding of Hal Chase and Lord upheld their reputations, while Zarrick was the individual star for the collegians, securing three safeties out of four times at bat. The score : WHITE SOX. AB R H PO A E Alcock, ss 4 3 1 5 3 1 Lord, 2b 5 1 3 Chase, lb 3 1 1 12 1 1 Collins, rf 5 2 2 1 Bodie, cf 3 1 1 Lathrop, If 3 1110 1 Berger, 2b 3 1 1 1 Slight, e 3 2 7 Russel, p 4 1 3 Totals 33 7 11 27 10 4 SANTA CLARA. AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 5 1 1 2 5 Zarrick, 2b 4 1 3 3 3 1 Tramutola, 3b 4 1 1 1 Sheehan, lb 3 10 1 Ramage, c 4 1 4 3 1 Harwood, rf 4 1 1 2 Fitzpatrick, If 4 1 1 Milburn, cf 4 1 4 Stewart, p 4 1 Totals 36 4 7 27 14 3 SANTA CLARA 5, SACRAMENTO 6. Playing sensational ball and holding the Sacramento Coast Leaguers score- less for six innings, the Varsity were unable to retain their lead of 4 to and lost a hard fought game by the score of 6 to 5. Southpaw Whelan pitched the en- tire game for the " Mission Lads " and but for one bad inning he would have easily defeated his oponents. Whelan started the scoring in the third, when he singled ; McGinnis bunt- ed safely and when Keegan threw wild Whelan scored and McGinnis took sec- 250 THE EEDWOOD. ond. When Tenant booted Sheehan ' s grounder McGrinnis ambled home with the second run of the inning. It was not until the fourth inning did more than three Wolves face Whe- lan. In the fourth Deacon Van Buren singled to right. Young walked, and De Forrest singled through short, fill- ing the bags. Moran ' s out at first scored Van Buren. Colwell relieved Keegan in the box and the Collegians increased their lead by two more runs in the seventh. With two gone Zarriek singled, stole second and continued to third on Hannah ' s high throw. Tramutola walked and stole second and Sheehan ' s single into left scored both runners. Three runs to the bad, the Wolves took the lead in the seventh and eighth innings. Moran singled, and beat a throw to second, giving Schweitzer a Cincinnati hit; Giannini beat out a bunt, filling the bags; Hannah was hit by a pitched ball, forcing in a run, and Colwell ' s out at first sent over the sec- ond. The score: SANTA CLARA. AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 4 1 1 5 Zarriek, 2b 4 1 2 1 3 Tramutola, 3b 4 1114 Sheehan, lb 4 1 14 Ramage, c 3 1 1 1 Harwood, cf 3 2 Fitzpatriek, If 4 1 1 Milburn, cf 4 3 Whelan, p 2 1 1 1 Carberry 1 Totals 32 5 6 24 14 1 SACRAMENTO. AB R H PO A E Van Buren, If 5 1 2 1 Young, ss 3 3 2 1 De Forrest, 2b 2 1 2 1 Tennant, lb 4 1 2 6 1 Moran, cf 3 2 1 5 Schweitzer, If 3 2 1 1 Giannini, 3b 4 12 Hannah, e 2 1 10 1 Keegan, p... 2 2 1 Colwell, p 2 1 Totals 37 6 9 27 8 5 SACRAMENTO 7, SANTA CLARA 5. The " Sacramento Coast Leaguers " scored their second successive victory over the Varsity by the close score of 7 to 5._ Recruit Kremmer occupied the mound for Sacramento and for seven innings held the Varsity to a lone score. In the fifth inning Zarriek walked and Tramutola advanced him safely to second and Marco scored on Milburn ' s hit over short. Stewart twirled for the Collegians, and errors at critical moments, cou- pled with three hits, accounted for the Sacramento runs. Van Buren singled to left, and Tennant reached first on an error. Moran hit sharply to right cen- ter, scoring both runners. Moran scored when Giannini hit a sacrifice fly to center field. " Mike Cann, " ex- star pitcher for St. Mary ' s College, pitched the remaining two innings, and the Varsity obetained four runs off of his delivery. Zarriek walked and Tramutola hit THE REDWOOD. 251 safely, advancing Zarrick to second. Sheehan grounded to Tennant, moving both runners up a bag. Ramage walk- ed, filling the bags. Harwood ' s single scored Zarrick and Tramutola. Ram- age scored on Milburn ' s infield hit. Leonard relieved Stewart in the sixth, and by remarkable pitching in pinches held the big leaguers scoreless. Much to their surprise, McGinnis and Sheehan received two large beautiful bouquets of carnations from their friends just as Umpire Shea announced " Play Ball. " COLORED GIANTS 5, SANTA CLARA 2. The famous " Colored Giants " of Chicago held their reputation by easily defeating the Varsity by a score of 5 to 2. This aggregation is considered by critics as one of the best balanced teams in the world, ranking next to " Connie Mack ' s Athletics, " and the fans who witnessed the game remark- ed that it was the best hitting and fielding team that ever played at Luna Park. The playing of Frances, the brawny dwarf, on the third station for the Giants, took the eye of the local fans, while Lloyd at shortstop also fielded very gracefully, handling many diffi- cult chances, which against ordinary players would have easily been hits. A large part of the colored popula- tion of the valley was present to give the visitors a welcome, and they rooted in a lively and good-humored way throughout the afternoon. Leonard pitched remarkable ball, and for an occasional error or two might have held the visitors to a close score. Whelan twirled the final three innings, and easily succeeded in hold- ing the heavy slugging " Giants " scoreless. The score: SANTA CLARA. AB R H PO A E McGinnis, ss 1 3 6 1 Tramutola, 3b. .....5 2 1 1 1 Harwood, rf 4 1 Zarrick, 2b 3 13 7 1 Sheehan, If and p.. 4 1 4 Ramage, c 4 1 1 1 Casey, ef 5 2 3 Whelan, lb and p.. 3 1 12 1 Leonard, p 1 3 Carberry, If 1 Totals 31 2 6 27 19 4 COLORED GIANTS. AB R H PO A E Gans, If 3 2 1 Hill, cf 5 1 2 5 Taylor, lb 4 7 Lloyd, ss 4 2 3 1 Barbour, rf 4 1 1 1 Broker, e 4 1 1 5 2 Monroe, 2b 3 1 1 1 Daugherty, p 3 1 3 Wade, p 1 1 3 Frances, 3b 3 1 3 Totals 24 5 8 30 7 1 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 3, SANTA CLARA 3. Donning their new uniforms three days prior to their big intercollegiate game, the California team succeeded in holding the Varsity to the close score of 3 to 3 during a twelve inning battle. 252 THE REDWOOD. Gelfin twirled for California and the excellent support he received by his teammates was responsible for the close score. In the third inning, after two men were out, Harwood hit safely and scored on Pitzpatriek ' s home run to left center. California likewise scored once in their half of the third, when Pitcher Gelfin hit a home run into right field bleachers. Some one relieved Gelfin in the eighth and held the Varsity to one run during the remaining five innings. " Cui " McGinnis opened the ninth with a stinging single into right field. Zarrick sacrificed him safely to sec- ond. McGinnis scored on Sheehan ' s terrific drive into left center. The California batters started a ninth inning rally and with three run- ners on bases and none out were pre- vented from scoring by clever and speedy fielding on the Varsity ' s part. Archie Stewart twirled the entire game for Santa Clara, and his bewilder- ing speed and unhittable curves were the subject of lengthy discussion. SANTA CLARA 12, UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA 1. In our annual intercollegiate base- ball game with Reno the " Red and White " easily triumphed over our rivals by an overwhelming score of 12 to 1. Owing to our agreement with the University of Reno the latter protested Captain Ramage, Zarrick, Sheehan, McGinnis and Tramutola because they played with outside teams after studies had been resumed at school. The strength of these individual was keenly felt, nevertheless the team that battled for the " Red and White " played errorless ball, and proved valu- able hitters. Santa Clara started scoring in the second inning when Whelan hit safely to center. Leonard sacrificed him to second. Whelan scored when Carberry h it a terrific drive to center. Casey hit for two bags, ' .scoring Carberry. Concannon was issued a pass and both runners scored on Stewart ' s hard drive to left field. Likewise (the sagebrushers scored only only run in this inning, when Moore hit safely over second. Sheehy sacrificed him safely to second and the runner scored on Abbot ' s hit through second. Not being contented with a five-run lead, the " Mission Lads " came back strong in the fifth, when Pitzpatrick, Leonard and Milburn (singled, Har- wood hit a triple into left center, scor- ing all three runners. The fielding of Pitzpatrick, Leonard, Whelan and Casey .occasionally won. the applause of the spectators for thrill- ing plays, while " Dutch " Harwood proved the individual star with the wil- low, connecting for four safeties. Captain Abbot, for Reno, was the most persistent player on his team. THE REDWOOD. 253 TRACK NOTES. Captain Bert Hardy issued the final track call immediately after the Easter vacation, and thirty -five ; eager candi- dates responded. Since having acquired the services of " Dad " Moulton unusual interest in track athletic activities are being man- ifested and " Dad " )feels confident a winning team will represent " The Red and White, " providing each individual member of the squad does everything within his power to observe the rules of training and faithfully obey his commands. At present Captain Hardy, Curtin, Soto, Gianochio, Bennie Pitzpatrick and Uhl are showing speed in the sprints, while McCarthy, McLaughlin, Gianella, Trabucco, Ojeda, Lyons and Booth are performing remarkably well in the distance events. Donahue and Allen are attempting to lower the record in the pole vault, and present indications show that their attempts will be successful. J. Fitzpatrick, the veteran hurdler, is clearing the high timber in great form, while Kiely and Cochina need no praise for their ability in the weight events. Reports from Nevada University show they have an exceedingly well balanced team, so let ' s show our zeal and " pep " and repeat our annual feat by defeat- ing them. No definite date has as yet been ap- pointed on which the meet will be held, but Captain Hardy expects the meet will be in Reno on May 2nd. Meets are being arranged with " The Olympic Club, " " Pastime Club " and Stanford Freshman. List of contributors to Turf-field Fund up to April 16th, 1914. T. I. Bergin, Curtis H. Lindley, Clar- ence Coolidge, Walter S. Martin, C. M. Cassin, J. Downey Harvey, R. 0. Bliss, Josephine R. Dunne, Rev. W. A. Flem- ing, Elmer Westlake, Charles K. MeClatchy, Matt Draghicevich, C. Y. Byington, G. W. Ehrer, John B. Shea, H. E. Wilcox, John M. Burnett, Esq., John Riordan, Byington Ford, Enrico G. Maggetti, H. L. Middleton, John S. Hogan, J. E. Green, Dr. J. M. Toner, Luis G. Fatjo, Victor A. Scheller, Frank Parry, C. M. Lorigan, L. A. Wolf, Cle- mente Colombet, Hon. Charles A. Thompson, E. Cleaves, D. J. Murphy, R. S. Covert, Joseph Scott, Geo. Whar- ton James, W. J. Kieferdorf, Dr. A. P. O ' Brien. M. A. KIELY, Chairman, EDWIN BOOTH, EMIL COSCHINA, RODNEY YOELL, Pres. Student Body, CHAUNCEY TRAMUTOLA, Graduate Manager. AlA MNI ' 70 ' 80 Strange as it may seem, lit- tle or nothing is to be heard of late from the boys of 70 ' s and 80 ' s. The Alma Mater cher- ishes their memory, but they do not seem to reciprocate this whole-hearted affection. We are not in receipt of any of those communications that came of old, laden with the aspirations of those who since then have accomplished their aims, and who at least owe this little tribute of a passing word through these columns to their brethren in the fra- ternal Alumni of Santa Clara Univer- sity. They have not forgotten, nor can they ever forget the little College in the Santa Clara Valley; but the filial spirit lies dormant beneath the cares of business life. Let them awaken to a realization of the fact that their little College heretofore is the budding Uni- versity, and that their encouragement and assistance is the necessary fruit on which we thrive. Hon. John Sullivan, ' 96, an ' 96 Alumnus of the dim but un- forgotten past who has in his honor and intergity so long upheld the good name of his Alma Mater, is again in the office of Police Judge, to which position he was elected by an overwhelming majority. Mr. Sullivan has long been remembered at the Uni- versity, and his career is earnestly followed by all of his old associates in the Alumni. He is held up as a model to the rising lawyers in the Law Depart- ment of the University, and we are certain that if such a worthy example is conscientiously followed, Santa Clara University will become re- nowned for her output of good attor- neys at law. Chas. D. South, A. M., ' 01, ' 01 has recently come under our notice through his appoint- ment to the office of Postmaster of the City of Santa Clara. Mr. South for the 254 THE REDWOOD. 255 past years has been yielding substantial service to his Alma Mater as a Professor of English and Latin at the University. He composed the famous play en- titled " Constance, " which was staged at the University in 1909, and was produced last year at the Valencia Theatre in San Francisco by the stu- dents of St. Ignatius University. He was lately appointed to an Assistant Editorship on the San Jose Times, and his literary attainments may be judged by those who have followed the past issues of the " Redwood, " which was the recipient of much of his attention while he was among us. Prof. South is remembered with love and reverence by all of his late pupils at the Univer- sity. George Mayerle Jr., A. B., ' 08 ' 08, an alumnus of the fa- mous class of ' 08, is an- announced in the society columns of the newspapers as being engaged. The wedding is rumored to be about to take place, probably at the end of the Lenten season. " Dutch " will lead to the altar as his bride Miss Clara B. Reich, a well known society belle of San Francisco. Since his graduation and even during his college life George has always been of greatest service to his Alma Mater. Last year he handled the role of Don Alvarado in the ' ' Mission Play ' ' with such con- summate skill and art, that his success attracted the praise of the most promi- nent critics in California. George, though a merry benedict, will still be the same old " Dutch " and will con- tinue to occupy the friendly niche in collegian hearts as heretofore. Con- gratulations and good wishes, George. Ed White, a former Presi- ' 12 dent of the Student Body and who served us so well in the capacity of Graduate Manager in the year of 1911-12, is now practicing law in the office of Joseph Scott, the well-known Catholic attorney of Los Angeles. Ed, who was one of the most celebrated of all Student Body Presi- dents, and who was also Editor-in- Chief of the Redwood, is studying in the company of another of the Alumni, Jos. Parker, ex- 12, both of whom were recently in our midst. All three were of the greatest prominence in College affairs here two years ago, and they are continuing their work in the world with the same vim that characterized them as students. Our hci rtiest v ishes for success and happiness. Royal A. Bronson, who also was Graduate Manager and Editor of The Redwood, and a prominent debater in The Senate and winner of The Ryland Prize, is practicing in the office of Dan- iel Ryan in San Francisco. ' 13 Edwin Carlin, ex- ' 12, one of the well-known men of the campus, has also decid- ed that wedding bells are the sweetest chimes. ' ' Tam, " as he was affection- ately nicknamed during the latter part 256 THE REDWOOD. of his career at the University, has al- ready " had it over with. " He was united in the bonds of marriage to Mies Marie Gordon Tobin, a prominent heiress of St. Louis. The ceremony was performed by Fr. Boland of the Uni- versity, in the University Chapel, on Friday, April 3, 1914. Ed is affection- ately remembered by his classmates of ' 12, who speak of him as the spirit of the Junior Class. The old boys of Santa Clara all wish him the sweetest of honeymoons, and a happy wedded life thereafter. THE REDWOOD. Spring Time is Here, So is Billy Hobson With the Largest Line of English Suits ever shown. Also a large selection of Box Backs in all the latest shades. Drop in and try a few of the new models on, and see what we are doing. Remember, We Make Suits to Your Order from $20.00 to $45.00 BILLY HOBSON 24 South First Street, San Jose, Cal. ) Tl ?dlN $( Su Showing Famous Players in Big Productions in Motion Pictures First Street near San Antonio, San Jose Continuous Performance f ariatan igetttg $c Ollf amttg ®o. NINTH AND SANTA CLARA STREETS Contract Work a Specialty Suit a Week $1.50 a Month Wagons call regularly three times a week Phone San Jose 900 SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. " See that fit " J. u says: Clothes don ' t make the man, but they certainly make him a whole lot, better looking. Test it on yourself with a smart Win- ninger Suit. J. U. Winninger n ' A S. First St., San Jose A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Have you ever experienced the convenience of a ground floor gallery? RATES TO STUDENTS BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND 41 North First Street San Jose, Cal. THE REDWOOD For Real Style for Real Fit, for Best Quality Try Hart Schaffner and Marx Clothes YOUNG MEN ' S SPRING MODELS READY Established 1865 spring a, 3(«r. SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STREETS LEADERS ! THESE ENGLISH SHAPE SHOES EQUIPPED WITH Rubber Soles nd Heels The High or Low Cuts — Are all the go this season — A complete selection at Established 1869 $4, $5, $5.50 TAN OR WHITE 18 TO 26 E. SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE VICE-PRES. OF EDWARD J. KNAPP BEESWAX CANDLE CO. 137-139 SACRAMENTO STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of tlie Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR THE JEWEL BAKERY 1151 Frankin St. Santa Clara " DON ' T WURRY ' Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE. CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Mestaurant, G Hll and Oyster House w 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. Telephone, Oakland 2777 Hagens MEN ' S TAILORING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WOOLENS 521 12th Street OAKLAND, CAL. W Mission Town Chocolates Headquarters for College boys We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box. Only at Franklin St. MADDEN ' S PHARMACY, Santa Clara THE REDWOOD. HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California Vargas Bros. C-: LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies SwhS yt ' TnX Main Line, Santa Clara 120 Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. The Carruther Studio RATES TO STUDENTS FINE FOTOS 26 S. First Street, San Jose THE REDWOOD. HAIR LET THE ' UNIVERSITY BARBERS PARASITIC GROWTH TRAIN IT The Adler-Rochester Clothes Ready to Wear - from $20.00 to $30.00 Suits Made to Order from $25.00 to $40.00 Cunningham Son 78 South First Street San Jose, Cal. Doll ' s Home Bakery " s TaM::f ' sanitary Methods Our Slogan Next door to Colonica ' s Candy Store Delivery Service P. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. Origlia LamoUe Grille— -« 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR y s CATERS TO THE THIS (T o fcl OST TRADE-MARK -— — - FASTIDIOUS THE REDWOOD. ■ Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Sallows Rorke Ring us for a hurry-up Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Delivery :: :: :: Post Cards Phone S. C. 13R Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. F. O. ROLL Ravenna Paste Company Real Estate and Manufacturers of All Kinds of Insurance ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line Phone San Jose 787 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Phones : No. 14 Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y MR. BALI PI AYER: Do You Realize that the CORK CENTER BALL DR. H. O. F. MENTON Is the Official Ball of the World Series, and Dentist that no other style of ball can be used m World Series games? Don ' t you want to play with the ball all the big leagues use? Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. The SPALDING " Official National League " 959 Main Street Santa Clara CORK CENTER BALL $1.25 each Is the Official Ball of the World Series and the officially adopted ball of the big majority of all professional and amateur leagues and S. A. Elliott Son of the most prominent colleges and schools Plumbing and througliout the United States. SPAr raNG (issgll) Gas Fitting Base Ball Uniforms WORN BY THE CHAMPIONS GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Send for samples of material, measurement blanks. etc.. free. Copy of Spalding Catalogue free on request to any address. Telephone S. C. 70 J A. G. Spalding Bros. 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. 156 Geary Street San Francisco THE REDWOOD. J. B. ENOS NEAT HAIR CUTTING A SPECIALTY Glok Barter Sliof All Work Done on Premises Suits from S25.00 up (Formerly Holmes Malinow) POPULAR PRICED TAILOlt 121 NORTH FIRST STREET Phone San Jose 1646 SAN JOSE, CAL. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA Reasonably Priced Satisfactory Stock University Drug Co, Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. SANTA CRUZ FISH AND POULTRY MARKET E. PEREZ J. BUDNA, Proprietors 77 E. SAN FERNANDO STREET, SAN JOSE PHONE, SAN JOSE 1870 LOUIS PEREZ, Manager THE REDWOOD. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Da me Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose Sutter 4221 Smith, Lynden Co. Wholesale Grocers BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Wm. McCarthy Sons Coffee TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE-REDWOOD. SEE THAT IS IN YOUR HAT SAN JOSE • FRESNO STOCKTON Have You Noticed How popular the big new shop has grown? There ' s a reason: Headquarters for up to the minute snappy togs for young fellows The White House IS -2 2- W. SA N TA CLARAS THE REDWOOD. Low Round-Trip Fares East TICKETS SOLD MAY 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26. 31 JUNE 1. 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. 9, 10, 11, 15, 16. 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 JULY 2, 3, 7, 8. 9. 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 27. 28, 29, 30, 31 AUGUST 3, 4, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 SEPTEMBER 4, 5, 9, 10, 11 ADDITIONAL DATES April 29, 30, May 1 to New York City $108.50 May 3, 4, 5. 6, to Atlanta, Ga. - - 93.40 May 11, 12, 13 to Louisville, Ky. - - 84.50 August 25, 26, 27, to Detroit, Mich. - 83.50 Going Limit 15 days, trip to commence on date of sale. Final return limit three months from date of sale, but not latei than October 31, 1914. Liberal stopovers and choice of routes going and returning. SOME OF THE RATES Boston, Mass $110 50 New Orleans, La 70 00 Chicago, 111 72 50 New York, N. Y 108 50 Colorado Springs, Colo , 55 00 Omaha, Neb 60 00 Council Bluffs, Iowa 60 00 Portland, Me 113 50 Dallas, Tex 62 50 Pueblo, Colo 55 00 Denver, Colo 55 00 Quebec, P. Q 116 50 Duluth. Minn 83 30 St. Louis, Mo 70 00 Forth Worth, Tex... 62 50 St. Paul, Minn 75 70 Kansas City, Mo 60 00 Toronto, Ont 95 70 Memphis, Tenn 70 00 Washington, D. C 107 50 Montreal, P. Q 108 00 (Salt Lake City and Ogden quoted on application) A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. 40 East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific There are Attractive Resorts Every Few Miles On Lines of Southern Pacific See Agents: SAN FRANCISCO: Flood Bldg., Ferry Station Palace Hotel, Third and Townsend Sts. Station OAKLAND: Broadway Thirteenth St. Sixteenth St. Station PALO ALTO: SAN JOSE: 40 E. Santa Clara St. Santa Cruz and Big Trees The " Atlantic City of the West. " Hotels. Casino and pleasure piers. Cliff drives. Motoring, Golf Links. Sea Fishing. Del Monte and Monterey Charming Hotel. Beautiful Gardens. 40 Mile Drive. Bathing, Boating, Fish- ing, Golf. Pacific Grove and Carmel-by-the-Sea Delightful Family Resorts. Bathing Beaches and Sea Fishing. Shasta Springs and Resorts Delightful Places amid Craigs and Pines. Excellent Trout Fishing in season. Lake Tahoe In high Sierras, at elevation of 6,240 feet, noted for its trout fishing. Hotels and resorts, with daily steamer trips around the lake. Upper Klamath Lake and Crater Lake Unsurpassed trout fishing. Comfort- able quarters amid forest and moun- tains. Auto and motor boat service from Klamath Falls. Yosemite National Park Mariposa Big Trees Nature ' s Wonders. A half day or night from Los Angeles or San Francisco, Paso Robles Hot Springs. Hotel and finely equipped mineral baths. A place for rest and out- door recreation. Golf Links, Tennis. Santa Barbara The " Mission City. " Ocean boulevard. Hotels delightfully situated. Sea fish- ing. Yachting. Golf. Beautiful Moun- tain Drives. Los Angeles and Vicinity Noted Tourist Center. Ocean beaches within 30 minutes to an hour by electric lines. Bathing. Sea fishing. Hotels and Pleasure Resorts. TUP DCDWOOD May, 1914 ENGINEERING NUMBER THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER B. THORNTON, S. J., President THE REDWOOD. ATTEND THE= Cherry Carnival Track and Field Meet SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JUNE 6 AT TWO O ' CLOCK University of Santa Clara Oval Olympic, National and World Champion Athletes will compete San Jose Safe Deposit Bank One Million Capital and Surplus Checking Accounts Savings Accounts Safe Deposit Boxes OFFICERS : E. McLaughlin, President W. H. PABST, Cashier JOHN F. BROOKE, Vice Pres. J. H. RUSSELL, Asst. Cashier THE REDWOOD. Phone S. C. 14 B. DOWNING, EDITOR Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make It better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 UGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES lank 0f iltalg SAVINGS-COMMERCIAL CAPITAL PAID UP $1,250,000.00 ASSETS $15,882,911.61 SAN JOSE SAN MATEO WATCHMAKER ENGRAVER GRADUATION GIFTS E. L. REIDING JEWELER Phone 4027 15 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. IF YOU ONLY KNEW WHAT Mayerle ' s German Eyewater DOES TO YOUR EYES YOU WOULDN ' T BE WITHOUT IT A SINGLE DAY At Druggisbj soc. or 65c by Gcorgc Maycrle, German Expert Optician 960 Market Street, San Francisco THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lilienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Oflfice, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. C OIMMON S The college man is quick to resent any lapse from the fitness of things. The reason why he buys WALK-OVER Shoes is that they ' re always just what they should be for what he wants them. That ' s the whole story in a nut-shell $3.50 to $6.00 Walk-Over Boot Shop 41-43 South First Street SAN JOSE, CAL. Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Dr. Wong Him Residence 1268 O ' Farrell Street Between Gough and Octavia Phones: West 6870 . Homes 3458 Sao Fraiicisco, Cal. UNIVERSITY of ST. IGNATIUS SAN FRANCISC O, CALIFORNIA The University embraces tlie following Departments: A — COLLEGE OF LETTERS, SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. A four years ' college course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B — THE COLLEGE OF LAW. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and beginning Junior Year. C — THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science In Civil Engineering, and beginning in Freshman year. D — THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course in Chemistry, Bacteriology, Biology and Anatomy for prospective students of Medicine. This course begins in Junior year. ST. IGNATIUS HIGH SCHOOL An efficient course covering four years from the completion of standard grammar schools and preparatory to the University. REV. ALBERT F. TRIVELLI, S. J., President. THE REDWOOD. MANUEL MELLO Dealer in j o Boots and 1 O ' Connor Sanitarium j %V Shoes •f A " S Training School for Nurses L ' Sv_ IN CONNECTION ' ' ' Jl ' r CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Race and San Carlos Streets San Jose Telephone, San Jose 3496 Men ' s Clothes Shop T.F.Sourisseau Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes Manufacturing JEWELER PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN 143 S. First St, SAN JOSE Phone Santa Clara 74 R 10S4 Franklin St. Ell ;erpriseLauniry(jo. Perfect Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Satisfaction Guaranteed Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s Santa Clara LRU 867 Sherman Street TH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street ALDERMAN ' S NEWS AGENCY M. M. Stationery, Blank Books, Etc. Cigars and Tobacco Billiard Parlor Baseball and Sporting Goods GEO. E.MITCHELL PROP. Fountain Pens of All Kinds SANTA CLARA Next to Postoffice Santa Clara Pool 2J4 Cents per Cue THE REDWOOD. Express your Personality in clothes that are made to your exact measurements. Get the individual service of our famous Chicago tailors, Ed. V. Price Co. The cost is about the same as is asked for ready-mades that are cut by machines and lacking in distinction of correct fit and in- dividuality. Styles and Service spell satis- faction in clothes you get here. See our new woolens and leave your measure— TODAY. Prices reasonable. W. H. O ' BANNON AGENT Men ' s Hatters and Furnishers 23 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose iz CONTENTS YESTERDAY AND Today - - Arthur V . Navlet 257 ENGINEERS - - - - G. L. Sullivan 258 PROF. JOHN J. MONTGOMERY ' S PLACE AMONG THE INVENTORS OF THE AEROPLANE - Will Lotz 264 MISSION ARCHITECTURE - - E. V. Fuchs 271 Scientific management - - i. Alvin Oliver 278 RETAINING WALLS - - Thad. W. Macauley 287 THE CONTROL OF THE LOCK MACHINERY OF THE PANAMA CANAL _ - - Richard Fox 290 EDITORIALS - - - . - - 298 UNIVERSITY NOTES ----- 301 ATHLETICS - - - _ - _ 303 PATTERN SHOP jspHI ' .i H 1 ifii f " ' i Wi WM m SURVEYING CLASS Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XII SANTA CLARA, CAL., MAY, 1914 No. 6 Scbag mh f jst r ag He gazed in a ' we, that spirit old From a tomb in Leiniios ' Isle, At the Tionders worked by man today, Who over Nature holds his sway; And he mused with himself the while: " Your buildingrs ye rear to the fleecy clouds. Majestic, towering, grand; By a thousand ribs of steel strong-stayed. Concrete lends to man its aid, Till Nature ' s death, to stand. " Ye have conquered all! Far-stretching out Ye have placed a mighty ban On the restless, heaving, weary deep, Wliere the tired ships in the harbor sleep Behind walls placed there by man! " Yet not the sea, the deep-dug earth. Nor suffice the rivers that flow. But the air must yield to your dominant will As the wings of your bird-like monsters fill. O ' er mountains capped with snow. way was " The gorges are spanned by your bridges " Some centuries hence, ' twas far from thus! high. Skeleton-like their form, liinking the jaws of a deep abyss. Clutching the sides of a precipice, ' V ' ' ithstanding cnrrent and storm. ¥e toiled from birth to death. Through straitened paths, our hard — Jilt perfected now, the designs of God Fase your toiling breath. " " Your cities are joined by ribbons of steel. Black monsters ply between; Straight as an arrow on the plain. Sinuous, in the hills, with pain Laborious pants the steam. The spirit sighed at these wondrous tasks. Victories of man ' s great brain, — Sighed, and vanished from my sight. Back to the tomb ' s black cheerless night, But his words with me remain. Arthur V. Navlet, B. Sc. ' 17. ENGINEERS HE man is foolish who invests his time and money before he inves- tigates the prospects of an adequate return. The student who spends four years stu- dying engineering has from $800.00 to $3000.00 and his time invested. What are the prospects of an adequate re- turn? I shall try and outline the facts and let each one decide for himself whether or not the advantages are worth the cost. I will not try to evaluate the moral training that may be obtained, as it is very hard to measure its worth by the ordinary standards. Outside of this, I should place the development of the mind as first in importance. The man who completes a four year course in a good university finds his views of lif e broadened, his acquaintanceship more cosmopolitan and his capacity for en- joyment increased. He finds his years fuller and sweeter and his capacity to be helpful to his fellowman to be great- er. Many people ridicule the College man, but it is usually from envy as his severest critics open their arms widest to him. Note the respect that the ' ' Col- lege Man " receives in a gathering, be it social, athletic, political or business. The very criticism he receives is a trib- ute, as it reveals the fact that more is expected of, and usually received, from a college man than from one who has not had the advantage of that training. It may seem mercenary to figure out the dollars and cents part of a college man ' s income, because other advant- ages far outweigh the pecuniary ad- vantages, but the college man has ac- quired expensive tastes, and if he will not be able to earn the wherewithal to gratify his taste for the better things of life it might be better were he not to acquire that taste. If his income will be commensurate with a taste that is satisfied with moving pictures, he is foolish to cultivate a taste for grand opera. The college man does acquire a taste for the grand opera things of life from amusements to dwelling house and if his income is so small that he cannot gratify that taste to some degree he is apt to live a dissatisfied life. He has learned to appreciate the best in music, art and literature ; to him travel is a delight, his wife is prob- ably a woman of culture, and if it takes his best energies to provide the bare necessities of life he cannot be said to have succeeded. Thus we see that while money does not mean success, a fair income is necessary. In order that no student, who is stu- dying engineering, may be disappoint- ed, I will try and outline the life and income of the ordinary engineer. First 258 THE REDWOOD. 259 let me say that there are failures in all lines, and the fact that a man has fin- ished a college course does not insure that he will succeed, however, if your instructors advise you to study engin- eering and you finish a course in en- gineering and are interested enough in your subject to work, you are reason- ably sure of keeping up with the aver- age engineer, and if you are sufficient- ly interested to work hard enough, you are reasonably sure of attaining a high place. in the profession. The main dif- ference between the man with a na- tional reputation and one with no rep- utation, is that one has the capacity for continued hard work, covering years, devoted to a single purpose, the other has not the will or inclination or interest to force himself to work con- tinuously toward a definite end. He either does not work, or he scatters his efforts over too many purposes. If you are interested enough in any subject so that it is a pleasure to read articles dealing with that subject, or to do work of that kind, you can suc- ceed in that line if you want to. And if you really want to succeed in any line you will be interested enough so that you can devote your whole atten- tion toward that end. You may think you want to succeed, but you can ' t want to succeed and want to do a lot of other things incompatible with suc- cess. For instance, you cannot want to succeed and want to smoke cigar- ettes. It does not take extraordinary natural ability to make a successful en- gineer. If you are interested in en- gineering and have passed your high school subjects creditably you have suf- ficient natural ability and all you need is to develop it. Your classmate may be more brilliant than you, but you may develop into a more competent en- gineer than he, just as the sprinter with less natural ability may win the race due to more faithful training. So we may conclude that if you are interested in engineering and wish to become a prominent engineer, you can do so. Do not worry and wonder whether you will succeed or not, you will succeed if you keep trying and in the meantime the work will become so interesting that, by the time you do succeed and the monetary reward, which perhaps was the primary cause of your interest, has reached the desired figure, it will have become of secondary importance, and the work itself will have become of ab- sorbing interest. With these preliminary remarks I will give a general outline of some of the lines you may travel in becoming a famous engineer and resume of cur- rent salaries paid to engineers as de- termined by a number of different in- vestigations. In any branch of engineering you may work for some one for a definite salary, you may open an office and en- gage in consulting practice, or you may become a contractor. In any case you will probably get your start work- ing for some one for a salary. If your inclinations are commercial you will find the financial rewards of successful contracting, manufacturing or dealing 260 THE EEDWOOD. in engineering supplies to be greater than yoiir salary. It is a custom for doctors and lawyers to open offices for consulting work immediately, even though their work consists, at first, mainly in holding down a chair or col- lecting rents and affixing notary seals. The young engineer may also open an office and eke out a living by blue- printing, drafting, etc., but he will do better to wait until he has a reputation before opening an office. If you have completed a course in Mechanical or Electrical Engineering you will probably enter the employ of some large corporation as a special ap- prentice. Nearly all large industrial companies now maintain these special apprentice courses, you must be a Uni- versity graduate to enter and you are given two years to complete the course. During these two years you spend a short time in each department of the works. You have a chance to become familiar with the work in the main of- fice, the testing floor, the machine shop, the foundry, the forge shop, the drafting room, the production mana- ger ' s office, the routing office, the in- spection department, the sales depart- ment, etc. During this time your pay is small, from $60 to $90 a month, but you are of very little present value to the company. " While taking this course you may show special aptitude for some line of work and you will have the choice of entering one of the three main divisions: production, designing or sales. Your experience will be broad enough to enable you to make a rational choice and the company makes every endeavor to place you in the di- vision for which you are best fitted. Under production comes all the new science of management, the so-called " Scientific Management " which is being applied to all activities of life. It is the duty of this department to manufacture the product with a mini- mum expenditure of labor, machinery and time, and it is one of the most in- teresting divisions of engineering. The works manager must be able to handle men; as the attitude of the working force will depend on his tact. He must be an expert on the processes and ma- chinery used in his line, he must see that the power is conveyed and applied to the best advantage, that there is no lost motion in routing the work through the factory, he must use the wage system best adapted to his conditions and numerous other similar problems are up to him to solve. If you enter the designing depart- ment you will work up through the drafting office and your rise will be slow or rapid, depending on your own energy and ability. If you delight in abstruse problems and new designs you will find plenty of them here, but your designs must first of all be practical and susceptible of commercial appli- cation. It is for this reason that the designer must be familiar with pro- cesses of manufacture. The commercial department has the responsibility of getting the product into the hands of the user. The con- cern may make the finest goods in the THE EEDWOOD. 261 world, but, unless the commercial de- partment succeeds in disposing of the goods the concern is doomed to failure. In order to do its work to the best advantage the commercial department must be familiar with the needs of its patrons and must be thoroughly familiar with the product it is handling. The modern manufac- turing concern will not sell its goods for use for which they are not suited. This means, that their sales- men shall be high class engineers, and a majority of the students who enter the apprentice courses of the large manufacturing companies finally get into the commercial department, where they are called on to give all kinds of expert advice to their customers; in fact a majority of installations are now designed at least in part by the companies selling the equipment. This is especially true of the electrical work and is becoming so even in civil engin- eering where the company that builds a bridge, dam, or other structure, often also does the engineering work on the job. If you choose the commercial di- vision you will be attached to the office force of one of the branch offices, after you have served your apprentice course, and will have a chance to work up to the position of branch manager and then to sales manager. During this time you will be getting valuable experiences in different parts of the country, and if you do not like the work you will have many chances to change. This classification holds for nearly any kind of manufacturing whether it be gas engines, machine tools, automo- biles, traction engines, electric machin- ery, printing presses, locomotives or what not. However, you may not finish the ap- prentice course; customers are always looking for mastei mechanics for their mills or managers for their power plants, and you may leave the company to accept such a position, or you may leave the company to go to a competi- tor, or into another line where you find an opening to suit you. If you do not go to one of the larger companies you may start as a salesman for a company handling machinery, or you may start as assistant manager of a small power company, or as a master mechanic in a small plant, or in any one of a thousand similar positions. From any of these beginnigs you may earn a reputation that will make it worth while to open an office of your own for consulting work. If you have completed a course in civil engineering you will probably make a start as a draftsman in survey- ing or in structural design, or as an inspector on concrete work, or as a rodman or levelman on a surveying party, or as an operator in a testing laboratory. You may develop into a structural designer, or you may go into municipal work (pavements, roads, sewers, etc.), you may go into irriga- tion and drainage work, or you may get into railroad work, or you may take up river and harbor work or the devel- opment of power sites. Your line of 262 THE EEDWOOD. advance will be similar to that of the mechanical or electrical engineer. Of all the lines open to engineers, railroading seems to be the least satisfactory for the technical man. The mechanical, who finishes an apprentice course with a railroad is made an assist- ant round-house foreman, or put in the test department, and his advancement in either ease is slow. The Civil who stays with the railroad is apt to find himself, after ten years work, still chasing from one wilderness to anoth- er, or located on a division where his main duty is to see that the switches aren ' t frozen, to clear away wrecks, and to keep the line in general good order. The teaching profession offers an anomaly, the salaries are lower than in corresponding commercial work, but on the other hand most Universities allow and some require engineering teachers to keep up-to-date by conduct- ing a private practice while teaching. For instance, Professor Mead, of the University of Wisconsin is one of the greatest authorities on hydraulic work in the country and has a consulting practice that is reputed to be worth ten times his salary. Dean Goss of the University of Illinois, a national au- thority on locomotives, is acting head of the Chicago Railroad Terminal Com- mission. Comparisons are odious, but are sometimes useful and I will note inci- dentally that Harvard recently made an investigation to determine the aver- age first year income of their law graduates and found it to be $644.00, The highest salaried public official in the State of New York is an engineer, Alfred Craven, Chief Engineer of the Public Service Commission. His sal- ary is $20,000.00 a year, or twice that of the Governor of the state. The following tables are compiled from Government reports, report by a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Directory of Gradu- ates from the Division of Engineering of Iowa State College, an article in the Colorado Engineer ' s Magazine, and from a private report on salaries paid to technical men in the automobile in- dustry. The table gives the minimum, maximum and average yearly salaries reported and are incomes derived from professional work only. Years after Graduation 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Minimum Salary ...$ 420 $ 500 $ 600 $ 750 $ 720 $ 600 $ 1000 $ 1200 $ 1080 5 750 Maximum Salary ...$1800 $2000 $5000 $3600 $4000 $12000 $10000 $16000 $15000 $30000 Average - ...$ 881 $1112 $1344 $1466 $1661 $ 2036 $ 2130 $ 2331 2538 $ 2577 THE REDWOOD. 263 List of Positions in the Automobile Industry. Position Salary- Draftsman 15-30 @ week Chief Draftsman 1500-3000 @ year Operator in Laboratory...l5-35 @ week Chief in Laboratory ...1500-3000 @ year Shop Foreman 80-175 @ month Shop Superintendent...2000-6000 @ year Production Manager...l500-3000 @ year Factory Manager 3000-12,000 @ year Purchasing Agent 2000-5000 @ year Salesman 1000-5000 @ year Sales Manager 5000-15,000 @ year Metallurgical Engineer 2000-5000 @ year Mechanical Division on Panama Canal Construction. Position Salary Draftsman 112-175 @ month Chief Draftsman 225 @ month Inspector _ 125-175 @ month Testing Engineer 125-200 @ month Boiler Inspector _ 160-175 @ month Mechanical Engineer 275 @ month Superintendent of Division...450 @ mo. Col. G. W. Goethals 15,000 @ year Teachers in Engineering Colleges. Position Salary Instructor 600-1500 @ year Assistant Professors...l000-2000 @ year Professors 1800-4000 @ year Deans _ _2500-10,000 @ year Geo. L. Sullivan. " But finally, let no student pursue an education for its material ends. He should strive to be not only a trained specialist, but also an educated man, and some day, if not now, he will see that the latter is as desirable as the former, " — IRA A. BAKER- PROFESSOR JOHN J. MONTGOMERY ' S PLACE AMONG THE INVENTORS OF THE AEROPLANE J HE idea of mechanical flight, which has become so promi- nent in the last quarter cen- tury is by no means new. Long before the Montgol- fier brothers constructed their first crude balloon, men were trying to imitate the flight of birds by mechanical contrivances. In the eleventh century Oliver de Malmesburg flew three hundred and sixty feet from the top of a tower, breaking his leg in the attempt. Even in Greek mythology we find the story of Daedalos making wings for himself and his son, Icaros, in order to escape from King Minos. Yet the secret of successful flying has remained unsolv- ed until our own time. When we consider that since the eleventh century men have been trying to conquer the air, that up to 1900 no man flew over one thousand feet, and that the aviators will attempt to fly around the world in 1915, we cannot but marvel at the wonderful progress that has recently been made. Prominent Aviators. Unlike the telegraph, the steamboat, and other great inventions of the past, the aeroplane has no Morse or Fulton who can be called the inventor. The success of the invention depends upon the efforts of many men, the most widely known being Lilenthal, Pilcer, Langley, Chanute, and the Wright brothers. The first of these men to achieve prominence was Otto Lilenthal. His investigations, which began in 1871, and developed into actual gliding in 1891, have formed the basis upon which most of the later experimenters have built. In August, 1896, he, like so many other men connected with the advancement of the aeroplane, fell from a glider and was killed. While Lilenthal was experimenting in Germany, in England another man was also contributing to the art of fly- ing. Percy Pilcer began the study in 1882 and ten years later started con- struction upon his first machine. He built, in all, five machines, the most successful of which flew about 800 feet across level country, being towed like a kite. In 1896, two Americans, Octave Cha- nute and Prof. S. P. Langley, became prominent. Chanute began his experi- ments with a Lilenthal glider, but soon progressed to machines of his own de- sign. Intending to eliminate the dan- ger and improve upon the design of the Lilenthal machine, he developed the bi- 264 THE EEDWOOD. 265 plane with wliicli the Wrights began their experiments. Professor Langiey was one of the most successful students of aerodyna- mic problems. His experiments were performed with various sized power- propelled models of the tandem-mono- plane type. After many successful ex- periments, an appropriation of $50,000 was received from the United States War Department for the construction of a man-carrying machine. This ma- chine would probably have teen a suc- cess but for defects in th-e launching apparatus. Orville and Wilbur Wright were the next men to gain renown and are to- day better known than any of the oth- ers. They started in 1900 with a modi- fication of Chanute ' s bi-plane glider. By countless experiments and the free use of all previous knowledge, they finally constructed the first successful power-propelled aeroplane. John J. Montgomery. There is yet another man, almost un- known to the general public, who is entitled to a prominent place among these pioneers, both for the soundness and for the priority of his work. This man is John J. Montgomery, our late professor. Even we, who have passed his deserted workshop in the garden many times and have even witnessed the flights of his aeroplanes, fail to realize how much he has done towards the advancement of aerial flight. Montgomery was interested in aero- nautical problems from boyhood. In 1883 he built his first machine, a flap- ping wing devise that demonstrated to him the futility of experimenting with such machines. During 1884-5, he built three gliders. With one of these a flight of 600 feet was made. This was one of the first really successful flights in history and was made eight years before the first flights of Lilenthal, who is usually given that honor. Despite the success of this flight Montgomery was convinced that the only rational road to success lay, not in blind experimenting with man-car- rying machines, but in the study of the laws of aerodynamics. With this pur- pose in mind, he began the work which led to the discovery of a set of laws before unknown and unguessed. Aeronautical Contributions. These laws, in themselves, do not concern us so much as does the practi- cal application of them. Thus limited, his work can be studied without the lengthy disevissions of fluid pressures and fluid movements which a complete study of the work would involve. His investigations, which concern us, were governed chiefly by three ques- tions : (1) What is the nature of the air currents produced by deflections and disturbances of it? (2) What kind of surface is best suited for creating such disturbances and then using them to the best ad- vantage ? (3) At what angle should such a sur- face be held in order to procure the maximum efficiency ? 266 THE REDWOOD. In investigating the first question, he observed that a surface held ob- liquely in a current of air tends to set up a series of rotations which, under certain circumstances, blend into one with the ascending element of the ro- tation in advance of the surface. The observation of this phenomena led to with a gradually increasing curve and reaches it at a very abrupt angle. This law is admirably presented in Montgomery ' s analysis of the disturb- ances caused by a parabolic surface held in a current of air. " If we place the curved surface in the stream, m (Figure 1), we have a -— Figure 1. the formulation of one of the most im- portant laws in the whole science of ae- ronautics. This law may be stated thus: A current of air approaching an inclined surface is deflected far in ad- vance of that surface, approaches it series of movements beautiful in the extreme and well calculated to inspire enthusiastic admiration for the phe- nomena developed in the soaring or gliding of a bird. — The surface being in the indicated position in the stream. THE EEDWOOD. 267 the movements of the current, as it ap- proaches, are shown by the arrows. It reaches the curve in such a direction as to be cut by the point, a. The por- tion reaching under the surface pro- duces a decided pressure, greatest at h, and it continually thrown off in lit- tle darting movements, n; while that going above creates a powerful suction at f and, being drawn down towards the curved surface, conflicts with the particles tending to escape around the rear edge. As a result there is a rapid whirl at o and a violent agitation in the region t. The arrows, c, indicate the complete rotary tendency around the surface. " The ascending element of this rota- tion, c, conflicting with the original stream, m, causes it to approach the surface with a gradually increasing curve which, in turn, causes the up- ward lift of such a curved surface to be over half of the same surface held vertically so that the full pressure of the wind is upon it. This phenomena was first deduced, in an empirical way, by Lilenthal but it remained for Mont- gomery to discover the apparently sim- ple laws involved. His analysis of the kind of surfaces best suited for creating the various dis- turbances and then making use of them is much too long and complex to be given very fully here. A rudimentary understanding of the surface required can be obtained from the first part of his analysis. " In determining the proper form of surface, the first conceptions are de- rived from the conception of a body projection of a body in a straight line but deflected from its course by a con- stant force acting at right angles — as a mass projected horizontally and pulled down by gravity. F gure In figure 2, let ab represent the di- rection and the distance a mass, m, projected horizontally would pass in two instants of time, but under the ac- tion of gravity the mass will describe the curve ahd. Drop the perpendicular eh to the curve ; then the point, h, will mark its position at the end of the first instant, while, d, is its position at the end of the second instant. Then, as the forces exerted by gravity during the two periods of time are equal, that per- formed on ah equals that on hd. But as the converse of this is true, if ahd be a curve and a mass, m, is driven Avith a force, f, parallel with ab, its re- actions against the curve will exert pressures perpendicular ' to ab, which are equal on the two branches ah and hd. " This analysis gives us a fairly good idea of the first and simplest reactions involved, but does not fully satisfy the requirements of a moving fluid mass, 268 THE REDWOOD. for it only applies to those particles whieli come in contact with the surface. These particles, being reflected back, conflict with the other particles of the air adjacent to them and set up a se- ries of complex movements. By care- fully analyzing these movements, Mont- gomery determined that the surface should be parabolic; becoming less curved and more narrow as it ap- proached the ends. His analysis also explains the law underlying the in- crease of area in proportion to weight in birds as they become smaller A study of figure 3 will show the forces involved in determining the cor- rect position of a parabolic surface in a current of air. A and B are whirls caused by the stream f, impigning upon the two parabolic surfaces, e and d, when f is on the line of their com- mon tangent, he. The elements of these whirls meet along the line fc thus balancing each other. If one of these surfaces, e, be removed this equilibrium is destroyed and the rotation B is no longer restrained by A. To compen- sate for this loss and produce again the proper pressures along the curve d, it is necessary to place it in the stream so that the missing element, g, may be sup- plied. This is done by placing the stream, m, on the line drawn from the rear part of the curve d tangent to the whirl A. Victor Lougheed, author of " Vehi- cles of the Air, " in speaking of these and other experiments of Montgomery says: " The time is sure to come when the clear logic and brilliancy of these remarkable investigations and conclu- sions, taken in conjunction with their wonderful experimental verification in California in 1905, will rank their au- thor not merely with the present day aviators, b ut with the world ' s greatest physicists and mathematicians. " While great credit is due to the oth- er early investigators, especially Lilen- thal and Langley, Montgomery seems to have done more than any other man towards solving this great problem of modern engineering. Montgomery ' s Aeroplane. Montgomery, like Langley, experi- mented a long time with models before he again ventured to build machines of man-carrying size. His aeroplanes were of the tandem-monoplane type, having means for changing the curva- ture of the wings during flight, thus enabling the operator to control the equilibrium and direction of the ma- chine. On April 29, 1905, a flight of eight THE REDWOOD. 269 miles, during which the machine some- times attained the speed of sixty-eight miles an hour, was made by ciitting loose from a balloon at the height of 4000 feet. The flight ended in a per- fect descent on a pre-designated spot, the machine landing so gently that the operator, Daniel Maloney, did not even go to his knees. To most people this flight was only a sort of parachute jump, but to those who really understood the work it marked the beginning of. a new epoch in aerial flight. The " Scientific Am- erican " for May 20, 1905, declared: " An aeroplane has been constructed that in all circumstances will retain its eqiiilibriura and is subject to the con- trol and guidance of the operator. " Alexander Graham Bell asserted that " all subsequent attempts in aviation must begin with Montgomery ' s ma- chine. " Before this flight no man could boast of having flown a thous- and feet. In 1896 Lilenthal made his longest flight of one thousand feet, loosing his life in the attempt. Clemet Ader flew nine hundred and eighty- four feet in 1897, while the longest re- corded flights of the Wrights was eight hundred and fifty-two feet in 1903. It was not until September 26, 1905, nearly six months after Montgomery ' s flight, that the Wright brothers made their first long flights. Montgomery claims that on account of the great earthquake of April, 1906, which destroyed his workshop and ap- paratus, that a full demonstration of his aeroplane was never given. As he was killed, October 31st, 1911, by fall- ing from one of his gliders, before he had completed preparations for contin- uing his demonstrations, we can only regret that such was the case. Yet some of the feats performed with his machine have only recently been sur- passed. The following extract is Montgom- ery ' s description of one of these feats. " On one occasion, Maloney, in trying to make a very short turn, pressed very hard on the stirrup which gives a screw shape to the wings and made a side somersault. After this movement the machine continued on its regular course. And afterwards, Wilkie, not to be outdone by Maloney, told his friends that he would do the same and, in a subsequent flight, made two side somersaults, one in one direction and one in the opposite. " Conclusion. There are two factors which prevent- ed Montgomery from receiving the honor that was due to him. First: he was not what we would call an adver- tising man. He had none of the in- stincts of a showman and would not enter the business of speculative exploi- tation. Second: his theories were con- trary to the prevailing ideas of the aeronauts of his time. He made some of his views public at the Congress of Aeronauts at Chicago in 1893. A year later, when he endeavored to publish his theories and the expe riments prov- ing them, he could not obtain recogni- tion. Since his remarkable flights 270 THE EEDWOOD. these theories are beginnig to be recog- nized, but even today many aviators seem not to realize their value. He was not without honor during his life. Claude Graham " White and Harry Harper, in their book, " The Aeroplane, Past, Present and Future " , say: " No reference to pioneer work in America is complete without mention of Professor Montgomery— who gave astonishing public exhibitions with a glider in 1905. The perfect control which the aeronauts had over the glider — was the admiration and won- der of all who saw the tests. " Profes- sor Joseph Hidalgo, instructor at the University of California, in a lecture delivered before the Pacific Aero Club, in speaking of one of these flights says : ' ' The feat is without parallel in the his- tory of aeronautics and leads to the de- duction that Prof. Montgomery has been the first to construct a perfect gliding machine. All that it lacks to make it a model airship is motive pow- er. " . In 1893 he was elected a mem- ber of the Aeronautical Congress at Chicago. Shortly before his death, the Austrian Government, together with various Austrian aeronautical societies, after an investigation of several years, decided that he should be placed as master of aerial navigation before Otto Lilenthal who had been given that honor for over a quarter century. The value of his experiments and conclusions is not fully preceived as yet, but Victor Lougheed ' s dedication of his book, " Aeroplane Design for Amateurs " shows clearly what at least one man, who is prominent in aeronautical circles and who fully un- derstands Montgomery ' s work, thinks of it. " To the pioneer, to whose rare vision and splendid genius it was given, more than to any other, to wrest from the inscrutible mysteries of force and matter the greatest marvel of engineer- ing perfection and practical signifi- cances, which ever has loomed upon the horizon of human endeavor. " ' ' To Professor John James Montgom- ery, whose lifelong devotion and final martyrdom to the tremendous problems of aerial navigation, will be a never- forgotten inspiration to those who were honored with his steadfast friendship, and will remain an unfailing example to the few in each generation who ig- nore the discouragements of doubt and dare the summits of human achieve- ment. " Although the recognition is slow, there is no doubt that as people begin to comprehend the great work that Montgomery has performed towards the advancement of aerial flight, he will gradually receive the honor that is due to him and the name of our de- ceased professor will be placed with those of the Wrights and Lilenthal as one of the greatest of the early aero- nauts. Will Lotz, C. E. 17. MISSION ARCHITECTURE AS APPLIED TO DWELLINGS IN EARLY DAYS AND AT PRESENT IDENCe IN SAN JOSE MISSION ARCHITECTURE m ' A .££. EVELOPMENT fol- lows civilization. As- tonishing discoveries and necessary inven- tions are the fruits of development. Devel- opment has altered the character of the great cities, and has overcome the many inconveniences of country life. ' ' Necessity, " it is said, " is the mother of invention. " Long felt vacancies have been filled, profit- able and pleasing ends attained; for frequently where nature has combined unusual resources with natural disad- vantages, producing thereby uncom- mon and untried effects, the artful hand of man has succeeded in fashion- ing many of his most incredible and yet appropriate accomplishments. Beginning at home, we have the massive undertaking of the construc- tion of the now famous Los Angeles aqueduct, bringing its nourishing wat- ers for miles to the semi-arid fields of the Los Angeles valley. Crude canals may have satisfied the wants of the early pioneers, but with wider devel- opment of the soil, a greater abund- ance of water becomes a necessity. Millions of dollars have gone out from the United States treasury, and mil- lions are yet to be paid for the opening of the Panama Canal, — another fruit of what in our day is termed a neces- sity. But going back several hundred years to the days of the " Padres and Dons ' ' , to the golden days of California " before the Gringo came " , what neces- sity do we find confronting the early Spanish explorers? Man ' s first in- stinct is to preserve life, and against the warring elements he seeks shelter, so for the colonists from Spain after leaving their cumbersome ships, shel- ter on land became the first question. Looking about for material with which to construct such dwellings, it was seen that both timber and stone were truly at a premium. Trees cov- ered the distant hills and stone might be found in the canyon ' s depths, but the means of transportation were crudely primitive. Roads were to those founders of a new country but a possi- bility of the future, and clumsy ox- carts could not supply the demand of material which must necessarily be brought from great distances. Some- thing more convenient must be had, and the soil was next examined. Here then was found that clay, which would lend itself to be moulded into a suita- ble shape for building purposes. " Adobe " , the Spaniards called such bricks, deriving the word from the Spanish verb, adobar, to mend, or to daub. Casts were made and experi- 271 272 THE REDWOOD. mented with until it was found that such crude blocks of sun-dried clay- could be so placed together as to stand the stress due to heavy roofs and wide arches. Thus to such an humble beginning may the modern Mission Style of Archi- tecture trace its origin. Low, tile- roofed, of a rambling nature it remains even today. The walls were necessa- rily low, for the material itself was none of the best for high buildings, and the additional labor of carrying each separate brick to its place was hereby avoided. These adobe bricks took the general form of building bricks of today, but were equal in size to five or six of the modern bricks. These were cemented together with wet clay and covered over on the exterior with a mixture of native cement to pre- vent the gradual washing away of the clay by the winter rains. The walls were of adequate thickness both to as- sure warmth and coolness in the alter- nating seasons, and to be fully able to support the heavy roofs of red tile. Proportionately low were the doors and windows, all in keeping with the remainder of the building. Ornaments of a gorgeous nature were indeed few, for the buildings which the Franciscan Padres — and these good men were the real vanguard of civili- zation in California, — found it neces- sary to construct at various distances in this new territory, from which they could direct their zealous activities. Hence, since their work was to convert and civilize, not to erect masterpieces of architecture, they must do aAvay with all impeding decorations and raise such structures as would best bring to the minds of the savages, some idea of the solemn greatness and glory of their Creator. Patiently, they took the crude In- dian as they found him, and after dis- appointments innumerable, instructed him in the most fundamental principles of construction, and after more years of untiring training taught him more perfectly " to hew the shaft, and lay the architrave. " Theirs was no easy task. Materials such as they had were as yet untried; the workmen untrained, and tools exceedingly scarce. Students of early California history will readily recall what annoying setbacks the Pa- dres experienced over and over again from some greedy or self-important commandante. Yet buildings such as they had seen in their native country of Spain must act as models for present purposes, and copy these buildings in general outline they did, not failing, however, to add their own touch of originality. From the pens of some modern su- perficial critics we have the informa- tion that this variation from true Span- ish tradition was not originality but ignorance. Let such but consider the disadvantages under which the Padres labored, and the fact that they must instill into the naturally slow minds of their neophytes the very first princi- ples of building, and let them compare such workmen with those professional laborers of the time in Europe who had THE REDWOOD. 273 been schooled in the mathematical pre- cision of rearing a wall or constructing a roofing-tree, and then let them cast a glance at some of California ' s well- known Mission churches. They will find the arches as mathematically cor- rect, and the curves employed semi-cir- cular or elliptical, which are carried out to the utmost precision. And yet the workmen who constructed such arches had been but a short time previ- ously, merest savages, ignorant of the simplest mathematical problem. Now in order to obtain a somewhat definite idea of the style of the old mis- sions, it is well to first understand their general appearance. The mis- sion buildings were, as a rule, rectangu- lar in shape, of a single story in height, with roofs of red tile. The central and principal portion of the front elevation or faehada was formed by the church proper, while the somewhat lower and minor section of the frontage, together with the wings of the buildings, served as the residence of the priests, as guest rooms, the quarters of the Indians and servants, workshops, and store rooms, as well as places of instruction for the newly converted Christians. All these buildings enclosed a garden or patio, with a well or fountain in the center, and all rooms entered onto this court as well as onto the front. The walls enclosing the patio were without col- umns or arches, yet Mission San Luis Rey forms a notable exception to this general rule. To examine more minutely the fa- ehada or front elevation, we can take the example offered by the faehada of the Santa Barbara Mission, since it is perhaps regarded as the most popular of the missions and the most architect- urally perfect. Most striking in this faehada is the semi-circular entrance, flanked on either side by three half columns. These are unmistakably of the Grecian type as regards their en- tablatures, surmounted by Doric capi- tals, the simple triangular pediment peculiar to this mission would bespeak Grecian influence were other signs to fail. The under side of the cornice has heavy dentals and is further ornated by a statue set in a niche. Santa Barbara also is one of the two California missions which boasts of two bell towers. These towers are full three stories in height, surmounted by a semi- spherical dome. The first story rises firmly from the foundations without any ornament or windows whatsoever, and supports the second story, set back about half the thickness of the wall, forming a step over a plain cornice. In like manner the third story rises, the walls of these latter two being perfor- ated by four arched apertures to serve for bells. To relieve the severity of the corners of the walls, these corners are chamfered. Roofed with a compo- sition cement like that found in the Texas missions, the dome supports the lantern and cross. A covered veranda adjoins the church, stretching away to the left and faced by twelve stately arches, while to the right, the patio is enclosed by a simple wall of adobe. Certainly the men who planned and 274 THE REDWOOD. reared such a structure were possessed of a liberal knowledge of architecture, aud are entitled to more praise than some narrow minds of today begrudg- ingly attribute to them. Architecture however, is ever seek- ing to construct buildings laying some claim to originality. So must it have been at the time of the Padres, for the fachadas of the different missions are by no means alike. Mission San Luis Rey, the second California mission to have two towers, has suffered greatly from age and neglect, and only one tower now remains intact. It resembles greatly the general outlines exhibited in the construction of the Santa Bar- bara mission, but we have only to jour- ney to Tucson, Arizona, to find an en- tirely different detail in ornamenta- tion and design. The towers of this mission rise to ap- proximately the same height as those found in California, but the second story, while having its four arched ap- ertures, is set sufficiently far back to form a platform above the cornice. At the corners of this platform high square posts are set firmly in the adobe and connected by a balustrade. The third story, octagonal in shape, has its arched openings, and though somewhat higher than the second, is of the same width and again serves to support the dome. True, the wooden tower of the San Juan Bautista mission is undoubtedly fashioned after the towers of San Xavier ' s, for the platform, octagonal third story, balustrade and all, point to a likeness to the Arizona mission, yet this tower is of a more recent date, and cannot be said to have been built by the earlier Padres. No greater dissimilarity in the ar- rangement of bell towers could be had than that between the three former missions and those of San Gabriel and Santa Inez. The towers of these two missions consist of merely a low mass- ive wall of masonry pierced by bell apertures, built in proportion to the bells which they were to contain. The campanile of the San Antonio is lower than either of those at San Gabriel or Santa Ines, and differs also in that it is made of burned brick. Unlike any so far named, San Carlos mission has for its belfry, an egg-shaped dome resting on an octagonal base, entirely different from the pyramidal, red-tiled roof of the Presidio Church at Monterey. Most original, as well as unique, the campanile at San Antonio de Pala As- sistentia profers rare beauty of design and commanding appearance, gaining in grandeur and reverence from its time-worn exterior. Separated from the nearby structures, it stands upon its base which may be simply described as a vertically elongated pediment, its pediment curves, concave, with no steps. Of but two stories in height, each having four bell apertures, the monotony of the facade is broken by three cornices, one crossing the first story at the base of the arched open- ing, the second and third at the divi- sion lines between and over the differ- ent stories. Coming to the pediments, Mission THE REDWOOD. 275 San Luis Rey affords the most graceful and pleasing, and well deserves its ever increasing popularity as a model for the modern Mission Architect. This pediment of a flat top, upon which rests the lantern, is stepped, and em- ploys both convex and concave curves. San Carlos, better known as Carmel-by- the-Sea, gives the impression of an arch, consisting as it does of a long arc decreasing in curvature as it ap- proaches the base and adorned with a scroll at the top. San Antonio de Padua brick is used in the construction, stepped off near the top, followed by a concave curve and step where it rests on a horizontal plane, ending in two more concave curves. Examples found at the other missions are of minor de- tail. The arch, however, is considered by all to be the most salient feature in Mission architecture. In fact, so far reaching is its importance, that many regard the mission house of today in- complete without its arches. Since the arch holds so conspicuous a place in the public mind, it must be examined in some of its details and variations. The favoritism shown to the semi-cir- cular arch is perhaps due to the pres- ence of the reproduction of this style in present day structures. And well may this be so, for it is the most extensive- ly used curve in the mission buildings themselves. Its simplicity lends grace, and we notice it in the larger missions of Santa Barbara, San Luis Rey and San Antonio de Padua, as well as in all towers and campaniles. Another popular opinion assumes that those arches of any other type than the semi-circular are not strictly mission. Erroneous, indeed, — for at San Juan Capistrano an excellent ex- ample of the elliptical arch has been preserved for us. Mission San Juan Bautista employs the ellipse on its fa- chada, and the doorway leading to the Santa Margarita chapel not only has this elliptical curve, but varies the cur- vature of the arch, in such a way that the outer side becomes greater than the inner. Recessed and rounded, it adds beauty and grace to its substantial qualities. Since it has not the high crown of the semi-circular curve, it is particularly adapted to the low adobe models, and bids fair, because of its harmonious effect, to establish for it- self an important place in Modern Mis- sion style. The square arch is found in every mission, but is rarely employed outside of the main wall of a building. It served its purpose most satisfactorily in the construction of doors and win- dows, where the sides widened towards the outer side, supporting heavy wood- en lintels. Not unfrequently to relieve the strain on this lintel, another beam of the same or even of greater length than the lintel itself, was embedded in the wall a foot or more above the lintel. These arches were without ornament of any kind, and were employed for ser- vice rather than for architectural deco- ration. Only once do we find the square arch decorated, and this in a manner scarcely ever reproduced in commerci- 276 THE REDWOOD. alized Mission architecture. At the Capistrano mission, we find a highly ornated arch, exhibiting the same skillful workmanship that character- izes this entire mission, with the key- stone projecting fully four inches, and carved upon it an eight-pointed floral design, Avith immediately above it, a decorated entablature crowned by a massive cornice. Doorways at times seemed to be ap- parently the reproduction of those of some Spanish edifice, for Moorish and Gothic principles being joined togeth- er, as were many of the edifices in Spain at that period, lent themselves to the mission style, and the entrance to the chapel of the Sacred Heart of Jesus at San Carlos Mission, may be regarded as one of the most elaborate pieces of detail work to be found in any of the Missions. As in the arches, pediments and tow- ers, so also variety is likewise enjoyed in the columns used. At the San Fran- cisco (Dolores) Mission are found both columns and half-columns, having the essentials of the Doric order. In the reredos of the mortuary chapel at San Luis Rey we find columns and half- columns of the composite order, while Doric half-columns adorn the entrance to the patio, with pilasters of a most ornate classic style gracing the side en- trances. This variety in decoration served but to lend dignity and grace to a style of architecture which points to the mean adobe house as the origin. Nowhere do we find among the mission build- ings, structures of great height, nor does this peculiar style readily lend itself to such. Yet we doubt not, that were all things taken into considera- tion, the opportunity may yet be af- forded, by which this style may be made suitable to taller buildings just as the American architect has done with the classic types. It is in the field of lower structures, however, that man- ifold opportunities are offered, and it is here that the most noteworthy achievements have been wrought. Churches, municipal buildings, schools, museums and hotels, and above all the medium and larger sized resi- dences have repeatedly been rendered in this modern mission style. From the fact that this style has come into vogue so rapidly, and enjoys such uni- versal popularity, we may appreciate the rare and simple beauty which the old ruins m st have held in their day, as well as the value this style now of- fers from a commercial standpoint. Church buildings need undergo little or no change, since the mission style was originally ecclesiastical ; however, in other buildings, the peculiar purpose must determine the architecture. We note as a rare example of mis- sion architecture used in commercial lines, the Glenwood Mission Inn, at Riverside, California. It was undoubt- edly modeled from the San Gabriel Mission, and the sentiments which characterized the old missions are the most successfully commercialized. Municipal buildings can be just as appropriately rendered in this style as THE EEDWOOD. 277 in any other, for towers, pediments and arches all adapt themselves readily. To the residences should be given the becoming proportions of the old adobe house, and there will still remain am- ple opportunity to insert numerous mission peculiarities to good advant- age. The low structure gives the idea of durability and solidity, nor need it be adjudged squatty if properly pro- portioned and planned. The courtyard or patio will be most welcome ; towers may at times be resorted to with some slight modifications ; pediments may be readily used; a series of arches should adorn the piazza; while columns, half- columns and pilasters if judiciously placed, will produce a most desirable effect. In short, as the pioneers found it, the Mission Style is undoubtedly becoming to California ' s equable climate and its picturesque landscape. It portrays the Spanish traditions, and characterizes the fervent sentiment of the people, while above all it connects in a way truly interesting, California ' s early ro- mantic history with its commercial im- portance of today. E. V. Fuehs, A. E. ' 16. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT NDUSTRIAL engin- eering, otherwise known as Scientific Management, has at- tracted such wide- spread interest as to be considered an im- portant topi c of the times. Industrial activities everywhere have been so sys- tematically developed by the introduc- t ' n of modern machinery and up-to- date methods, that the performance_of difficult tasks has seemingly reached perfection. In contrast to all that has been ac- complished towards mechanical ad- vancement and perfection may be con- sidered the wasteful and inefficient performances of modern workmen. Their awkward, blundering, or ill-di- rected movements, accompanied by large waste of human effort, are al- lowed to go on day after day without any tangible corrections. Efficiency is the great foreword of modern egineering, and all important lines of machinery and equipment are constantly undergoing experiment and improvement in order to bring them to the highest standard of efficiency. In the past decades almost any available machine, implement, or method would do — providing it did the work — but the present day requirements demand of these same machines a standard effi- ciency and economy of operation. For instance: — In the installation of a power plant, the contract will call for a certain efficiency of operation which it must show under test, before the pay- ment is forthcoming. The same idea can be applied to every phase of life. There is scarcely any task, operation, or condition which cannot be improved by the elimination of enormous waste of time and human effort. The ingenuity of each generation has developed quicker and better methods for doing each element of work in every trade. These methods have, in most part, been handed down by word of mouth from master to ap- prentice in such individual ways that there has developed many ways of doing each operation and ' as the mas- ter, so the apprentice. ' Being allowed the choice of methods, naturally the workmen planned along the line of least resistance, and as a result the tendency of the average worker is to put in the day at a slow, easy gait and to do no more than he absolutely has to. These conditions have influenced workers to actually loaf on their jobs. The standard is set by the lazy man, and the diligent one sees no gain by outdoing his neighbor — so he likewise loafs. In many cases they plan among themselves as to the limit of the day ' s output and the minimum wages for the same. 278 THE REDWOOD. 279 These conditions are in most cases directly due to the time-worn fallacy of misinformed labor unions and sym- pathizers, who contend that the in- creased production per man will result in hardships for the working classes by throwing workers out of employ- ment. This, however, has been proven to be false by the fact that the intro- duction of labor-saving machinery and efficient methods have opened up new fields of industry which have been most beneficial to labor, and the appli- cation of the principles of scientific management has emphasized this be- yond doubt. The prosperity and welfare of the laboring classes are directly depend- ent upon the prosperous and progres- sive condition of their employers, and these conditions can exist only by sci- entific cooperation between employer and employee. The greatest trouble with this lack of system is the common ignorance as to what constitutes a proper day ' s work, and the lack of incentive on the part of the workmen to do their best. Under the day ' s-work plan of pay- ment this state of affairs has become obstinate, there being no method by which the worker can be compelled to do a proper day ' s work. The work- me n are aware of this fact and will barely move along, showing every pre- tense of being busy. This systematic " soldiering " , as it is called, is quite prevalent and the workers not only de- ceive their employer, but also deceive themselves into the belief that it is im- possible to do much more work in the same time, with the same or less effort. To eliminate these difficulties, other wage systems have been used with va- rious degrees of success. Mr. Frederick W. Taylor first con- ceived the idea of determining exactly what would constitute a proper day ' s work. He engaged two first class la- borers, who were given all kinds of tasks, which were carried out under his personal observation, and time and motion studies were made, by stop- watch observations, of all the motions made by the men. Mr. Taylor discov- ered that there was no constant rela- tion between the foot-pounds energy exerted per day and the tiring effect on the man, so he referred the collected data and records to Mr. Carl G. Barth, a mathematician, who solved the prob- lem and discovered the law governing the tiring effect of hard labor on first class men. This law determines the proper amount of work and rest for a definite day ' s work. For example: — He found that when pig iron was being handled — (each pig weighing 92 pounds) a first class work- man could be under load only 43 per cent of the day and must be entirely free from load during 57 per cent of the day. As lighter loads were tried, the percentage of the day under load became greater — until a load was reached which he could carry in his hands all day without tiring out. This was the limit of usefulness of this law as a guide to a laborer ' s endurance, so other laws were found which determ- 280 THE REDWOOD. ined man ' s mental and physical en- durance in other lines of work. Mr. Taylor also found that each task re- quired a special study in order to de- termine the maximum production. Having found the limit of fatigue, he set about eliminating waste motions, and Dy so doing, the output per man was increased 100 to 300 per cent, above the old averages. To compensate the workmen for their increased production, it was found necessary to . pay from 30 per cent, to 100 per cent, over the ordi- nary wages, and in some cases the day ' s work hours were shortened. These experiments and scientific obser- vations formed a nucleus which was the beginning of scientific manage- ment. Scientific Management — Defined. The principal object of scientific management is the elimination of waste time, energy and materials, in all in- dustries to which it is applied, by gov- erning each thought, motion and meth- od by a science, thereby increasing the workman ' s productivity and wages to the highest standard of efficiency. Regarding its fundamental princi- ples, Mr. Taylor says, ' ' The art of man- agement is knowing exactly what you want men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way, ' also, ' The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee. ' " Scientific Management has for its very foundation the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that prosperity for the employer cannot exist thru a long term of years unless it is accom- panied by prosperity for the employee, and vice versa ; and that it is possible to give the worker what he most wants — high wages — and the employer what he wants — a low labor cost — for his manufactures. ' ' Enumerating the new duties of the management under his system Mr. Tay- lor further says: First. " They devel- op a science for each element of a man ' s work, which replaces the old rule-of- thumb methods. ' ' Second: — " They scientifically select and then train, teach and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. " Third: — " They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. " Fourth: — " There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsi- bility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are bet- ter fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and a greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. " And — " Per- haps the most prominent single ele- ment in modern scientific management is the task idea. The work of every workman is fully planned by the man- THE REDWOOD. 281 agement at least one day in advance, and each man receives, in most cases, complete written instructions, describ- ing in detail the task he is to accom- plish, as well as the methods and means to be used in doing the work. This task specifies not only what is to be done, but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. And whenever the workman succeeds in doing his task right and within the time limit specified, he receives an ad- dition of from 30 per cent, to 100 per cent, to his ordinary wages. These tasks are carefully planned, so that both good and careful work are called for in their performance, but it should be distinctly understood that in no case is the workman called upon to work at a pace which would be injurious to his health. The task is always so regu- lated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosper- ous, instead of being overworked. " The principles of this system of man- agement can be applied with equally efficient results to any task, trade or business and to individual acts, from the official duties of the presidents of our largest corporations down to the daily routine of our household ser- vants. As an illustration — Bricklaying, one of the oldest trades, which has been practiced since even before the Chris- tian Era, was recently brought to the standard of Scientific Management by Mr. Prank B. Gilbreth. He had learned bricklaying in his youth, and, having become interested in Scientific Man- agement, applied it to the art of laying brick. He made a careful study and analysis of the movements of the brick- layer, and one after another, eliminat- ed all unnecessary movements and sub- stituted fast for slow motions. He de- veloped the exact position which each of the feet of the bricklayer should oc- cupy with relation to the wall, the mortar box and the pile of bricks, and so made it unnecessary to take a couple of steps each time a brick was laid. He studied the best height for the mortar box (which he substituted for the old fashioned mortar board) and the brick pile, and then designed a scaf- fold with a table on it upon which all the materials are placed. These scaf- folds are adjusted, as the wall grows in height, by a laborer detailed for the purpose. By these means the bricklayer was saved the exertion of stooping down to the level of his feet every time he laid a brick. Imagine all the waste ef- fort that has gone on all these years — • each bricklayer lowering his body, weighing say about 150 pounds, down two feet and raising it up again every time a brick (weighing about 5 pounds) is laid in the wall, and this each brick- layer did about a thousand times a day. Further, he had a laborer carefully sort and test each brick and place it with its best edge up on a simple wood- en frame, which was placed on the scaffold table by the helper. He also 282 THE EEDWOOD. tempered the mortar so that the brick- layer would not spend unnecessary- time in tapping the brick into place with the trowel. By careful, minute study of the mo- tions which should be made by a brick- layer under standard conditions, Mr. Gilbreth reduced his motions from eighteen movements per brick to five and in some cases less. He also demonstrated on a commer- cial scale the gain possible from prac- tically applying scientific study. With Union bricklayers laying a fac- tory wall twelve inches thick with two kinds of brick, faced and ruled joints on both sides, his bricklayers averaged 350 bricks per hour, while the previous ' average was about 120 bricks per hour. The bricklayers were taught the new methods by the foremen. Those who failed to profit by their teaching were dropped, and as each man became pro- ficient he was rewarded with a large increase in wages. Results sum up as follows : — (a) By careful motion and time stu- dies, the unnecessary and tiresome ex- ertions of the bricklayer were elimi- nated — benefit for the employee. (b) By providing special apparatus and equipment the time and efforts were still further decreased, resulting in greater ease in doing work and high- er efficiency. (c) By the increase in production the men received ample increase in wages — prosperity for the employee. (d) By increasing almost three- fold the output of each bricklayer, the labor cost per brick was lowered — therefore prosperity for the employer. This is only one instance of the many successful applications of scienti- fic management and it bec omes evident that these results can only be accom- plished through a system by which the employer and employee work in per- fect harmony. There is no end to scientific man- agement, it can never be said to be com- pletely installed. In some branches of work, much benefit can be obtained im- mediately, while in others it takes sev- eral years to apply all the principles of the system and obtain full results. It may be safely said that it is almost im- possible for anyone to apply the prin- ciples of Scientific Management to any task or class of work, with which he is not thoroughly familiar. To this fact may be attributed the failures of some " system experts " in the past, and in most eases the system ' game ' has been found to be top-heavy with theorists who have slid in at the top instead of working up from the bottom. When an efficiency system does not compare in every particular with ordinary com- mon sense — the remedy proves worse than the disease. Any system to be successful must be based on sound in- vestigation and backed by men of in- tegrity and determination whose fa- miliarity with the work gives them a special fitness for the undertaking. Mr. Fred W. Taylor, the originator of Scientific Management, was in every way capable of his task. He entered the employ of the Midvale Steel Co. at THE EEDWOOD. 283 Philadelphia, in 1878, after having served an apprenticeship as a pattern- maker and as a machinist. Times being dull he was obliged to start as a day laborer instead of a me- chanic. In a short time, owing to his better education, he was promoted to shop clerk. Shortly afterwards he was given work as a machinist running one of the lathes, and, as he turned out more work than other machinists were doing on similar machines, after sev- eral months he was made gang boss over the lathes. Almost all of the work in this shop had been done on piece work for sev- eral years, and as usual the shop was really run by the workmen, and not by the bosses. The workmen had plan- ned just how fast each job should be done and set a pace for each machine throughout the shop — which was lim- ited to about one-third of a good day ' s work. After he had been made gang-boss the machinists tried to influence him into allowing the old ' pace ' standard, but being now on the side of the man- agement he proposed to do whatever he could to get a fair day ' s work out of the lathes. This, of course , started a war, which as time went on grew more and more bitter. He used every expedient to make them do a fair day ' s work, such as discharging or lowering the wages of the more stubborn and by hiring green men and instructing them. Mean- while the men tried every conceivable plan to prevent any increase in produc- tion. They finally resorted to wreck- ing their machines — apparently by ac- cident — but in reality deliberately so. This, however, was finally stopped when they were obliged to pay for the repairs. After about three years the output of the machines was materially increas- ed and in some cases doubled, and Mr. Taylor was finally promoted to foreman of the shop. Soon after being made foreman he determined to change the system of management, and after three years had succeeded to some extent in improving the " piece-rate system " . He at once realized that the greatest ob- stacle to harmonious cooperation be- tween the workman and the manage- ment lay in the ignorance of the man- agement as to what really constituted a proper day ' s work for the workman. Having obtained permission of Mr. Sel- lers, then president of the Midvale Steel Co., he carried on a series of ex- periments and investigations of all that had ever been written on the subject, but these were of little avail. He final- ly started experiments of his own and employed a young college graduate to assist him. They selected two first class men and proceeded, as is men- tioned in the beginning of this article, to find a law determining man ' s capa- city for work. " What he hoped ulti- mately to determine was what fraction of a horse-power a man was able to exert, that is, how many foot-pounds of work a man could do in a day. They found, however, that there was no constant or uniform relation be- 284 THE EEDWOOD. tween the foot-pound enegry which the man exerted during the day and the tiring effect of his work. Having reached this conclusion the experi- ments were suspended. Some years later a second series of experiments were made similar to the first and this time he referred all the data and accumulated facts to Mr. Carl G. Barth, who represented graphically each element of work by plotting curves — showing, as it were, a bird ' s- eye-view of every element. This solved the problem and gave the law govern- ing the tiring effect of heavy labor on first class men. About the same time these experi- ments were going on Mr. Taylor was also conducting a series of experiments to determine the angles and shapes of tools and the proper speed for cutting steel. A large boring mill was used on which large locomotive tires of uni- formly hard steel, were daily cut into chip in gradually learning how to make, shape and use the cutting tools so that they would do faster work. These experiments were carried on with occasional interruption, through a period of about 26 years, Mr. Taylor states, in the course of which ten dif- ferent machines were especially fitted up to do this work. Between 30,000 and 50,000 experiments were carefully recorded, 800,000 pounds of steel and iron were cut up into chips with the experimental tools and nearly $200,000 ' was spent in the investigation. After compiling the data it was found that the answer involved the so- lution of an intricate mathematical problem in which the effect of twelve independent variables must be determ- ined. Each variable had an important effect on the answer — as follows: (A) " The quality of the metal to be cut. (B) Chemical composition of the steel from which tool is made. (C) The thickness of shaving. (D) Contour or shape of cutting tool. (E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cool- ing medium is used on the tool. (F) The depth of cut. (G) The duration of the cut. (H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool. (J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter. (K) Diameter of easting or forging which is being cut. (L) The pressure of the chip or shav- ing upon the cutting surface of the tool. (M) Pulling power and speed and feed changes of the machine. " This problem was submitted to vari- ous noted mathematicians, but all agreed that it was impossible to solve the problem of 12 variables. Mr. Tay- lor continued through a term of 15 years to give large amounts of time searching for a simple solution. Four or five men, at various periods, gave all their time to the work, and finally a slide-rule was developed, by means of which any good mechanic could solve the problem in half a minute. The use of these slide rules enables the machin- ist to tell at a glance, the most efficient manner in which to operate his ma- chine. It indicates the speed, depth of cut, feeds, and the kinds of tools to be THE EEDWOOD. 285 used. It shows at a glance, the infor- mation that took nearly 30 years to dis- cover. These are only a few industrial prob- lems to which scientific observation has been successfully applied, but these prove conclusively that any kind of work, operation or condition can be bettered and made more efficient by the application of the principles of Scientific Management. Regarding the scope of this system, Col. Theodore Eoosevelt says: — " Scientific Management is the appli- cation of the conservation principle to production. It does not concern itself with the ownership of our natural re- sources. But ,in the factories, where it is in force, it guards these stores of raw materials from loss and misuse. First, by finding the right material — the special wood or steel or fiber — which is cheapest and best for the pur- pose. Second, by getting the utmost of finished product out of every pound or bale worked up. We couldn ' t ask more from a patriotic motive, than Scientific Management gives from a selfish one. " " Now, the time, health, and vitality of our people are as well worth con- serving, at least, as our forests, miner- als and lands. And Scientific Manage- ment seems to do even more for the workman than for raAv materials. It studies him at his task. Of the mo- tions he makes and the notions he puts forth, it determines by pa- tient obesrvation, which are the ones that get the result. It experiments to see whether these camiot be further shortened, or made easier for him. " " When the right way has been worked out in every detail, Scientific Management sets it up as a standard for that job ; then instructs and trains the workman until he can accomplish this standard. And so on with all other workmen and all other jobs. The in- dividual is first made efficient; his productive capacity is raised twenty- five or fifty per cent. Sometimes dou- bled. From these efficient units is built up an efficient organization. And when we get efficiency in all our in- dustries and commercial ventures, na- tional efficiency will be a fact. ' ' I. Alvin Oliver, M. E. 16. 286 THE EEDWOOD. --j =f. ,fHr— HH=r ?f lL iJ !_« i! 8 ! 8 8 5 8 S ! I. ii II II R g H « K S S 5 ' ' i ! : °v CI z i I o RETAINING WALLS l lC lpppijETAINING walls are " " ii " ■ ' walls usually of stone or brick masonry, con- crete, or any combina- tions of these materials, the purpose of which is to support an em- bankment of earth either with a verti- cal or sloping surface. If an excava- tion be made into a mass of any kind of earth, leaving the sides vertical, they may maintain this position for a great- er or less time. After being exposed to air, moisture, or frost, the most stable earth will begin to scale or fall off, forming for itself a more or less in- clined or sloping face. This is not a plane surface, but a curved one, concave to the front, the upper portion maintaining a vertical or almost vertical surface and flatten- ing out somewhat gradually as the bot- tom is approached. The first caving or displacement is due to the destruction of the adhesive- ness of the material, and little by little the particles fall away under the ac- tion of gravitation. This falling away may result in a partial undermining of the mass when large lumps or masses will fall down. Finally a definite slope will be reached which will be per- manent except when acted upon by running water or some other external cause. The earth is then said to have attained its natural slope, and the angle which this slope makes with the horizon is called the angle of repose. Certain materials, such as sand and gravel, when clean have practically no adhesive strength and will assume rap- idly the natural slope. In designing a retaining wall three assumptions must be considered — first, that the pressure on a wall supporting a mass of earth is due to a certain tri- angular prism of earth which is as- sumed to slide bodily along a plane sur- face, called the plane of rupture, and that the magnitude of the pressure is equal to the weight of that prism of earth. This plane of rupture does not coincide with the surface of the natural slope of the material, but is a plane bi- secting the angle between the natural slope and a vertical plane, which may be taken as the surface of the wall, in other words, it makes an angle with the vertical equal to one-half of the complement of the angle of repose, or by using symbols, 90-A, A being the angle of repose of the earth supported by the wall. Second, that the point of application of the resultant pressure is at one- third the height of the wall from the bottom, or two-thirds of it ' s height from the top. Third, that the direction of the pressure is parallel to the sur- face of the ground. 287 288 THE REDWOOD. In deep excavations, seepage-water, which originally either sank to greater depths or finding easier channels of escape in other directions, changes it ' s course when an excavation is made near it, the water then washes or scours the material out and causes the under- mining of the slope. It is then determ- ined to build a masonry wall to hold it in place. In the case of the Gravity Retaining Wall, (shown in the accom- panying cut) it can readily be seen that it prevents the escape of water; this being confined in the material converts it into a mud or quick-sand, and tends to change the direction of the pressure to a more or less horizontal one, the in- tensity of which is not due to a vertical pressure of an earth mass with a hori- zontal surface level with the top of the wall, but practically to a vertical height measured from the base of the wall to the top of the surcharge. If a calcula- tion is made upon such a basis, the en- tire inadequacy of such a wall to re- sist the pressure will readily be seen. For such cases as this counterforted Retaining Walls (shown in cut) are useful in localizing the seepage water, thereby preventing any large quanti- ties of water, with increasing velocity, from flowing along parallel to the wall and scouring out the material behind it. Counterforts are projections, built in the rear and perpendicular to the main walls, to which they are well bonded. They are placed any desired distance apart. The result is a wall in sections, alternately thick and thin. Simply as a question of stability, there is but little masonry saved as compared with a wall of uniform thickness and equal stability. They are, however, ad- vantageous when unusual pressures are concentrated only at certain points. If such projections are built on the front of the wall, they are called but- tresses, which are used for giving greater stability, as also for architect- ural effect, relieving the monotonous uniformity of a long wall. Many cases often arise where there is no special difficulty in constructing a wall of reasonable dimensions and of sufficient stability so far as the wall itself is concerned, but the difficulty arises in securing a stable foundation bed. In many cases, such as shown in the cuts, the bearing power of the soil was not sufficient to withstand the load it was expected to take, this be- ing found out previously by experi- ment. The way to overcome such a state of affairs is to drive piles and depend upon the friction between the earth and pile to withstand the excess load. If constructed on piles, the pressure will cause these to lean forward, carrying the wall with them. These tendencies may be overcome by driving the piles with an inclination against the press- ure, so that the resultant shall coincide in direction with the axis of the piles; or the piles may be tied back to the ma- terial behind them by bolting long sticks of timber to them, which, reach- ing well to the rear, and connected by crosspieees, will present considerable THE EEDWOOD. 289 bearing surface against the earth, thereby tying the piles well back into firm earth. The stability of a Retaining Wall will be no greater than the strength of the masonry to resist crushing, nor the re- sistance to sliding of one portion of ma- sonary on another portion — nor the re- sistance of the wall to overturning, which is the product of the weight of the wall acting through its centre of gravity and the perpendicular distance of it ' s line of action from the actual or assumed axis, which is called the mo- ment of the weight or stability. Thad W. Macaulay, C. E. 15. THE CONTROL OF THE LOCK MACHINERY OF THE PANAMA CANAL E will soon see the com- pletion of the greatest engineering project of our age ; one be- side which the build- ing of the pyramids pales to insignifi- cance. As the first ship goes thru the canal, we cannot help but admire and wonder at the ability of the men who have brought this great undertak- ing to so successful a close. It is not the work of one man, it is the result of the conscientious effort of many able engineers. Each part, each detail, was a problem in itself and as finally in- stalled, was the best that designers famed for their ability could accom- plish. It was far from being a cut- and-dry affair. New conditions were to be coped with. The distance from supplies, — the climate, — these were not the only hindrances. All have been overcome and those who helped to make it possible may point with pride to the canal as the result of their la- bors. It is the purpose of this article to show but one phase of the work — the control of the lock machinery, and to show how well that portion of the problem has been met. Some idea of the extent of this de- partment of the project may be gained 290 from the following list of materials used in the building of the switch- boards alone : Special slate bases 1,300 Small castings 160,000 Screw machine parts 1,200,000 Copper rod and bar (feet) 58,000 Asbestos lumber (sq. ft.) 9,000 Porcelain parts 18,000 Gal. pipe for framework (ft.)... 21,000 Special gears 2,300 Special indicator motors 730 Position indicator machines 732 Control switches (on boards only ) 464 Miscellaneous sherardized (moisture proof) pieces 300,000 Moisture proof cable to con- nect switches and indicat- ors (miles) about 1,100 When we consider, in addition to the great amount of parts and materials used, that the peculiar conditions at Panama made most of the problems en- tirely new, since standard parts could not meet those conditions, we appreci- ate more and more fully the magnitude and complexity of the work accom- plished. Before going into the details of the control boards and indicators, an ex- planation of the functions of a canal lock and its parts may serve to make the matter clearer. THE REDWOOD. 291 A flight of locks consists, in brief, of two parallel lanes of water separated by a central wall. The purpose of a lock is to raise a ship from one body of water to another of higher level, or to lower it to a body of a lower level. These two " lanes " are divided into compartments or locks by huge gates. These are known as miter-gates, (A C in figure 1) . Figure 1 shows the gen- eral layout of the Gatun locks. It will be noticed that each gate consists of two leaves, pivoted in the lock walls, which, when closed, meet in the center. Those at the points A are the main gates of each of the six locks. At Gat- un, each lock is 1000 feet long and 110 feet wide. This size of lock will ac- comodate the largest vessel afloat, but, on the other hand, is very wasteful of water in passing thru short vessels. To remedy this defect, additional gates are installed at the points C, thus di- viding each lock into two shorter lengths. As shown in the figure, at the ocean end of lock 1 and at the up- per end of locks 2 and 3, two gates are installed. These extra gates are used as guard gates. When the leaves of a gate have swung shut, a machine, called a miter- forcer or miter-forcing machine, presses the lips of the two leaves into align- ment and locks them shut. To protect these gates in the event of a vessel becoming uncontrollable a heavy guard chain is stretched taut in front of them. These chains are raised and lowered by two hydraulic cylin- ders somewhat resembling a hydraulic elevator in operation, one on each end of the chain. Although the operator turns but one switch to raise or lower the chain he must start four electric motors to do so, two supplying water under pressure to the cylinders, and 292 THE REDWOOD. two others to open the valves to those cylinders. A unique arrangement in regard to the chains, is, that, should a vessel ram them, they are not held rigid but are paid out with just enough re- sistance to stop the ship before it can injure the gate. In the operation of canal-locks, great quantities of water are required, and it must be supplied with all the speed possible. On the other hand, too sud- den an influx of water is undesirable, since this would produce dangerous surging in the locks. In those at Pan- ama, the water supply comes thru three culverts, one in the middle wall and one in each side wall. Ten lateral culverts branch from these mains at each lock and passing under the floor of the canal open into the bottom of the lock. To control the flow of water, rising stem or gate valves are installed ; at each end of each lock, one on each side. This permits the operator to close the culvert at any point he wishes, so that he can either empty a lock by allowing the water to flow out and into a lower level or fill the lock by allow- ing the water to flow in from the lake above. A valve is also placed near the intermediate gate. This one is used when the short length is in operation. At each change of level, guard valves are placed. If the regular lock valves should break, or be in any way unfit for service these guard valves are used. As a matter of fact either set may be the guards since the operator merely leaves one set open and uses the others regularly. At the lake end of the flight of locks there is a valve situated between the upper gate and the upper guard gate. This valve admits water to the space between the two gates, since it is neces- sary, when the upper lock and the lake are not at a level, to have this space filled to a height intermediate between the lake and the lock levels. All these rising stem valves are built in pairs, that is, the culvert is divided by a vertical wall and two valves which act as a unit, are built side by side. This makes the valves smaller and consequently easier to operate. Each one is 8x18 feet and is operated by a 40 H. P. motor. A rising stem valve requires one minute for a com- plete opening or closing. For the side wall culverts which sup- ply water to one side only, these rising stem valves were sufficient. The mid- dle wall culvert, however, supplies water to both sides, having ten lateral culverts branching to each side. To prevent the water from going to both sides at once, a cylindrical valve is placed in each lateral culvert. A profile view of a flight of locks might be said to resemble a flight of stairs. The steps correspond to the locks in the canal. The miter-gates are situated at the end of each step. As shown in Fig. 1, in the Gatun flight of locks, there are three of these " steps " . A ship does not go thru under its own power, the large vessels not being sufficiently controllable to manouever in so small a space. For pulling the ships thru, electric locomotives are THE REDWOOD. 293 used, the tracks being laid on the top of the lock walls. Each ship is under the control of four locomotives, two in front, one on each side, and two in the rear in like positions. All four help to keep it in the middle of the lock. The ones in front pull ahead, while those in the rear keep the ship from advancing too quickly and stop it at the proper time. There are forty of these locomotives used in the operation of the canal. Let us consider a vessel at the Atlan- tic end of the canal, wishing to pass up from the ocean into Gatun lake. It passes into the forebay, which is imme- diately in front of the first locks. The towing locomotives are made fast to it, the operator is notified; he opens the miter gates and lowers the guard chain, and the ship is towed into the first lock. The guard chains are raised, the gates behind and in front of the ship swing shut and are locked by the miter- forcing machines. The operator then opens the side and middle wall culvert valves and the lock fills, slowly float- ing the vessel higher and higher until it is level with the water in the second lock. The valves are closed, the gate in front of the ship opens, the guard chain drops and the boat passes into the second lock. The operation is re- peated till the ship floats level with Gatun Lake. For a ship to pass downward from the lake to the ocean, the operation is essentially the same, differing only in the fact that after a ship enters the highest lock the water is allowed to flow out until the level of the next lower lock is reached. Gatun Lake sup- plies all this water. It is the highest point in the Canal and the water does not therefor have to be pumped to the locks, but is simply led thru mains to them. It will take a vesesl about ten hours to pass thru the entire canal. Of this ten hours, about three are consumed in passing thru the three flights of locks. It has hitherto been the universal practice in regard to canal-lock ma- chinery, to have all mechanism for its manipulation situated in the lock walls, as close as practicable to the power units. This system has many shortcomings, however. A large num- ber of operators is required, distribut- ed along practically the entire length of the locks. With such an arrangement, it is difficult to fix authority or to co- ordinate the operators into a system- atic whole. On the other hand, many advantages were to be gained by con- trolling all the machinery from one point. There was a gain in speed, it re- duced operating expenses and in eon- junction with the system of inter-lock- ing between controls which it allowed, it practically precluded any possibility of error. This is the system in use at Panama. The working of this system called for a set of indicators. The op- erator in the control-house could not see the locks very well, so the indicat- ors must show him, at all times, the po- sition of every valve, gate or chain in the locks. The Commission stipulated, moreover, that all indicators should, in- 294 THE REDWOOD. sofar as it was necessary and possible, be operating miniatures of the machines they represented. The next question was " What shall be the medium of control and indication? Shall it be water, air, steam, or electricity? " The flight of locks at Gatun extends over a distance of 6152 feet and the distance of the machines from the control board, is, in some cases, about one-half a mile. Over such a distance and under such conditions, electricity was the only answer. The comparative ease of trans- mission of power was not its only re- commendation. It was required by the Commission that the movement of all indicators should be synchronous with the actual machine, that is, the position of the indicator and the machine should be the same at all times, not indicat- ing, for instance, merely the closed or open positions of the valve, but also all intermediate positions. It was practi- cally impossible to get anything like perfect synchronism with any medium other than electricity. An indicator worked by steam, air, or water, more- over, would have a hopeless multipli- city of parts, very liable to derange- ment. Electricity gave an ease and ex- actness of operation not obtainable with the others, and consequently was the medium selected. As mentioned before, it was required by the Commission that, since the use of remote control necessitated a system of indicators, these indicators should, as far as possible, be miniature replicas of the lock mechanisms. As finally in- stalled, the switch-board of each flight of locks was practically a model of those locks. The gate indicators and those for the rising stem valves, water levels, and chains are synchronous with the machine they indicate. For such units as the cylindrical valves, whose operation takes only a few sec- onds, it was unnecessary to show inter- mediate positions and therefor, only their open or closed positions are shown by red and green lamps. Since it would add nothing to the efficiency of the boards, and moreover, would only be a source of trouble and annoy- ance, the locks on the board are not filled with water. The bottom of each lock is, however, lined with blue Ver- mont marble, to represent the presence of water. By the side of each lock is a calibrated standard with a pointer, which moves up and down upon it. This pointer shows the water level. Since these indicators are so important, they are made extremely accurate. They register within at least % of an inch of the actual water level. The rising stem valves are indicated in a somewhat similar way. Since the valves always occur in pairs the indicators are also built in pairs. A small cage moves up and down inside the device and in the cage are electric lights. The bottom of the cage throws a sharp shadow on the face of the instrument, illuminating only that part below the bottom edge. Thus the lighted portion corresponds to the amount the valve has opened, making the index easy to read, even at a distance. The gates are represented THE EEDWOOD. 295 by two aluminum arms which span the lock. The guard chain indices are sim- ply small chains, which, when down, fit into recesses in the board. By these devices, the operator can tell, as surely and accurately as though he stood on the lock walls, just what conditions pre- vail in any lock. As he turns the switches, the miniature gates open and close, he sees the water rise and fall, the valves open and shut, and the tiny guard chains stretch taut or sink into their recesses. In the space of a few feet he has the control of every ma- chine, on whose operation the working of the locks depend. These boards are illustrative of the manner in which every part of the canal has been work- ed out — complete and efficient to the smallest detail. In this respect, it may be said, that among the features of the canal, the one which stands preeminent, not only for its completeness, but for its ingen- uity, is the interlocking system. Made possible by the centralized control, it supplies an unerring, mechanical brain to check the mistakes of the operator. Mechanically simple, it fulfills every requirement. It consists, in brief, of a framework in which horizontal and vertical bars are free to move. That portion of any control-switch shaft which extends be- low the board is square, and to it is clamped a connecting rod which ex- tends to a horizontal bar. Thus, when a switch is turned, it moves a horizon- tal bar thru the rack. On the bars (both horizontal and vertical) are bev- el dogs, that is, small projecting pieces of steel having a beveled face D, E, F G, in fig. 2. Let us suppose that the horizontal bar U in fig. 2, is connected to a guard chain switch and carries the dog E and that bar P connects to the gate switch. On it is the dog G. The vertical bar V carries the bevel dogs — =--=- --= ' ' =4 - I. D P. In the position of the bars shown at A the gate is open, but the guard chain is still up. The operator lowers the chain to let a ship pass out of the lock. Turning the chain switch moves the bar U toward the right into the position shown at B. The bar, in moving, brings dog E into contact with dog D and the bar V is therefor pushed upward, E sliding under D and holding the bar V up. The bevel faces of F and G are brought together. Now let us suppose that the operator wishes to close the lock. Forgetting to again raise the chain, he tries to close the gate, but the switch to accomplish this, cannot be turned. Turning the switch would move bar P toward the right. In moving toward the right the dog G would, by pressing on dog F, push bar V downward, but the bar V is held up by the dog E and cannot, therefor, 296 THE REDWOOD. move downward. The gate switch is therefor locked in the open position. If, however, the operator first raises the chain, he moves bar U back toward the left, C in fig. 2. This draws E from under D and the bar V drops down, withdrawing F from in front of Gr and permitting bar P to move toward the right, as shown at C, fig. 2. This allows the gate-closing switch to be turned. This illustrates the general principle of the whole system. The bars them- selves do not make the contacts, but serve merely as checks. In the more complicated interlocks, in which a number of valves are locked shut by the opening of one or more valves in another series, devices called whiffle trees are used. J U kj U w As shown in Fig. 3, these are curved pieces which may be made to rest on the top of the required number of ver- tical bars. When the valve or valves to which they are connected are open- ed, the whiffle-trees hold the vertical bars down and the valves connected to the horizontal bars shown in Fig. 3 cannot be opened. On the other hand, should one or more of the latter be op- ened first, the corresponding vertical bars are raised by the bevel dogs and the whiffle-trees are held rigid, lock- ing the first set of valves shut. The interlock, previously described, between the gates and guard chains is about the simplest interlock used. In the manner described, the gates are prevented from closing until the chains are up to protect them and, vice versa, the chains cannot be lowered till the gates are opened. The miter-forcing switches are in- terlocked with those of the gates so that the miter-forcing switch must open first and close last. Since any eddies or currents might interfere with the movement of the gates, the valves in a lock cannot be opened till the gates are closed and locked. This is effected by interlock- ing the valves with the miter-forcer so that that machine must be closed be- fore any valve in the lock can be opened. Since the third lock is so much above the lowest one, the water, should the valves be left open, will naturally all drain into the first lock and flood the walls and machinery. To guard against this the rising stem valves are inter- locked so that the opening of those in one lock holds those in the next level shut. This interlock also applies to the cylindrical valves in the center wall for if they were left open, the lowest lock could be flooded by the water passing thru the middle culvert. The opening of the cylindrical valves THE REDWOOD. 297 on one side of the middle wall locks the opposite ten shut. This is to prevent what is known as ' ' cross-filling, ' ' which is allowing the water from one lock to flow thru the cylindrical valves into the opposite lock. In certain cases, however, as when two ships come abreast, a saving in water is possible by allowing this cross-filling. The in- terlock is, therefor, removable by sim- ply disengaging a clutch on the switch shaft. The intermediate gates are fitted with all the interlocks which effect the main gates, but so as not to interfere with the working of the thousand foot level, these interlocks are, like those on the cylindrical valves, easily remov- able. As a final precaution, all machines are equipped with local control, that is, control from the lock walls. If there should be any derangement in the con- nection between the locks and the con- trol-house these local controls are used and the operation of the canal is not in- terrupted. When we consider the progress in engineering of any period in the his- tory of the world, we see it distin- guished from all others by some special quality which either helped or hin- dered the advance of human endeavor. When we consider the Panama Canal among other engineering works of our time, we see two great distinguishing marks : — specialization and coopera- tion. These are the invariable aecom- pan yists of 20th century progress. In the work on the Canal, as each part, each detail was a problem in itself so for each problem there was a master. Each problem was met by a man whose lifework it was to solve just such ques- tions and when every obstacle had been removed, every point of design and construction settled, the work of these men was coordinated into one perfect whole, whose ponderous parts moved with a delicacy and precision which might rival the most sensitive instru- ment. The Panama Canal is truly wonderful — in its magnitude and the results it will produce — but more won- derful still in the completeness and ef- ficiency of those parts which have made the whole a possibility. Eichard Fox, M. E. ' 17. T T ectteooit, PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR __.__._. RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER -----_. EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' IS ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER - _ . - EDWARD H. MCLAUGHLIN, ' 16 ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS ------.. WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 ALUMNI -------- FRANCIS W. SCHILLING UNIVERSITY NOTES ------- F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS ( CHAS. D. SOUTH. Litt. D.. ' 01 ALUMNI CORRESPONDENTS - - - - J lEX. T. LEONARD, A. B., ' 10 EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription. Si. 50 a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL COMMENT The Engineer- ing Number In this issue we have the first engineering number of the RED- WOOD. We have presented a few topics that are of interest to the en- gineer and to the layman in a manner which we hope is intelligible to all.,.We accept the blame for any faults the number may have and hope that you will find some compensatory excellen- cies. The staff for this issue is — Pro- fessor Sullivan, Editor; J. Christy, As- sistant Editor; Thad Macaulay, C. E. ; J. H. Stanfield, M. E. ; Harold Kelly, E. E.; Emil Fuchs, Architecture; Ed McCarthy, Athletics; Ralph Weyand, University Notes and Prank Stewart, Staff Artist. We have no engineering alumni or exchanges as yet. , „ . While the progress of The Engineer- . . . _ ing Profession tion is founded on en- gineering as on no other profession, it 298 THE REDWOOD. 299 is only recently that the importance of engineering has been recognized. Now, however, we find that the greatest state in the Union values the services of one of its engineers twice as much as those of its governor, we find cities being managed by competent engineers instead of being exploited by politi- cians, we find commissions of expert engineers determining the basis on which our great corporations should be governed and we find the whole coun- try doing honor to a great engineer; the Builder of the Panama Canal. We are beginning to realize that this is truly the age of the engineer, that our work, our pleasures, even our sorrows are governed by the work of engin- eers. Your morning paper is printed by a wonderful machine made by an engineer, you do your business by tele- phone in an electric-lighted, steam- heated, elevator-served office. You go to the theater in an automobile or elec- tric street-car and you take your out- ing in a touring car. If some engineer has been negligent or incompetent you are hurt in a railway or auto accident. The doctor alleviates your occasional ills but the engineer provides your con- stant comfort. The lawyer may make our laws but he would be powerless to enforce them without the aid of mod- ern machinery. Thanks to the number of College men entering the ranks, engineers are taking their proper places in our citi- zenship. In the past they have been prone to do their work in the retire- ment of the worker engrossed in his work, but people now realize that the man gifted with the froth of oratory may not be the man able and willing to advance the best interests of his fellow citizens and the engineer, who is judg- ed not by his words but by his works, is being pushed into the high places. To this new call he is responding with the efficiency that has marked his past and with the realization that his is pre- eminently a profession of service. Government Ownership What the development of the present rage for government own- ership will be, depends to a great ex- tent on the success of the governmental railroad in Alaska. Can the govern- ment successfully construct and oper- ate a great industrial plant? She has shown her mettle in construction lines at Panama; her engineers have done their work well, but already there is trouble over the operating policy. A few jingoes, with much waving of the flag, declare that WE have built the canal and should have the free use of it : they seem to forget that " WE " rep- resents about one per cent of the peo- ple who helped pay for the canal. Will the shippers along the Alaskan rail- road expect to use it free of charge be- cause " AVE " built it? Why do con- gressmen feel justified in franking their household goods through the mails " Why do officials devote only a small part of their energy to their offi- cial duties? 300 THE REDWOOD. Government ownership of many pub- lie utilities is probably coming, but with it is coming a new attitude to- ward government work which is lead- ing to the displacement of politicians by experts. Engineers point with pride to the almost uniform excellence of their work, whether for government or private purposes and one reason for this is that an engineer ' s mistakes are never covered up; if a dam fails the world hears of it, but a doctor ' s mis- take is often covered with six feet of earth, and a lawyer ' s buried in a mass of periphrasis. The success of gov- ernment ownership will depend to a great extent on the elimination of ' cov- ering up ' ; star chambers and bosses will have to be abolished and govern- ment positions will have to be made permanent. Rev. Fr. Pro- vincial ' s Talk On the afternoon of May the first, the stu- dents gathered in the Chapel where Reverend Father Glee- son, S. J., spoke to them regarding the month of May and the devotion all should show to the Blessed Virgin. His talk was very inspiring and all who heard him were deeply enthused. A solemn Benediction, with special mu- sic, followed the sermon. District Attorneys Wednesday, April 29, the University enter- tained the District At- torneys of the state. In the morning the attorneys inspected the different departments of the University and at noon a sumptuous banquet was served in Sodality Hall, which was elaborately decorated in red and white. After the banquet the attorneys witnessed an ex- citing ball game, in which Santa Clara defeated Stanford by the score of 1 to 2. May Devotions The annual devotion of Our Lady during this month is one of Santa Clara ' s time honored devotions. Benediction is given every evening at the regular Chapel hour and short in- structions delivered. A custom preve- lant in the Catholic Universities of the East and Europe is being adopted here this year. Different members of the higher classes are giving the talks and the interest shown in the work is re- markable. All praise is due those who are setting us the example of their deep devotion to Our Blessed Lady. The students of archi- Architecture tecture, under the di- rection of Professor Grimes, have finished the plans, eleva- tions, cross sections and wash drawings of a modern suburban residence that are very fine. Professor Grimes ' class in Free Hand Drawing has also execut- ed some fine work in stump and char- coal; notable among which is " A Re- ligious Sister " , by A. Navlet. The new observatory is nearing completion Observatory telescope will soon be mounted ready for use. In spite of the fact that Father Ricard ' s equipment is still primitive he obtains remarkable results which are an indi- 301 302 THE EEDWOOD. cation of what he might accomplish had he a complete set of modern instru- ments. Technical Articles Professor G. L. Sulli- van has two articles in the technical press this month; one in Machinery and one in The Bulletin of the Society for the Pro- motion of Engineering Education. The shop has of late Forge Work resounded with the clang of iron on iron and the result is that the Mechanicals and Electricals have finished the work in welding. The next work to be taken up is the tempering of different steels, and if as good work is done in this line as in welding, the shop will be well sup- plied with chisels and other small tools. Junior Civil The Junior Engineers are plying their studi- ous efforts this semes- ter on Bridge Design, Concrete Con- struction and Railway Work. The chief problems in concrete are the de- sign of railway culverts and tunnels. All are working hard and good results are being obtained. On Tuesday evening, The Smoker May fifth, the Engin- eering Society enjoyed the hospitality of Professor and Mrs. G. L. Sullivan at their pretty home on Madison street. Reverend Fathers Brainard and Buckley, and Professors Donovan, Grimes and B. Sullivan were present besides the members of the so- ciety. Smoking was indulged in until re- freshments were served and they were in turn followed by short impromptu speeches on engineering topics. All the Engineers expressed the opinion that within a few years, Santa Clara ' s Engineering College would equal if not surpass that of any other University on the coast. The gathering dispersed near midnight and all spoke highly of the " one grand time " they had re- ceived. . Mr. I. A. Oliver, the , ,. " Boss " of the shop, Invention , • i,- V has received his pat- ent on an automatic steering device that he invented. This mechanism will make the steering of a tractor much easier than formerly. Mr. Oliver has had a gerat deal of experience in prac- tical work and his knowledge and ex- perience is a valuable asset of the En- gineering College. Descriptive Geometry The Freshmen are working hard trying to complete their work in Descriptive Geometry on time. Up to the present rapid progress has been made and some difficult problems have been solved. This subject has every where the reputation of being the hard- est subject in Engineering but Profes- sor Sullivan has succeeded in making most of the difficult points plain. ANNUAL TRACK MEET. The annual track meet with the Uni- versity of Nevada was held at Reno, on Mackay Field, April 25, where we were defeated by a score of 70 1-3 to 51 2-3. The honors for first place were evenly divided, but Nevada won by placing their second and third string men. Captain Hardy was the individual star of the day, annexing 15 1-3 points for his team. Kiely won both weight events while Soto ran a beautiful race in the quarter, beating Hovey of Nevada, who was picked to win. The veterans, Har- dy, Kiely, McCarthy, J. Fitzpatrick, Laine, and Leonard, showed fine form in securing the greater majority of points for the Red and White. The men who will receive their block S. C. ' s are Donohue and Soto. Following are the results : Mile Run: Won by Ogilvie (N.) ; Trabert (N.), second; McCarthy (S. C), third. Time, 5:4. 100 Yd. Dash: Won by Hardy (S. C); Root (N.), second; Mills (N.), third. Time, :10 2-5. 120 Yd. Dash : Won by J. Fitzpatrick (S. C.) ; Rose (N.), second; North (N.), third. Time, :16 2-5. 440 Yd. Dash: Won by Soto (S. C.) ; Mills (N.), second; Healy (N.), third. Time, :54 2-5. 220 Yd. Low Hurdles : Won by Har- dy (S. C.) ; Hancock (N.), second; Rose (N.), third. Time, :26 1-5. Two Mile Run: Won by Kent (N.) ; McCarthy (S. C), second; Farrar (N.), third. Time, 11:2 2-5. 220 Yd. Dash: Won by Root (N.) ; Hardy (S. C), second; Powers (N.), third. Time, :23 2-5. 880 Yd. Run: Won by Hovey (N.) ; Chism (N.), second; Trabert (N.), third. Time, 2:7. Pole Vault: Won by Clark (N.) ; Mc- Cubbin (N.), Bacon (N.), and Donohue (S. C), all tied for second. Height, 10 ft., 6 in. Hammer Throw: Won by Kiely (S. C.) ; Jepon (N.), second; Pflaging (N.), third. Distance, 120 ft., 11 in. High Jump : Won by Leonard (S. C.) ; Watson (N.), Luce (N.), and Har- dy (S. C), all tied for second. Height, 5 ft., 6 in. 303 304 THE REDWOOD. Shot Put: Won by Kiely (S. C.) ; Laine (S. C), second; Harriman (N.), third. Distance, 39 ft., 6 in. Broad Jump: Won by Root (N.) ; Soto (S. C), second; Hardy (S. C), third. Distance, 21 ft., 7 in. Relay: Won by Nevada: Mills, Hea- ly, Hovey, Ogilvie. Time, 3 :37 1-2. Pensacola 4. Santa Olara 5. The team representing the U. S. Ma- rines from Goat Island, proved them- selves a very formidable aggregation of ball players for the Varsity to subdue. The visitors took an early lead on the collegians, who won out in a scrappy ninth inning rally, in which they knocked Weise off the rubber with four safe drives; Woodmansee relieved him with two men on the bases and one out in the ninth. With one down McGinnis singled, stole second and scored on Tramutola ' s safe drive. Harwood ' s single put Tramutola on third and Chauncey scored on Zarrick ' s infield hit. The feature of the game was the hit- ting and fielding of Shortstop Flanni- gan, who played with the " St. Louis Browns " a short time ago. " Hal " Whelan, Harwood and Sheehan proved to be the individual stars at fielding for the Varsity, while McGinnis, Zar- rick and Pitzpatrick did the slugging part. Santa Clara 2. Stanford 1. The Varsity, terminating their 1913 campaign, defeated the Stanford Var- sity in one of the hottest and best played contests of the season. Stanford scored its lone tally in the second inning, when Dent singled, stole second, and came over on Stevens ' single to center. Likewise, the Varsity celebrated their half of the same inning when Zarrick singled to left and stole second, Ramage knocked a long double to left field and when Workman and Hayes threw wild at third, Ramage scored. Brilliant plays featured the game throughout the remaining innings and neither team succeeded in scoring. The remarkable pitching by Pinky Leonard, and the clever fielding of Zar- rick, Whelan and McGinnis, coupled with the slugging of Ramage proved too great an offset to Stanford. The score: STANFORD. A.B. R. H. P.O. A. E. Stafford, 2b 4 2 15 Day, c. f 4 3 Workman, lb 4 19 1 Dent, c 3 12 9 10 Noonan, c. f 4 Dooling, 1. f 4 10 Stephens, s. s 4 14 10 McCloskey, 3b 3 10 Hayes, p 3 1 Totals 33 1 7 27 7 2 SANTA CLARA. A.B. R. H. P.O. A. E. McGi nnis, s. s 4 10 2 Casey, 1. f 1 Harwood, r. f 3 Zarrick, 2b 3 12 3 3 Sheehan, 3b 3 14 Ramage, e 2 12 8 Fitzpatrick, 1. f 2 110 Whelan, lb 3 14 THE REDWOOD. 305 A.B. R. H. P.O. A. E. Barzen, 3rd b. Leonard, p 3 3 Geoghan, r. f. Tramutola, c. f 3 10 Oliver, sub. Totals 27 27 12 " o Soto, p. and 1. f. Til f offlOlflls flT ' P ' MOUNTAIN LEAGUE. President: Craig Howard. The Mountain League was organized Umpires: " Tony " Boone and Ivor April 1, 1914, consisting of the follow- Wallace. ing teams: Titanics, Olympics and Im- Scorer: " Uriah " H. Wood. peratores. The Student Body, at the request of The line-ups are as follows: " Jiggs " Donahue, donated $5. That, Titanics: together with the money raised by a Gaffey (capt.) p. and c. f. tax of ten cents, levied on the players, Sportono (mgr.), c. made it possible to buy a dozen base Jackson, 1st b. balls. O ' Neil, J. R., 2nd b. An unusual amount of " pep " has Todd, 3d b. been shown in the league, and some of Winston, s. s. the stars are Marinovich, Jackson, Brammer, 1. f. Todd, Kavanaugh, Gaffey, Nickolson, Bodefeld, c. f. and p. Hall and Korte. Carlson, r. f. The standing of the clubs at present Hall, p. are: Olympics: Won Lost Pet. Kavanaugh (capt.), s. s. Titanics 7 5 .583 Donahue (mgr.), c. f. Imperatores _ 6 7 .461 Hemrich, 1st b. Olympics 5 6 .454 Fitzgerald, 2nd b. A series of games were arranged Shipsey, 3rd b. with Coach Harwood ' s Juniors. ' Neil, J., 1. f . The result of the first game was quite Campbell, r. f. surprising, the AU-Star Mountain Nickolsin, p. Leaguers being beaten by the small Korte, c. score of 7-3, in a fast, snappy game. Imperatores : A surprising 16-inning contest was Detels (mgr.), c. f. fought with " Inyo " Smith and " Pope " Marinovich (capt.), s. s. Gaffy, the opposing slabmen. Eisert, c. A large " feed " has been arranged Smith, p. and 1. f. for the winner of the league by Fr. Pacheco, 1st. b. Morton, and from the present outlook Uhl, 2nd b. the Titanic ' s will not starve. 306 THE REDWOOD. The score stood 2 to 2 in the sixteenth inning when Hall, of the Titanics, broke up the game with a home-run. The league has still three more weeks to play. TURF FIELD, Ground has been broken for the turf field and our dream has begun to ma- terialize. The ground has been plowed and is being graded. The city will soon be laying pipes to get the necessary water on the field. The committee in charge are to be praised for their good work. LIFE Man comes into this world without his consent and leaves it against his will. During his stay on earth his time is spent in one continuous round of contraries and misunderstandings by the balance of the species. In his infancy he is an angel; in his boyhood he is a devil; in his manhood he is everything from a lizard up; in his duties he is a fool; if he raises a small cheek he is a thief, and then the law raises the devil with him ; if he raises a family he is a chump ; if he is a_ poor man, he is a poor manager and has no sense ; if he is rich, he is dishon- est, but considered smart; if he is in politics, you can ' t place him, as he is an undesirable citizen; if he goes to church, he is a hypocrite; if he stays away from church he is a sinner ; if he donates to foreign missions he does it for show; if he doesn ' t, he is stingy and a tight wad. When he first comes into the world everybody wants to kiss him, before he goes out everybody wants to kick him. If he dies young there was a great future before him ; if he lives to a ripe old age, he is simply in the way and living to save funeral expenses. This life is a funny road, but we all like to travel it just the same. To get the most out of life ' s journey, a man should buy one of Angevine ' s well fit- ting suits, made from the season ' s lat- est patterns, all of distinctive style — they are the good kind, at $22.50 to $40. When passing 67-69 South Second street look at the window display, at Angevine ' s leading tailor. SEE THAT m iSW] IS IN YOUR HAT SAN JOSE • FRESNO • STOCKTON THE REDWOOD. Spring Time is Here, So is Billy Hobson With the Largest Line of English Suits ever shown. Also a large selection of Box Backs in all the latest shades. Drop in and try a few of the new models on, and see what we are doing. Remember, We Make Suits to Your Order from $20.00 to $45.00 BILLY HOBSON 24 South First Street, San Jose, Cal. ) l Showing Famous Players in Big Productions in Motion Pictures First Street near San Antonio, San Jose Continuous Performance f artaian igmg $c ©If anmg QIo. NINTH AND SANTA CLARA STREETS Contract Work a Specialty Suit a Week $1.50 a Month Wagons call regularly three times a week Phone San Jose 900 SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. The Hibernia Savings and Loan Society HIBERNIA BANK Incorporated 1864 Corner of Market, McAllister and Jones Streets (Members of the Associated Savings Banks of San Francisco) Assets $58,298,801.75 Open Daily from 10 a. m. to 3 p. m. Saturdays from 10 a. m. to 12 m. OPEN SATURDAY EVENINGS FROM 6 TO 8 FOR DEPOSITS ONLY " HERBERT S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery.? BUSHNELL Fotografer Branch Studios: 4 J q pij-g SAN FRANCISCO r , OAKLAND oan Jose, uaL THE REDWOOD. YOUNG MEN= Can Dress right, at small cost, if they wear our Young Men ' s Clothes made by Hart Schaffner Marx SPRING MODELS READY Established 1865 SANTA CLARA AND MARKET Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes LEADERS ! THESE ENGLISH SHAPE SHOES EQUIPPED WITH Rubber Soles Heels The High or Low Cuts— Are all the go this season — A complete selection at Established 1869 $4, $5, $5.50 TAN OR WHITE TO 26 E. SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE 138 South First Street We offer a complete line of Spalding Athletic Goods HENCKEL ' S POCKET KNIVES RAZORS AND SHEARS BOSCHKEN HARDWARE COMPANY San Jose ' s Leading Sporting Goods House THE REDWOOD. Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California THIS institution under the direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR THE JEWEL BAKERY 1151 Frankin St., Santa Clara " DON ' T WURRY " Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J. SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' JRestaurant, Grill and Oyster Mouse w 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. Let your next suit be a Stratford, They have the class READY TO WEAR MADE TO MEASURE George Howes 19 South First Street, San Jose Xw " Mission Town Chocolates Headquarters for College boys Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vlce-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara California THE REDWOOD. HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. We promise you relief from ail Stomach Troubles or your money bacl . Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box. Only at Franklin St. MADDEN ' S PHARMACY, Santa Clara See That Fit " Let J. U. Be Your Tailor J. U. Winninger IVA South First Street, San Jose, Cal. THE REDWOOD. THE= P UNIVERSITY BARBERS Cool Head w,ll tell vou how Main Street south of Franklin, Santa Clara The Adler-Rochester Clothes Ready to Wear - from $20.00 to $30.00 Suits Made to Order from $25.00 to $40.00 Cunningham Son 78 South First Street San Jose, Cal. SALLOWS RORKE Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone, Santa Clara 13 R p. Montmayeur E. LamoUe J. Orlglia Lamolle Grill -.. . 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR s CATERS TO THE ™IS ( fc MOST TRADE-MARK — OT -— FASTIDIOUS THE REDWOOD. Qberdeener ' s Pharmacy Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara KODAK FINISHING IT ' S A BUSINESS WITH us NOTASIDEUNE PHOTO SUPPLY 69 SO. HRST ST. SAN JOSE.CAL. Ravenna Paste Company (n Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose Shaving Accessories THE JOHN STOCK SONS 71-77 South First St., San Jose Our line of SHAVING Articles is complete. Safety and Common Razors of all kinds Giliett ' s Razors $5.00 Shaving Brush. 25c up Keen Kutter " 3.50 Strops 50c up Ever Ready " 1.00 Strop Dressing Enders " 100 Shaving Soap Sharp Shave " .50 Extra Blades, all kinds Every Razor Guaranteed Phones : Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. THE REDWOOD. J. B, ENOS NEAT HAIR CUTTING A SPECIALTY AH Work Done on Premises Suits from S2S.00 up (Formerly Holmes Malinow) POPULAR PRICED TAILOlt 121 NORTH FIRST STREET Phone San Jose 1646 SAN JOSE, CAL. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA ffij F :|1 Reasonably Priced University Drug Co. — _, A iniw r !i Satisfactory Stock iOSfi Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. SANTA CRUZ FISH AND POULTRY MARKET E. PEREZ J. BUDNA, Proprietors 77 E. SAN FERNANDO STREET, SAN JOSE PHONE, SAN JOSE 1870 LOUIS PEREZ, Manager THE REDWOOD. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA SIXTIETH YEAR COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Oflfice, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose ones:{Su«er4Z20 Smith, Lynden Co. Wholesale Grocers BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, Wm. McCarthy Sons Coffee TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. Manual Training Equipment " AMERICAN " — FIRST IN QUALITY LARGEST MANUFACTURERS OF WOOD-W ORKING MACHINERY The American Equipment for Schools is the best obtainable; carefully designed, easy to operate and perfectly safe Special Catalogue, illustrating our new fea- tures in Wood Working Machinery, will be mailed upon application American Wood Working Machinery Co. 46 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. V. Salberg E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cal. Xhp r C c rc Invites you to its rooms 1 1 ic; JCXi 1 La V iai a j-est and enjoy a T-j r-ji T-ji T- r T T TD cup of excellent coffee L WrFlllC L i UO Open from 6 a. m. to 10:30 p. m. Vargas Bros. C- LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies lS ' ZlZ;Til2ZT. ' . Main Line, Santa Clara 120 THE REDWOOD. Low Round-Trip Fares East TICKETS SOLD MAY 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 31 JUNE 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 JULY 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 27. 28. 29. 30, 31 AUGUST 3, 4. 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 SEPTEMBER 4, 5, 9, 10, 11 ADDITIONAL DATES April 29, 30, May 1 to New York City $108.50 May 3, 4, 5. 6, to Atlanta, Ga. - - 93.40 May 11, 12, 13 to Louisville. Ky. - - 84.50 August 25, 26, 27, to Detroit, Mich. - 83.50 Going Limit 15 days, trip to commence on date of sale. Final return limit three months from date of sale, but not latei than October 31, 1914. Liberal stopovers and choice of routes going and returning. SOME OF THE RATES Boston, Mass .. $110 50 New Orleans, La .... 70 00 Chicago, 111 . . 72 50 New York, N. Y .... 108 50 Colorado Springs, Colo. . . . . 55 00 Omaha, Neb .... 60 00 Council Bluffs, Iowa . . 60 00 Portland, Me .... 113 50 Dallas, Tex . . 62 50 Pueblo, Colo .... 55 00 Denver, Colo . . 55 00 Quebec, P. Q .... 116 50 Duluth. Minn . . 83 30 St. Louis, Mo. .... 70 00 Forth Worth, Tex . . 62 50 St. Paul, Minn .... 75 70 Kansas City, Mo . . 60 00 Toronto, Ont .... 95 70 Memphis, Tenn . . 70 00 Washington, D. C .... 107 50 Montreal, P. Q . . 108 00 (Salt Lake City and Ogden quoted on application) A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. 40 East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific Portland AND RETURN ACCOUNT OF Portland Rose Festival $28.35 FOR ROUND TRIP Tickets Sold June 5th to 8th inclusive; Return limit July 31, 1914 Stop-overs allowed on return trip A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. 40— East Santa Clara Street, San Jose — 40 Southern Pacific me RCDWOOD LAW NUMBER June, 1914 THE REDWOOD. University of Santa Clara SANTA CLARA, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following departments: A. THE COLLEGE OF PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS. A four ' years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B. THE COLLEGE OF GENERAL SCIENCE. A four years ' College course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. C. THE INSTITUTE OF LAW. A standard three years ' course of Law, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and pre-supposing for entrance the completion of two years of study beyond the High School. D. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (a) Civil Engineering — A four years ' course, lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. (b) Mechanical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Me- chanical Engineering. (c) Electrical Engineering — A four years ' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elec- trical Engineering. E. THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bach- elor of Science in Architecture. F. THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course of studies in Chemistry, Bac- teriology, Biology and Anatomy, which is recom- mended to students contemplating entrance into medical schools. Only students who have com- pleted two years of study beyond the High School are eligible for this course. WALTER F. THORNTON, S. J., - - President THE REDWOOD. A VOTE FOR James D. Phelan Democratic Candidate for United States Senator Is a vote for the man who can help California in Washington Primary Election August 25. General Election Nov. 3. San Jose Safe Deposit Bank One Million Capital and Surplus Checking Accounts Savings Accounts Safe Deposit Boxes OFFICERS : E. Mclaughlin, President W. H. PABST, Cashier JOHN F. BROOKE, Vice Pres. J. H. RUSSELL, Asst. Cashier THE REDWOOD. Phone S. C 14 B. DOWNING, EDITOR Santa Clara Journal PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY OUR JOB PRINTING PREEMINENTLY SUPERIOR Franklin Street, Santa Clara San Jose Engraving Company Photo Engraving Zinc Etchings Half Tones Do you want a half-tone for a program or pamphlet? None can make It better SAN JOSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 32 LIGHTSTON STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. Founded 1851 Incorporated 1858 Accredited by State University, 1900 College Notre Dame SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA COURSES COLLEGIATE PREPARATORY COMMERCIAL Intermediate and Primary Classes for Younger Children Notre Dame Conservatory of Music Awards Diplomas Founded 1899 APPLY FOR TERMS TO SISTER SUPERIOR SIXTIETH YEAR fSlKSH =WlCKWIRE = GO ' S Norfolk Model 20 Three button coat with pants. Belt all around sewed half the way ; pleat- ed back. Skeleton lined. Two out- side patch pockets with buttons. Long slit in coat back from bottom to belt, makes this model especially suitable for horseback riding and golf. Your Early Inspection is invited at Pomeroy Brothers 41-59 South First Street San Jose, California TRUNKS AND SUIT CASES FOR VACATION WALLETS, FOBS, TOILET SETS, ART LEATHER, UMBRELLAS, ETC., ETC. FRED M. STERN The " Leather Man " 77 NORTH FIRST STREET, SAN JOSE, CAL. THE REDWOOD. FOSS HICKS CO No. 35 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE Real Estate, Loans Investments A Select and Up-to-date List of Just Such Properties as the Home Seeker and Investor Wants INSURANCE Fire, Life and Accident in the Best Companies L. F. SWIFT, President LEROY HOUGH, Vice-President E. B. SHUGERT, Treasurer DIRECTORS— L. F. Swift, Leroy Hough, Henry J. Crocker, W. D. Dennett, Jesse W. Lllienthal Capital Paid In, $1,000,000 Western Meat Company PORK PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF Dressed Beef, Mutton and Pork, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Fertilizer. Bones, Hoofs, Horns, Etc. Monarch and Golden Gate Brands Canned Meats, Bacon, Hams and Lard General Office, Sixth and Townsend Streets - San Francisco, Cal. Cable Address STEDFAST, San Francisco. Codes, Al. A B C 4th Edition Packing House and Stock Yards, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, Cal. Distributing Houses, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Stockton THE REDWOOD. Phone, San Jose 816 ANTON BAUER Ladies ' and Gent ' s TAILOR 60 WEST SANTA CLARA STREET Bank of Italy Building SAN JOSE, CAL. Have you ever experienced the convenience RATES TO STUDENTS of a ground floor gallery? BUSHNELL Fotografer Jranch Studios: 4| q YlYSt Street SAN FRANCISCO x , OAKLAND c an Jose, LaL A. G. COL CO. WHOLESALE Commission Merchants TELEPHONE, MAIN 309 84-90 N. Market St. San Jose, Cal. THE REDWOOD. Dr. Wong Him Residence 1268 OTarrell Street B etween Gough and Octavia Phones: West 6870 . Homes 3458 San Francisco, Cal. UNIVERSITY of ST. IGNATIUS SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA The University embraces the following Departments: A — COLLEGE OF LETTERS, SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. A four years ' college course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. B — THE COLLEGE OF LAW. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and beginning Junior Year. C — THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. A four years ' course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science In Civil Engineering, and beginning in Freshman year. D — THE PRE-MEDICAL COURSE. A two years ' course in Chemistry, Bacteriology, Biology and Anatomy for prospective students of Medicine. This course begins in Junior year. ST. IGNATIUS HIGH SCHOOL An elBcient course covering four years from the completion of standard grammar schools and preparatory to the University. REV. ALBERT F. TRIVELLI. S. J.. President. THE REDWOOD. 4 if Academy of Notre Dame Santa Clara, California ' T HIS institution under tiie direction of the 1 Sisters of Notre Dame affords special ad- vantages to parents wishing to secure for their children an education at once solid and refined. For further information apply to Santa Clara, Cal. SISTER SUPERIOR EntepriseLafliirjCo. Perfect Satisfaction Guaranteed Young Men ' s Furnishings All the Latest Styles in Neckwear, Hosiery and Gloves Young Men ' s Suits and Hats O ' Brien ' s SantaClara 867 Sherman Street I. RUTH, Agent - 1037 Franklin Street Men ' s Clothes Shop Gents ' Furnishings Hats and Shoes PAY LESS AND DRESS BETTER E. H. ALDEN Phone Santa Clara 74 R 1054 Franklin St. O ' CoDirSanitamin Training School for Nurses IN CONNECTION CONDUCTED BY SISTERS OF CHARITY Race and San Carlos Streets San Jose ... THE REDWOOD. o E T YOUR NEXT S U I T AT (Roos-Heeseman ' s at Oakland and at Berkeley) CLOTHIERS TO MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN " The House of Courtesy " Market at Stockton SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. WATCHMAKER ENGRAVER GRADUATION GIFTS E. L. REIDING JEWELER Phone 4027 15 WEST SANTA CLARA ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. SEE THAT jmx SWt IS IN YOUR HAT SAN JOSE - FRESNO - STOCKTON CONTENTS SLEEP SWEETLY ON! Rodney A. Yoell THE DOCTRINE OF LAWRENCE V. FOX IN CALIFORNIA Marco S. Zarick, Law ' 14 A WRITTEN OR AN UNWRITTEN CONSTI- TUTION Frank G. Boone, Law ' 14 THE MEASURE OF THE DUTY OF A JURY IN A CRIMI- NAL ACTION TO FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS LAID DOWN BY THE COURT Stephen M. White, Law ' 14 325 A JUNE SONG - - - - O. L. Oliver 338 SHALL OUR STATUTES OF FRAUDS BE REPEALED? - Christopher A. Degnan, Law ' 14 339 COMMISSION GOVERNMENT AND THE CONSTITU- TIONAL LIMITATIONS ON THE POWER OF A STATE TO REGULATE PUBLIC UTILITIES Harry W. McGowan, Law ' 14 349 THE WANDERLUST - - - O. L. OLIVER 359 EDITORIAL - - - - - - - 360 EXCHANGES . - . _ _ .353 UNIVERSITY NOTES - _ - - _ 354 ATHLETICS ------ 370 ALUMNI - - _ - - - - 377 Entered Dec. 18, 1902, at Santa Clara, Cal., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 VOL. XIII SANTA CLARA, CAL., JUNE, 1914 NO. 7 Sleep Sweetly On Two poplar trees rear up tKeir quivering forms, And rustle witK tKe semblance of a wind TKeir silvered leaves, wKereon pale moonlight pla37s. Tneir sKadows fall athwart a gentle grave All covered witn the grasses soft and cool The " wKile an insect hums its weird dirge. Within that Led sleeps one forevermore Who in the morning of m}? life beside me stood And drove out phantoms from my baby fears. He drank life ' s wine and found it bitter-sweet When through, his all tired soul went peacefully to rest Where these world cares fade like soft floating dreams. I did not weep for then I knew not how Perchance the weeping would have eased my pain But yet I sorrowed in a dim unknowing way. Still often when the summer ' s warm rains come And shed white tears upon the grave so soft That mother kisses no more tender are, I see as in a vision your great pain And marvel how you bore it with such strength. Ah yes indeed — ' tis better that you sleep. RODNEY A. YOELL THE DOCTRINE OF LAWRENCE v. FOX IN CALIFORNIA N this age of enlight- enment and reason we have been con- fronted with many interesting and intri- cate problems in every walk of life that tax the capacity and brilliance of the most learned of men, and it is very probable, in fact, I assert without any fear of con- tradiction, that the greater proportion of the mooted questions of the day are those adduced in the realm of the Law. Some are very interesting subjects, others very abstruse and difficult, con- sequently, to the ordinary intellect of the present day, quite tiresome. How- ever, to the student of the law, the ab- struse questions are the more pleasur- able, because of the earnest research and subsequent knowledge gained by individual untiring effort. The subject of this essay, the Doe- trine of Lawrence v. Fox in Califor- nia, is an abstruse question that affords an opportunity for a great deal of dis- cussion. The principle deduced in the action above is one about which innumerable tribunals have argued, — that is, the right of a third person to sue on a con- tract made between A and B for the said third person ' s benefit. This is the question that the Court, in the well- known case of Lawrence v. Fox decid- ed, and my object is to determine to what extent the doctrine propounded in that case has been accepted by our Courts. In order to adequately treat the sub- ject in hand it will be necesssary to dwell at some length on the history of the right and the various theories ad- vanced in its support ; secondly, to view the limitations that have been placed upon the rule up to the time of the Lawrence v. Fox case, decided Decem- ber, 1859, and reported in 20 New York at page 268. We will then inquire into the facts of the above case and from the history of adjudicated cases we may be able to set the facts to the prin- ciples deduced and determine to our own satisfaction the propriety of the holding of Lawrence v. Fox, supra. From thence it is a natural and logical step to the holdings of the Courts in this State. The General Eule of the Common Law was absolutely settled to be, that the plaintiff in an action on a simple contract must be the person from whom the consideration of the contract actually moves and that a stranger to the consideration could not maintain an action upon it. The first ease of note that de- parted from the settled doctrine of the Common Law was Wood v. Shaw Yelverton 25, decided in 1603. 308 THE REDWOOD. 309 In this case Shaw, the executor of A, sued Wherewood, the administrator of Field, in debt. Field had made a bill of debt to A whereby he acknowledged receiving from one Prettis forty pounds to be equally divided between A and B and to their use. The Court decided that although there is no contract between the parties A may have an action in debt against Field ' s administrat or when money or goods are delivered upon consideration for the use of A. Evidently the Court here proceeded upon the theory of an implied promise from Field to Prettis to give forty pounds to A and B. In 1651, we find Starkey v. Mylve, 1 Vinors At. 336. A gave B goods to the value of 80 pounds, out of which B was to pay C 20 pounds. It was held that C could maintain action against B if B does not pay him the 20 pounds, because this transaction becomes a debt to C and therefore C is held liable. It will be observed that in Where- wood V. Shaw a fund was placed in the hands of the defendant, and in Starkey V. Mylve, goods were placed in the hands of the defendant. Another phase of the question was presented in Weeke v. Tybold, in 1606. B affirmed and published to the father of A that he would give 100 pounds to any one who would marry his daugh- ter with his consent. Subsequently A married the daughter and brought ac- tion against B on B ' s promise to A ' s father. Held in this case that A could not recover as there was no express person on whom B had promised to set- tle the money, B ' s promise being made to any one who should marry his daughter. This is the doctrine in all present day cases, the Courts holding that the per- son to be benefited, if not expressly named, must at least be sufficiently de- scribed or designated by the promisor. This point is evident, for how would we know who was to be benefited by the promisor unless the beneficiary can be reasonably ascertained? Burton v. Larkin, 36 Kan. 246, 59 Am. Rep. 541 ; Chung Kee v. Davidson, 73 Cal. 522. The next milestone in the English cases is Button V. Poole, 1 Ventris 218, be- fore the Court in 1670. This is a case often referred to by our courts in decisions bearing on the right of a third person to sue on a con- tract made for his benefit. Here, a father desiring to raise a portion for his daughter, was going to cut down timber of the value of 1000 pounds. The son, his heir, told the father to forbear cutting down the timber and he would pay the daughter the 1000 pounds. The son did not pay the money, so Button and his wife, the lat- ter the farmer ' s daughter, brought ac- tion in assumpsit against the son, the defendant. The defendant claimed that no action would lie on behalf of the daughter, because where the party to whom the promise is to be performed is not con- cerned in the meritorious cause of it he cannot recover. The court, however, ruled that the plaintiff could recover, holding that the nearness of relation of 310 THE REDWOOD. father and daughter, created an essen- tial duty of the father to provide for the child and that that was a sufficient consideration to sustain the action. Mr. Taylor aptly remarked in 15 A. L. R. 234, concerning the holding in Button V. Poole that " apparently a vague idea lurked obscurely in the minds of the judges that, in order to give the person to be benefited by the promise a right to sue, there must exist some duty between that person and the promisee. " Later in Peddie v. Brown, 3 Jurist N. S. 895, decided in the year 1857, the House of Lords ruled that the third person cannot sue unless he is named in a contract evidently intended for his benefit. Button V. Poole was finally over- ruled in 1861 in Tweddle v. Atkinson, 1 B. A., 393, the court saying : " It is now established that no stranger to the consideration can take advantage of a contract, although made for his benefit. Modern cases show that the consid- eration must move from the party en- titled to sue upon the contract. It would be a monstrous proposition to say that a person was a party to the contract for the purpose of suing upon it for his own advantage, and not a party to it for the purpose of being sued. ' ' This decision is plain upon its face and requires no discussion. Another view, however, that could be taken in the above citation is the fact that the promise was made to the promisee, and in him alone vests the absolute right of action to compel performance, and it is by virtue of this right that the promisee can maintain an action upon the promise. If A promises B to pay C a certain sum of money or goods it is certain B can prosecute the action. Now if the beneficiary C could also prosecute the action, that would make A liable to double prosecution for one and the same act in which only one of the per- sons is directly harmed. A ' s promise to B merely confers an authority upon A to pay to C if he so wills, but he may take the opposite course and pay to B and thus extinguish the contract. On the other hand a case decided years later in New York holds, how- ever, that it is not necessary that there should be any consideration passing from the third person, it being suffi- cient that the promise was made by the promisor upon a sufficient considera- tion, as between the immediate prom- isee and himself ; the third person later adopting the act of the promisee by obtaining the promise for his benefit, brings himself into privity with the promisor and entitles him to enforce the promise as if it was made directly to him. Thory v. Keokuk Coal Co., 48 N. Y. 253. This is practically the settled doc- trine in the United States, Dean v. Walker, 107, 111., 504, 47, Am. Rep. 467 J Williamson Stewart Paper Co. v. Seaman, 29 111. App. 68. To review the few English cases and take their holdings. It is evident that the Courts of England have enunciat- THE REDWOOD. 311 ed no general doctrine on the subject, although since Tweddle v. Atkinson, supra, it is English doctrine that no stranger to the consideration could maintain an action upon a contract. This general doctrine, however, is sub- ject to exceptions of particular cases with facts that fit the holding of the Courts to so construe the particular case as a trust created, or an agency implied. The Courts of England are also of the opinion, holding with courts of our jurisdiction as we shall see later, that the third person must be the one expressly to be benefited and, secondly, to make the consideration of the con- tract good, the promise must have been at the making of the contract under an existing liability to the said third per- son. In the United States practically the same difficulty of promulgating a gen- eral doctrine was met. Schemerhorn V. Vanderheyden, 1 Johnson 139, 3 Am. Dec. 304 is the initial step in this line of cases, having been heard before the New York bench in 1806. The facts of that case were that Schemerhorn promised to Vanderhey- den, for a good consideration, to deliver the desk in question and was sued by the beneficiary in assumpsit. The court decided that the action would be sustained, merely stating " we are of opinion that where one per- son makes a promise to another for the benefit of a third person, that third person may maintain an action on such promise. " No reason is given for the decision except a reference to the doc- trine set forth in Button v. Poole, supra. Evidently the Court ruled that the cases being practically the same in facts the same rule of law should ap- ply. The above reason would be insuffi- cient now, as Button v. Poole was later overruled as noted before. The next landmark in American de- cisions was rendered in 1821, Arnold V. Lyman, 17 Mass. 409, 9 Am. Bee. 154, to which many jurists refer as a lead- ing case on the right of a third person to sue on a contract made for his bene- fit. The facts were these : Hutchins owed sundry debts to numerous parties. The defendant Lyman signed an instrument in writing whereby, in consideration of an assignment of certain goods and notes from Hutchins, Lyman assumed the payment of said sundry debts of Hutchins. The plaintiff Arnold was specifically named in the instrument as a creditor in the shape of a holder of a note, and not having received payment from Lyman brought this action in assumpsit against the promisor. The Court ruled that the action could be maintained, to my idea, on the ground of an implied promise to the plaintiffs. The language used in the promise was made not expressly to Hutchins but to his creditors, and the subsequent bringing of an action by the creditors shows their assent to the promise and makes them parties to the promise and therefore capable of suing for a non-performance of the promise. The Court concludes with the remark that ' ' Generally, he for whose interest a 312 THE EBDWOOD. promise is made may maintain an ac- tion upon it although the promise be made to another and not to him. " Another point in this case, the fact that the beneficiary was specifically named, gave rise to the false impression that such was the rule of law, but as noted before in Chung Kee v. Davidson, it is sufficient if he is properly de- scribed or designated. The next historical landmark before we reach Lawrence v. Fox, is Mellen v. Whipple, 1 Gray 317, decided in 1854. This case overthrew the general right of third persons to sue on contracts made for their benefit, but admitted three exceptions. First, those eases in which A has placed money, funds or goods in the hands of B to pay certain creditors of A, and B has either ex- pressly or impliedly promised to pay such creditors. Second, eases where promises have been made by close rel- atives, as to a father for a child, or to an uncle for a nephew, the reason for this class being the nearness of relation between the promisee and the benefi- ciary. Third, where a promise to a lessee accrued to a lessor. Judge Metcalf, in pointing out these exceptions, clearly shows there must be an existing liability of the promisee to the beneficiary at the time of the con- tract, which is one point that I wish to insist upon. The fact that the courts of Massachusetts now absolutely refuse the right does not concern us. Before we inquire into the facts and the soundness of the decision in Law- rence V. Fox, let us merely glance at an extract from Parsons on Contracts, Vol. 1 of the 9th Edition, at pages 503-4-5 (bottom paging). He says ; ' ' But it is certain that if the actual promisee is merely the agent of the party to be benefited, that party may sue upon the promise, whether his relation to and interest in the agree- ment were known or not. This, how- ever, rests upon the ground that the consideration actually moves from such party, and that he cannot be re- garded as a stranger to it. . . . In some cases the actual promisee would be considered only the agent of the beneficiary, and in others the bene- ficiary would be regarded as the trus- tee of the party to whom the promise was di rectly made, and, as such trustee, might maintain an action in his own name. In this country the right of a third party to bring an action on a promise made to another for his benefit seems to be somewhat more positively asserted; and we think it would be safe to consider this a prevailing rule with US; indeed it has been held that such promise is to be deemed made to the third party if adopted by him though he was not cognizant of it when made. ' ' Parsons speaks of an agency and trust as existing under this line of cases, and justly so when the facts in a case justify such a holding. But in this question seldom are the facts to be found similar, and though the theory of an agency or a trust would apply to individual cases it could not be maintained as a theory THE EEDWOOD. 313 for all the decisions. There is also, as we have seen, the theory of an implied promise, but that too will only har- monize in a legal sense with certain set facts. So thus far we have met a few special theories that will not justify a general doctrine. Let us inquire into Lawrence v. Fox and see whether that cause sheds any light upon the ques- tion. From the facts it appears that one Holly, at the request of the defendant, loaned and advanced to said defendant $300, stating at the time that he owed that sum of money to the plaintiff for money borrowed from the plaintiff; the defendant, in consideration thereof, promised Holly that he would pay the plaintiff that sum of money. The prevailing opinion rendered in the case was on the theory of an im- plied promise being made to the bene- ficiary, and the Court quotes from Brewer v. Dyer, Gushing 337: " It rests upon the broader and more satis- factory basis that the law, operating on the act of the parties, creates the duty, establishes a privity, and implies the promise on which the action is founded. " This quotation is on its face a wholesale creation of relations by the law that cannot be justified by reason, the law never implying partic- ularly any promise where there is an express one. Judges Denio and Johnson rather granted the right to the third person to sue, on the theory that, " the promise was to be regarded as made to the plaintiff through the medium of the agent, whose action he could ratify when it came to his knowledge, though taken without his being privy thereto. ' ' This theory of the case is also beyond reason as no agency ever existed in this particular cause. There was abso- lutely nothing presented in the facts which would justify such a holding, Holly merely acting as an individual in the transaction without any semblance whatever of an implied agency or other species of agency. There can be no doubt, from the facts in this case, that the beneficiary must have a right of action, but the diffi- culty was, we have seen before, upon what theory or doctrine the right ought to be allowed. Judge Comstoers in his able dissenting opinion, to which I cannot agree, however, mentions one particular phrase that probably reaches a solution, when he says : " If he (the third person) can maintain this suit, it is because an anomaly has found its way into the law on this sub- ject. " And this view seems to be the settled one in this age. It will next be profitable to draw the conclusion which the above case jus- tifies : First. The contract must be in- tended for the express benefit of the third person and if the said third per- son is to be merely incidentally benefit- ed the action will not lie. Second. There must have been, at the time of the making of the contract, some legal or equitable duty owing from the prom- isee to the beneficiary. The facts establishing the above con- clusions are now approved in prae- 314 THE REDWOOD. tically all jurisdictions. Having seen, therefore, in both England and the United States, that though the field for an acceptable theory to enable a third person to maintain an action as against the promisor in a contract, is barren, there can be no doubt from the numer- ous eases that I have cited and briefed as far as possible, that in furtherance of justice and equity the right must be allowed within the limitations enunci- ated in Lawrence v. Fox, supra. Though the point has not been broached in any of the above cited cases, I believe that equity would at least intervene and allow the third person to be subrogated to the rights of the promisee, if for no other reason than to avoid a multiplicity of suits. This seems a reasonable view, as otherwise, in the case where there are many third persons, as in the promise of B to A to pay all of A ' s creditors, there would be a circuity of actions which the courts of equity are al- ways anxious to avoid. Let us now consider briefly a few California cases of early date and ex- amine them to see if they come within the accepted limitations of the rule as pronounced in Lawrence v. Fox. The first case of note, Kreutz v. Liv- ingston, et al.; 15 Cal, 345 (1860), quoting from the opinion, decided, " As the action is for money had and re- ceived to the use of the plaintiff and the facts clearly show that the defend- ant has in his possession money which in equity and good conscience belongs to such plaintiff, the plaintiff may re- cover. " Continuing further, the Court quotes from a foreign decision, " When the fact is proved that the promisor has the money, if he cannot show that he has a legal or equitable grounds for retain- ing it, the law creates the privity and the promise. ' ' This latter quotation is on its face not justified, as the law never creates a promise where there is an express one. (Finch, J. Lecture 11, Statute of Frauds). The facts in the above cause, how- ever, tended to show that the defend- ant really held the money in trust for the plaintiff, and on the theory of a trust the Court rendered their decision, sustaining the action. In McLaren v. Hutchinson, 18 Cal. 81 (1861), it was held that the plaintiff being a stranger to the consideration the action would not lie. A perusal of the case will show it did not come within the accepted lim- itations. Morgan v. Overman Silver Mining Co., 37 Cal. 534 (1869), decided that where A transfers property to B, and B in consideration thereof promises to pay the debts of A, an action will lie on behalf of the creditors of A as against the promisor B, an assignment of the right by A not being necessary. At this period, 1872, the legislature added a new section to the Civil Code, Section 1559, which provided, " A contract, made expressly for the bene- fit of a third person, may be enforced THE REDWOOD. 315 by him at any time before the parties thereto rescind it. " This section was founded on a similar section of the New York Code. This enactment practically settled the doctrine in this state, accepting the right as allowed in Lawrence v. Fox. Through a long line of decisions the Courts of our states repeatedly hold the validity of the section, provided however the third person is to be ex- pressly benefited. This point seems to be the only one about which our deci- sions revolve, the general right being allowed. In Wickersham v. Denman, the Court ruled that as the contract in question was made for the express benefit of the third person, the third person could successfully recover judgment against the promisor. In Chung Kee v. Davidson, 73 Cal. 522, the facts tended to show that if the contract was carried out as originally intended, it would merely incidentally become a benefit to the third person and on this ground the action was dis- missed. We saw in Mellen v. Whipple, supra, a Masachusetts case of note, that the third party for whose benefit the con- tract was made must be expressly named. Held in Chung Gee v. Davidson, that it is enough if the third party is sufficiently designated or described. The identical point of express or im- plied benefit to the third person was again decided in Buckley v. Gray, 110 Cal. 347, 42 Pac. 900, 31 L. R. A. 862, and in Savings Bank v. Thornton, 112 Cal. 259. An agreement by an assignee to pay the fee of the assignor ' s attorney, be- ing based on an executed consideration, may be enforced by the attorney as a promise made for his benefit. Tyler v. Mayre, 95 Cal, 160. In a cause respecting the liability of a grantee to a third party for the as- sumption of a mortgage, it is not nec- essary for a formal promise to be made, it is sufficient if his general intention to assume the debt appears from a con- sideration of the entire instrument. Hopkins v. Warner, 109 Cal., 134. It is evident from a perusal of the above cited California cases that the general doctrine is absolutely settled in this State, to wit: That a third per- son can sue on a contract expressly made for his benefit, and the Courts in their decisions have limited the doe- trine, as far as possible, to the limita- tions expressed in Lawrence v. Fox. 1st. The contract must be intended for the express benefit of the third person ; 2nd, there must have been at the time of the making of the contract, an ex- isting liability of the promisee to the third person. As to the theory upon which this right is founded, I will conclude by saying that a different theory exists for each particular case. Where the facts justify the creation of an agency the theory of an agency will be the grounds for the decision, etc., but as to enunciating a general doctrine I will venture to say there is none, ex- eeping justice. Marco S. Zarick, Jr., Law ' 14. A WRITTEN OR AN UNWRITTEN CONSTITUTION TATES or nations have commonly been defined as bodies po- litic, societies of men united together to procure their mutual safety and advantage by means of their union. But the term nation has a still broader meaning, as it is not only a body of men drawn together by certain ties and communities of in- terest, but it is a union of men whose habits, customs, desires, likes and dis- likes are distinct from and often un- like those of other nations. Thus we can see that in dealing with a question of this nature, namely, the governing of a nation by a supreme law we can not lay down any universal law or rule which would affect each distinct nation in the same way, and for this reason, in order to give a fair and impartial discourse upon the ad- visability of a written or an unwritten constitution, and in order that our conclusions may be practical, we must take into consideration the habits, customs and temperaments of those who go to make up a society, and to whom the constitution or supreme laws of that particular society are to apply. No sooner have we explained the dif- ficulties arising from this side of the question than we are met with an- other. If we look over all the nations of the world at this day we will find many stages of civilization. In some we find the arts and sciences in a culti- vated state, and holding out to its citi- zens a very high standard of Christian life and morals. In others we find the absence of the Christian religion, ac- companied by a disrespect for the moral order existing between man and man, and the satisfaction of personal desires their ultimate end. We shall, then, in dealing with the question " as to whether a written or unwritten constitution " is the best form of government for the people of the United States, confine ourselves as far as possible to conditions with which we are actually to deal and with which we have been met. Looking at the sub- ject from these standpoints I am forced to admit at the outstart that the stand which I take upon the subject is that the people of the States and of the United States should be governed and protected by a written constitution such as their own free pleasure and sovereign will have already expressed. Before proceeding further, how- ever, with our subject, it is well that we first become familiar with the terms " written and unwritten consti- tution. " As definitions of a written constitution have been expressed in many ways by different writers, I have thought it best, in order to have 316 THE REDWOOD. 317 the definition harmonize with the na- ture of the Constitution of the United States, to adopt the words of Mr. Black, who has very carefully defined the term from an American standpoint. The Constitution in American law as referred to by Mr. Black " is a written instrument agreed upon by the people of the Union, as the absolute rule of action and decision for all depart- ments and officers of the government, in respect to all the points covered by it, which must control until it shall be changed by the authority which estab- lished it, and in opposition to which any act or ordinance of any such de- partment or officer is null and void. " In construing the Constitution then we must interpret its provisions as ab- solute rules of the government, and that any actions in opposition to its provisions are null and void, and with these rules of constitution in mind I intend to show thereby its working ef- fect upon the people of a nation. Proceeding now to the definition of an unwritten constitution we will be safe in defining it " as the collective will and wisdom of a people manifest- ed in gradually accumulating customs, corrected and extended by experience, but never reaching final and complete expression, and whose authority at any given moment is indicated by the authority which it asserts and in which the collective people acquiesce " . Rob- inson ' s El. Law, Section 412. With these definitions as given I shall take the liberty to express anoth- er unwritten rule which generally is, and most certainly should be, in every constitution, namely that any rules however absolute should be and really are subservient to the will of the people and have no rightful existence or force when contrary to such will. The Constitution of the United States with which we now deal is one of dele- gated powers. These powers are de- rived from political entities called states. The political position of each of these states is supreme, and subserv- ient only to the authority exercised over them by the power delegated by them in the constitution to the Federal government. The interests of each state as regards the interests and pros- perity of their citizens often are, and have been, in direct conflict with each other. Thus at the time of the civil war we saw a great nation divided into two parts, each part claiming a right to a sovereignty of its own, and resist- ing each other with every force and power available at that time. When we look into the cause of this great rupture we will find the prime and lead- ing cause of so great a calamity was a diversity of interest between the peo- ple of the states of the North and those of the states of the South. Servitude in the South had grown up as a part of their institution. In the North the pur- poses for which slavery was adopted were not present. Let us compare the applications of a written and unwritten constitution un- der these conditions, most vital as they were, with the fate of a great nation surrounding them, and depending upon 318 THE REDWOOD. the fact as to whether a state under the Constitution could of its own will cease to be a part of a great nation of which of its own free will it had for- merly been a member. The Constitution of the United States was interpreted to prevent just such a thing. To allow a state to cease to be a member of the Union would be clearly against the tenor and spirit of the Constitution— against the very purpose for which it was formed. From the clause of the Constitution, " We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, " was conveyed the meaning that the union was to be per- petual in order that it might be perfect in a greater degree ; or as the Supreme Court of the United States puts it, " What can be indissoluble if a perpet- ual union made more perfect is not? " Texas vs. White, 7 Wallace 700. So we find that a state having once be- come a member of the Union could not under the supreme authority of the Constitution cease to be a member of it. We can easily foresee the results if the people of our Union were at that time governed by an unwritten consti- tution. What custom, what legal max- im, what usage or precedent could have been appealed to? Custom and usage of other nations could not have been brought into use as history had never before witnessed a like state of affairs. This point is brought out in an article in the Independent Magazine of Febru- ary 21st, 1907. In discussing the ad- visability of a written constitution for England the writer brings out the fact that the United States has been the only great nation to try the experi- ment — (England and France have none), and he further says, " that the United States would be no criterion as neither France nor England must balance state rights against central authority ! ' ' We must not, however, infer from this that England has no written posi- tive law, for if we do we will be in error, as the contrary is true. England has written, positive law enjoying as much force as any of the provisions in our Constitution. Such is the Magna Charta drawn up and put into writing during the Reign of King John, and further supplemented by the Bill of Rights of 1688. Our Constitution has engrafted in it a Bill of Rights of the same nature, but which Mr. Hamilton declared to be altogether unnecessary. Federalist No. 84. He argued that according to the significance of the English Bills, they have no application to constitutions professedly founded upon the power of the people, and executed by their imme- diate representatives and servants. They were stipulations between kings and their subjects, abridgments of pre- rogative in favor of privilege. By our Constitution the people surrender none of their personal rights, and since they retain everything, they need no par- ticular reservation. This reasoning was not satisfactory to many of the leading statesmen of the day. They realized that there were certain portions of right not necessary THE REDWOOD. 319 for them to carry on an effective gov- ernment, but which experience has proved will be encroached upon, if that power is put into the hands of the gov- erning body; that there are bulwarks which experience has proved very effi- cacious against wrong and rarely op- posing right, and which the governing powers have shown a disposition to weaken and remove. And as Mr. Jef- ferson has said, " governing powers will be no less disposed to be aggress- ive when chosen by .majorities than when selected by accident of bii ' th. " During the long struggle for Consti- tutional liberty in England in the sev- enteenth century, the greatest import- ance was attached to a distinct declara- tion of rights which had been made on the part of the government, and when this declaration could possess only a moral force, it would appear to be of even more value in the United States where it would constitute authoritative law, and be subject to no modification or repeal, except by the people them- selves, and then only in a way estab- lished by law. Cooley Const. Lim., pages 366-7. " We can see, however, how these dec- larations in a constitution may at times cramp the useful exertions of the gov- ernment. As an example let us take the " due process of law clause " of our Constitution. Every government at some time is visited with internal dis- orders or uprisings. The welfare of its people, and a necessity for the resto- ration of order often demand prompt action and a variance from the ordi- nary course of judicial procedure. With certain forms of procedure pre- scribed in the meting out of justice and in the manner of trial it often be- comes very annoying to be confined to the strict terms of a written consti- tution. Thus in the case of In Re Debs, petitioner, reported in 158 U. S., 564, we find the Federal Government in pe- culiar circumstances. A dispute arose between the Pullman Car Company and its employees. Violence was resorted to and trains carrying the United States mail, were with force and vio- lence obstructed and derailed. An in- junction was filed in the Federal Courts, praying that all persons desist from doing those acts specified in the bill. The injunction was granted, but time was lost, and its validity was de- cided by the terms of the Constitution. The Constitution, however, impliedly covered the case, but if it did not it would have been necessary for Con- gress to pass additional laws covering the subject, and the power of the Unit- ed States to restore order would have been suspended until that time, with embarrassing results to the mail serv- ice of the United States. If there was no written constitution acting as a straight-jacket to Federal action, the Court could have issued this injunction, with the will and wisdom of the people acquiescing in it, and such proceeding would have been binding without fur- ther delay. Mr. Jefferson says, how- ever, (Jefferson ' s " Works, Vol. Ill, page 4, " that there is a difference between the inconveniences which attend a dec- 320 THE EEDWOOD. laration of rights and those which at- tend the absence of it " . The pro- visions of a declaration of rights may thwart the government in its useful ex- ertions, but the evil of this is short lived, and in almost every case repar- able. The evils arising from the lack of a declaration of rights are positive and irreparable. They go from bad to worse. The absolute power of the legis- lative branch is the greatest enemy to be overcome, and is the most formid- able enemy at present and will con- tinue to be, with the tyranny of the judiciary yet to come. Nicholas Murray Butler in his book on the subject, " Why should we change our present form of govern- ment? " page 16, has this to say on a written constitution: " A Avritten constitution is a devise to protect man ' s sober and mature poli- tical judgment from his fleeting poli- tical passions and prejudices. " The moment that you write into fun- damental law a definite and precise statement of momentary political feel- ing in regard to some matter of funda- mental rights you affix to it a position and dignity far greater than, and more able to stand the attacks of the political passions and prejudices mentioned by Mr. Butler. Then, in a written constitution we have a rule of action prescribed by the sober and nature political judgment of man, and to be interpr eted by the fixed meaning of the words contained therein, contrasted with the funda- mental law of a people prescribed by those people and subject to their tem- porary desires and prejudices. We must not think from this, how- ever, that all the powers granted un- der the Constitution are to be limited by the exact words in the terms of the Constitution. This is not true, but what is true is that any act of a de- partment contrary to the spirit of the words of the Constituion is void. Or to explain further, if any law is passed by Congress which is either expressly or impliedly prohibited by the words of the Constitution that law is void. A written as well as an unwritten Constitution, interpreted as explained above, is of an elastic nature. In in- terpreting its provisions there is room left for an exercise of judicial discre- tion. Chief Justice Marshall, the great jurist and statesman, was the first to press each element of the Constitution to its logical conclusion. Thirteen years after the organization of the Su- preme Court, he announced for the first time in the case of Marbury vs. Madi- son, 1 Cranch, 137, that it possessed both the right and power to declare null and void an act of Congress in violation of the Constitution. The invincible logic of this argument rested upon the ad- mission that this right was given to the Supreme Court from the general nature of the system of government whose constitution had failed to grant it in express terms. Although the Chief Justice acting under an unwritten constitution would have the same power of discretion, and in fact a power more extensive, yet he THE REDWOOD. 321 would not be confined to a fixed and certain foundation upon which he is to build his ideas and mold his decisions, but would be open to other influences, and restricted by no rule of action as laid down by the people in writing for his guidance, at a time when acting from reason and justice and for their own future welfare and happiness. The Constitution of the United States, although in written form, has to no great extent restricted the acts and operations of our Federal Govern- ment. Probably one of the biggest questions which was ever to be decided by the terms of our written Constitu- tion was the power of the United States to purchase that tract of land after- wards included in the Louisiana Pur- chase. Some people have thought that if it were not for the industry and great- ness of Thomas Jefferson, who also possessed a wonderful foresight, and if it were fiot for his willingness to give the Constitution a practical in- terpretation, upon seeing that the na- ture of the instrument demanded it, the territory of Louisiana would never have been incorporated into the Union. In 1800 Spain ceded to France the territory of Louisiana. This treaty caused such ferment in this country that James Monroe was sent to France to co-operate with Livingston, then minister to France, in the purchase of New Orleans. To their surprise Bona- parte offered to them the whole of Louisiana at a price finally fixed at $15,000,000.00. Although at the time Mr. Jefferson informed Mr. Livingston that he had very grave doubts as to whether the purchase could be made under the Constitution, Mr. Livings- ton, owing to the new war which was about to break out between England and France saw the need of hasty ac- tion, and taking the responsibility of disobeying the instructions of Mr. Jef- erson consented to the purchase. This was a good which probably never again would be in the power of the United States, but which Mr. Jef- ferson up to this time yet believed would necessitate an additional article to the Constitution approving and eon- firming an act which had not previous- ly been authorized. The Constitution has made no provision for holding for- eign territory and still less for incor- porating foreign nations into our Union. To cover this necessity Mr. Jefferson prepared two amendments to the Constitution which Avould confer the necessary powers. When Congress assembled in 1803, Mr. Jefferson saw a pressing necessity for quick action, and either the argu- ments of his friends, or this necessity for immediate action dispelled his doubts as to the constitutionality of the act, since in his message to Con- gress he referred the whole matter to Congress, saying " that the action to be taken upon the subject would be left to the wisdom of Congress " . Upon the raising of money to provide for the purchase of this territory an animated debate took place in Congress in which the question as to whether the provi- 322 THE EEDWOOD. sion for the ultimate incorporation of Louisiana into the Union was constitu- tional. The purchase money was final- ly raised, and Louisiana became a part of the United States, not from any ex- press authority conferred upon the Executive or Congress by the Consti- tution, but a loop-hole was found in that instrument under the " treaty power " , and although the Federalists, or strict Constitutionalists as they were called, denied the power of Con- gress and the Executive to put through such a measure, yet the administration forces were in the majority and the bill ratifying the purchase of Louisiana was finally passed. Thus the great question was present- ed to Congress and the people, whether or not the Constitution should be strict- ly construed, and we see the people im- pliedly assenting in a loose construc- tion of the Constitution which was put upon it by Congress acting at a time when that instrument through its writ- ten provisions did not cover a common demand of the people. (For facts con- cerning the Louisiana purchase, see Downes vs. Bidwell, 182 U. S. 244). We have before in this essay argued the merits of a written Constitution upon the ground that its words gave a clear and express understanding of the powers which were to be exercised under it, but the greatest value which we have placed upon a written Consti- tution is not that its terms will not at times be obviated or enlarged upon by the powers of a government that may be. Our argument upon this point as be- fore laid down is : when words are put in clear and concise form, and when there is a meaning conferred upon them by a people of a nation, custom and experi- ence have shown that their effective- ness against wrong is far greater than the moral force of unwritten principles which would be at all times subject to modification or repeal. So in the case of the Louisiana Pur- chase we see the terms of the written Constitution of the United States stretched to meet an exigency which that instrument by its terms did not cover. But we also see that the result was a great benefit to the American na- tion, and was acquiesced in by the American people at large. If we look through the pages of history we will find that in almost every case except one, namely, the right of a state to secede from the Union, where there was some doubt as to whether the terms of the Constitution were com- plied with, that the constrained inter- pretations have been in the best inter- ests of the; people and have been ac- quiesced in by them. The Constitution of the United States then is not open to the general objec- tion to all written Constitutions, name- ly, that written Constitutions are too inelastic, and cannot be made to vary with a change of conditions and the everchanging needs of the people, for we have seen that the Constitution either from its express or implied pow- ers has for the last century and a quar- THE REDWOOD. 323 ter administered to almost every need that it was called upon by the people to satisfy. From this reasoning it might be said that in showing the value of a written Constitution by examples of its elas- ticity we also bring out the fact that its elastic force may be put into use in the wrong way, and the rights of the people be jeopardized the same as might happen in the case of an unwrit- ten constitution. We must answer this argument by saying that the rule does not apply to both cases alike, for in the first instance we have the supreme power of a government, namely, the will of the people, which acquiesces in the constrained interpretation of the Constitution, and by its positive acts often shows its desire for a loose inter- pretation of the Constitution. When this constrained interpretation is given effect, it is backed up by a greater force than the Constitution itself, or any negative effect which the terms of t he Constitution could express, for in all republican forms of government the will of the people is the final and su- preme authority to which all else is subservient. The Constitution then, although in Avriting, has been interpreted to meet almost all the exigencies and necessi- ties of the times, and we have seen how this can rightfully be done, not by re- sorting to any means contained in the instrument itself, but by an unwritten superior law contained in every Con- stitution whether written or unwritten, and from which the Constitution de- rives all its powers and even its exist- ence, namely, the supreme will of the people. But when the supreme will of the people is not behind a constrained interpretation of the Constitution, the fact immediately appears that since there is no superior law which takes precedence to its written terms, it is to be recognized as the supreme authority and the instrument of last resort, by which all inferior authority is to be guided absolutely. Even admitting that an unwritten constitution is necessary to keep pace with the changing times, the argument v hich we have formerly touched upon, that the relations of the states to the Federal Government must be laid down in some absolute form, is suffici- ent to show an ever pressing necessity for a written constitution and especially since the states from the very incep- tion of the Constitution have been con- tinually plotting and planning to se- cure to themselves every right which could possible be included in their pre- rogative, and have been very hesitant in parting with any, even when the terms of the Constitution put in plain language denied to them such rights. Can we think of any possible set of un- written rules which could settle the dif- ficulties and disputes between these two sovereign governments, and which would have one uniform and constant construction. If they have been found or can be found outside of a written instrument which clearly sets out in constant and unchangeable form their rights and duties toward each other, I 324 THE REDWOOD. must admit that I liave been unable to familiarize myself with them. In summing up it may be said that we have dwelt almost entirely with the advisability of a written Constitution for the government of our own coun- try, and we do not mean to convey the idea that all of the principles herein applied, or all of the arguments which we have endeavored to bring out will apply alike to all nations who are to be governed by a supreme law or consti- tution for in so doing, as has been par- tially explained, one could not reach an universal rule or universality in appli- cation of principles, the impracticabil- ity of such a discussion being that the facts and application of a law and the people to be governed would in many cases be entirely unlike. We will be content, then, in establish- ing that the securing of the rights of a people to be governed, by positive written law, has been strongly demand- ed by them in securing their rights, and has proved the greatest insurer of those rights; further, that the Consti- tution in written form has fulfilled all the needs that the people have demand- ed of it, and past construction and ap- plication show no reason why it should not in the future be adaptable to all emergencies. The last and strongest argument, namely, that in the balancing of state rights with Federal authority a written constitution is the only instrument which can act as an arbitrating med- ium between these sovereigns, permits me to conclude this discussion with a firm belief that the people of the Unit- ed States will have their liberty se- cured to them, and their present state of happiness will continue to the ex- tent which they are now enjoying, only through this great instrument and ar- bitrator, the Constitution of the United States, which our forefathers through their zeal and wisdom have given to us to enjoy indefinitely. Frank G. Boone, Law ' 14. THE MEASURE OF THE DUTY OF A JURY IN A CRIMINAL ACTION TO FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS LAID DOWN BY THE COURT CLEAR knowledge of the subject before one is the prime essen- tial of any oration, debate or essay. This is evident, for how could we reason logically or even talk or write intelligently in any form whatever if we had no com- plete understanding of the topic we have undertaken to expose. So let us conform to this first requirement and ask ourselves what is understood by the measure of a duty of a jury in a criminal action to follow the instruc- tions laid down by the court. In a gen- eral way we might say that it simply means the extent to which a jury is obliged to go in following the direc- tions given by that organ of the gov- ernment, belonging to the judicial de- partment, in a matter pertaining to the enforcement of public rights or the redress of public wrongs. However, we have not so far touched upon the meaning of the word " jury, " perhaps the most important term in the ques- tion. Hence, let us proceed to form some idea of that heretofore undefiled noun. Broadly speaking, it is under- stood as that body of men, temporarily selected from the citizens of a particu- lar district and invested with power to present or indict a person for a public offense or to try a question of fact. Now, there are three kinds of juries — namely — grand, inquest and trial. A grand jury is a body of men, nineteen in number, returned in pursuance of law from the citizens of a county, or city and county, before a court of com- petent jurisdiction and sworn to in- quire of public offenses commitetd or triable within the county or city and county. A jury of inquest is a body of men, summoned from the citizens of a particular district before the sheriff, coroner or other ministerial officer to inquire of particular facts. Lastly, the trial jury, and the only one which will occupy our attention hereafter, is de- fined as consisting of a body of men returned from the citizens of a partic- ular district before a court or officer of competent jurisdiction and sworn to try and determine by verdict a cer- tain case. Both in England and the United States, and in fact every coun- try which has a similar system, twelve men compose the jury, except in civil cases when by agreement in open court less may sit. The reason for hav- ing this particular number is hardly traceable. Some writers have attrib- uted it to the cause that there were twelve men in the Apostolic College, 325 326 THE REDWOOD. but this conclusion from analogy can- not exactly be said to be authentic. However it is, indeed, quite probable that such a number was chosen for such a reason. Having seen what a trial jury con- sists of, the question that will naturally arise is — how is it formed? The sys- tem in practice in almost every state in the Union, and which is derived from the old Common Law of England, has been criticised by many and at the same time has been commended by oth- ers. Now as we have intimated previ- ously, jury trials are had in both civil and criminal cases, or those affecting private rights and private wrongs and those that pertain to public rights and public wrongs. But, referring to our subject we find that it is only with criminal actions we are here concerned. So limiting ourselves to that class of cases let us examine the manner in which a jury is obtained there. In perusing the works of text-writers we find Thompson, in his work on " Trials " , Vol. 1, Pg. 12 et seq., treat- ing of the present day method of im- panelling a jury in a very copious man- ner. To begin with, he shows how the Common Law system differs from ours. There, no such thing was known as the preparation of a list of persons, who were liable to be summoned to serve as jurors at a succeeding term of court; but the uncontrolled discretion was vested in the sheriff, in the coroner, or in officials, called elisors, of summon- ing good and lawful men as they might choose. Thompson points out the fact that this system led to extensive abuses, mainly, in the packing of juries and the blackmailing of citizens. The American statutes have attempted to remedy these evils by providing for the preparation, at a given time before the commencement of any term of court or at other stated periods, of a list of per- sons, within a county or other jurisdic- tion, from which jurors are summoned. The making out of this list is entrusted in some districts to the judges ; in others to the supervisor or to any pub- lic officer. However, by way of crit- icism, I am unable to see how this lat- ter system has any advantage over the Common Law method. By confiding to some official the drawing of the list, the same abuse that obtained in Eng- land, is still possible. Why cannot the judge, supervisor or whoever it may be, whose duty it is to make out this list, choose those whom he thinks will meet with his views and disregard those Avho might be opposed to them? Nev- ertheless, it is well nigh impossible to discover a system that is not open to sc-me evil and, perhaps, the one in practice in our State Courts is as just as any that could be proposed. In the Federal and Territorial courts the method of preparing a list of jurors is somewhat different. In these tribunals the duty is committed to the clerk of the court and to a jury commissioner, appointed by the judge, who is a well- known member of the principal poli- tical party, within the district, op- posed to that to which the clerk be- longs. This, beyond doubt, is a more THE REDWOOD. 327 apt method than the previous ones de- scribed, as it makes it extremely hard for evil influence to creep in, since the men who do the choosing are diamet- rically opposed to each other in poli- tics, the chief means today of swaying the people. Following the preparation of the general list of those eligible or liable to serve as jurors at the succeeding term of court, the list of names actually to be summoned, called the array or panel, is then drawn by lot from a box or wheel at a time and at a place either in court or otherwise, upon public no- tice by the designated official. The panel thus drawn is then made public in such a manner as the different stat- utes provide. The summoning of those whose names appear on the array then takes place as soon as a trial is com- menced in which a jury is to sit. When the proper time comes, those selected are called upon to give evidence as to their fitness to act in the particular case. " When, finally, twelve have given sufficient evidence that they are suit- ed to try the case, they are then chosen as the jury. Thus, we have in a con- cise outline the manner of drawing or getting together a body of men to sit at a session of court. The origin of the trial jury, like many other things, has been practically lost. Beyond question, it was in use among the earliest Saxons, and un- doubtedly it was a great step towards a democratic government. In his authori- tative writings, Book III-Ch.23 Pgs.- 1340-42, Blackstone says that the most transcendent privilege which any sub- ject can enjoy or wish for, is that he cannot be affected in his property, his liberty or his person but by the unani- mous consent of twelve of his neighbors and equals. He, then, reasons thus — " the impartial administration of jus- tice, which secures both our person and our property, is the great aim of civil society " . If that be entirely entrusted to the magistracy, a select body of men or those generally chosen by the prince or such individuals as enjoy the high- est offices of the state, their decisions, in spite of their own natural integrity, will have frequently an involuntary prejudice towards those of their own rank ; it is not to be expected from hu- man nature that the few should always be attentive to the interests and good of the many. On the other hand, if the power of adjudication were placed at random in the hands of the multitude, their decisions would be wild and cap- ricious and a new rule of action would every day be established in our courts. It is, therefore, wisely decreed that there be a competent number of sensi- ble and upright men, chosen by lot among those of the middle rank, to act as judges in a particular case, as it will be found that they are the best investi- gators of truth and the surest guardi- ans of public justice. This preserves in the hands of the people that share which they ought to have in the ad- ministration of common righteousness and prevents the encroachments of the more powerful and wealthy citizens. Every new tribunal erected for the de- 328 THE REDWOOD. eision of facts without the intervention of a jury, is a step towards establish- ing aristocracy, — the most oppressive of absolute governments. The feudal system, which, for the sake of military subordination, pursued an aristocrati- cal plan in all its arrangements of property, would have been intolerable in times of peace had it not been coun- terpoised by that pinvilege so univer- sally diffused through every part of it — namely — the trial by the feudal peers. And in every country on the continent, as the trial by the middle men has been gradually disused, so the nobles have increased in power, till the state has been torn to pieces by rival factions and oligarchy, in effect, has been established under the shadow of regal government. Thus we see the reasonableness of placing in the hands of the people this part of the govern- ment. Now, the jiiry having been selected, the question that quite logically pre- sents itself is — " what is the duty of this body of men? " In a general way we can say that they are obliged to ren- der a verdict. But, then, to be more definite, let us inquire into the princi- ples that the jury are to follow in doing so. Now, in regard to this, two theo- ries have been advanced ; one maintains that the jury are bound to follow the instructions in matters of law laid down by the court. While the other holds that they can disregard the di- rections and become both judges of the law and facts of the case themselves. Hence, our duty shall be to examine both these theories thoroughly. Let us analyze the first mentioned — namely — that which holds that the jury is obliged to follow the instructions of the court. The leading case of Sparf v. U. S., 156 U. S., 51, treats of the duty of a jury in a criminal action at great length. Here, Herman Sparf and Hans Hansen were jointly indicted for the murder of Maurice Fitzgerald on the high-seas. The defendants asked the court to instruct the jury that, if they found the defendants guilty either of manslaughter or of an assault with in- tent to commit murder or manslaughter; they should so find their verdict. This request was refused, and, in its stead, the jury were instructed, among other things — " if a homicide has been com- mitted, of which you are to be the judges, from the proof there is nothing in this case to reduce it below the grade of murder. You are the exclusive judges of the fact. " On this direction the case was appealed from the State of California to the Supreme Court of the United States; the question arising whether the Court was acting within its province when it instructed the jury in those words. Mr. Justice Harlan, who delivered the majority opinion, thought that it was, and based his conclusion upon the theory that the duty of the Court was to expound the law and that of the jury to apply it as thus declared to the facts as ascertained by them. He argued that to instruct the jury in a criminal case that the defendant can- not properly be convicted of a crime less than that charged, or to refuse to charge them as to the lesser offenses THE EEDWOOD. 329 that might under some circumstances be included in the one so charged, there being no evidence whatever upon M hich any verdict could properly be returned, except one of guilty or not guilty, is not error; for the instructing or refusing to instruct under the cir- cumstances named rests upon legal principles or presumptions which it is the province of the court to declare for the guidance of the jury. Further- more, the honorable justice reasoned that public and private safety alike would be in peril if the juries in crim- inal eases may of right disregard the law as expounded by the Court and be- come a law unto themselves. Under such a system the principal duty of the judge would be merely to keep order, while jurymen, unlettered in the law, would determine questions affecting life, liberty or property according to such legal maxims as in their judgment were applicable to the case being tried. Consequently, in criminal cases, the conclusion would be that when a new trial is ordered, the jury upon such trial may of right return a verdict based upon the assumption that what this court has adjudged to be the law is not the law. In the case of Williams v. State, 32 Miss., 389, 66 Am. Dec. 615, this same doctrine is upheld. There, a man was indicted for murder and convicted. An appeal was taken on account of the refusal of the court to instruct the jury as follows — " the jury are not only the judges of the facts in this case, but also the judges of the law. " The Supreme Court of Mississippi held that such a refusal was proper, saying, that the jury are the judges of the law is a long abandoned theory, and that their duty is to take the law from the court and apply it to the facts. In Commonwealth v. McManus, 143 Pa. St., 64, 14 L. R. A. 89, a man was indicted for murder. A request was made to charge, in a murder trial, that the jury are judges of the law. In his very exhaustive opinion. Justice Mit- chell of Pennsylvania, holds that the jury are judges of the facts only. He says that although the jury has the legal power to disregard the instruc- tions of the court still they have not the right. The language of the Consti- tution is that the jury shall have the right to determine the law and facts under the direction of the court. This means only that they have the right to determine the joint result of the law and facts by a general verdict. He concludes that in every charge to the jury the court should instruct them that they are not to decide questions of law. In U. S. V. Fuller, 19 Fed. Rep., 613, a case arose out of a collision between two steamers on the Ohio River. The defendant was a pilot on one of them, and it was claimed that through his negligence fifty-eight lives were lost. He was indicted for mansla ghter. In its charge to the jury the court said: " It is both your moral and legal duty to accept the law as given you, unless you can say upon your oaths that you 330 THE REDWOOD. are better judges of the law than the Court. Furthermore, of course you can disregard the instructions of the court and refuse to accept the law as given you, but if you do, you exercise a purely arbitrary power, which in the ease of acquittal makes the decision final, although the guilt of the party may have been fully established, for ' life or limb cannot be put into jeopar- dy twice for the crime ' says the su- preme law of the land. It therefore follows that a jury which desires to discharge its whole duty must take the law from the court and apply it to the facts of the case it is called to pass upon. ' ' This same opinion is maintained by Justice Story, recognized by all as one of America ' s most authoritative writ- ers, in the case of U. S. v. Battiste, 2 Sumn., 240, 243. He states there that the jury are no more judges of the law in a criminal case than they are in a civil. He adds that in each case they have the physical but not the moral power to decide the law according to their own pleasure. That it is the duty of the court to instruct them as to the law and of the jury to follow such di- rection. That if the jury were to decide, it would render the law uncertain; it would be almost impraticable to learn what they did decide ; the court would have no right to review their decision ; that every person has the right to be tried by the fixed law of the land. In People v. Anderson, 44 Cal. 65, this same question, as to the duty of a jury in a criminal case to follow the instructions of the court, arose. Here, a man was indicted for murder and was convicted of manslaughter. The de- fendant ' s counsel in his plea to the jury read extracts from reported cases in order to illustrate his argument. The District Court of Appeals ruled that such reading was improper as it tended to mis-lead the jury and at the same time charged that written in- structions were the only guide on questions of law for the jury in this case. From this ruling the case was appealed to the State Supreme Court. Mr. Justice Crockett, delivering the ma- jority opinion, reverses the judgment of the lower Court on the ground that as the reading from reported cases did not influence the jury, it was proper for counsel to do so ; but not on the theory that the jury are judges of the law. He concludes that it is well settled that it is the duty of the jury in a criminal case to take the law from the Court. This doctrine, however, has been modified to some extent in the famous ease of Commonwealth v. Knapp, 10 Pick. (Mass.), 477, 20 Am. Dec. 534. In this case Joseph Knapp was indicted for the murder of Joseph White. The same question there arose as to the duty of the jury in followin g the instruc- tions of the court. Justice Putnam qualified their obligation in this man- ner — " they are bound to decide all points of law which are involved in the general question of the guilt or inno- cence of the prisoner; yet when ques- tions of the law arise in the arraign- ment of the accused or the progress of THE REDWOOD. 331 the trial in relation to the admissibility of evidence, they must be decided by the court and may not afterwards be reviewed by the jury. " Undoubtedly, these cases cited afford us ample authority for the doctrine that the jury must follow the charges given them by the court. Nevertheless, let us inquire into the writings of text- writers and discover what they have to offer on the subject. Starkie, in his complete work on " Evidence " , Vol. 1, Pg. 1, holds that it is an elementary and acknowledged maxim of law that the province of the jury is confined to the investigation of facts and all questions of law belong to the decisions of the judges. Yet, he qualifies this when he states that in a case of a mixed question of law and fact the jury has the right to decide the whole issue. Again referring to Thompson ' s work on " Trials " , Vol. II, Page 1505-Sec. 2133, we find that learned author saying that the modern doctrine on the subject is that juries are not judges of the law in criminal actions in any prop- er sense. The judge, by the nature of his office, is obliged to decide all ques- tions of law. The proper function of the jury is to decide questions of fact, and, indeed, it is erroneous to direct them in a prosecution for felony that they are the exclusive judges of all questions of law. Wells, in his able work on " Ques- tions of Law and Fact " , Pg. 49, adheres to the same opinion and says that the weight of authority is against the practice of allowing the jury to judge of both law and facts and cites the very few states which uphold such a princi- ple. Phillips, in his work on " Evidence " , Vol. II, pg. 1503-3, states that in gen- eral the jury are not judges of the law either in criminal or civil matters. They are strictly bound to find the law as propounded to them by the Court. They indeed, may find a general verdict, in- cluding both law and fact, but if in such verdict they find the law contrary to the instructions of the court, they thereby violate their oath. Thus, we have the authority of many noted judges, mainly. Story and Harlan of the United States Supreme Court, Mitchell of the Supreme Court of Penn- sylvania, Putnam of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts and Crockett of the Supreme Court of California together with the opinions of recognized text- writers, all of whom tenaciously hold to the teaching that the duty of a jury in a criminal action is to follow the instructions of the court. Authorities for this same holding may be found in U. S. V. Morris, 1 Curtiss, 23, 58, which decides that the jury are not competent to decide the constitutionality of the fugitive slave law ; in 2 Wilsons Works — 386; in Wharton ' s Criminal Pleading and Procedure, Sec. 810, Note 3; in Pierce v. State, 13 N. H., 536 ; in Hamil- ton V. People, 29, Mich., 173, 192 ; and in Nicholson v. Comonwealth, 96 Pa. St., 269. Now, turning to the second theory, namely, that the jury can disregard the instructions of the court, we find men 332 THE EEDWOOD. of no little renown maintaining such a doctrine. Foremost among them is Blackstone, whom we have had occa- sion to refer to previously. In his fourth Volume, Section 361, he lays down the principle that the jury can disregard the instructions of the court and be- come judges of both law and fact in criminal cases. At first, he says, the jury were at liberty to render a ver- dict as they thought fit, but if their decision was notoriously erroneous they were made liable to punishment. This practice, however, was illegal and unconstitutional as the freedom of the jury was checked. Consequently, Blackstone adds, the jury were allowed to decide, without any fear of punish- ment if they rendered a judgment con- trary to the instructions of the coiirt, on both law and fact for the reason that if the judge ' s opinion must rule the verdict, the trial by jury would be useless. Supporting this doctrine also, we have Justice Chase, one of Amer- ica ' s most able authorities on jurispru- dence. When in the United States Su- preme Court, he rendered the majority opinion in the famous trial of Fries for treason. In that case he charged the jury that it was the duty of the Court, in that and all criminal cases, to state the law arising on the facts; but the jury were not bound by the statement and it was their duty to de- cide in all capital cases, both the law and facts on their consideration of the whole issue. In State v. Croteau, 23 Vt., 14, 54 Am. Dec, 90, this principle is similarly stated. It was an action brought against one for selling spirituous liquors without a license. The Court charged the jury that their duty was to judge of the facts only. From this ruling the case was appealed to the Su- preme Court of Vermont and was there reversed. Justice Hall, declaring the opinion, says that the doctrine by which the jury can disregard the in- structions of the court has been uni- formly practiced in England, and by the early jurists. He argues that this right has come to the jury owing to the partiality of judges towards prosecu- tion of criminal cases. He states fur- ther that the jury are perfectly able to judge of the law, when aided by coun- sel, because in capital offenses the principles involved are extremely fun- damental. State V. Wilkinson, 2 Vt., 480, 21 Am. Dec, 560, was a case bearing upon this same subject. There, one was indicted for erecting a building on a public square. The lower court charged the jury that in a criminal case they were judges of the law and of the facts. When appealed to the Supreme Court, this instruction was fully sustained. However, there was another direction of the Court below, which went to mod- ify this holding to some extent and which was upheld by the highest court in the State ; namely ; " to decide on the validity of the indictment and whether the indictment charged an offense at THE REDWOOD. 333 law was solely in the province of the Court. " The Supreme Court said that apparently there is an inconsistency in this direction, but taking the whole charge together the Circuit Court evi- dently intended that the jury were to decide on the law arising upon the facts proved, but not upon the validity or sufficiency of the indictment. In Kane v. Commonwealth, 89 Pa. St., 522, 33 Am. Rep., 786, one was con- victed of the illegal sale of intoxicat- ing liquors. He appealed on the ground that the court refused to instruct the jury that they were both judges of law and of fact. The Supreme Court up- held his contention, stating that cer- tainly the jury have legal power to judge of the law. If, then, they have that, they also have the legal right, for in law the distinction between power and right is very shadowy, whatever may be its value in ethics. Referring to the case of Sparf v. IT. S., supra, which deals with this duty of a jury in a criminal action to follow the instructions of the court more fully than any other ease on the sub- ject, we find there a very able opinion, by Justices Shiras and Gray upholding this latter doctrine, but dissenting from the majority of the court. They maintain that the jury to whom the ease is submitted upon the general is- sue of guilty or not guilty are intrusted with the decision of both law and facts involved in the issue. To assist them in their judgment of facts, they have the testimony of witnesses ; but they are not bound to believe it. To assist them in their decision of the law, they re- ceive the instructions of the judge; but they are not obliged to follow them. The honorable justices reason that the rules and principles of criminal law are for the most part simple and ele- mentary and easily understood by the jurors taken from the body of the peo- ple. As every citizen or subject is pre- sumed to know the law, a jury of his peers must be presumed to have equal knowledge, and, especially, after being aided by the explanation of law by court and counsel, to be capable of ap- plying it to the facts as proved by the evidence. Mitchell V. State, 22 Ga., 234, cited by not a few judges as a leading case upon this question, limits the doctrine that the jury can disregard the instruc- tions of the court in this fashion. There a man was indicted for murder, and, concerning the point that we are now discussing, it was held that, according to the statutes of Georgia, the jury are judges of the law as well as of the facts, but if their verdict is decidedly against the evidence, their judgment will be set aside. Thus, there are ample cases which are authorities for the theory that the jury can disregard the instructions of the court and judge the law them- selves. Thus, too, there are text-writ- ers, who cannot be overlooked, who are very cogent in adhering to this doc- trine. In the seventh book of " Ham- ilton ' s Works, " Pgs. 335-6, and in the third Volume of Robinson ' s Proced- ure in Law and Equity, chapter 23, 334 THE REDWOOD. these two authors do not hesitate in giv- ing the jury j ower to disregard the in- structions of the court in a criminal case. They hold that it is sanctioned by practice and by the fundamental ideas of the jury system that the jury are not bound by the rulings of judges. Other authorities on this same point may be found in State v. Snow, 18 Maine, 346; State v. Hodge, 50 N. H., 510; Bartholomew v. Clark, 1 Conn., 472, 481 ; 3 Johns. Cases 366, 368, under Kent ' s opinion; Franklin v. State, 12 Md., 236, 249 and in 1 Burrs Trial, 470. Now, having exponded these two the- ories according to decisions and opin- ions of text-writers, the question that presents itself is — what is our conclu- sion? If we are to be guided by au- thority, we must cling to that doctrine that holds that the duty of a jury in a criminal action is to follow the in- structions of the court absolutely. Un- doubtedly there are just as many judges, and, perhaps, as many text- writers, who hold the opposite theory, and, indeed, those who do maintain it are well-recognized members of the legal profession; for who, among the members of the bar, do not put the greatest confidence in the opinions of such men as Sir William Blackstone, Chief Justice Chase of the United States Supreme Court and William Kent, whose commentaries as well as those of Blackstone are cited in deci- sions of Courts innumerable times? However, with the greatest deference and respect to those learned men, we are unable to hold that their views, in re« gard to the duty of a jury in a criminal action, coincide with the practice that is prevalent in our courts today. Since the year 1860, there has not been a de- cision rendered that we can discover, that upholds the teaching that the jury are not bound to follow the instruc- tions laid down by the Court in a crim- inal action but may take the law unto themselves and judge it together with the facts. The decisions that do uphold such a doctrine were all rendered be- fore that period. Take the cases that we have cited throughout our discus- sion. In Wilkinson v. State the judg- ment was handed down in 1829; in Mitchell V. State in 1857; in Kane v. Commonwealth in 1827 ; and in State v. Croteau in 1849; in 1800 Justice Chase gave his opinion in the trial of Fries for treason and long before that time Blackstone and Kent gave forth their ideas on the subject. Thus, we find, that the practice among jurists up to approximately 1860 was to allow the jury to disregard the instructions of the court. But, the weight of au- thority decidedly holds that the mod- ern doctrine is that the jury in a crim- inal action are bound to follow the instructions laid down by the court. For, as we have said before, not a sin- gle decision can be found since 1860 that opposes such a holding, while there are many, even in recent years, that do sustain it. Even in 1839, Jus- tice Story, in the case of U. S. v. Bat- tiste, supra, was strongly in favor of such a theory. Most convincing too as regards the THE REDWOOD. 335 duty of a jury in a criminal action to follow the instructions of the court, are the reasons for upholding the prac- tice of today over the old method. In the first place, the selection of jurors from all classes, whose education and business, as a general rule, cannot have qualified them to decide legal ques- tions, renders it unreasonable, as well as apparently unsafe to decide upon such problems. Those, who have main- tained the ancient doctrine, have ar- gued that the jury are perfectly quali- fied to decide questions of law in crim- inal cases, because the principles in- volved are elementary. Granting that they are, will it be thought for a mo- ment that they who have made no stu- dy at all of law, are as capable of judg- ing, even fundamental questions as they who have made a life-long prac- tice of it? In the second place, if jurors were to determine the law, its stability would be subverted and it would become as variable as the prejudices, inclinations and passions of men. Every case would be governed, not by any known or es- tablished rixle, but by a law made for the occasion. Certainly such a plan is not to be wished for. The Constitution of the United States says that " every man shall be tried by the fixed law of the land. " Surely, this provision would be contravened if the jury were to judge the law and not take it from the court, because it is not to be expected of human nature that every person who sits on a jury has the same opinion of the legal questions that might arise. Indeed, there are those who have held that this method of allowing juries to judge of the law, is the only security for innocence. How- ever, such a statement cannot be seri- ously and reasonably upheld. For what safe-guard is there to one, who is about to be tried, when he knows that his fate depends upon the caprice or imagination of a juror? Thirdly, if the judge mis-states the law, as very often he does, there is a remedy by appeal ; but if the jury mis- state the law there is no remedy. Thus, the innocent may be adjudged guilty, and the guilty may be adjudged inno- cent under a system that would allow the jury to disregard the instructions of the court and become judges of the law themselves and there would be no relief, as their decision is final, while the court ' s is not. These arguments cannot be gain-said. But, then, the question will arise — " why were the early jurists so bent upon the theory that the jury in a criminal case could d isregard the in- structions of the court? " The history of English jurisprudence furnishes abundant evidence not only of the ne- cessity of watchfulness, but also the power of juries to determine the law as well as the facts in criminal trials as essential to the protection of inno- cence and preservation of liberty, ow- ing to the bias of judges in favor of the crown. As a result this practice found its way, together with many oth- 336 THE EEDWOOD. er Common-law customs, to this country and the early Justices still clung to the idea that equity could not be done, unless the jury were at liberty to dis- regard the instructions of the court, owing to the partiality of judges to- wards prosecution in criminal cases. However, in my opinion, justice can equally be done if the determination of the law is left to the judges, for cer- tainly they have as keen a sense of duty to do what is just and equitable as one unlettered in the law. However, we dare not conclude by saying that the modern doctrine that the jury are bound to follow the in- structions of the court is applicable in all criminal cases. There is one nota- ble exception and that is in an action of criminal libel. There the instructions of the court are merely advisory and the jury are in no way bound to accept them. In the case of People v. Seely, 139 Cal., 118, this proposition is well illustrated. Here, the defendant was tried and found guilty of criminal libel. The jury were charged, in a separate instruction, that they were the sole judges of the law and facts upon every issue involved. On appeal, this direc- tion was sustained by the Supreme Court of California and in his opinion Justice Smith said — " The judge has the right to instruct the jury, but his instructions are advisory only. The jury could disregard them and bring in a verdict even contrary to evi- dence. " The text-writers, also, are unani- mous on this point. Odgers, in his work on Libel and Slander, Page 503, 1st Am. Ed., lays down the rule that the judge may direct the jury on any ques- tion of law, giving his opinion thereon if he think fit, but the decision, wheth- er there is libel or no libel, must be ultimately decided by the jury. And quoting Justice Thompson, in the same writing, he adds — " In a case of sedi- tious libel, the jury are judges of the law and fact and the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The court is here to give you any help they can, but the jury are sole judges an d on them rests the whole responsibility. " Undoubt- edly, this is the universal and modern doctrine practised in the United States. Now, having dealt with this subject at great length, I believe the conclu- sion is obvious. In the first place, we have proved that the weight of au- thority, for the last fifty years or more, is overwhelmingly in favor of the the- ory that the jury are bound in all crim- inal cases, except in criminal libel, to follow strictly the instructions on mat- ters of law given by the Court. In- deed, too, we must recognize this argu- ment when we recall the well-settled practice that " the law is the last in- terpretation given by the last judge. " Then, in the second place, we have dem- onstrated that of the two theories, cer- tainly, the modern one is the more rea- sonable. What, then, remains for us to consider in reaching a definite conclu- sion? If a doctrine is sanctioned by au- thority and reason, surely, we have the THE REDWOOD. 337 two greatest arguments in favor of it. Therefore, as we have proved that the jury are bound to follow the instruc- tions of the court in a criminal case, both from decisions and reason, we must embrace such a theory and dis- card the one which maintains that the jury are not bound by the instructions of the court but are judges of law and of the facts themselves. Stephen M. White, Law ' 14. A Sum S ong Into my open " window blows TKe spicy fragrance of a rose, A breatK tKat hints of June, and tells Of dew and moonlight in the dells, Where dreaming flowers and birds await The opening of summer ' s gate. And now and then, from fields afar, Sweet as the singing of a star, A strain of limpid melody Drifts softly down the dusk to me. The tender music of a tune That stirs the happy heart of June. So here I love to linger long, Drinking the perfume and the song, Haunted by visions ever fair And voices in the quiet air. Until the shadows have withdrawn. And June comes blushing with the dawn. O. S, OLIVER. 338 SHALL OUR STATUTES OF FRAUDS BE REPEALED? Y the early feudal have been unnecessary, unless per- inter practice the systems of conveying corpo- real interests in real- ty were extremely technical. Each alien- vivos, was accom- panied by solemnities performed in the presence of chosen witnesses. These witnesses were at first picked from the members of the particular fee in which the transfer took place, and were con- nected in some relation to the lord thereof. By that practice actual de- livery of the premises seems to have taken place, investitura propria, effect- ed by the handing of a clod or twig from the land to be conveyed from the feoffor to the feoffee, and through this practice such evidence of the transac- tion was obtained from the notoriety given it as would reduce to a minimum the possibility of the perpetration of fraud in regard thereto. This method of investiture has come down to us as the historic Livery of Seisin. Alienation of property in grant, as future interests and incorporeal hered- itaments, however, was required to be by deed, which practice was necessitat- ed through the absence of anything to be tangibly conveyed, and this gave to the t ransaction its necessary notoriety. Had these early practices endured, the Statute of Frauds would perhaps chance, some other method became ex- pedient to simplify or modify the old system of alienation by the increase in the number of transfers. Later, however, the rigidity of the ancient customs began to relax, and as the commercial intercourse among men became wider and the transfers of property more frequent, the former ne- cessary solemnities were more and more disregarded. Finally the lords of the fee no longer presided over the ceremo- nies of alienation, but that important function was intrusted to agents, who, in the names of their lords enfeoffed the donees. Witnesses were no longer required to be chosen from among the men of the manor, and the custom of choosing neighbors, or " pares curiae " , slowly waned, until shortly prior to the enactment of the statute under con- sideration almost anyone was qualified to act in that behalf. Thus we see that the avenue for the commission of fraud in conveyancing and of obtaining interests through the testimony of witnesses acting in collu- sion with those seeking to obtain such interests, and willing, for a small stipend, to shape their evidence so as to better serve these vicious ends, grad- ually widened, until, in the seventeenth century, the greatest legal minds of England saw fit to rehabilitate the pro- 339 340 THE REDWOOD. cedure, and conceived the statute of frauds as the most expedite means of effecting that end. The statute took the place of the old procedure in giving the notoriety necessary to the transfer, but it was not until the Recording Acts were passed that the real benefit of the law was felt. The Statute of Frauds, as it has come down to us, had its inception in the early English act entitled " An Act For The Prevention of Frauds and Per- juries " . From the name first given it, we are able to see that the idea was not so much to enact a remedial law but rather a preventitive one, to discour- age and guard against the unconscion- able practices which were gradually finding their way into the system. Although the most important feat- ures of the Statute are those provisions concerning estates in realty, very great and far-reaching provisions have been enacted in regard to contracts, wills and the transactions incident thereto. These provisions, we will treat of in turn. The authorship of the original stat- ute has been ascribed to various sources and this contention seems to be justi- fied by the wording, which varies in the different sections. Peters, J., in his opinion in the case of Bird vs. Mun- roe, 66 Me., 337, 344, 22 Am. Rep. 571, 577 says, " The difference of phraseology in the different sections of the original English statute, of which ours is a sub- stantial copy, may perhaps be account- ed for by the fact, as is generally con- ceded, that the authorship of the stat- ute is the work of different hands. " It is generally conceded, however, that Lord Nottingham first introduced it into Parliament and that it was pass- ed by that body after a revision by Lord Hale and Sir Lionel Jenkins. In the language of Lord Nottingham him- self we find an expression of this con- tention. In the case of Ash vs. Abdy, 3 Swanst. 664, we find him saying, " I had some reason to know the meaning of this law ; for it had its first rise from me who brought the bill into the lords ' house, though it afterwards received some additions and improve- ments from the judges and civilians. ' ' Lord Mansfield contended that it was hardly probable that Lord Hale could have prepared it, for he says : " It was not passed until after his (Lord Hale ' s), death and was brought in in the common way and not upon any reference to the judges. " However, in an editorial, in 2 Har- vard Law Review 42, we find from au- thorities therein cited, that the bill was first brought into the House in 1673, although it was not until 1677 that it was formally sanctioned and passed. Lord Hale would therefore have been able to have taken a hand in its draft- ing or at least in a revision of the first ideas. The historic statute was finally passed by the Parliament and was known and has come down to us as the Statute 29 Car. II. The original stat- ute has either been adopted bodily or has been slightly changed by legisla- THE REDWOOD. 341 tive enactment in most of the United States. The substantial provisions of the statute remain in nearly all of these jurisdictions which have adopted the common law as their basic princi- ples. In some of the states the wording of the statute differs, so that the differ- ence of construction and the lines thus made for distinction are that, in some jurisdictions, the contract of transac- tion is absolutely void, while in others the obligation exists, but by the terms of the statute is unenforceable. This seems to be an anomaly in the law, for " wherever there is a wrong there is a remedy " seems to be an axiom long in use. But in the case last set out, where the obligation exists, but cannot be en- forced, the axiom seems to be belied. In California the contracts falling within the statute seem to be void. Mayer vs. Child, 47 Cal., 142, 144, was a case wherein the contract was made for the sale of mining stock of the valiie of over one thousand dollars. The defendants are the assignees of the broker and seek to recover their money, but the court held that the contract was void as falling within the provi- sions of C. C. 1624. This provision is to the effect that a contract for the sale of goods of the value of two hun- dred dollars or over is void unless in writing. In his opinion, the court said, " The contract was for the purchase of 100 shares of mining stock for the sum of $1,350. No part of the stock was delivered, nor was any part of the purchase money paid, nor M as any note or memorandum of the sale or transaction made or signed by any person. Under the statute of frauds the contract was void, and its assign- ment to the defendants furnished no consideration for the promise declared on. " This decision points to the conclu- sion that the contract was a void one and that it was not alone to the rem- edy that the statute went. The statute wisely provides, however, that part performance or part of the purchase money paid will take the contract out of the statute, and this corresponds to the English earnest. Although in most of the states the statute reads and the courts hold that, as to contracts falling within the pro- visions, no action shall be brought on them, and seem to render the contract voidable at the option of the parties, the rule in California, by the language of the statute, and the case above cited and those following it, is, that the con- tract itself is invalid. This seems to be the most consistent and logical rule, for, to hold that the contract is not in- valid but that no action shall be brought upon it is to hold that there is an unenforceable obligation, and fol- lowing therefrom, a right transgressed without a remedy for the wrong. Subdivision five of section 1642, C. C. provides that a contract for the leas- ing of real property for a longer term than one year or for the sale of real property or any interest therein, and 342 THE REDWOOD. agencies for the purposes of so doing are invalid unless in writing. The authorities are almost uniform in the application of this statute, and there seems to be very little conflict in the adjudicated cases. The law on the point is well settled. It was held in the case of Melton vs. Lambard, 51 Cal., 258, 260, that the attempted verbal sale of a mining claim could have no effect and no transfer of property could be effected without writing. The court went a little further in the case of Gol- ler vs. Fett, 30 Cal., 481, in saying that the verbal sale passed no property, and the fact that the seller delivered up the premises to the purchaser made the case no stronger and in no way affected the legal title. The courts, however, do not so strictly construe the statute as to work a hardship, but rather lean to an equitable construction when the facts of a case warrant an interpreta- tion of that character. In the case of Cannon vs. Handley, 72 Cal., 134, the court held that a deed given in escrow was suffi cient to take the transaction out of the provisions of the statute, and this even though the authority of the third person was not in writing. The same liberal construction seems to have been placed upon the statute in the different iurisdictions. The case of Gardner vs. Gardner, 5 Cush., (Mass.), 483, a case decided in the Su- preme Court of Massachusetts, has been followed in a good many of the states wherein the same question arose. In that case the facts showed that the daughter signed the deed for her moth- er at her request, and in deciding the case the court said: " The name being written by another hand in the presence of the grantor, and at her request, is her act. The dis- posing capacity, the act of the mind, which are the efficient and essential ingredients of the deed, are hers, and she merely uses the hand of another, through incapacity or weakness, instead of her own, to do the physical act of making a written sign. To hold other- wise would be to decide that a person having a full mind and clear capacity, but through physical inability incapa- ble of making a mark could never make a conveyance or execute a deed; for the same incapacity to sign and seal the principal deed would prevent him from executing a letter of attorney un- der seal. " Thus justice is done and the courts are constrained to lean to the most rea- sonable construction of the statute in cases like the above. The original statute provided that all leases and demises created by livery of seisin, or by livery of seisin and parol, unless for a term of three years or un- der, should have the effect of estates at will only. This has been changed by our law, for the legislators saw fit to limit the term in which oral leases could be made to not exceding one year. The question arising under this section cannot be very difficult, and, in fact, the only contest that could arise is whether a particular conveyance THE REDWOOD. 343 amounts to a lease or whether it is in fact a lease. The main difficulty in connection with this section of the statute is in the keeping of the distinction of the term lease and license. The difficulty seems, by the works of most authors, to have had its origin in the case of Wood vs. Lake, Sayer, 3, decided shortly after the enactment of the statute. The con- fusion of the terms in that case spread its venom in the eases following it. In that case a verbal license was given to stack coals on the land of another for the term of seven years. The licensee was to have the sole use to that part of the land. After the plaintiff had used the land for the purpose of stack- ing the coals for some time the defend- ant forbade him the use of the premises for that purpose longer. The court held that this was a license merely, and as it did not amount to a lease it was not within the statute, and the plaintiff was given judgment. The distinction seems to be that a license is not an in- terest in the land, but a certain intan- gible right over the land, or, in other words, a mere easement. . Chief Jus- tice Parker, in the ease of Cook vs. Stearns, 11 Mass. 533, rendered an opinion that is manifestly in contrari- ety with the doctrine laid down in Wood vs. Lake, supra ; he says in part, " A license is technically an author- ity given to do some one act or series of acts on the land of another without passing an estate in the land, such as a license to hunt in another ' s land, or to cut down a certain number of trees. These are held to be revocable while executory, unless a definite term is fixed, but irrevocable when executed. Such license to do a particular act, but passing no estate, may be pleaded with- out a deed. But licenses which in their nature amount to granting an estate for ever so short a time are not good without deed, and are considered as leases, and must always be pleaded as such. The distinction is obvious. Li- censes to do a particular act do not in any degree trench upon the policy of the law which requires that bargains respecting the title or interest in real estate shall be by deed or in writing. They amount to nothing more than an excuse for the act which would other- wise be a trespass. But the permanent right to hold another ' s land for a par- ticular purpose, and to enter upon it at all times without his consent, is an im- portant interest which ought not to pass without writing, and is the very object provided for by our statute. " This case lays down the better rule and the one which is most generally followed. There is a little laxity of expression, however, in the sentence, ' ' licenses which amount to granting an estate for ever so short a time are not good without deed, " for it is easy to recall many estates which may be cre- ated by writing without deed, and leases which may also be effectual only by parol. In this state the difficulty arising in these cases does not seem to have been 344 THE REDWOOD. troublesome and very little confusion has arisen on these points. The law is well settled. Subdivision 1 of Section 1624 C. C. provides : " An agreement that by its terms is not to be performed within a year from the making thereof " shall be invalid unless in writing or there is some note or memorandum thereof. This subdivi- sion goes not to the subject matter of the agreement but to the substance thereof. The pivotal point in constru- ing this statute is the meaning to be placed upon the words, " to be per- formed " . The consensus of opinion is that the statute does not relate to agree- ments that are not likely to be perform- ed within a year, or to those which are not expected to be performed within that time, but, following the dictates of reason, the cases hold that it extends to those agreements which by their ex- press terms or which by a fair and rea- sonable interpretation of the terms used by the parties, and all the attendant circumstances, do not admit of a per- formance within that time. In Wickson vs. Monarch Cycle Mfg. Co., 128 Cal., 156, which arose on a lease of realty made December 28th, 1895, for a term of one year from January 1st, 1896, the rent all to be paid on January 1st, 1896, a portion of the opinion reads: " We think the agreement in this case void under the express provisions of subdivision 1 of said section (1624 C. C). This was more than one year from the making thereof. It is true the time was only some three days more than a year after the contract was made, but we are not at liberty to extend it three days nor any time be- yond the year. If we could extend it three days, upon the same reasoning we could extend it three months or three years. " The court in this case seems to have been called upon for the first time to settle the point in this state and it bases its decision upon the language of Lord Ellenborough, who, in an early Eng- lish case, said: " If we were to hold that a ease that extended one minute beyond the time pointed out by the statute did not fall within its prohibition, I do not see where we should stop, for in point of reason an excess of twenty years will equally not be within the statute. " The cogency of this reasoning cannot be gainsaid, for it is easily seen that the minutest departure from the exact pro- vision of the statute in that behalf would open an avenue for wider con- cessions until the utility of the statute would be destroyed. This particular section of the statute is not subject to any sentimental construction, but is one of the most rigid and necessarily iron- clad provisions. In cases where there is a mere possi- bility of performance within the year, when it clearly appears from the sur- rounding circumstances and the evident intent of the parties that it was to be performed in the prescribed time, these are sufficient to take it out of the stat- ute. Bank of Orland vs. Finnell, 133 Cal., 275, Syll. THE EEDWOOD. 345 " A contract by the defendant to pay to the plaintiff the reasonable value of summer-fallowing to be done by third persons, which might be, and was, done within a year, is not within the statute of frauds, and needs not be in writ- ing. " Besides the express terms of the agreement, the section seems to be lib- erally construed, for it has been held that oral agreements which have their performance based upon contingencies which are likely to happen are not within the statute. Osment vs. McEl- rath, 68 CaL, 466. In Raynor vs. Drew, 72 Cal., 307, it was held that a contract was not within the statute of frauds and it was not necessary that it should have been in writing which provided for a lease of real estate until such time as the lessor should pay the lessee a certain indebtedness. Where, how- ever, the thing is not to be performed within a year, and this manifestly ap- pears on the agreement itself, or is rea- sonably deducted from the attendant circumstances, the transaction is void as being within the statute. Patten vs. Hicks, 43 Cal., 509. The promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another is made invalid unless in writings and signed by the party to be charged, by subdivision 2 of section 1624 C. C. It will be noticed that there are excepted from that provision a certain line of contracts set out in section 2794 of the same code, but these are not strictly exceptions, for they arise under new circumstances that seem to make the promisor an original debtor. Much litigation has arisen over this section of the statute, and many fine distinctions have been drawn, and there are many decided cases in utter conflict upon the point. The later cases have, however, become reconciled and there is now a set of certain gen- eral rules recognized by the courts. The consensus of opinion is that, in order to hold the promisor liable, there must have in fact been an original obli- gation owing from the promisee to the third person, and that the promise is collateral to the original debt. This is in the nature of a guaranty. It is held that if there is no original debt, or no liability on the part of anyone there- for, the promise is not collateral but original, and capable of enforcement, though not in writing. Kilbride vs. Moss, 113 Cay., 432. In that case the plaintiff bought shares in a mining company at the instigation of the de- fendant, who told him at the time of purchase, that, if the shares became valueless, he would refund him his money. This agreement was oral. In the opinion, on page 435, we find the following language: " If there is no primary liability of a third person to a promisee which con- tinues after the promise is made, it is an original promise and need not be in writing. " It follows therefore, that the original debt must be enforceable at law to place the agreement within the stat- 346 THE EEDWOOD. ute, for, unless such is the ease, there is no debt to answer for and the con- tract would thus be independent. It has been generally held in this state, as in others, that a promise to pay the debt of another for a consid- eration beneficial to the promisor is not within the statute, and need not be in writing. Leslie vs. Conway, 59 Cal., 422. Clay vs. Walton, 9 Cal., 328. Where, however, an oral promise to answer for the debt is made by a per- son not primarily liable for the pur- pose of securing the debt or of under- taking the same duty for which the original party remains still answerable, is within the statute and must be in writing. The question whether the agreement is collateral or original is solved in the light of the attendant circumstances; if given wholly from the promisor and he obtains the credit it is original, and need not be in writing ; but if the cred- it is given in part to the third person the contract is collateral and within the inhibition of the statute. An agreement made upon the consid- eration of marriage, other than a mu- tual promise to marry, is made invalid by subdivision 3 of section 1624 C. C, which is a replica of the provision of the original statute of frauds. At first this statute was construed to apply only to marriage settlements, but by the later weight of authority it ex- tends to any agreement founded upon the consideration of marriage except the mutual promise, and this whether the marriage is to be with the promisor or with a third person. Dygert vs. Remersehnider, 32 N. Y., 29. The wis- dom of this provision arises from the fact that the parties are in a relation of confidence and the chances for the imposition of fraud are augmented therein. A party who induces the mar- riage through the assurance that a marriage settlement would be affected is not allowed to plead the statute, as decided in Peek vs. Peek, 77 Cal., 106. The liberality with which the courts construe the statute, where possible, to further the ends of justice is herein manifested. Subdivision 4 of our statute is in great part modeled after the original English statute but raises the amount of the agreement from ten pounds to two hundred dollars. This section pro- vides that an agreement to purchase goods, wares and merchandise at a price not less than two hundred dollars is invalid unless some note or memo- randum is made in writing or some part of the purchase price paid. This subdivision has been strictly construed, but, as in the case of leases for more than a year ' s term, it can eas- ily be seen that any departure from the language of the statute would invite further departures until there would be left not a vestige of the original inten- tion of the legislators. The law on the point is therefore well settled. The section is construed in the words there- of, and most of the cases arising came up upon points as to the meaning of the terms goods, wares, merchandise, etc. THE REDWOOD. 347 The subdivision requiring the author- ization of an agent or broker to be in writing, gave rise to very little con- flict in this state. The court in Jami- son vs. Hyde, 141 Cal., 109, 113, citing McCarthy vs. Loupe, 62 Cal., 299, Myres vs. Surrhyne, 67 Cal., 657, and McGeary vs. Catchwell, 129 Cal., 389, says: ' ' There being no contract of employ- ment in writing it is clear also that the plaintiff is not entitled to recover the reasonable value of the services under the second count of his complaint. This question has long been settled by the decisions of this court. " " An agreement which by its terms is not to be performed during the life- time of the promisor, or an agreement to devise or bequeath any property, or to make any provision for any person by will " , is made invalid unless in writing, by subdivision 7 of section 1624 C. C. This statute cuts off a wide ave- nue for the practice of fraud and per- jury. It is, perhaps, the barrier to the most inviting chance for unconsciona- ble practices. The question could hard- ly arise before the death of the alleged promisor, and although it would be not at all difficult to obtain testimony of witnesses in support of a baseless and fraudulent claim, it would be almost impossible to counteract it. There seems to have been no adjudic- tions on this provision of the statute in this state, but it has been held in other jurisdictions that such agree- ments, although founded upon preced- ing and good considerations, are within the statute. The question has been de- cided in the language of the statute in the ease of Hale vs. Hale, a Virginia Case 19 S. E., 739. Besides the law set down in the stat- ute of frauds as such there has been a good deal of enactment in this state relative to the procedure in regard thereto, and these sections of the Code of Civil Procedure are closely allied to the provisions found in the Civil Code. Most of them, however, are in refer- ence to the admission of evidence in support of the agreements embraced in the Civil Code, and are therefore not considered in this paper. After this hasty insight into the pro- visions of the statute and the workings thereof we come to the question as to whether it should be repealed. None of the decisions point to such a conclusion, and in none of the treatises are we able to find an intimation that the statute should not continue in force and effect. Some of the early English opinions, however, were in great dis- favor of the statute. Lord Mansfield said: " The statute was meant to be a guard against fraud, and in theory it seemed to be a strong guard; in prac- tice it might be some guard, but that it was his belief that more fair wills had been destroyed for want of observing its restrictions than fraudulent wills obstructed by its caution. " This posi- tion is untenable at the present time however, for there must be some formu- la or rule by which these things must 348 THE EBDWOOD. be done, and a relaxation from the pro- visions thereof tends to disregard oth- er respects until the utility of the stat- ute is destroyed. Lord Chancellor Cowper declared on the other hand that he had always con- strued the statute strictly, and Lord Hardwicke, Lord Kenyon, and others of equal learning advanced the same opinion. The statute of frauds became neces- sary as the rigor of the old customs re- laxed and the conveyancing of proper- ty could be accomplished by such sim- ple means that the statute of frauds became necessary to prevent the com- mission of fraud and perjury which were finding its way into the system. Fraudulent practices have no doubt been in evidence since the passage of the statute, and they will so continue. No matter what the law, these evils cannot be entirely wiped out, and if a man goes to court with the intent to perjure himself from any motive what- soever there is no restriction that can prevent his doing so. The object of the statute, therefore, is to reduce to a minimum the chances for fraud and perjury, and in this it seems to have been indeed beneficial. The statute was written after full de- liberation by the best legal talent of England at the time when the great jur- ists flourished. It has endured through- out two centuries, and it has been re- enacted in almost all of the states where the common law prevails, and there- fore, until some master mind conceives of a system simpler and more adequate, which is unlikely, or until men become so civilized that restraint of law is not necessary for their welfare, the stat- ute of frauds should not be repealed, but should endure and be enforced strictly. Christopher A. Degnan, Law ' 14. COMMISSION GOVERNMENT AND THE CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS ON THE POWER OF A STATE TO REGULATE PUBLIC UTILITIES OVERNMENTAL con- trol of public utilities, with its various inci- dents, such as com- mission government, the power of a state to regulate corporations, state management of private enterprises or- ganized for the public benefit, etc., com- mands the attention of legislators, judges, and the people alike at this time, as the most modern and import- ant development in commercial and po- litical organizations. By degrees the different states have assumed more and more control over their utilities which are the centre of popular interest, some- times directly, oftener through commis- sions, committees, or boards, until now this form of government has reached its 20th century zenith in California, where the railroad commission has been dele- gated extraordinary prerogatives, and exercises almost complete and plenary powers in the regulation of the man- agement and operation of all public utilities. This state has attained the greatest modern efficiency in this sort of government, and as compared with the other states in the Union, most of which, such as New York, Indiana, Florida, Wisconsin, and Illinois, — have commission superintendence exercising very full control over its public corporations. This system in the main has been borrowed from England, which originated it, and though our state statutes are essential- ly different in matters of detail, never- theless they all have the same common purpose in view, i. e., the regulation of the duties, and the management and control of public utilities for the people in so far as they are affected with a public interest; as has been stated, this commanding attitude is impressed with more or less vigor in nearly all the state boards, with the fullest possible latitude resident in California ' s Bail- road Commission. Since this state and its laws and sys- tems of government are of paramount importance, and moreover, in view of the fact that our utility practice fur- nishes the most striking modern in- stance of absolute government control, I shall deal with this subject through- out this treatise, as the question per- tains to California, and as it prevails here. Primarily, though, there are three questions which present them- selves for answer, in order to elucidate the principles involved: 349 350 THE EEDWOOD. (1.) Whence is this power to reg- ulate derived? (2.) What does it generally com- prehend ? (3.) To what extent, under our Re- publican institutions, can it be exer- cised? 1. In Wetham vs. Chicago, etc., R. Co. 83 Mich., 592 ; the question of state regulation with regard to railroads was before the court, and the deriva- tion of the power was carefully re- viewed, the court discussing fully the principles involved; on page 594 the doctrine is enunciated that a state has a sovereign and quasi-supei " intending authority over all corporations and en- terprises depending on popular patron- age. And again, Elliott on Railroads most appropriately answers this ques- tion on P. 35, Vol. II, of his valuable work when he says : ' ' The power to es- tablish such commissions (referring to railroad boards, etc.) is rested upon the general principle that the state has con- trol over property and pursuits of a public nature. " Certain it is, therefore, that sovereignty alone furnishes all the necessary excuse for the exercise of this power, and all authority comes from this all-sufficient source; every author and a great number of cases sup- port this contention, if any support is necessary for so self-evident a propo- sition. Ruggles vs. Illinois, 108 U. S., 526; 2 Sup. Ct., 832, shows the state ' s right to regulate property and business affected with a public interest, and a long line of eases treat of the question, including Chicago, etc. R. Co. vs. Iowa, 94 U. S., 155, Peik vs. Chicago, etc. R. Co., 94 U. S., 164; Stone vs. Farmers etc. Trust Co., 116 U. S., 307. 2. In general, then, what does it comprehend? Most of the statutes have for their object the control and regulation of transportation, transmis- sion, carriage, etc. But ordinarily they greatly exceed this limit and confer large prerogatives over the manage- ment, maintenace, and operation of public utilities. A study of the various state statutes and cases will show this. The case of State vs. Jacksonville Ter- minal Co. 41, Pla., 388 ; 27 So., 221, is a leading one on this subject and illus- trates the fact that the government, in the exercise of its police power, may regulate, and the terminal company was forced to allow a railroad company to use its terminal for pay, on the ground that it was a business devoted to the public, and hence could not discrimin- ate, and that the order was a due and proper exercise of police power. Also for a good review of the amount of power exercised over and above the control and regulation of charges, see People vs. Railroad Commissioners, 53 N. Y., App. Div., 61. This case was af- ' firmed in 58 N. E., 1091. 3. In the third place, as necessary knowledge to be gained before consid- ering the constitutional limitations, it is pertinent to find to what extent this power can be exercised in consonance with our democratic system of govern- ment, our free institutions and princi- ples of liberty, of property and person. To my mind California, in this respect, THE REDWOOD. 351 comes very near crossing the line, — and is almost open to the charge of maintaining an un-American and iin-re- publican institution in its railroad com- mission, on account of the constitu- tional and legislative plenary power in- fused into that body, — but her stand is upheld by some cases. In a leading constitutional law case, Loan Association vs. Topek a, 20 Wall. (U. S.), on P. 655 and 663, the limiting doctrine of our Union is thus set forth : " The theory of our governments, state and national, is opposed to the deposit of unlimited power anywhere. The ex- ecutive, the legislative, and the judi- cial branches of these governments are of limited and defined powers. These are limitations which grow out of the essential nature of all free govern- ments. ' ' The theory of our government would require then, that, in this question and the delegation of power to the public utility controlling boards, the states re- frain from overstepping the bounds of the three departments. Primarily, a railroad commission, or kindred body, is merely a ministerial or administra- tive organization, fettered with the limitations on police power and eminent domain and precluded from entire par- ticipation in judicial, executive, and legislative, branches of government by the statute creating the commission, from whence originates all its author- ity ; it is not a court, although it may ex- ercise powers of a highly judicial na- ture. This principle is also asserted in Elliott on Railroads p. 36, supported by many eases, chief of which is Inter- state Comm. Cons. vs. Cincinnati etc. R. Co., 64 Fed., 981, which holds that state boards and similar tribunals, are not courts, although they are invested with quasi-judiciary prerogatives. Neither is it a legislative body. Mr. El- liott says: " Their powers cannot be legislative, for legislative powers cannot be delegated. " In this he is supported by that eminent authority, Cooley on Constitutional Limitations, p. 163 ; also in Chicago etc. R. Co. vs. Dey, Fed. 866, which decides the point that in in- vesting a railroad commission with au- thority to regulate freight tariffs, etc., the legislature did not thereby delegate legislative powers. It seems to be a settled doctrine that ordinarily legis- lative powers cannot be given to com- missions, however necessary and prac- tical they may be as a means of gov- erning for the legislature ; nor can strictly judicial powers be conferred upon administrative or ministerial of- ficers, despite the fact that this means of determining affairs is better than juries or courts. The reasons for this are patent " If it were not so, our sys- tem of checks and balances and distri- buted power is an empty, impotent ab- straction; the constitutional provision relative to the separation of the depart- ments of government is not a mere empty declaration bvit is a part of the organic law, and of great force and vig- or. It forbids the blending of judicial duties and functions with those that are 352 THE REDWOOD. ministerial or administrative. In ac- cordance with this fundamental princi- ple it is held that the legislature has no power to invest public utility com- missions with authority to define of- fences and prescribe punishment. Sec. Elliott pp. 39, 40, also the following cases substantiating this view: State vs. Gaster, 45 La. Ann., 636 ; Judge Baxter ' s opinion also fully illustrates and supports the doctrine I have just stated, in Louisville etc., R. Co. vs. Eailroad Commission, 19 Fed., 569 ; nor can it constitute a court, — although in some cases its judiciary powers are up- held. However, it must be remembered that a grant of authority to regulate is not a delegation of legislative power, because the legislature really enacts the law — this is the distinction between the power to pass a law and the power to adopt rules and regulations to carry the law into effect as set forth in Atlantic etc. Co. V. Wilmington etc. R. Co., Ill N. C, 463; 16 S. E., 393; 18 L. R. A., 393. But here, we must consider, since it is indirectly the subject, the ultra-prog- ressive, and very modern governmental control prevailing in California. By an all-embracing constitutional amend- ment and by large legislative enact- ment, the Railroad Commission of this state has been given supreme, extraor- dinary, and heretofore unheard of pow- er over our public utilities. The leading exposition of these con- ditions, as well as the first and only de- cision rendered on these points, and upon which we shall base our study, is the case of The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. vs. Eshleman et al, con- tained in the Recorder Publishing Co. ' s California Decisions, December 26, 1913, Vol. 46, p. 551. Judge Henshaw, in a discoursive and able opinion out- lines the full scope of the powers, limi- tations, and legal conclusions vested in the Railroad Commission and conferred upon the legislature, commission, and courts by the constitutional amend- ments of 1911 and the Public Utilities act passed in the same year. By these, the greatest possible power ever given to a board controlling the popular in- terest of a state have been conferred. In the above case it was declared as law that the powers and functions of the State Railroad Commission are both ju- dicial and legislative, and while it may be said that the final order of the commission in many instances is both legislative and administrative in char- acter, nevertheless the procedure or- dained by sections 22 and 23 of Article xii of the constitution and by Sections 53 to 81 of the Public Utilities Act for the determination of controverted facts between private litigants, and the deci- sion upon the same are strictly judicial (pp. 556-562). Among the conclu- sions reached by the court are the fol- lowing (on P. 586): " The constitution has authorized the legislature to confer additional and different powers upon this commission touching public utili- ties, unrestrained by other constitu- tional provisions " ; " The legislature has given those powers, and also de- prived the State courts of their juris- THE REDWOOD. 353 diction— the commissions orders and decrees may not be inquired into by any court in this state ; none of these may be questioned under the state con- stitution. ' ' Certain it is then, that, in the light of the principles already promulgated, this is an extraordinary investiture and exercise of power- — absolute and final, though for the cause of unhampered and speedy action for the good of the people. In all probability it is legal because, as has been said, the cases confirm a grant of judicial power to such boards, and the legislative power is not really delegated. Nevertheless the fact remains that most cases and texts are to the contrary, especially where the state constitution requires that the departments shall be kept sep- arate. Black ' s Constitutional Law, p. 72; Cooley ' s Constitutional Limitations pp. 41, 44; 1 Bryce Am. Com., 1; Wil- son Congressional Government, 12, 36 ; Sill vs. Village of Corning, 15 N. Y. P., 287, 303; Calder vs. Bull, 3 Dall., 386; Alexander vs. Ben- net, 60 N. Y,. 204; State vs. Noble, 118 Ind., 350; 21 N. E., 244; 44 L. R. A., 101; — California ' s stand has some authority, and the doctrine of these cases is somewhat modified in " Winchester etc. R. Co. vs. Common- wealth (Va.), 55 S. E., 602; and Dreyer vs. Illinois, 187, U. S., 71 ; 23 Sup. Ct., 28, 32. But, to quote again from Judge Henshaw ' s opinion, — where, on p. 562 of the aforesaid Pacific Telephone Co. ' s case against the Railroad Com- mission, he aptly puts our unprece- dented position: " In view of these con- siderations, we regard the conclusions as irresistible that the constitution of this state has in unmistakable language created a commission having control of the public utilities of the State, and has authorized the legislature to confer upon that commission such powers as it may see fit, even to the destruction of the safeguards, privileges, and immuni- ties guaranteed by the constitution to all other kinds of property and its own- ers. And while under our republican form of government, a form under which the three departments adminis- trative, executive and judicial, have in the past one and all been controlled by the limitations of a written constitu- tion (In re Duncan, 139 U. S., 449), it is perhaps the first instance where a constitution itself has declared that a legislative enactment shall be supreme over all constitutional provisions. " Whether this seeming special legisla- tion and class policy obtains its excuse from the convenient " affected with a public interest " plea, or simply from the prevalent idea that railroads, tele- phones, and other public utilities re- quire discriminating policy and are im- mune from the general ' equal protec- tion ' and ' due process ' , as well as pri- vileges and safeguards ordinarily resi- dent in natural and artificial persons and property, is a moot question — the fact remains. It is clear then and follows from what has been said, that in California 354 THE REDWOOD. neither litigant nor court can challenge a decree of the Railroad Commission. The only recourse is to the Federal constitution. The constitutional limitations on the power of a state, to regulate public utilities, are in California, therefore, de- rived solely from the 14th Amendment to the constitution of the United States, Sec. 1 reading as follows: " Nor shall any state deprive any person of life lib- erty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws " — also the 5th Amendment which relates, however, only to the national government, but can be stated here : " Nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensa- tion. " With this in mind, as it is ne- cessary to find more definitely how the inhibitions apply, and to draw from the 14th amendment the constitutional lim- itations as prevailing, we must first state how the powers of a state to reg- ulate are exercised. By showing these the constitutional limitations will be seen immediately by stating what they are not — in other words, the limitations are those powers not embraced in the state ' s prerogatives. Whence then does the state get its power to regulate 1 Naturally from the two essential attributes of sovereignty: Eminent domain, and the police power. The two great constitutional limita- tions, then, are easily discovered by simply defining what these two attrib- utes must include, as the limitation is upon the inclusion and exercise of both (all of which is conclusively proven in the Pac. Tel. Co. vs. Eshleman case, which I will follow) : 1. The vitally essential principle limiting the exercise of the police power is that private rights must, for the ben- efit of society yield to reasonable regu- lations controlling the use of property, in the case of public utilities, within the use to which the property has been dedicated; the power goes merely to the regulation of the public utility which only includes: (a) the right to regulate tolls and charges to the end that fair compensation may be re- turned and excessive charges forbid- den, (b) the right to prevent discrimin- ation on the part of the corporation, di- rected against those who employ it, or make use of its agencies, or the com- modity it furnishes and (c) the right to make orders and formulate rules governing the conduct of the public utility to the end that its efficiency may be built up and maintained and the public be accorded desirable safe- guards and conveniences. 2. While the Railroad Commission in California has the authority to exer- cise the power of eminent domain, the second constitutional limitation is per- tinent here : and the taking of property is not restricted to mere change of physical possession but, includes a per- manent or temporary deprivation of the owner of its use, — and it is the duty of the commission to make just com- pensation for such taking in advance. THE EEDWOOD. 355 DISCOURSE. 1. The first great Federal constitu- tional limitation, then, is upon the po- lice power, i. e., that the rule laid down by the state must be regulatory and within the use to which the property was dedicated — when such rule exceeds this limit, it is a " taking of property " within the meaning of the constitution and is then referable to the power of eminet domain. As Mr. Elliott avers, the police power is fettered with limita- tions, and we must also notice the ef- fect of the Federal commerce clause upon the power of the states — nor can a legislature, as held in the celebrated case of Miller vs. New York etc. R. Co., 21 Barb. (N. Y.), 513, authorize a seiz- ure of the property of a railroad com- pany for a highway without compensa- tion, nor compel it to devote its proper- ty to the use of the public and fit it for that use — his doctrine is substanti- ated in People vs. Lakeshore etc. R. Co., 52 Mich., 277; 17 N. W., 841; Chicago etc. R. Co. vs. Hugh, 61 Mich., 507 ; 21 N. W., 532 ; Detroit vs. Detroit Plank Road Co., 43 Mich., 140; 5 N. W., 275. He shows logically that the legislative judgment is not always conclusive and that the limitations bind it, — under this last the courts are not enslaved to in- acti dty (in California it is slightly different) because the legislature as- sumes to decide that a regulation is a valid exercise of police power. An em- inent authority for this assertion is the local case which lays down this doc- trine, Dobbins vs. Los Angeles, 195 U. S., 223; 25 Sup. Ct., 18, citing a long list of authorities,— also those cases which declare the rule that a legisla- ture cannot make that a nuisance which is not in fact a nuisance, James- ville vs. Carpenter, 77 Wis., 288 ; 46 N. W., 128 ; 8 L. R. A., 808 ; 20 Am. St., 123 ' ; Hutton vs. Camden, 10 Broom (N. J.), 122: 23 Am. R. 203 Coe vs. Schultz, 47 Barb. (N. Y.), 64; Besides this, no less a writer, than Judge Cooley in his val- uable work on Constitutional Limita- tions has thus laid down the law : ' ' The limit to the exercise of the police power in these cases must be this : the regula- tions must have reference to the com- fort, safety, and welfare of society; they must not be in conflict with any of the provisions of the charter and they must not under pretense of regula- tion, take from the corporation any of the essential rights and privileges with which it is endowed. In short they must be police regulations in fact. " (6th Ed. P. 710). So a survey of the cases shows that the subject of the leg- islative rule must be one within the scope of the police power. A few ex- amples will suffice to show the appli- cability of the limitation: In Ohio etc. R. Co. vs. Lackey, 78 111., 44; 20 Am. Rep., 59, a statute re- quired railroad companies to bear the expenses of coroners inquests upon per- sons who died on their trains and also the expense of the burial of such per- sons — this was declared unconstitu- tional as not within the scope of the police power. State vs. Jersey City, 29 N. J., Law, 170, declares that the po- lice power will not authorize the enact- 356 THE REDWOOD. ment of a law making a railway depot or the like a nuisance, because such structure is not, of itself, injurious to the public welfare. But locally the leading case, as has been stated and the best discussion, as well as the first decision on this exact point is the Pacific Telephone and Tele- graph Co. vs. Eshleman, etc., supra, which will now be considered: This was an application for a writ of review prayed to be directed against the de- fendants as members of and constitut- ing the Railroad Commission of Cali- fornia. The facts of the case were: The Tehama County Telephone Co. and the Glenn County Telephone Co. lodged with the defendant commission com- plaints and a petition to permit or compel physical connections to be made between their telephone lines and the lines of the Pacific Company. The former companies did a local business in their respective counties without long distance service for their patrons, —while the latter company carried on business in the same localities furnish- ing both local and long distance service to their customers. In accordance with their petition, and in view of their claims that the Pacific Company re- fused to give proper accomodation and facilities in those two counties, the commission granted the prayer and or- dered the connection— this order the plaintiff Co., sought to have reversed. So far as we are concerned then, the only inquiry arising was : Is this a proper exercise of the police power? To answer this question Judge Henshaw — cites and reviews many cases, bearing upon the subject we are discussing and in support of the deci- sion rendered — which was that such an order of the Railroad Commission re- quiring a telephone company having long distance and local service to make a physical connection for long distance service with a company competing lo- cally, where the first company has not professed to render such character of service, is a taking of the property of the complaining company without com- pensation and therefore void by force and virtue of the Constitution of the United States — such an order involves an exercise of the power of eminent do- main and not of the police power. As the court says on p. 566: " This power goes merely to the regulation of the public utility, and when it passes be- yond this, it is referable to the power of eminent domain. " This is given weight, by the decision in Chicago etc. R. Co. vs. Chicago, 166 U. S., 226, where the judgment of a court regu- lating the use of a part of its right of way, by exacting of it that it grant permission to the public to cross and recross, was held to be not a regulation, but a confiscation and this, notwith- standing the fact that the right of way itself was devoted to one public use and the only effort made was to sub- ject it to another. Again on p. 579, Judge Henshaw states: " Therefore it must be clear that the conclusion may not be evaded that the authorities are unanimous in declaring that in dealing Avith public utilities, regulations of use THE REDWOOD. 357 within the dedicated use is as far as the police power may be extended. " The defendants brought up the only two germane telephone cases of Bill- ings Mutual Telephone Co. vs. Rocky Mountain Telephone Co., 155 Fed., 208, and Pioneer Telephone and Telegraph Co. vs. Grant Rural Telephone Co., 119 Pac, 968, in support of their conten- tion, — but these eases are shown to be not in point, and in so far as they are, they confirm the view here given, be- cause in both the cases cited, the con- nection ordered was within the use to which they had been dedicated, and was grounded on constitutional provisions. These limitations which we have dis- cussed are further fully supported by all the public utility cases, and the fol- lowing serve to show the distinctions and tenets thereto : State vs. Cadwalla- der, 172 Ind., 619 ; 87 N. E., 644 ; Lou- isville and N. R. Co. vs. N. R. etc. In fact all the cases cited by respond- ents here, in reality, are against them or may be distinguished. II. The second constitutional limit- ation, therefore, is upon the exercise of the other sovereign power of eminent domain, and on the charge of posses- sion and deprivation of use, and the taking of property under such power without just compensation paid in ad- vance. In this case it was decided that the connection was a taking of proper- ty in the constitutional sense, not a reg- ulation of police power and therefore referable to the power of eminent do- main, and subject to the limitation above named; and since the order of the commission made no provision for exact compensation in advance (only providing for indirect payment by tolls to be collected in the future), — it was declared void on those grounds. To quote from the conclusion reached on p. 584: " The order here involves a tak- ing of profit, and conceding the right of the commission to exercise the power of eminent domain, this is a taking without compensation " — " it therefore stands admitted that no compensation has been made " " except by tolls in the future, " " which can never measure up to the requirement of the constitution that property shall not be taken with- out compensation first made and paid to the owner. " In this regard Atchi- son etc. R. Co. vs. Campbell, 61 Kan., 439 ; 59 Pac, 1051 ; 48 L. R. A., 251 ; 78 Am. St. Rep., 328, holds that a statute requiring railroad companies to furnish free transportation to shippers of live stock without any compensation there- for, is void as a deprivation of property without due process of law, and as a denial of the equal protection of the laws. This, and the larger doctrine of requiring services and denying compen- sation finds ample support in the case cited by Judge Henshaw, Attorney- Gen., vs. Old Colony R. Co., 160 Mass., 62 ; 22 L. R. A., 112, and a long line of other cases, as well as the leading text writers such as Lewis on Eminent Do- main ; Redfield on Railways ; Dillon on Municipal Corporations; Cooley on Constitutional Limitations; Randolph on Eminent Domain, etc. Let me then state the conclusions 358 THE REDWOOD. reached by Justices Henshaw and Sloss, in our case : 1. The payment of awards in cases of eminent domain must be made in ad- vance of the actual taking. 2. This order in question involves an exercise of the power of eminent do- main and not of police power. 3. The order in question admittedly gives no compensation for the taking of petitioners ' property and is therefore void under the Federal Constitution. In conclusion, the small amount of time an d space alloted barely suffice for even a brief and uncomprehensive treatment of a vast and important ques- tion such as this, but with what has been done it is hoped that some knowl- edge of commission government, and the constitutional limitations on the power of a state to regulate public util- ities has been gained. In this day of corporations and progressive policy in popular government, this subject is the keynote of constitutional law and good politics. California is ahead of the other states in every particular in this line, and the Constitution of the United States, and that only, as to reasonable- ness and necessity, limits her Eailroad Commission ' s orders. Harry W. McGowan, Law ' 14. aill Han rluBt TKe wanderlust Kas seized me, And I long to roam afar, To seek Eg37ptian cities, And to feast in Zanzibar! I fain Nvould travel eastward, Till I reacK Arabia ' s sKore, A pilgrim tken to Mecca, And straight on to Singapore. I ' d cross tKe sandy desert In a winding caravan And ride the famed jinriksha Of imperial Japan. TKe wanderlust Kas seized me, And I long to roam afar, But I ' ve only got a nickel, So I ' ll take a trolley car. O. L. OLIVER. 359 PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA The object of The Redwood is to gather together what is best in the literary work of the students, to record University doings and to knit closely the hearts of the boys of the present and the past EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR ..----.. RODNEY A. YOELL, ' 14 BUSINESS MANAGER _------ EDWIN S. BOOTH, ' IS ASSISTANT BUSINESS MANAGER - - . - EDWARD H. MCLAUGHLIN, ' 16 ASSOCIATE EDITORS REVIEWS - - - - - - - -WM. STEWART CANNON ' 16 ALUMNI -------- FRANCIS W. SCHILLING UNIVERSITY NOTES ------- F. BUCKLEY MCGURRIN ATHLETICS -------- LOUIS T. MILBURN, ' IS ..U«N,CO.RHSPONDBNTS - - - - ] " ?.• -Z o " ! ' . :: ' . " J EXECUTIVE BOARD THE EDITOR THE BUSINESS MANAGER THE EDITOR OF REVIEWS Address all communications to THE REDWOOD, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California. Terms of subscription, SI. SO a year; single copies 25 cents EDITORIAL At Vera Cruz The psychology of courage is not thor- oughly understood, yet one thing is certain; men under the stress and excitement of battle will be inspired to feats which in their calmer moments they would shrink from. True, deeds in the heat of battle which show bravery are certainly de- serving of great praise, yet how much more so the cool calm march to death, without all the thunder of cannon and flare of trumpet blasts. At Vera Cruz the other day some seventeen young men went silently and without any flurry to their death. It simply consisted in walking down narrow streets, breaking into houses and clearing roof tops, yet always ex- posed to a sniping fire from a scarcely ever seen foe. To withstand a fire of this nature. 360 THE REDWOOD. 361 old soldiers tell us, is the most diffi- cult thing a fighter has to do. The nerves never have any stimulation, any excitement, to occupy the mind, but must always undergo the strain of con- stantly expecting sudden death. The courage of our men was certain- ly well demonstrated. They were prac- tically all boys, boys of college age, boys drawn from the farm and city, but above all, boys who realized there was a duty to perform for their country, and who did it nobly. Much greater things it is impossible for man to do. The sacrifice of his life for his country ' s honor is the noblest thing he can aspire to, and how well these lads did it should never be for- gotten. Greater battles have been fought, but yet the death of sacrifice is the same whether it be silently the streets of Vera Cruz, or on Gettysburg ' s flame- swept field. May those who grieve be comforted by the thought of the honor, and those who died, sleep peacefully, respected and honored by all. The Class of Fourteen In Parting is about to graduate. It has climbed the aca- demic stair patiently and with forti- tude, and now stands, as it were, on top of the tower, overlooking all the fields of its many scholastic battles and con- quests. It is small in number, yet has always been characterized by a vehemence in campus affairs and an attitude of fair- ness to all other classes. In times past many of the best athletes the school ever boasted of were ranged amongst its members, and in other activities, such as debating and the literary endeavors, " Fourteen " has always been well rep- resented. With the Faculty " Fourteen " has ever attracted attention, and the suc- cess achieved in graduation is most cer- tainly due to the efforts of all profes- sors under whose able instruction they have labored. In parting for " ere and ere again, " " Fourteen " wishes to remember all and bid adieu and farewell with that mixed cup of " bitter-sweet " and the words. Vale Alma Mater. From the chaotic array Recognition of amendments, bond issues, and proposi- tions, that will appear on the ballot of the gubernatorial election in November, one issue looms forth, — to those inter- ested in education — preeminently from all others. Constitutional Amendment No. 15, would exempt from taxation any edu- cational institution of collegiate grade, not conducted for profit, the grounds, where it ' s buildings are located (not over 100 acres) and its securities and income used exclusively for purposes of education " . This bill, emanating from the senate, satisfies a long-felt, and much neglect- ed want. It is a recognition of the in- 362 THE REDWOOD. estimable service, the small private col- lege, is doing for the state, in the name of education, truly, — a much belated recognition, withal a just, — not a com- plimentary one. Exemption from taxation has hereto- fore been granted, to larger colleges, principally Stanford University, the School of Mechanical Arts, Academy of Sciences, and Cogswell Polytechnic Col- lege. Ordinarily speaking, tax exemp- tion would be a privilege, but in lieu of the number of colleges already enjoy- ing that privilege, it is a matter of right, to the smaller schools, — a right flowing from strict justice — that they be also exempt. The superiority of the large college to the smaller, is a highly debatable topic. The latter acomplishes, quali- tatively, as much as the former, and their high standard of scholarship is widely known. The state, through its university, accredits the work of the smaller schools. So, why this unjust discrimination ? Education, as carried on in the smaller institutions, without large monetary endowments, is a financial failure, — and by giving to them this right, the electors of the state will af- ford means and opportunity of ampli- fying and increasing their efficiency. It is up to the people to vindicate the small colleges — to take California from the small number of states who have discriminated in educational legisla- tion. The success of the measure is earnestly wished for, and the Senate is to be commended for its attitude to- ward the oppressed " Smaller seats of Learning. ' ' The majority of colleges have closed their portals for the summer. In a few days we will have followed their example. All through the long days of the dry summer the corridors will be lonely and forlorn; class rooms and lecture-halls will be untenanted; the gardens will be safe from the tardy foot short-cutting to recitation. And our little sanctum! Dust will rest un- disturbed upon our desks; shelves of books, neatly arranged on leaving, will rest peacefully until our return. The typewriters will be untouched, await- ing the days of September, when we will return. The collegiate year is over. The Seniors, in the time-honored cap and gown, have received their sheepskins be-ribboned and weighted with a mass- ive seal. It is " Good-bye Joe " and " Good-bye Jim " , accompanied with the hearty handshake and a " see you next year " . So we of the Redwood staff bid our Exchanges, dear friends of this year and the years before, a fond farewell! We ask pardon if we have hurt and offer thanks for the in- numerable compliments, and — yes, we are grateful for much valued criticism. We also wish to show in a deeper manner than the cursory monthly ac- knowledgement, that we appreciate the numerous Exchanges sent to our humble sanctum and the welcome we have received in your sancta. Then, Vale, Exchanges, may we see all of you next year! REVIEWS. We have received " The Shield of Silence " from Benziger Bros. The story turns upon the fidelity of a priest to the secret of the confessional, and turns about it in a way that is very new and still extremely plausible. The heroism of the priest and the scenes of riot in the streets of Barcelona are very well done by the author, and her pic- tures of the rugged life of the Basques and their utter sincerity and devotion are exceedingly entertaining and in- structive. Benziger Bros. $1.35. " The Ups and Downs of Marjorie " is a book for young people that merits reading even by older eyes. Marjorie has many ups and downs, but due to the innate goodness and loveableness of her character she comes safely through them all. Benziger Bros. 45 cents. 363 The month of May has Banquets proven an eventful one in several ways, chief- ly on account of the number of dinners and banquets which have been given. The Redwood staff started the good work with a delightfully informal din- ner on Monday, May eleventh. The din- ner itself was irreproachable, and the decorations and place cards, by Father Egan, were on the same order. The Co-operative Store gave its an- nual banquet at the Vendome, on the thirteenth. In spite of the unfavorable date, it was eminently successful. At its conclusion the guests adjourned to the Victory Theatre to witness Chaun- cey Oleott ' s performance of " Sheeman Dhu " . Through the genial store mana- ger, Mr. Joseph Thomas, they were also given an opportunity of meeting the great Irish tenor personally. On Monday, May eighteenth, the Junior Dramatic Society, concluded its activities with a banquet in the refec- tory. A committee on arrangements, consisting of James Lyons, George Don- ahue, and Errol V. Quill, covered it- self with credit. The alcove was iso- lated from the rest of the refectory by a large curtain, and was artistically decorated with pennants, flowers, and potted palms. Small tables were used, each being adorned with a vase of dai- sies. The souvenirs consisted of a clever minute book, which included a digest of the year ' s activities, lists of mem- bers and officers for the two semesters, the musical program and a list of the honored guests. Among the last named were : Rev. Fr. Walter Thornton, S. J. ; Rev. Fr. Morton, S. J. ; Fr. Walsh, S. J. ; Fr. Crowley, S. J. ; Fr. Egan, S. J. ; Fr. Quevedo, S. J., and Rev. Fr. Brainard, S. J. The musical program was furnished by the J. D. S. Quartette, consisting of Messrs. Nicholson, Donahue, Carberry and Allen, with James Coyle at the piano, and by a " sympathetic " orches- tra, the personnel being, Raymond J. Durney, violin; B. Earle Sehnereger, drums, and Buckley McGurrin, banjo mandolin. Among the numbers ren- dered were " Across the Great Divide ' ' and " He ' s a Devil, " by " Algy " Allen, whose, manner of presentation was re ceived with great applause. Mr. Sehnereger, as toastmaster, spoke a few minutes on ' ' Our Society, ' and then called on various members, who responded as follows: Mr. McGurrin, " The Value of a De- bating Society " ; Mr. Edward O ' Neill, 364 I THE REDWOOD. 365 " The Tax Gatlierer " ; Mr. Harold Harwood, " Out of Order " ; Mr. George Donahue, " Jingles from the Live Wire " ; Mr. Bartley Oliver, " My Im- pressions of the J. D. S. " and Mr. James Lyons, " To Whom Credit is Due. " Father Egan and Fr. Quevedo also spoke a few words, and Fr. Walsh sang a song which was also well re- ceived. The Director, Fr. Whelan, S. J., con- cluded with a very interesting talk on the society. The members of the baseball team had an informal dinner on Thursday, the twenty-first, at which Leslie Shee- han was elected captain for next sea- son. On Tuesday, the twenty-sixth, the baseball and track banquet is to be held. The choir will be given a ban- quet on the same date. At present the press yawns darkly for " copy, " and this being the case, we are unable to give further particulars. Ryland Debate " Resolved, that the American ships en- gaged in coast-wise trade and passing through the Panama Canal shall not be exempt from pay- ing tolls, " was the subject of the an- nual Ryland debate between teams rep- resenting the House and Senate, held Friday evening, May fifteenth. The debate, always interesting, was this year unusually so. The team for the Philalethie Senate consisted of Rodney M. Yoell, first affirmative; Harold R. McKinnon, second affirmative, and Harry McGowan third affirmative. That of the House of Philhistorians was: Miles A. Fitzgerald, first nega- tive; William Stewart Cannon, second negative, and George A. Nicholson, third negative. While both sides of the question were very well presented, th judges declared in favor of the af- firmative. Mr. J. P. Sex acted as chair- man. The judges were: Mr. J. W. Ryland, Hon. James H. Campbell, Hon. Wm. A. Beasly, Mr. C. C. Coolidge and Mr. 0. D. Richardson. Student Body Meeting The last meeting of the Associated Stu- dents of the Univer- sity of Santa Clara was held on May nineteenth with President Rodney A. Yoell in the chair. Peculiar signifi- cance was attached to this meeting, as it was the occasion of the election of student body officers for the coming scholastic year. The results were as follows: President, Louis T. Milburn; secretary. Artisan Ramage; treasurer, William Shipsey ; sergeant-at-arms, Benjamin Fitzpatrick, chief yell leader, Chester Allen; assistant yell leader, George Donahue. Andrew Ginnochio was selected as second assistant. Ram- age and Fitzpatrick were elected with- out opposition. In a letter from Rev. Father Thorn- ton, S. J., Chauncey Tramutolo was ap- pointed graduate manager, and George A. Nicholson student manager. On a motion by W. S. Cannon, Dona- hue and Soto were awarded their block 366 THE REDWOOD. S. C. ' s for track. Joseph Aureeoeehea moved that the members of the second baseball team be awarded the custom- ary monogram. The motion was car- ried. William Irwin, second division rep- resentative, asked that the Midget team be given small " M.s " . This was sanc- tioned on a motion by Ramage. As chairman of the committee for the constitutional amendment regarding the awarding of sweaters to varsity men, Ramage read the proposed form. It was generally satisfactory, and was as nearly perfect as an amendment of this nature — covering, as it does, all branches of athletics — could be. As customary, it was posted on the bulle- tin board for the consideration of the student body, and will be passed upon at the September meeting. It was then made known that Mr. John W. Ryland had furthered the fund for the turf field by contributing two hundred dollars. A vote of thanks was then proposed by the chair, to Mr. Ryland and all other contributors to the fund. President Yoell spoke a few words to the meeting, in which he thanked the students for their co-operation with him in the various student body under- takings, and welcomed his successor. His words were heartily applauded. No better tribute can be paid to Mr. Yoell than the esteem with which he is re- garded by every member of the stu- dent body. Pr. Eline, the Moderator, followed with a few well-chosen words, congratulating the student (body and its officers for their spirit and the suc- cess with which it has been attended during the year. Manresa Outing Examinations, which at this writing loom so ominously upon the horizon of our scholastic world, were disregarded entirely on Wednesday, May the twelfth. The occasion was a welcome breathing space in the shape of a day ' s outing at Manresa. The spe- cial train left at seven-fifteen and ar- rived at the beach some two hours and a half later. The remainder of the day was spent largely in the surf, which was on this occasion all that could be desired. For several days following the trip a marked aversion to hearty salutations — such as slaps on the back — was noticeable about the yard. We certainly had Old Sol, as well as the band, with us. Prize Contests The contests for ex- traordinary prizes this year are calling forth an unusually large amount of enthusi- asm. With their dates, the contests are as follows: Archbishop ' s Medal, June third, for an essay on religious subject. Redwood Prizes, June fourth, for essay on historical subject. McCann Prizes, June first, for short stories. Orella Medal, June first, for essay on scientific subject. THE REDWOOD. 367 Barchi Prizes, May nineteenth, com- petition in mathematics. Donahue Medal, May twenty-sev- enth, for Greek or Latin composition. Owl Prize, for the best recitation by a member of any college class. Junior Elocution Prize, for the best recitation by a member of any High School class. The elocution contest will take place on Friday, May twenty-ninth. Owing to the fact that our learned brothers of the Engineering College assumed the editorial reins and guided the destinies (and with ample credit, let us hasten to add) of the last (May) issue, the following notes were omitted. We consider their contents on a whole deserving of mention, however, and accordingly append them. Student Body Meeting President Yoell called a meeting of the Asso- ciated Students short- ly after dinner on April twenty-third. Following the reading of the minutes of the preceding meeting by Secretary McKinnon, the principal business of the meeting came up. This consisted of the awarding of baseball blocks to the members of the varsity team. Ow- ing to the large number of veterans on the team but four men were awarded blocks. These were Leslie Sheehan, McGinnis, Carberry and Thomas Casey. Michael Kiely then read a report on the work accomplished by the turf- field football committee. Mr. Kiely stated that while letters sent to alumni had met with generous response, there still remained a considerable deficit to be made up. He suggested that each student should take two form letters and mail them to friends. The letters were given out, and in a majority of cases the request has been complied with. As an additional means of pushing the project, Phil Martin moved that each member of the student body be assessed fifty cents, to be contributed to the fund. His motion was seconded and carried without opposition. Artisan Ramage also gave a snappy little talk on the subject, in which he showed the necessity of providing our teams with a field which will place us on an equality with the other Univer- sities in this regard, as we are already their equals as concerns the team itself. At the present writing the actual construction has begun, and we have every reason to believe that next season will find us in a position to combine the best brand of football with the sort of field it deserves. _ j One of her most event- banta Clara present semester was ' Wed- nesday, April twenty-ninth. The occa- sion was Santa Clara Day, which was devoted by the members of the District Attorneys of the State, whose conven- tion was held in San Jose in the neigh- borhood of that date, to visiting the University. At ten-thirty an inter-class meet was held. Following the track 368 THE REDWOOD. meet, the visitors were shown about the vineyard, the Mission Church, Fr. Bell ' s wireless station, the library, Fr. Ricard ' s observatory, and other points of interest. A luncheon was later ten- dered them in Sodality Hall, covers being laid for sixty. The banquet room was artistically decorated by Fr. Mc Namara and a corps of During I the serving of the luncheon entertainment was provided by Prof. Mustol, Raymond J. Durney and James Coyle. At the speaker ' s table were: Rev. R. A. Gleason, S. J., Provincial; Rev. " W. F. Thornton, S. J., president of the University; Rev. J. S. Ricard, S. J., and District Attorney and Mrs. A. M. Free. The students of the Institute of Law capably assisted during the day. of sunburn, but also what to us less favored mortals was a great joy, the pastry cook, whose presence had been sorely missed. The last is a feeble jest, and we apologize for it. assistants. In Parting _, , „ . The members of the Baseball and , n . i i ,._,.. ball team took a day Junior Picnics ,, , -A on and, rising, with the numerous barn-yard fowls of the vicinity, journeyed to Villa Joseph, where they spent the day. On the same dewy morn, May fifth, the members of the Junior Class fol- lowed their example, took possession of a large motor bus, and headed for Manresa. This outing terminated Thursday. On that day they once more returned to our midst, bringing with them numerous and severe cases Now that our stipulat- ed editorial duties have been fulfilled, we feel somewhat unwilling to lay aside our pen, — notwithstanding the length of the foregoing notes — without just a word more. The June issue of the Redwood is the concluding one of the year, and it seems but fitting that we should combine a word of truth with one of farewell. On behalf of the Red- wood staff in general, and of our own humble self in particular, then, we wish to extend to every member of the stu- dent body, whose organ this magazine is, our sincere gratitude for the support we have received during the past year. Without support of this kind we can do nothing; happily, we can say that " we have no kick coming, " to employ a colloqialism. And in conclusion, to those who will again gather in the dear familiar scenes about is, we desire to extend our best wishes for a happy vacation. As for those who are called to other fields, we hope that they may meet with the most gratifying success, and will keep a tender spot in their hearts for our beloved Alma Mater. Adios ! THE REDWOOD. 369 HON. JOHN E. RICHARDS. Tuesday evening, May 5th, the Hon. John E. Richards delivered be- fore the students of our Law School one of the lectures for which he is so famous in this part of the state. Judge Richards, it will be remem- bered, formerly officiated in the Su- perior Court of this county before his elevation to the District Court of Appeal. In another capacity, however, his name and personality has been impressed upon the me- mories of the law students. He it was who organized the Practice Court, of which Santa Clara is justly proud. Highly educated himself, the Judge ' s personality is a spur to the ambition of his listeners. His speech may well have been " The Evolution of American Jurisprudence. ' ' From the days when " a complete out- fit for a lawyer ' s office consisted of a three-legged stool and Swift ' s Digest of the Laws of Connecticut " , Judge Richard ' s traced the intricate evolution of our law down to the present era. The most striking feature of the whole discourse was its beginning. There the lecturer laid special stress upon the wonderful lucidity of thought and ex- pression, the stern logical capabilities of the pioneers of our legal system. He was referring to the men of Revolu- tionary days whose decisions were the result, not of precedent, for they had none, but of the rudimentary princi- ples of justice. He followed this historical evolution until our day when the courts are threatened for resting their too com- pletely on precedent. His observations demonstrated that it is not the prece- dent which a court relies upon, but the reason for the precedent. Impossible as it is to comment upon each detail of the lecture, we can only say that the interest excited by Judge Richards ' words was exceeded only by the instruction received from them. We thank him most heartily. HON. WILLIAM A. BEASLY. Without partiality, we may say that the most interesting lecture which has been delivered before the law students this year was that given on Monday, May 25th, by Hon. William A. Beasly, Superior Judge of Santa Clara County. Without partiality, we say — though indeed, it would be extremely difficult not to be partial towards Judge Beas- ly. And our favoritism is not un- founded. Very soon after the Practice Court had been organized by Hon. John E. Richards, he was promoted from his post as Superior Judge of Santa Clara County to the District Court of Ap- peal, and Judge Beasly was appointed to the vacancy thus created. In spite of his pressing duties in San Jose, Judge Beasly graciously consented to carry on the work of our Practice Court, which Judge Richards had been forced to abandon on account of his more weighty duties. A graduate of the Law School of Michigan University, and a lawyer of about twenty-five years ' standing, Judge Beasly came to 370 THE EEDWOOD. us well equipped for his work. Since then he has conducted the organization with all the assiduity and pertinacity which had theretofore characterized the judge ' s professional career as an at- torney in San Jose Judge Beasly is a born teacher — lenient and indulgent enough to avert the discouragement of the legal novice — stringent to the de- gree of adding impetus to the zeal of a student, and creating in him a habit of industry. We have not realized until now that so much of the success of our year has been due to him. His lecture might have been entitled " Advice to a Young Lawyer in His Early Years at Practice. " It is only with regret that we are unable to print a syllabus of the whole discourse, — so interesting and instructive did it seem to us who heard him. An attor- ney ' s location, his choice of associates, the demeanor of the office and the bar, advisability of political aspira- tions and topics which may not be found in any book of law — these were the matters with which the Judge con- cerned himself and us. Couched in the rhetoric of an erudite and experienced man these remarks fell upon docile and we hope retentive ears. HON. P. F. GOSBEY. The last of a series of lectures deliv- ered by Judges " from the outside " to the Institute of Law during the past month was the one offered by the Hon. P. F. Gosbey, Superior Judge of Santa Clara County, on Tuesday evening, May 25th. Judge Gosbey presides over the Pro- bate department of the Superior Court in San Jose, and in accordance with his familiarity with the machinery of pro- bate law, he selected the very appropri- ate topic of " Testamentary Capacity. " Mr. Nicholas A. Bowden very accu- rately voiced the unanimous sentiment of Judge Gosbey ' s listeners when he thanked the speaker at the close of the instruction and assured him that the students had imbibed more learning on the subject in listening to that one lec- ture than they could possibly acquire in the course of a long research by themselves. Mr. Bowden was correct. The con- ciseness, the condensed form in which the enunciated principles had been pre- pared, magnetized not only the interest but very quickly the admiration of all present. Lectures like these are sub- stantial in the highest degree and it is not prevailing upon the Judge ' s ex- tremely good nature or asking of him too great a sacrifice, we would feel pri- vileged, as well as honored to have Judge Gosbey with us again next year in the same if not more intimate ca- pacity. For his past lecture, we thank him very heartily. To those which we hope to hear next year, we look forward most impatiently. 5 ;;. H Q m ? IT CD I S ATHI The baseball season has terminated, but as we make a fond retrospection our hearts become filled with pride, for to our Alma Mater have there been brought glory and fame. Through- out the long schedule of games, each and every individual member of the varsity has shown extraordinary abil- ity, and to Father Eline, our athletic moderator, and Captain Ramage there are due much credit and commenda- tion. Our long list of victories is to be envied by any university team, and it may be safely stated that we have sur- passed any college record made in pre- vious years. It was through the sin- cere efforts of Coach Harry " Wolters, together with the faithful co-operation of each member of the team, that we have succeeded in defeating such teams as California, Stanford and Nevada. During the proceedings of the an- nual baseball banquet Leslie Shee- han was elected Captain as Ramage ' s successor. Although this is his first year in the university he has shown 371 remarkable ability and as a result of his earnestness he was made the team ' s choice for 1915. There is only one sincere hope to ten- der to our newly elected Captain, and this is, that he will be accompanied with the same success as Captain Ram- age. S. 0. SWEATEES. In appreciation for labor in athletics the Student Body, at their monthly meeting, awarded Thomas Casey, Jim Carberry, Leslie Sheehan and Ciu Mc- Ginnis their block S. C. sweater for having competed against Nevada in our annual intercollegiate game. Among the novices in track, Bud Soto and " Jiggs " Donahue were awarded their block, for success- fully scoring against the Nevada track team. MOUNTAIN LEAGUE. In the best game of the season " Pope " Gaffey ' s Titanics went down to defeat before " Jiggs " Donahue ' s Olympics, and lost the championship 372 THE REDWOOD. of the Mountain League. It was one of the best and most successful games of any in the history of the University. The game went 10 innings and not un- til the final score was made was any one able to decide the winner. Bode- feld for the losers pitched a wonderful game in view of the fact that he was sick, allowing his opponents but four hits, while his teammates made eight errors. Nicholson pitched a good game for the winners, allowing seven hits. Diaz and Spotorno were the leading hitters, each connecting safely twice. Winston, Diaz and O ' Neil were the leading fielders. " Rabbit " Kavanaugh brought the bleacherites to their feet by pulling a fly ball out of the clouds. The champions and officials of the league will be tendered a banquet by Fr. Morton. Great credit is due to Gaffey, Marin- ovich, Donahue and Howard for the manner in which the league was con- ducted. The leading stickers of the league were Gus Eisert and Bodefeld, while Inyo Smith and Nicholson ranked among the leading pitchers. The score : OLYMPICS. AB R H SB A PO E Fitzgerald, 2b 4 2 Kavanaugh, cf 3 11113 Shippey, 3b 3 10 2 1 Schupp, lb 5 110 5 Diaz, ss 3 2 2 14 2 Koote, c 5 2 14 Donahue, I ' rf 5 10 10 1 Nicolson, p 4 13 10 Soto, If 4 10 11 Total 36 5 4 5 10 30 3 TITANICS. AB R H SB A PO E Spotino, c 4 2 1 ' 3 11 1 Jackson, lb 4 1 1 1 13 2 Winston, ss 4 110 2 2 1 J. O ' Neil, 2b 4 1117 2 Bodefeld, p 2 10 3 Todd, 3b 4 113 Gaffey, cf 4 10 Carlson, rf 3 1110 Hall, If 4 1 Total 34 4 7 4 16 30 8 SECOND VARSITY. Under the able leadership of Joe Aurrecoechea the second varsity has completed its 1914 campaign with un- usual success. Great credit is due Manager Nichol- son for the excellent schedule of games he arranged. The decisive victories easily acomplished by them were prin- cipally over the neighboring high schools and town clubs. The last game was perhaps one of the best and most interesting exhibi- tions of the schedule. In this game " Pinkey " Leonard engaged in a pitch- ing duel with Jim Wiggs, a former Coast League star. Playing their usual classy ball they easily defeated Wiggs and his comrades by a score of 3 to 1. Aside from the pitching of " Pinkey " Howard, Seholz, Aurrecoechea and Coyle occasionally merited praise for clever and speedy plays. The score : SANTA CLARA SECOND VARSITY. AB R H SB A PO E Seholz, ss 110 5 1 Concannon, cf. ... 4 1 1 THE EEDWOOD. 373 AB R H SB PO A E own with any High School team in the ' y ' 4 2 2 state is not too much of a boast to Howard, c 40214 3 t-,-jjp - ,, Carberry rf 4000110 ™ - Besides deieatmg several other Aurrecoc ' hea, 2.... 4 10 5 2 teams on the campus the Juniors on Coyle, lb 2 1 1 13 two occasions brought home a victory Martin, If 4 10 10 after games with the All Star team of « d ' P 1_1_ _11 t « f ' Mountain League. Totals 31 3 6 1 27 17 1 Juniors 7, Menlo Park 2. PLEASANTON. On Sunday, May 10th, the Juniors AB R HSB A POE Journeyed to Menlo Park to settle a Silva, ss 3 2 2 2 1 difference of opinion as to whether Spormoor, If 4 110 they were beatable or not. " Mush " Holmes cf „ f 2 i n o n Stevens of Stanford confronted them Speck, lb 4 3 .-. j ■j.-u t, j. -r, , ,-,, GibsoA, c 4 16 ' . " P « P l« 1 ° Lucas, 3b 4 10 High behind the bat. Those Juniors George, rf 3 10 are ball players, and what is sure, they Wiggs, p 3 10 3 1 are in the game all the time, making Caitano, 2b 110 3 t qj.q j q q r j ny three teams within Totals 31 1 4 027 6 2 radius of fifty miles. Even " Clabby " Howard actually woke up since base- JUNIOR BASEBALL TEAM. ball began, and in the excitement of Our readers must not think that baseball forgot all about editing his baseball, or interest in the game at newspaper. Santa Clara, is centered around the Well, the first two innings of the first and second teams, or the Mountain game at Menlo went along quietly League for that matter. At Santa enough, neither side scoring. But in Clara everybody plays baseball; and the third inning Bush singled. Berg that is why for generations back Santa followed suit, Cunningham got on Clara has turned out equally as good through an error, Ginnocchio got a hit, and even better teams than those which as did Amaral. " When the inning was represent the larger universities. As a over the Juniors discovered that they consequence this year, as in other had four runs. In the next inning years, we have our Junior team. Durney started the fun again by a To get an idea of what we mean by bingle. " Angel " Bush got his second " Junior " team, let us say at the out- hit, and Ginnocchio scored them with set that it is recruited from the High his drive. The gong sounded three School department, barring High times after that inning. That was all School players on either the first or the scoring the youngsters did; and at second teams. That it can hold its no time were they in danger. 374 THE REDWOOD. In the sixth inning Amaral poled one to right field. It happened that Bruce, the Mayfielder, was trying to get away from the sun by standing under an oak tree in deep right. Fortunately for him he was in the way of the ball and caught it, otherwise, according to cred- itable eye witnesses, it would have been going yet. Menlo scored its two runs in the sixth by getting three hits off Berg. Berg is a left hander, is cool as the proverbial cucumber, and has great control for a youngster. He ought to develop into a great pitcher. Both Berg and Stevens struck out ten. JUNIORS. AB R H PO A E Cunningham 5 12 3 1 Ginnochio 5 2 3 10 1 Conaty . 4 2 Amaral 5 110 Geha .... 5 1 11 1 Howard 4 110 Durney 3 10 4 4 Bush .- 4 2 19 Berg .... 4 110 3 Totals 27 7 11 27 10 3 MENLO PARK. AB R H PO A E Bruce 4 10 Darecow 4 2 11 Stevens 3 110 Kelly 4 12 4 Green 2 2 10 Pratt 4 115 1 Derry 4 1 11 1 Hartwell 4 Carlton 3 110 Totals 33 2 5 27 3 3 Juniors 7. Redwood City Boys Club 3. The following Sunday Redwood Boys Club fell a victim to the Juniors. They scored a run more than Menlo did, and they felt happy over that. The fireworks started again in the third inning, and all the runs were made then. The game was fast and snappy, and outside of that inning was close enough. Samaniego did the hurl- ing for the Juniors, and kept his hits well scattered, besides he struck out twelve men. To Coach Harwood is due praise, for the instructions he imparted generously to the Juniors. SANTA CLARA UNIVERSITY JRS. AB R H SB PO A E Cunningham, ss... 5 110 15 3 Ginnochio, 3b 2 10 111 Allen, cf 5 110 10 Amaral, If 5 12 10 Geha, lb 5 110 8 Howard, rf 4 10 Conaty, e 2 1 1 12 1 2 Durney, 2b 3 14 1 Samaniego, p 2 10 4 Total 33 7 6 2 27 12 6 REDWOOD CITY BOYS ' CLUB. AB R H SB PO A E Ramirez, cf 5 10 10 Cochrane, ss 3 10 2 112 Chaves, If 4 10 Sampson, 2b 5 114 4 Fox, lb 4 1 1 1 12 1 2 Valencia, c 4 112 3 Herm, rf 4 14 10 Winter, 3b 2 13 Torres, p 4 12 10 5 Total 35 4 6 8 27 15 4 THE REDWOOD. 375 SCORE BY INNINGS. Santa Clara University Jrs. — Euns 7 0—7 Hits 14 1—6 Redwood City Boys ' Club — Runs 110 1 0—3 Hits 110 112 1—7 SUMMARY. Two base hit — Sampson. Sacrifice hit — Fox. First base on called balls — Off Horres 5, off Samaniego 4. Struck out — By Torres 2, by Samaniego 10. Hit by pitcher — Winter, Samaniego 2. Double plays — Herm to Fox, Cochrane to Sampson to Fox. Wild pitch — Sam- aniego. Time of game — 1 hour and 20 minutes. Umpires — Smith and Will. SECOND DIVISION NOTES. The 1914 pennant race in the Midget League was won this year a few days before the season closed by the re- nowned Athletics. In the early games this team gained a secure lead, but, al- though, as the race progressed the struggle became closer, neither of the other teams could win the important games that would have dropped the Athletics out of first place. It was owing more to the earnestness of the winners than anything else that the Pirates who lead the league in bat- ting and base-running, were beaten just when their prospects were brightest. The Giants, the third team of the league, after getting a poor start, were going stronger than either of the other teams when the season closed. Five successive victories made them close contenders for second honors and had this effort begun a little sooner they might have found themselves out in front before the finish. The thirty-six games called for by the schedule were easily completed, and owing to the present successful season the number of games will prob- ably be increased next year. The final standing of the clubs was as follows: Won Lost Ave. Athletics 15 9 .625 Pirates 11 13 .458 Giants 10 14 .417 Although the Athletics won by a good margin, interest was intense dur- ing the closing games because on them depended the awarding of prizes for the best batter, etc. In fact several of those who lead during the greater part of the season lost out in the clos- ing games. F. Conneally proved to be the Ty Cobb of the league in batting with an average of .396. Bimat was a close sec- ond, and it was only in the last games that he lost the lead which he had main- tained almost continuously from the beginning. The leading batters were: AB R H Ave. F. Conneally 91 43 36 .396 Bimat 78 33 30 .385 Doud 99 24 36 .364 Garcia 83 27 28 .337 Eisert 80 15 26 .325 In base-running the contest was even closer, Doud passing Conneally in the last game by some daring steals. The best thieves were Doud with 38, Con- 376 THE REDWOOD. neally 36, Williams 27, Bimat 25, M. Falvey 21. The infielder ' s prize went to A. Fal- vey. But a few points separated the first five. PO A E TC Ave. A. Falvey _ 82 42 9 133 .932 Botiller 68 14 6 88 .931 Forster 167 18 14 199 .930 Otero 184 51 23 258 .912 Edinger 128 14 15 157 .904 Salter 124 31 19 174 .894 Of the outfielders, C. Kavanaugh proved of great value to his team, cap- turing a large number of hard drives and having the best average. To close the season according to one of Santa Clara ' s best customs a ban- quet was enjoyed by the league lead- ers. Those who were invited were Bi- mat, A. Falvey, Forster, Eisert Wil- liams, F. Conneally, Botiller, Terrazas, H. Kearns, Butler and J. Hughes. There were also present Captains Doud and M. Falvey of the other teams and C. Kavanaugh, the prize winning out- fielder. Before we pass from baseball a word must be added about the Midget Team. The new suits make them appear quite a classy aggregation of ball players. Nor is it only in appearance that they excel, for they have managed to cap- ture two out of the three games played with the Juniors. The series with the Day Scholars ' Sanctuary yet remains to be decided, each team having won a game. Those who have made the team and their block M, are A. Falvey, Doud, p., Otero c, Edinger 1st, Williams and M. Falvey, ss, F. Conneally 3rd, Garcia If, Bimat cf, Botiller rf. The closing weeks of school are being enlivened by the handball and tennis tournaments. The handball series has nov reached the semi-finals. Those who still remain are Bimat, Williams, But- ler, Botiller, M. Falvey, Eisert and Aungst. The preliminary round in tennis is nearly finished, but the finals are still too far distant to make a choice safe. The Southern Stars, Salter of Ontario and Williams of Oxnard, will probably last through the finals, together with the Falvey brothers of San Mateo. AUVMNI We were the pleased recipi- ' 12 ents, a few days ago, of a short visit from Robert M. Hogan, B. S. ' 12, a very popular stu- dent of the year before last. A promi- nent figure in all manner of athletics, he was universally known as " Buck " Hogan, and we of the Redwood well re- call old Buck on the University of Pacific football field, when he won the game with what the papers described as a " phenomenal drop kick of 50 yds., at a difficult angle. " Since the attain- ment of his degree with the Class of ' 12, we had heard very little of Buck, until his recent appearance on the cam- pus. The fact remains, from recent re- ports that Buck ' s business ability has appeared no less phenomenal than the above mentioned drop-kick, as his pros- perity in the sage-brush state has long since been assured. He is at present the Assistant County Treasurer of Lander County, Nevada; holds a con- trolling interest in an electric heating company; controls a very large cold storage plant; holds the local agency for Ford and Overland cars; he also owns a hotel, which he has re-named Hotel Hogan. Bob is said to be seri- ously considering a recently formed plan for buying Reno. What next, Buck? The spring of the year 1914 Ex. ' 08 seems to be bearing a rath- er heavy crop of the sow- ings of Cupid, especially in the matter of the Alumni of Santa Clara Univer- sity, and one by one we have seen sev- eral of our old school companions sprouting into full-fledged newly-weds. But still others are breaking through the newly softened ground, buoyant and ready for matrimony. The latest benedict is Milton McCarthy, ex. ' 08, who has married Miss Betty Leonhardt, a young lady of San Francisco. The ceremony was performed by Fr. Burns, at St. Agnes parish church, in San Francisco, on Saturday, April 4th, 1914. Milt, we wish you all happiness and success. 377 378 THE EBDWOOD. Irvin Kanthlehner, ex. ' 11, Ex. 11 is one of the old boys that comes to our notice from di- vers sources, as we seek through the old records reviewing the pages of the past. He was one of the old boys that made Santa Clara University famous on the gridiron; he was one of the gi- gantic team of ' 11 and ' 12 ; and he was one of the most formidable Varsity players of whom we have ever boasted. He was renowned alike in the field and in the cl assroom, and today he has proved himself worthy of the past at- tentions of his Alma Mater. He is pitching for one of the best baseball teams in the race for the world ' s cham- pionship, the Pittsburg National club. We wish all those old heroes of days gone by a repetition of the success of former days. Late happenings about the ' 12 campus, such as the occu- pation of the " Mountain League " , and similar institutions for the introduction of " pep " into the student-body, recall to us a fiery youngster from Los Angeles, who was the most popular student in the yard. Constantine Castrueio, A. B. ' 12, is un- doubtedly one of the most active that loom in the darkening vistas of tradi- tion, and was familiarly known as Cast. Sad to say, however, Constantine has seen fit to transfer his hearty good fellowship from among us, and he now radiates his natural enthusiasm at Co- lumbia University, where he is study- ing law. The boys are all expecting a visit from Mr. Castruccio in the near future, and we can assure him of a hearty welcome. The Alumni Department of the Red- wood has been long established to serve the interests of former students. Its mission is to keep alive among the old students the flame of those happier days and to breathe for those of the present time the spirit of olden years. It is to connect the man of today with the youth of yesterday. Old students, much of the success of this department depends on your interest. This you have realized and acted on in the past, but it is well to keep the thought alive with reflection. Tell us about former students ; tell us about yourself. Com- mend the old College Chronicle to for- mer boys that may some what have drifted. And when in a reminiscent mood, turn to the Alumni pages of the Redwood. ' 08 George Mayerle Jr., A. B. ' 08, an Alumnus who was mentioned in the last issue as being engaged to a certain well- known young society lady of San Fran- cisco, has taken exception to a certain discrepancy in the article pertaining to his tender affairs. It seems that some cruel editor slated George to marry his future mother-in-law, instead of the young lady that is the recipient of his attentions. In rectification hereof we are pleased to state that George will lead to the altar in the near future. I THE EEDWOOD. 379 Miss Elma B. Reich of San Francisco. In assuring you once more, George, that this error was perpetrated without malice, we once more repeat our heart- felt congratulations, with all good wishes for the happiest of married lives. The Rev. Robert J. O ' Con- ' 08 nor, A. B. ' 08, favored us with a little visit on Tues- day, May 19, 1914. Fr. ' Connor, who is at present the assistant pastor of St. Francis Church in San Francisco, is one of our most noted Alumni that have taken up the Cross. He said Mass on that morning in the Memorial Chapel of the University, and immediately thereafter expressed his profound sur- prise and edification at the sight of two-thirds of the students receiving daily communion as part of the May devotions. Fr. ' Connor is ever a wel- come visitor at Santa Clara. The following is a commu- ' 13 nication received upon re- quest from Robert J. Flood, A. B. ' 13. Bob is, although his modest letter does not mention the fact, pros- pering on his OAvn account with the Jas. R. Kieth Real Estate Insurance Co. Bob is, as all the old fellows know, one of the finest lads that Santa Clara ever nurtured in the College walls. The letter is a nice little study for us of the Alumni. He was noted for his " pep " in athletics while here, and now his repeated references to the Olympic Club show that his earnest spirit bound up in honor and integrity still craves those successes that greet- ed him on the campus. Bob is one of the finest football players on the coast and is also very fast on the cinder path. May this little endeavor of his be an exhortation to the Alumni, that they may help us next year in a like man- ner. Success for all such young men as these is the prediction of a well- pleased Alma Mater. San Francisco, Calif., May 9th, 1914. Mr. Frank W. Schilling, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Calif. My Dear Frank: — Received your letter and was very glad to hear from you. As regards my writing anything, the only information I can give you is as follows: Irvin Best, A. B. ' 12, is now practicing law with the firm of CuUi- nan Hickey and is doing very well. He is also a member of the Olympic Club and expects to be one of their mainstays this season on the football and track teams. Joe Noonan, ex. ' 13, has entirely recovered from his injury of the last season and will again be seen in the colors of the " Winged 0 " ; he is, at the present time, manager of the Hayes-Stealey Auto Company and is also doing very well. Roy A. Bron- son, A. M. ' 13, is connected with the prominent attorney, Daniel A. Ryan, and bids fair to become as successful in that line as he was in all his under- takings at college. Chauncey Tramu- 380 THE REDWOOD. tolo, B. S. ' 13, and Marco Zariek, B. S. ' 13, are also members of the Olym- pic Club and are expected to boost both the football and track teams by their playing. Geo. Lyle, A. B. ' 13, last year ' s Staff Artist of " The Red- wood, " has been appointed Artist of the Olympic Club and is also on the staff of the Olympian, the monthly publication of the Club. He is attend- ing the San Francisco Art Institute in the evenings, and during the day holds a very lucrative position as salesman with the United States Tire Company. Other members of the Club who are prominent among the Alumni are : Jos. McDevitt, President of the Santa Clara Alumni Club of S. F., and head of a prominent manufacturing concern here; Francis V. Heffernan, ' 08, presi- dent Beach Heffernan Construction Company; John H. Riordan, ' 05, As- sistant Atorney General of the State; Jack Costello, ex. ' 05, president of a large tire company; Vincent Finnegan, ex. ' 04, secretary of Shainwald, Buck- bee Realty Co., and of course, you know that the president of the Club, Wm. F. Humphrey, is a Santa Clara graduate. Then you know that Harry McKenzie, ' 08, is the Chief Clerk to District Attorney Fickert. Geo. Butler ' 98, is secretary of the Butler-Schutze Millinery Company, while Martin V. Merle is Publicity Agent of the Alca- zar Theatre. Leo V. Merle, ' 03, is sec- retary of the State Board of Harbor Commissioners. Geo. Ivancovich, ex. ' 08, is a prominent commission mer- chant in town and Charles Laumeister, 1904, is assistant manager of the West- ern Development Company. That is about all I can think of at present and I leave it to your own fer- tile imagination to weave it into an in- teresting form. Anybody else that you wish to loiow about, let me know, and I will look them up and give you their record. With best wishes to all the boys, I re- main, as ever, BOB FLOOD. THE REDWOOD. Former Santa Clara University Student Distinguishes himself along stenographic lines LASHER B. GALLAGHER Recent graduate of Gallagher-Marsh Bus- iness College, 1256 Market Street, San Francisco, has written in shorthand over 280 words per minute, which is a world record for his age. It is confidently ex- pected he will represent California in the national speed contests in the near future, and will demonstrate his ability to write as rapidly as anyone in the world. It goes without saying that he writes the famous Gallagher-Marsh Shorthand System, which is produced in California and which is under consideration by the State Board of Education for exclusive use in all the public schools of California, but which is opposed by the Eastern Book Trust. The interest of our boys and girls should come first, and as Gallagher- Marsh, our California shorthand system is recommended by practically all the expert court reporters of California, the influence of the Eastern Book Trust should not be permitted to interfere with the welfare of the young students of our State who will adopt stenography as their field of labor. They should, therefore, be furnished with Gallagher-Marsh text books, the best in the world. If you want the best results along stenographic lines follow the ad- vice of the expert shorthand reporters of the State of California and attend Gallagher-Marsh Business College SEND FOR LITERATURE 1256 MARKET STREET San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD. A Window Full of Beauties Just arrived the very latest Woolens for the summer days. Made to your order at our special price Our Guaranteed Tailoring is Good Clothes — clothes not fraudulent; Good Cutting— not inexperienced; Good Workmanship— not sweatshop STEP IN And see all the new suitings — Let us make you the best suit you ever had for P5.00 ANGEVINE 67-69 South Second Street, San Jose HERBERT S A GOOD PLACE TO DINE AND SLEEP 151 POWELL STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. f ariatan igmg Sc OIU aumg (Eo. NINTH AND SANTA CLARA STREETS Contract Work a Specialty Wagons call regularly three times a week Phone San Jose 900 SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. GRADUATING GIFTS W. C. LEAN, Jeweler FIRST AND SAN FERNANDO STS. Young Men ' s Smart Suits Made for us by HART SCHAFFNER MARX— That ' s our success, having the Right thing at the Right time and at SPRING ' S PRICES which means most for your money Established 1865 Home of Hart Schaffner Marx Clothes prittg 0. int. SANTA CLARA AND MARKET STS. illiiiii :!! Showing Famous Players in Big Productions in Motion Pictures First Street near San Antonio, San Jose Continuous Performance NEW THIS SEASON English Low Cuts With Leather of Rubber Soles These lace English-shape Oxfords in Tan, Black or White leathers are a favorite style this summer. Plain— stitched or perforated tips with low or spring heels, hivisible eyelets Established 1869 Agents Florsheim Shoes TO 26 E. SANTA CLARA STREET, SAN JOSE Santa Clara Imperial Dry Cleaning and Dye Works A. ARSLANEAN, Proprietor Naptha Cleaning and Steaming of Ladies ' and Gent ' s Garments Ladies ' Tailoring. Pressing and Repairing 1021 Franklin Street Santa Clara, Cal. THE REDWOOD. Osborne Johnson SUCCESSORS TO CLARK ' S Mission Brand Chocolates Headquarters for College Boys THE JEWEL BAKERY 1151 Frankin St., Santa Clara " DON ' T WURRY " Century Electric Co. 38 E. SAN ANTONIO STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones. J. 521 FRANK J, SOMERS Agents for General Electric Motors and Lamps The Mission Bank of Santa Clara (COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS Solicits Your Patronage When in San Jose, Visit CHARGINS ' Mestaiirantf Grill and Oyster House w 28-30 Fountain Street Bet. First and Second San Jose THE REDWOOD. To Relieve Eye Strain Use Mayerle ' s Glasses They are highly recommended for weak eyes, poor sight, strained, tired, itchy, watery, inflamed, gluey eyes, floating spots, crusty or granulated eyelids, crossed eyes, astig- matism, headache, children ' s eyes. Two gold medals and diplomas of honor awarded at California Industrial Exposition, also at Mechanics ' Fair, October, 1913, to Mayerie ' s Eye Water 50c Gcorgc Mayerlc, German Expert Optician Established 20 Years 960 Market Street, San Francisco HOTEL MONTGOMERY F. J. McHENRY, Manager Absolutely Fireproof European Plan Rates $1 and upwards Jacob Eberhard, Pres. and Manager John J. Eberhard, Vice-Pres. and Ass ' t Manager EBERHARD TANNING CO. Tanners, Curriers and Wool Pullers Harness-Latigo and Lace Leather Sole and Upper Leather, Calf, Kip and Sheepskins Eberhard ' s Skirting Leather and Bark Woolskin Santa Clara - California p. Montmayeur E. Lamolle J. Origlia LamoUe Grille— «bl 36-38 North First Street, San Jose. Cal. Phone Main 403 MEALS AT ALL HOURS THE REDWOOD. San Jose WAREHOUSES : Del Monte Junction (Castroville) Salinas Salinas Valley Grain Produce Company Successors to H. B. MARTIN CO., Inc. Wholesale Dealers in GRAIN, FLOUR, FEED, POTATOES, BEANS, ETC. 349-357 NORTH FOURTH STREET Phone, San Jose 57 SAN JOSE, CAL. Telephone, San Jose 3496 T.F.Sourisseau Manufacturing JEWE LER 143 S. First St. SAN JOSE MANUEL MELLO Boots and Shoes 904 Franklin Street Santa Clara Sallows Rorke Ring up for a Hurry-up Delivery Phone Santa Clara 13 R M. M. Billiard Parlor GEO. E. MITCHELL PROP. SANTA CLARA Pool iV-z Cents per Cue THE REDWOOD. Oberdeener ' s Pharmacy Prescription Druggists Kodaks and Supplies Post Cards FrankHn Street Santa Clara, Cal. F. O. ROLL Real Estate and Insurance Call and See Me if You Want Anything in My Line 1129 Franklin St. Santa Clara KODAK FINISHING IT ' S A BUSINESS WITH US 69 SO. HRST ST. SAN JOSE, CAL. Ravenna Paste Company Manufacturers of All Kinds of ITALIAN AND FRENCH Paste Phone San Jose 787 127-131 N. Market Street San Jose SI- X r i -» -w- Gillett ' s Razors 55.00 Shaving Brush. 25c up n a. V 1 n y. Keen Kutter " 3.50 Strops 50c up - Ever Ready ] ' 1.00 Strop Dressing A - -, -. . - - Enders " 100 Shaving Soap ACCGSSOricS Sharp Shave " .50 Extra Blades, allkinds ■ And Large Line of Pocket Knives, etc. The John Stock Sons 71-77 SOUTH FIRST STREET SAN JOSE, CAL. Phones : Office S. C. 39 R Residence S. C. 1 Y DR. H. O. F. MENTON Dentist Office Hours, 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Franck Building Santa Clara S. A. Elliott Son Plumbing and Gas Fitting GUN AND LOCKSMITHING Telephone S. C. 70 J 902-910 Main Street Santa Clara, Cal. THE REDWOOD. POST S DRAWING INSTRUMENTS They Encourage Good Work Post ' s Drawing Inks — Black and Eleven Colors Special Prices to Students THE FREDERICK POST CO. 537 MARKET STREET SAN FRANCISCO THE ARCADE DRY GOODS OF QUALITY CANELO BROS. STACKHOUSE CO. 83-91 South First Street, San Jose Phone S. J. 11 Most business men like good office stationery REGAL TYPEWRITER PAPERS and MANUSCRIPT COVERS REPRESENT THE BEST AND MOST COMPLETE LINE IN THE UNITED STATES LOOK FOR THIS TRADE-MARK TRADE • aSSBfJ MARK CATERS TO THE MOST FASTIDIOUS THE REDWOOD. J. B. ENOS NEAT HAIR CUTTING A SPECIALTY All Work Done on Premises Suits from »25.00 up (Formerly Holmes Malinow) POPULAR PRICED TAILOlt 121 NORTH FIRST STREET Phone San Jose 1646 SAN JOSE, CAL. Phone, San Jose 1225 UNION MADE GOODS Breitwieser Baking Co. QUALITY BREAD, CAKES AND PASTRY Always on hand and promptly delivered 288-290 South Market Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA W m. HAIRU Reasonably Priced Satisfactor y Stock University Drug Co. Cor Santa Clara and S. Second St. SANTA CRUZ FISH AND POULTRY MARKET E. PEREZ J. BUDNA, Proprietors 77 E. SA J FERNANDO STREET, SAN JOSE PHONE, SAN JOSE 1870 LOUIS PEREZ, Manager THE REDWOOD. Vargas Bros. C- LEADING GROCERS Most complete line of Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Tin and Enamel Ware, Paints, Oils, Chicken Feed and Supplies JS ' ZIZ; ::; . ' ' ' Main Line, Santa Clara 120 San Jose Transfer Co. MOVES EVERYTHING THAT IS LOOSE Phone San Jose 78 Office, 62 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose THERE IS NOTHING BETTER THAN OUR Bouquet Teas at 50 cents per pound Even Though You Pay More Ceylon, English Breakfast and Basket Fired Japan FARMERS UNION San Jose Phones- Sutter 4220 h-nones . - 221 Smith, Lynden Co. Wholesale Grocers BUTTER. EGGS. CHEESE AND PROVISIONS 231-239 Davis Street SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, Wm. McCarthy Sons Coffee TEAS AND SPICES 246 West Santa Clara Street SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA THE REDWOOD. SANTA CLARA VALLEY CREAMERY WHOLESALE AND RETAIL Manufacturers of High Grade Butter, Eggs, Cheese, Creamery Butter Milk and Cream Phone Santa Clara 57 R 1050 FRANKLIN STREET The Carmther Studio RATES TO STUDENTS FINE FOTOS 26 S. First Street, San Jose Pratt-Low Preserving Company PACKERS OF CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS IN GLASS A SPECIALTY SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIA Graduating Gifts We have the largest selection of Fine Gold Jewelry and Silverware in San Jose GEO. W. RYDER SON We promise you relief from all Stomach Troubles or your money back. Mad- den ' s Gas and Dyspepsia Tablets, 50c a box. Only at Franklin St. MADDEN ' S PHARMACY, Santa Clara V. Salberg E. Gaddi Umpire Pool Room Santa Clara, Cat. T ' hp PintPl C V Invites you to its rooms 1 UC ailLa y iCXld o read, rest and enjoy a T--. -r-i T-j T-ji T T TQ cup of excellent coffee V WFFCEl V i Ui3 Open from 6 a. m. to 10:30 p. m. THE REDWOOD. Wholesale and Retail Satisfaction Guaranteed ICE CREAM IN BULK A SPECIALTY TELEPHONE S. C. 35 R 1053 Franklin Street, Santa Clara Going South! PACIFIC NAVIGATION COMPANY ' S S. S. Harvard Sails from San Francisco 4 p. m. June 10th other sailings every Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday F ARE ONE WAY TO Los Angeles $8.35 Before procuring tickets YE STUDES should see Ed. Booth b THE REDWOOD. The Hastings YOUNG MEN ' S Patch Pocket Suits and Balmacaan Overcoats are the very latest in MODELS FABRICS COLORINGS $15.00 to $35.00 A Complete Custom Department I Hastings Clothing Co. Post and Grant Ave. San Francisco, Cal. THE REDWOOD. Low Round-Trip Fares East TICKETS SOLD JUNE 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18. 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 JULY 2, 3, 7, 8, 9. 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 25, 27. 28, 29, 30, 31 AUGUST 3, 4, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 21. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29 SEPTEMBER 4. 5, 9, 10, 11 ADDITIONAL DATES August 25, 26, 27, to Detroit, Mich. - 83.50 Going Limit 15 days, trip to commence on date of sale. Final return limit three months from date of sale, but not latei than October 31, 1914. Liberal stopovers and choice of routes going and returning. SOME OF THE RATES Boston, Mass $110 50 New Orleans, La 70 00 Chicago, 111 72 50 New York, N. Y 108 50 Colorado Springs, Colo 55 00 Omaha, Neb 60 00 Council Bluffs, Iowa 60 00 Portland, Me 113 50 Dallas. Tex 62 50 Pueblo, Colo 55 00 Denver, Colo 55 00 Quebec, P. Q 116 50 Duluth. Minn 83 30 St. Louis, Mo 70 00 Forth Worth, Tex... 62 50 St. Paul, Minn 75 70 Kansas City, Mo 60 00 Toronto, Ont 95 70 Memphis, Tenn 70 00 Washington, D. C 107 50 Montreal, P. Q 108 00 (Salt Lake City and Ogden quoted on application) A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Pass. Agt. 40 East Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. Southern Pacific The Three Best Ways BETWEEN California and the East The Central Route Less than Three Days to Chicago The Southern Route All rail or via the palatial Southern Paci- fic Steamers between New Orleans and New York The Shasta Route Via Portland or the North The best of equipment and service— protected throughout by automatic block signals RAIL AND STEAM TICKETS SOLD TO ALL POINTS A. A. HAPGOOD, City Ticket Agent E. SHILLINGSBURG, Dist. Passenger Agent SOUTHERN PACIFIC


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