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Page 16 text:
DR. WINSLOW ANDERSON
Page 15 text:
Mammals and Fishes
Extreme old age is not confined to humanity alone.
Many mammals and fishes live to a great age. The
elephant and whale often pass the century mark. The
crocodile and the tortoise Cturtlesj keep on growing
as long as they live, which is often 100 to 150 years.
The pike and the carp score the century and a half
mark. Even the lowly sea-anemone has been known
to live in captivity 55 years.
The parrot may reach 100 years: the raven, 50,
the blue macaw, 645 the eagle-owl, 533 the heron, 60,
the swan, 70, and the goose, 80 years.
The most remarkable longevity is found in the life
of trees. The oak, cedar, and many hardwood trees
live many centuries. But the giant trees, the Sequoia
Gigantea of California, surpass all organic life in age.
The giant of the forest at Wawoiia, California, was
a hundred feet tall when Noah began to build his
ark. It was over 1,000 years old when Abraham went
to Egypt and Sodom and Gomorrha were destroyed
by fire. It was a giant tree when the Egyptian pyra-
mids under Rameses Il. were built. It was 200 feet
tall when Solomon built his temple, and was 100
feet in circumference when the Norsemen discovered
America, nearly 1,000 years ago. These trees are
survivors of the tertiary times and are probably as
old as the creation of Adam, as they occur in a fossil
state in the polar regions in British Columbia and in
Longevity depends on heredity, physical surround-
ings, environment, including temperature, slow
growth, and late reproduction.
Why Do We Grow Old?
To discuss longevity scientifically requires some
consideration of the "vital phenomena" called life,
Page 17 text:
growth or development, and decay. It is universally
admitted that human life begins with a single cell,
the ovum. This is fertilized by another single cell,
the spermatozoon. Each of these single cells is com-
posed of protoplasm containing '75 to S5 per cent of
water and 25 to 15 per cent oflproteids Calbuminsj
made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxvgen, sul-
phur, and phosphorus, and a nucleus largely made
up of nuclein, a phosphor-proteid compound. The
"essence" of life, from a physical, physiological, and
anatomic basis would seem to reside in this Hgerminal
matter" called nucleated protoplasm. At all events,
each cell is a unit of life, both anatomically and
physiologically, and the "phenomena of life" are ext-
hibited in these cells, whether the organism is uni-
cellular, such as the ameba, or multicellular, such as
the complex organism called man. At first the em-
bryonic or primitive cells are nearly all alike, but
they early exhibit the same "life phenomena" that
their parent cells possess, viz., multiplication or pro-
liferation and morphosis or differentiation Ccytomor-
phosisj. Cells multiply by the well-known processes
of karyokinosis, mitosis and akinesis, amitosis, indi-
rect and direct cell division, until we see them
arranged into three distinct layers of differention cells
or tissues in the embryo, known as the ectoderm
or epiblast, mesoderm or mesoblast, and endoderm
or hypoblast-the blasto-dermic or germ layers from
which develop the whole complex human body from
a single cell. From the ectoderm or epiblast develop
the skin, nervous system, and the sense organs, etc.:
from the mesoderm, the skeleton, muscles, heart,
blood-vessels, etc., from the endoderm, the epithelium
of the alimentary canal, chief glands, etc.
The human body is thus composed of multicellular
differentiated structures, skin, muscle, bone, nerves,
vessels, special organs, etc., etc.
The Cause of Senescence
Arterial Degeneration.-According to one theory of
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