University of Omaha - Tomahawk / Gateway Yearbook (Omaha, NE)

 - Class of 1971

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University of Omaha - Tomahawk / Gateway Yearbook (Omaha, NE) online yearbook collection, 1971 Edition, Cover
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Text from Pages 1 - 60 of the 1971 volume:

WHEN STUDENTS first discovered they were getting a magazine instead of the traditional yearboolc, they were enraged. " What, no pictures? " " Garbage! " " Nonsense! " Now that they ' ve become accustomed to the idea, their comments aren ' t quite as volatile. " Jesus, another one of these. " " Is this all I get for 17 years of college - a comic book? " " Are we gonna have another one of these crummy things next year? " Despite the displeasure of many students, yes, there is going to be another one of these " crummy things " next year. An eventual revival may someday take place, but for the moment, the Age of the Yearbook has passed on to its greater reward. For the many who did enjoy the first two issues of the magazine, this issue will be no disappointment. Once again we tried to ca pture the mood of the campus, as well as some of its frustrations and activities, and once again we tried to capture the interest of as many people in as many groups as possible. Bootstrappers, Greeks, independents, blacks, faculty and administrators should all find at least one item of interest in the following pages. If each person does not find at least one, hopefully more than one, article worth reading then the Tomahawk magazine has failed. We don ' t think we ' ve failed, but that ' s up to you. This is the last issue of the Tomahawk to be published at UNO, and we think it ' s the best. Next year a new magazine with a new name will exist, but for 1970-71 the time of transition is over. We ' ve made it and hope you have, too. OMAHAWK SUMMER 1971 The Tomahawk, a University of N ebraska at Omaha student publica- tion, is a magazine for students, by students and about students. Publi- cation dates are subject to change. Editor Julie Salem Photo Editor John Windier Contributing Editor . . . Dave Mack Design • • Mike Franks Dre ' Ann Hadash Ric Rine Staff Writers Stuart Anderson Rich Brown MikeCasmon Tim Connelly Jeanine Giller Ed Jenkins Robert G. May Les McKim Steve Priesman Leia Rickerson Roslyn Rimmerman Todd Simon Staff Photographers Zev Hadash Jack Sommars Adviser Doreen Simpson The Black Man ' s Burden 2 The Miscellaneous-Educational Complex 7 A Faculty of Discontent 13 Curtain Closes on Opera Theater 16 Tom Majeski — Portrait of a Problem Solver 20 UNO, A Public University vs ' ith a Private Generation Gap 22 At the End of Summer 28 No Place to Hang His Hat 30 The Snail ' s-Paced Saga of Campus Construction 32 Why Would Anyone Want to be in a Beauty Contest Anyv ay? ... 38 The Three Dimensions of the Fourth Estate 43 Omnipotent Octagon of Academia 48 It was a Dark and Dreary Day, By Golly! 51 Ouampi ' s Last Stand 54 Instructing, re-defining, changing — THE BLACK MAN ' S BURDEN Items such as wood carvings (left) and a photo display by photographer Rudy Smith (below) were displayed during Black Heritage Week. UNO student John Ray (below) listens to some records. mm ii WHAT DO you mean ' blacks don ' t have any culture? ' They ' ve got a culture; it ' s just that they don ' t have the same culture. Psychologists say black people are dumb; that their accumulative IQ stretches much lower than that of their white counterparts. I say the ques- tions on intelligence quotient tests are geared to a white culture. Change the questions, and the results are different. Who here knows what a ' deuce and a quarter ' is? Hey, who knows? " The audience answered with bellows of laughter and blank stares — the laugh- ter was from blacks; the blank stares from whites. Speaker James Turner, director of the Africana Studies and Research Center at This student artist ' s sketch of a blaci warrior was also on display during Black Heritage Week. 3 Cornell University, continued, " The power to define is very important. He who defines shapes the actions of other people, and the white man has been in charge of definition in this country for a long time. The same holds true for history; most history is white history. History books never refer to Sitting Bull as a general; his troops are called warriors, never soldiers. But now Custer, on the other hand, is a general in the US cavalry, and he and his men were mas- sacred. Now I ask you what is a massacre? The dictionary calls it ' a savage and indiscriminate killing ... a slaughter against unsuspecting, unarmed citizens. ' Now I really don ' t think Custer and his infantry fit this description. " Sponsored by Black Liberators for Action on Campus (BLAC) and the Stu- dent Programming Organization (SPO), Black Heritage Week brought lecturer Turner and other speakers and enter- tainers to the UNO campus in February. Undaunted by minimal attendance rates and snowy weather, UNO ' s first Black Heritage Week received applause from most of the students taking advant- age of the activities offered. Jazz-folk-soul singer Roberta Flack entertained a full-house in concert at Joslyn museum. Receiving a standing ovation Miss Flack returned for an encore at the end of a nearly two-hour per- formance. The audience raved approval by calling the singer back for a second encore. Student Yvonne E. Gates felt Black Heritage Week exposed black culture to both blacks and those interested in im- proving relations with blacks. Gateway editor Dave Mack said those attending the activities found a unique experience awaiting them. " Despite the limited response from the university community, " said Mack, " I hope the program will become an annual event. " Student Activities Coordinator Rick David said Black Heritage Week may become just that — an annual event. " 1 don ' t judge success by numbers alone. It was an educational experience all around for both the planners and the par- ticipants. It was gratifying to see students working together, and this was one of the first times I ' ve seen it here. " In addition to Turner and Flack, Black Historian J ames Turner offers a new perspective. Singer Roberta Flack and her musical trio performed before an enthusiastic audience in February. 4 Heritage Week brought Nebraska State Senator Ernest Chambers to UNO. Wear- ing his familiar white T-shirt, Chambers received the BLAC award as outstanding contributor to the Omaha black com- munity. The tone of his following speech, however, was bitter. Chambers con- demned the Nebraska penal complex in Lincoln, as well as its warden Maurice Sigler. He condemned the Nebraska legis- lative system as corrupt, rural, full of special interest groups and definitely not representative of the black community. Before leaving the podium, Chambers said he was " getting very tired of speaking of the black problems, " and many of his listeners sensed the futility of a black man ' s words falling on deaf white ears. Also on the schedule were talks by Omahan Bertha Calloway of the Negro Historical Society of Nebraska, UNO Director of Black Studies Melvin Wade, Component Concepts Corporation Pres- ident Joseph Saunders and UNO Man- power for Urban Progress Director Mike Adams. Members of both the Omaha and university community attended a soul food dinner on the final evening of Black Heritage Week. On the menu were fried chicken, black-eyed peas and ham, collard and mustard greens, cole slaw, cornbread, and sweet potato pie. During the week students could visit the third floor student center Black Her- itage room, which contained a display of hand-sewn African garments, black sculpture and literature, and paintings and photographs by local black artists and UNO students. Those who browsed the room were treated to refreshments and recorded music of blacks such as Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding and Aretha Franklin. Coordinator for the program and major organizer Henrietta Knight said the program afforded blacks, as well as whites, a chance to think. " We have to begin thinking; now maybe we ' ve started, Black Studies Director Melvin Wade lectures. Senator Ernie Chambers seems exasperated. Even the youngest of audience members lent their attention to James Turner during his recent talk. but where do we go from here? Our country ' s falling apart because of the racial situation, and we ' re just beginning to realize it, but where do we go from here? If we want to correct the problems in this country, we have to participate and work to change attitudes. Black Heritage Week perhaps offered an op- portunity for doing this. " Historian Turner agreed with Mrs. Knight. " A Black Heritage Week is a very fine idea, but it ' s only a start. You can ' t learn it all in a week. It has to be a continuing thing. " And to those participating in Black Heritage Week, the theme of the program adequately reflected the racial question of today ' s society: " Where Do We Go From Here? " By MIKE CASMON Both students and faculty members attended the soul food dinner on the final evening of the week. Following Friday ' s soul food dinner, the Black Madrigals performed in concert, and a recitation of black poetry concluded the week-long activities. 6 THE MISCELLANEOUS - EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX THE YEAR was 1921. The Great War had been over for two years. President Warren G. Harding had just signed a joint Congressional resolution declaring peace with Germany and Austria. America was on its way toward post-war prosperity. The University of Omaha, located at 24th and Pratt St., was 1 3-years-old. A group of ex-servicemen, some of them " dough- boys " and some of them " nearing the 50 mark, " were sent to the University of Omaha by Uncle Sam in a move toward war rehabilitation. This appears to be the first indicator of adult education or, according to the Gateway (student annual at that time, now the student newspaper), the establishment of the " Extension Divi- sion " at the University of Omaha. It wasn ' t until 1931, ten years later, that an administrative branch was estab- lished in order " to handle the enrollment in night school. " In 1932, following the municipalization of the University of Omaha, the Board of Regents appointed Everett M. Hosman as the first director of the " School of Adult Education. " Hos- man was also appointed the first dean of the College of Adult Education in 1952. The present College of Continuing Studies has come a long way since its first informal adult education meetings when the most popular courses taught were English, psychology, business law and the study of the Bible. Current Dean of the College of Con- tinuing Studies (CCS) William T. Utiey has held the post since his appointment in 1963. Before assuming his administrative duties as dean, UtIey was a full-time political science professor. According to Dean Utley, " All of the CCS activities are administered through two divisions, Academic Studies and non-credit Community Services. " All CCS degree programs come under the Aca- demic Studies Division, which include the adult, the bootstrap and the law enforce- ment programs. " We concern ourselves primarily with the adult student, " said Utley. " We serve full- or part-time workers who for the most part are what we call the typical ' evening college ' student. Often we serve housewives or shift workers during the daytime. We even serve those adults who already have a degree and want to return and take more undergraduate courses for professional or personal reasons. " The special program for military per- sonnel, known as the " bootstrap " pro- gram, enables those members of the United States Armed Forces (active, separated or retired) to complete their degree requirements. The program began in 1952, and since then over 10,000 career military personnel, both enlisted and commissioned, have earned bac- calaureate-level degrees. Most of the de- grees granted to the " bootstrappers " thus far have been the Bachelor of General Studies degree (BGS). The students select an " area of concentration " (major) in just about any given subject the university offers. " While we were not the first university to have a bootstrap program, we have grown to be the largest, " said Utley. The enrollment of military personnel did fall off, however, during the height of the Vietnam conflict from 1965 to 1967. George Thompson, assistant dean for the Academic Credit Programs, said the BGS degree " does not depart radically from the structure of traditional BA and BS degrees. " According to Thompson, " The use of a contrasting term for the BGS degree emphasizes the belief that adults, who are already on a career ladder, are the best judges of their own personal and vocational needs. They are usually left free, as BGS degree candi- dates (except in the areas of the sciences and engineering), to select for themselves the courses which will comprise the central thrust of their academic pro- grams. " The adult student through CCS can also earn academic amnesty if he received low grades while attending college during his youth. " The adult in CCS can de- crease the amount of time required to obtain a degree through the conversion of life experience into applicable degree credit, " said Thompson. " One of the ways the student can do this is by taking the General Examinations battery of the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP). It ' s a standardized college credit equivalency test developed by the Educa- tional Testing Service and distributed nation-wide by the College Entrance Examination Board. Students with acceptable scores can earn up to 30 credit hours, " he said. Yvonne Harsh, UNO director of place- ment, said, " Graduates with a BGS degree have no more trouble finding a job than do most other students as long as they have an area of concentration. In fact, employers sometimes accept them more readily since they are adults who have some of their obligations out of the way, like the military service. " Students interviewed who were in the College of Continuing Studies felt it met their needs. Mike Foley, 24, is in the CCS " boot- strap " program. Foley, a native of Lawrence, Massachusetts, said he likes " the idea of getting credit for military service. 1 had to have gotten some ex- perience from the military training. " Foley ' s area of concentration is journalism. Northwestern Bell telephone em- ployee, Glenn Iddings, 30, has been attending UNO part-time for " six or seven years. " He hopes to graduate in August and get a job in Bell ' s computer department. " I think the college is pretty good because I ' ve been bounced all over, " said Iddings. " Actually I would like to see it expand because it really encouraged me to continue. " " For me it eliminates many of the courses the younger undergraduates are complaining about, " said 26-year-old Allen Wilson, who is attending UNO with the help of a grant from the state of Iowa or everything you didn ' t want to know about CCS and still don ' t. Social Rehabilitation Services. " CCS eliminates the unnecessary classical school holdovers, " he said. The second degree program offered by CCS is the Bachelor of Science in Lav Enforcement and Corrections (BS LEC). The Law Enforcement program began in 1962 with its first class entitled " Elements of Criminal Justice. " Money for the course was provided by Omaha businessmen and the auctioning of an 1 ,1 00-pound steer donated by Omaha real estate men Ron Abboud and Ron Cole. The money enabled 20 Omaha police- men, some of them for the first time, to seek a college education and a degree in Law Enforcement and Corrections. Omaha Public Safety Director Al Pattavina was the first graduate of the law enforcement program in 1965, and due largely to local, regional and national support, the LEC program has sky- rocketed in popularity. Head of the Department of Law En- forcement and Corrections Gaylon Kuchel thinks police departments need " to attempt to get the best men possible Gaylon Kuchel Dept. of Law Enforcement and Corrections before they put them on the street. Entrance requirements for uniformed police should be raised with a bachelor ' s degree being a minimum, " he added. " At UNO we have carefully planned and controlled the development of the LEC program, " noted Kuchel. " We have not been interested in proliferation just for the sake of more courses. We have added necessary courses as soon as a definite need arose and as soon as we found competent instructors. " For the past two semesters over 2,000 students have been enrolled in 52 LEC class offerings. The average class size is about 40 students, according to Kuchel. " The philosophy of our program is relatively simple, " explained Kuchel. " Quality first, quantity second. Quality not only in our course offerings but also on the level of instruction. We believe the task of any university is to send into the community well-educated people who are, first of all, good citizens interested in making a contribution to their com- munity and, secondly, in our specific program, good law enforcement officers Dean William T. Utiey College of Continuing Studies dedicated to enforcing the law in a lawful manner. " The degree requirements for LEC are similar to those needed for a Bachelor of Arts in the College of Arts and Sciences. " The only exceptions are that the law enforcement degree requires nine hours of English credit as opposed to six hours required by Arts and Sciences, " noted Kuchel adding that law enforcement does not have a language requirement. " We believe the 16 hours devoted to passing language exams can be better spent learn- ing something about human behavior, " Kuchel said. Perhaps the biggest task facing Kuchel and his degree program is finding addi- tional faculty for the growing enrollment. To alleviate part of this situation, part- time faculty members are being recruited out of the community. " These men in- clude a District Court Judge, the Chief Deputy County Attorney, the Police Chief, the Chief Adult Probation Officer of Douglas County and others whom we feel have the capability, " said Kuchel. Part-time instructors come to campus Thomas Moore Community Services Division for one or two classes a week out of dedication to their profession and a i een interest in the comnnunity. " A lot of them would do it even if they weren ' t getting paid, " said Kuchel. " We on this campus are fortunate to have available to us both day and night classes, " emphasized Kuchel. " This gives us an opportunity to get to know a wider segment of the non-university world, and it prevents us from escaping the realities of the real world which often happens to people who isolate themselves on a campus for a period of time, be it four years or a lifetime. " Robert Houston, a 20-year-old LEG major, participates in a rather unique aspect of the training program. Along with about 30 others, Houston works 20 hours per week at Central Police Head- quarters as a desk clerk. " I take reports and follow-up leads that are given to the police, " explained Houston who is paid $2.31 an hour and receives academic credit for participation in the Police Cadet Training Program. Houston is also charged with the responsi- bilities of contacting victims of crimes and the next of kin and handling calls from police informants. " This allows a practical application of my education but not to the fullest extent, " said Houston. " I think cadets should be used more in the Criminal Investigation and Juvenile Bureaus rather than many of their present jobs, " he said. " This would get them into more of the practical aspects of police work. " Another unique aspect of the UNO 9 LEC program is the number of federally- funded grants, loans and scholarships available to students. " This program was established through the so-called Safe- Streets Act of 1967 and operates by making funds available to colleges and universities to assist students who are willing to commit themselves to careers in law enforcement, " Kuchel said. To what extent are students enrolling in LEC screened? " To protect the student, a minimal physical exam is given, " said Kuchel. " Things that generally wash people out such as height, weight, eyes, hearing. blood and pulse are checked, " said Kuchel. Students who fail the physical are " advised " of the problems they will have in " following the work of a uni- formed police officer, " according to Kuchel. Some students in this category remain in the program but choose an academic emphasis on corrections. The criminal records of all potential LEC students are investigated. " We are not going to wash out a student with heavy traffic tickets, " stressed Kuchel. " We just warn him of possible profession- al checks. " Behavior of students once they are WHAT IS there in classes focusing on death investigation, crime, the Constitution, law, human relations, penology and organi- zational management that could interest a woman? " Plenty, " Faith Hampton, a University Division student, said. " The courses help me do my job. I work for the Omaha Police Department full-time in ' criminal records. ' I really don ' t know a lot about the law, but I ' m trying to learn more, " the 20-year-old freshman said. Jo Sealetta, a junior in education who just needed an elective, said, " It ' s very interesting, and it really is different. Cops have their job to do . . . it ' s difficult. " " Everyone should have a law enforcement course so they can know what the police are trying to do, " Linda Glintborg, a senior in education, said. " I like it. It ' s one of the more interesting courses I ' ve taken. " I ' m teaching in a Title I high school. Students are there because they have to be. They ' re ' turned off. ' School is not for them. They live ' immediately ' and don ' t plan for the future. They just want to buy a car and make money. This course may help me understand them. " All is not sweetness and light from the fair sex. As one young lady said, " This is really a negative view concerning my law enforcement class, but there is just too much military talk from bootstrappers. Whenever this class begins to discuss a matter, somehow the conversation usual- ly gets back to the military. I believe the law enforcement courses I am taking will give me good background knowledge for admitted to the LEC program " is a very limited problem, " according to Kuchel. " None of our students have been arrested for felonies as far as I know. " What happens to the LEC student with long hair who participates in a sit-in? " Society is going to have to see sit-ins as standard parts of behavior for a person to get involved in, " said Kuchel. Both four- and two-year programs in law enforcement were rare on college campuses in 1962 when the UNO depart- ment was developed. Kuchel and his LEC collegues are often asked to help other colleges throughout the nation set up programs similar to UNO ' s. The Inter- national Association of Chiefs of Police has adopted the UNO curriculum as a model to use in establishing LEC pro- grams nationwide. Kuchel, however, is not satisfied with the current offerings in his department. " I want to start emphasizing corrections Police cadet Bob Houston (right) answers phone for the Omaha Central Police Station ' s Community Services Office. Captain Gene Scarpino (left) and Patrolman B. Johnson (center) assist Houston. this type of employment, and our military discussions are the only matter which I think will not help me. " Just what a lady does in law enforce- ment is best answered by the ladies themselves. Jane Tooley, a 1969 Uni- versity of Nebraska at Omaha graduate, is the first woman adult parole of ficer in the state. She started in September of 1969 with the State of Nebraska, Division of Corrections, as a Parole Officer for adults. " I haven ' t regretted it; I know this is the right field for me. " Jane feels a woman offers law enforce- ment " intuition, gentleness, kindness, empathy, insight into a woman ' s prob- lems and a different view . . . you know. . . the idea that you don ' t have to be all muscle to be in the field today. Those qualities I mentioned are assets at times, and liabilities at times, too. Women must learn objectivity. " Mariiou Lawson is married, has two teenage sons, and has been an Omaha policewoman for ten years. " My experi- ences have been wide and varied. I was assigned to the Detective Bureau full-time for seven and one-half years. During that time, I worked on assignment out of the Homicide Squad, also accepting assign- ments from the Vice Squad and Juvenile Bureau. At the conclusion of that time, I was assigned to Internal Security handling complaints regarding police officers. I am presently assigned to the Chief ' s office, working as his secretary. 1 feel, person- ally, that law enforcement for women offers security and a more than adequate pay scale. It provides something new and and courses pertaining to corrections. " He said he would like to see an orienta- tion course in basic corrections developed along with classes in " counseling and guidance in correctional settings, com- munity resources in corrections, and law and criminal corrections. " Classes stressing criminal lab work, police civil law and " victimology " are also necessary, according to Kuchel. " Victimology, " Kuchel explained, " stresses the role of the victim in precipi- tating crimes. " Kuchel noted he is thankful for the support he has had in building the LEC program over the past years. " We have established the good foundation neces- sary to accomplish this particular task; we have the kind of philosophy essential to accomplish it, and we have the admini- strative support necessary to progress. " The second division of the College of Continuing Studies, the Community Ser- interesting every day. I have never been sorry that 1 took the job as a police- woman. The field is open and offers much to women who are interested. " Phyllis Meggers is a civilian employee of the Omaha Police Department, a junior, and an LEC major with minors in education and sociology. " I took a course as a freshman and decided to major in it . . . it ' s not an eight to five job ... I like my job; 1 use the Centrex, answering incoming telephone calls and use the radio. 1 look up arrest records and acci- dent reports, but I will not be a clerk- typist . . . anything but a clerk-typist. I could get that any place ... in an insurance office. That ' s why I went into the Omaha Police Department; to see what it ' s all about. " I ' m one quarter inch short for police- woman and for cadet. It gripes me! I don ' t see what one quarter of an inch has to do with intelligence or ability. That ' s like saying a man can ' t be a doctor because he ' s too tall. " Phyllis accepted the civilian employee position after being denied the two other positions. Added Phyllis, " Women have a lot to offer law enforcement, but they have to fight to do it. They ' ve done it in other fields, why not law enforcement? I just want to show men 1 can do a job. I ' m as capable as they are. Personally, I ' m tired of hearing people say, ' You ' re a nice little girl; what are you doing in law enforcement? ' Women are interested in society, too. They created half the problems so why shouldn ' t they want to help solve them? " By ROBERT G. MAY vices Division, develops and supervises various programs. Running the gamut from " Gourmet Cooking " to " Effective Fleet Manage- ment, " Community Services (CS) courses offer Omaha residents non-credit con- ferences, classes and workshops through- out the year. " Our offerings are for people who want to keep their minds active but who do not want to be tied down, " said Thomas Moore, director of CS in noting that until additional space is acquired, community service programs will have to be limited in growth and suffer possible cutbacks. The entire CS program is housed in the south wing of the Gene Eppley Library and is limited to three classrooms and an auditorium seating less than 500 persons. Some activities are being moved off campus due to the space squeeze. The gourmet cooking course, offered to ' Tm one-quarter inch short for police- woman . . . that ' s like saying a man can ' t be a doctor because he ' s too tall. " Omaha policewoman Mariiou Lawson currently works as secretary to the OmahaChief of Police. women by Bernard Schimmel, is being held at the All Saints Episcopal Church nearly four miles from campus. The idea of moving programs off campus, however, is very much in the minds of director Moore and CCS Dean Utiey. About two years ago Moore proposed acquiring the old Regis Hotel structure in downtown Omaha. Vacated by the Job Corps, the Regis building would have cost one million dollars with renovation costs towering over one-half that amount. Then in late summer 1970 the Omaha Athletic Club, 1700 Douglas, announced it was closing its doors. " It would be ideally suited for our purposes, " Moore said. " It would be an extension of the total university into the downtown area. " Credit classes could be added for downtown businessmen to attend before and after work, and programs could also be offered to labor organizations. 11 A decision on the 10-story Athletic Club structure will not be made until summer, but Moore said he is optimistic the building can be acquired. The cost of the structure is $625,000, completely furnished, but Moore estimated, " The university would gain $2,300,000 by getting this building. " Because the building has rooms on its upper floors, residential conferences could be held and chances for the initia- tion of a management-labor center would be considered. The club also has a swimming pool. Moore said the facility could attract people from all over the Midwest to programs offered by the university. The major problem in acquiring the structure is money. While Moore said he has his doubts about the NU Regents appropriating the funds, he indicated he is currently looking for some prominent individual to donate the building to the NU system. The Cooper Foundation donated the State Theatre building in downtown Omaha to the NU system late last year, and hopefully another donor will emerge. CCS Dean Utiey also thinks the pro- posed CS move into downtown would benefit dozens of merchants, and because of this a fund drive could possibly be initiated among shopping area business- men. " Downtown Omaha, Inc. is very receptive to the idea of the university coming into the downtown area, " UtIey noted. What are the problems encountered by CS in putting on over 80 programs a year? " There are two factors that make it impossible to do now as much as we were doing two and three years ago, " said UtIey. He cited food service as being the number one program. " Effectiveness is lost when you send people off campus to eat. " Because many CS activities were held in the evening or on weekends, UtIey said participants " used to spill out " into unused areas of the campus. Now crowd- ed conditions confine CS programs to three classrooms and the Conference Center auditorium. One such program, the Missouri Valley History Conference, which has now gained national recog- nition, was forced off campus last year. Parking, too, is a problem for CS, but as UtIey put it, " it isn ' t as critical as are the other problems. " Arrangements have been made for persons participating in CS programs to park at the Omaha Play- house. Shuttlebuses are run between the campus and the 69th and Cass St. parking lot, and as many CS functions as possible are being taken off campus. This year ' s Ak-Sar-Ben scholarship luncheon was held at the New Tower Motel rather than in the crowded student center. " We can be moved off campus without doing great harm, " UtIey emphasized. Still while the CS move off campus is being considered, programs continue as normal. Courses in vocabulary enrich- ment, investments and law for women have been added to the list of activities which draw nearly 30,000 adults into CS-sponsored activities each year. Other activities of the Community Services Division include an annual series of lecturers and exhibits. State Senator Terry Carpenter from Scottsbluff and regional news commentator John Hlava- cek were speakers at this spring ' s lecture series. Programs such as EXPRO, designed to help park and recreation executives de- velop managerial skills, and the TV-class- room method have been developed through the College of Continuing Studies. On the lighter side, recreational programs such as fencing and horseback riding have been offered in addition to the annual summer Recreation Workshop. Trying to summarize the impact of a program such as that offered by the College of Continuing Studies presents a problem, but not for business student and retired Air Force Master Sergeant Victor Brown who simply states, " The College of Continuing Studies is doing a helluva lot to support UNO. " By RICHARD BROWN and TIM CONNELLY State Senator Terry Carpenter was one of many CCS-sponsored lecturers brought to campus this year. 12 All work and low pay gives UNO A FACULTY OF DISCONTENT THE UNO faculty is unhappy. For the third straight year faculty salary increases won ' t meet cost of living increases. Teaching loads have yet to be b rought in line with those at Lincoln. Fringe benefits are being adjusted downward. Class sizes are inhibiting, and there is a strong possibility that faculty members will have to pay for parking this fall. Conditions are becoming close to un- bearable, and some faculty members who can afford not to bear them are getting out. In May, Dr. John Carroll announced he was leaving UNO to accept a teaching position at a California state college. Dr. Carroll says he is leaving because he " senses a certain amount of inertia at this university — an inertia that has its roots in the state ' s attitude toward higher education. " A $2,000 salary increase was an added persuader in his decision. Three weeks later UNO ' s wrestling coach Don Benning announced he would not return in the fall. Benning, who also served as a part-time physical education instructor, leaves his $10,500 position at UNO to accept a position with the Omaha Public Schools for a reported salary of $16,500. " What it comes down to, " said one faculty member after hearing Benning had resigned, " is that those who can find better jobs are taking them. This uni- versity had three years to reward Benning for his success with the wrestling team and didn ' t. They certainly aren ' t going to reward the faculty for outstanding per- formance in the classroom either. " A week after Benning ' s resignation, the administration suffered a personnel loss. Business Administration Dean George Heather announced he was step- ping down because of the business fac- ulty ' s dissatisfaction. Dean Heather will not completely escape the aggravated faculty conditions since he plans to accept a full-time teaching position in the business college. He does think, however, that there are people in the business college who will start looking for other jobs if conditions aren ' t improved. As if to add credibility to Dean Heather ' s statement. Dr. M. Gene New- port, a professor of management in the business college, announced he was leav- ing two weeks later. Dr. Newport, a former recipient of the Great Teacher Award, accepted a position at the Uni- versity of Alabama which will net him an additional $4,000 annually. The seriousness of the salary situation was illustrated by a 333-page report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Faculty Salaries. The committee analyzed faculty salaries in all the colleges of the university and found that not only are salaries at the university below salaries at comparable universities, but also salary inequities exist within the university especially among junior faculty members, women and UNO graduates who join the faculty. University President Kirk E. Naylor says, " I foresee no mass faculty exodus over the critical salary situation because faculty mobility is affected by the market and the marketplace. But I can appreciate their disgruntlement as they view the increases given to people in the general labor force. " To try to remedy the inequities un- covered by the Ad Hoc report, the committee recommended salary floors for the four levels of instruction. According to the recommendations of the report, instructors are to be paid a minimum of $8,500; assistant professors, $10,000; associate professors, $12,500; and full professors, $15,500. The recommendations will be imple- mented in two phases. Faculty members below the salary level for their rank will receive salary adjustments amounting to one-half of the inequity in the coming year with complete adjustment in the following year. Monies for curing the inequities are being taken from salary appropriations of the legislature. This makes fewer funds available for regular salary increases. The legislature appropriated what amounts to $300 per faculty member for wage increases. $85 of each $300 sum is being used to adjust salary inequities. The remaining monies are being used for merit increases. Several faculty members are displeased with the merit increases. Dr. Eugene Freund, education professor and presi- dent of the UNO chapter of the American Federation of Teachers, says, " Salary inequities should be met first, followed by cost of living increases and, lastly, 13 merit increases should be given. " Criticism has also been directed to- ward the instrument proposed to gauge the merit increases. Dean of Academic Affairs William Gaines chaired a com- mittee charged with devising this merit instrument. The committee derived a multi-faceted instrument based on self, student and peer group evaluations. The faculty protested the student evaluation portion of the merit instru- ment. A group calling themselves the Faculty Members United for a Fair Deal banded together and urged a boycott of the " merit " (student) evaluation forms. A flier calling for the boycott read in part, " The failure of the administrative leader- ship at this university has put it in its present plight. " Student evaluations were dropped as criteria for merit increases, although Dean Gaines says, " A great number of faculty members responded to the evaluations. " Dean Gaines says opposition to the evalu- ations arose because " most of the faculty have never undergone a comprehensive evaluation. Since this is the first time, they were wondering. " Salaries are the main point of faculty contention, but they are not the only point. Chancellor Durward Varner has continually vowed to make UNO " a full partner in the University of Nebraska system, " but there are still inequities between the Omaha and Lincoln campuses. Not only are salaries higher at Lincoln, but teaching loads are lighter. A full-time teaching load is twelve hours at UNO, nine hours at Lincoln. According to Dean Gaines, " It takes time for the parts of the system to function in relation to each other. There are equities and entities on the separate campuses that have to be born in mind during the transition period. " He is dis- turbed by what he sees as an attitude " where some faculty members on this campus throw big mudballs at the Lincoln faculty, and segments of the Lincoln faculty try to throw bigger mud- balls back. What is needed is a joint effort on the part of both faculties to insure what is best for the university system, " says Gaines. Not all faculty members agree with Gaines. Says one faculty member, " This university has had three years to be incorporated into the system. The ad- ministration seems to hold the opinion that progress on this campus can only be made by sacrificing progress at Lincoln. If there cannot be equity between the two campuses, then there should have never been a merger. " One area of inequity in which the UNO faculty holds the edge over the Lincoln faculty is fringe benefits, and the university administration is currently entertaining a proposal that would erase this inequity. Under the present fringe benefit pro- gram at UNO, the university matches faculty funds for most of the benefits. At Lincoln there are no matching funds. The tentative fringe benefit proposal calls for an increase in benefits, but a decrease in areas where the university matches funds. President Naylor says, " This uni- versity ' s contribution to the fringe bene- fit program is greater than at Lincoln. The additional money it would take to bring the Lincoln campus up to our stand is very substantial. Under the new pro- posal, some aspects appear to offer a diminution; however, on the balance, UNO stands to gain by the new pro- gram. " Dr. Freund sees the new proposal as " an erosion of fringe benefits at UNO. Neither campus has adequate fringe bene- fits to begin with, but the new proposal seems like more of a step backwards. " Another faculty member adds, " The administration says we will gain if the new fringe benefit package is adopted. The only gain we can realize is one we pay for out of our own pockets. Pay checks around here aren ' t big enough to have money taken out of them for fringe benefits. " While the main faculty problems center on a lack of money for salary increases and fringe benefits, the shortage of faculty on the UNO campus also presents a problem. The university em- ploys 451 faculty members, 120 part- time, 331 full-time. President Naylor says, " We ought to have an additional 150 full-time faculty members. " The faculty shortage means large class sizes and a high student-teacher ratio. The present student-teacher ratio is 50:1. Dr. Freund says, " An ideal student-teacher ratio would be 16:1, but a 30:1 ratio would be very workable. " Like all of the other problems, the teacher shortage springs from a lack of funds. There are approximately 10 appli- cants for every teaching opening at the university, but funds are rarely available for creating new positions. Add to these problems the prospect that the faculty will have to pay for parking privileges this fall, and the result is an unhappy faculty, a faculty scanning the want ads for better jobs, a faculty muttering job action and strike, a faculty with a morale so low that it might carry over into the classroom. The answer to the faculty situation, which appears to be bordering the crisis stage, is money — money which doesn ' t appear to be forthcoming given the present composition of the state legis- lature. Dr. Freund thinks the AFT could provide the answer. Says Freund, " When we have one unified voice on this campus making faculty demands known, the ad- ministration, the regents and the legis- lature will have to listen. " Dr. Freund and the AFT may get the chance to prove their worth. Several faculty members are calling their meager salary increases " just enough to cover the cost of joining the AFT. " By DAVE MACK 15 CURTAIN CLOSES ON OPERA THEATER SURGERY IS already in progress, and it is surgery which hurts. " Dr. James B. Peterson, head of the UNO Music Department, hur- ried back to his office from a meeting where " things vital to the uni- ' versify " had been discussed. There had been a thorough examination of the music curriculum, and the bitter medicine had been prescribed. Chancellor Durward Varner had recommended complete elimination of certain courses " to maintain present quality and to achieve the quality levels which we are seeking, " Peterson gravely reported. " In view of the chancellor ' s directive, and in view of the budgetary considerations with which we are faced and will be faced, we have reluctantly decided temporarily — I emphasize temporarily — to discontinue the Opera Theater and to strengthen the vocal pro- gram. " Peterson acknowledged that the Opera Theater ' s monetary condition was healthy; the Student Activities committee had budgeted $12,000 for the year, but the planned performance of " Xerxes " was suddenly canceled. Reasons for the cancellation are still not clear, since the opera had been in rehearsal for weeks. The step halted a UNO activity that had aroused pride and interest amid an otherwise unexciting musical atmosphere. During the 1970-71 academic year there would be no musical theatrical produc- tions of any kind to stimulate the music department. Peterson explained that because opera program enrollment was small, no funds Prince Tamino, played by Julian Klaczinsky, is rescued from the lion (Mary Higby) by three ladies. 16 would be allocated for a teacher. A replacement was needed for Daniel Sulli- van, who left last November to join the San Francisco Opera ' s Western Opera Theater. " Until the UNO Opera Theater can be resurrected, " said Peterson, " the uni- versity hopes to tie in with the Omaha Opera Co. so singers will have a place to perform. " A credit course in opera chorus is under consideration as a joint venture. The course would fill a dual function of augmenting the Omaha Opera Co. chorus while providing students with academic credits in a professional setting. The plan has been very slow in form- ing. A check of Omaha Opera Co. files revealed that officials met with Peterson in April, 1969, to work out a program. In a letter, Peterson expressed a " sincere desire " to work something out. The company responded with an " eager, even anxious " request by President Richard Holland to proceed with specific plans and proposals. After a two-year wait, the Opera Co. has initiated a new dialogue along the same lines. In addition to the belated cooperation with the Opera Co., Arts and Sciences Dean Victor Blackwell promised that voice students will not be dropped " like hot coals. " Blackwell offers the possi- bility of working with the Lincoln campus. He expresses the hope that by the time the new fine arts building becomes available in 1973, budgetary restrictions will have been lifted. Meanwhile, the ailing music depart- ment needs a transfusion. Dr. Robert Ruetz endorses the chorus program and believes the Omaha Opera Co. holds the balm for the music department ' s wound. Ruetz endorses the chorus program, and further prescribes training UNO singers to try out for comprimaria (second lead) roles usually filled by local singers. A possible joint production by UNO and the Opera Co. is also being considered. Although these ideas seem feasible at Bill Gillnsky as Papageno, a male bird, is elated over meeting a girl bird in " The Magic Flute. " Andrea Florick, Vance Scenter, and Bill Von Rentzell (right) portray the scene " Your Virtue or your life! " in last August ' s performance. first glance, there may be a talent prob- lem. Ruetz admits that the level of talent in Lincoln is better than UNO ' s. " We are not getting the finest. We have too many handicaps here — department environment — the excitement of com- petition is not here. It has to come from within the department. " Ruetz hinted that an air of " Philistin- ism " pervades. The same sentiment was expressed recently by another UNO de- partment head who warned of a danger- ous trend which equates " moving for- ward " with large class enrollments. He pointed out that if higher education is treated as an economic affair, quality may go into a decline. William Matthews, Omaha Opera Co. president appointed to study areas of cooperation with the university, also laments the fact that so many universities are placing too much emphasis on turning out teachers rather than performers. As a result, Matthews says, American opera companies are forced to go to Europe for trained singers. Ruetz believes the new arts center may attract new singers. However, he adds, " One of the myths of education is that a building will make a dramatic improve- ment. Although a building will help, it will not improve the quality of the department. That has to come from within. " Peterson ' s prognosis is also cautious. He hints at a vitamin deficiency — not enough " green stuff. " " The future looks very bright as far as facilities are concerned, but I am worried about equipment. We will have to depend on private funds and other sources for much of the equipment such as instru- ments, audio equipment and projectors. The department will try to salvage all available equipment for the new build- ing, " says Peterson. In spite of the equipment shortage, the music department faculty has remained stable, with resignations occurring " only when really great opportunities arise " as in the case of Sullivan. Two new in- structors have been brought in, but Peter- son feels the music faculty is still too small. " Each one of our faculty members is presently teaching a larger load than the standard load of the university. Each one is highly qualified in his area, well trained, and the amazing part is that each one is really devoted to his work and to the university. " If the department remains under- staffed, the curriculum cannot be ex- panded. Peterson ' s main concern is to keep the present curriculum intact. Everything in the curriculum is essen- tial, according to Peterson, and " pre- cludes very much more cutting. " He feels it is a good, basic curriculum which prepares a student either for graduate work or for teaching. At present the department offers only a professional Bachelor of Music degree. Ruetz maintains there is too much emphasis on music education, and that performing talent should be developed. He also thinks the music department should be moving toward a master ' s program. In spite of inadequate facilities, limited curriculum and a short-handed staff, the vocal music department has managed to produce some fine results. Last summer more than 60 students participated in a production of Mozart ' s opera " The Magic Flute. " Under the leadership of John Bohrer, the choral department has also grown during the past five years. And many feel perhaps it is the choral department that will supply the magic vitamin to revitalize UNO ' s sagging music program. By ROSLYN RIMMERMAN 19 TOM MAJESKI PORTRAIT OF A PROBLEM SOLVER WHEN THE situation has become intolerable, and there seems to be nowhere to turn for help, there is someone who will listen. He ' s a one-of-a-kind member of the campus community, a trouble-shooting middleman — the UNO ombudsman. His office is 250 MBSC, and his name is Tom Majeski. " My door is open to everyone on campus, not just students. I listen. I offer information. It usually helps, " says Majeski, the first ombudsman in the state. By definition, ombudsmen are inter- mediaries between the individual and an institution. They receive complaints, make investigations and recommend needed actions. Political expertise and personal persuasion are their primary tools. UNO ' s ombudsman is an associate professor in the art department and was appointed for the academic year by UNO President Kirk E. Naylor. Being an artist is not a requirement for the job, but a sensitive and perceptive nature helps. " Majeski straightened ou t my problem, " says a female undergraduate, " and what was most amazing about it, he listened when I talked to him, and he under- stood! " " It might be because he ' s accustomed to leading his art students so they ' ll develop into artists. He ' s sensitive to the individual and to the situation. ' Lecturing at ' is not his idea of helping, " says a male graduate student Majeski has helped. " The person who occupies the position as ombudsman is the key to the job, " says President Naylor. " He must be able to relate, and Majeski does this well. He can hear the students, and he can understand the administrators. " At a recent national meeting of campus ombudsmen, each was found to have a different academic background. But what they all had in common was respect from their colleagues and an affinity for students. Also, most will return to teaching after a few years spent as ombudsmen. Typical of ombudsmen, Majeski must decide which complaints are within his jurisdiction and competence and which of those merit his investigation. " I talked to Majeski several times and tried to work out the solution to the mess I was in. I finally realized that he could straighten out the campus part, but that my main problem was a personal one which required a personal counselor off- campus, " says a student whose file has the notation " unable to help " by Majeski. Majeski ' s files are confidential as opposed to those of his governmental counterparts. One can see him around campus studying his confidential files — all on 3 X 5 cards. " Gotta make a change though. My files have long since out- grown my pockets, " he says. " Keeping my big mouth shut! " is the most difficult thing Majeski finds in this job. " When I find an infuriating situation, I want to lash out to correct it. But I must have cooperation to get results, and I know the way to accomplish anything is to be tactful. " " Majeski is critical of injustices, " says President Naylor, " but he has not forced himself on anyone, and he has resolved problems. " " There is no real pattern to the flow of traffic in the ombudsman business so far, " says Majeski. " But more problems 20 walk in the door when grades come out or when tensions mount at exam or registration times. " Sometimes I can only commiserate with them and explain the situation I cannot change. Many complaints center around the payment of out-of-state tuition. After a person has lived in Nebraska for some years, he sometimes feels strongly that his status as out-of- state resident should change. I can offer understanding but not much help in this area. We may be able to influence the legislature to relax some of these rules in the future. " Fellow faculty members refer to the results of Majeski ' s ombudsmanning as " an excellent job, " or " an invaluable addition to the university, " and " he ' ll never replace the existing machinery of administration, but he has been able to untangle some awful snarls. " One who remembers the UNO om- budsman ' s father quipped, " Majeski makes things run more smoothly, sorta ' like his dad used to do for the railroad; he oils the wheels. " Smoothing relationships between stu- dent and college has occupied half of Majeski ' s time since school started in September. He hopes to see it become a full-time job for a successor next year. President Naylor agrees, but adds, " Future plans are contingent upon bud- get allocations. " The job should rotate among faculty members who know the campus extremely well and who have the temperament for it, according to Majeski. Ombudsmen are being adopted by governments at all levels and organi- zations of every kind and description. The purpose of the ombudsmen is to protect individual human rights against abuse within a bureaucracy. The ombuds- men concept originated in the Scandi- navian countries and comes from the old Norse, meaning " agent " or " represent- ative. " Hawaii was the first state with an ombudsman, and many other state legis- latures are adopting them. The Nebraska legislature has just recently filled the ombudsman position created in 1969. Institutions of higher learning are finding the " people ' s champion " concept helpful in preventing alienation of stu- dents. An ombudsman makes a large and impersonal campus less frustrating to the individual. The ombudsman for a state is hired by the legislature and is responsible to them. A campus ombudsman can be a " committee of one " attached to the academic senate, but he is more often appointed by the president and re- sponsible to him. Each campus tailors the job to fit its needs. And some campuses have a student ombudsman attached to the student senate. Governmental ombudsmen use pub- licity or the threat of exposure as a strong weapon to influence officials. On the campus, with its different professional relationships, reasoned persuasion gets better results. " I trade in mutual respect and trust, " says Majeski, who works behind the scenes, often anonymously, in attempting to solve isolated functional conflicts. While working on individual grievances, he is in a position to uncover and correct bureaucratic practices which create conflicts, and his thorough knowl- edge of the inner workings of the campus helps him to help the individual. By LELA RICKERSON 21 UNO, A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY WITH A PRIVATE GENERATION GAP The bootstrap program con- vinces me that Catch-22 is not fiction, " says Student Senator Danny Powers. Education major Bob Hancock believes, " The caliber of the bootstrapper has come up. " " Boots often serve as an inhibiting factor in the classroom, " says 20-year-old history major Cheryle Babbitt. " It ' s just like sitting in a room full of your father. " Over the years student opinion of bootstrappers has caused many a con- troversy in student publications, activities and the classroom. Older, military- minded and mt rigorous academic goals, the bootstrapper is often seen as the mythical super-student by civilian class- mates. All too often the bootstrapper is wrong- fully sterotyped as a grade-hungry mili- tary machine obsessed with chewing-up his civilian academic competitors. But the bootstrap program perhaps breeds this. The bootstrapper is given regular military pay to finish his academic degree. In many cases he is given just a few months to finish requirements and return to his regular military assignment. He is dis- graced if he returns without his degree. Nevertheless, a sizable number of stu- dents feel the bootstrap program definite- ly hurts the learning atmosphere on campus. " The bootstrap program reminds me of something that happened in Germany about 20 years ago, " said one graduate student. " College is a place for young people with ideas, not a place for old military officers with walking canes. " " Boots definitely affect classroom interaction, " says Miss Cheryle Babbitt in noting the bootstrapper is often a fre- quent contributor to class discussions. " The questions they ask often seem irrelevant and stupid to me, but at least they open the way for other students to ask questions. Unfortunately, they use up a lot of time expressing personal opinions with unnecessary vigor, " she adds. Hancock, however, thinks boots do little to affect classroom interaction. " Most of them are too closed-minded. They have one set opinion and go into courses with set concepts and ideas that won ' t change. " Like many students, 19-year-old fresh- man Steve Robb is somewhat reluctant to comment on bootstrappers. He feels mili- tary personnel have a right to attend college, and he admires those officers who pursue a college education. But Robb accepts the fact that boots often tend to raise grading curves and says, " They should offer separate courses for boots. " College of Continuing Studies Dean William T. Utiey agrees somewhat with Robb. " I can see how a bootstrapper could end up being a curve-buster pro- vided an instructor graded on a curve, " said UtIey, former head of the political science department, " but many in- 23 structors try to avoid curving grades. " I have personally knovk ' n many boots who have taken a younger student under their wing and helped him along, " said Utiey. Hancock believes professors " give bootstrappers higher grades even though they don ' t deserve them, " He also feels boots are given more leeway en route to their usually high grades and that such acts of favoritism on the part of the faculty causes freshmen to form " many misconceptions. " Should a student who begins studying for final exams on the first day of Christmas vacation be put down especial- ly if he happens to be a bootstrapper? Dr. Paul Beck, professor of history, doesn ' t think so. " I think the civilian student is stimulated by the amount of work boots put out. They shouldn ' t be frustrated; they should try a little bit of the work themselves. " Assistant Professor of Political Science Bernard Kolasa feels bootstrappers con- tribute " a number of things " to the classroom learning situation. " The boot- strapper is older and more mature, much more willing to participate in class dis- cussions, and he tends to encourage others to jump into discussions. " Dr. Kolasa feels the bootstrap program helps to bring " a greater diversity into the classroom. Often a boot forces me to re-think and look at subject matter in a different light, " says Kolasa. " You get a different viewpoint expressed that might be lacking where you have a fairly homogeneous student grouping. " Dr. Kolasa disagrees with charges that bootstrappers tend to be " curve-busters. " " These students generally take only upper division courses, and few instructors curve grades in such classes, " he says. Dr. Gene Newport, professor of man- agement, says bootstrappers generally comprise one-half of the enrollment in his classes. He feels they motivate the civilian students in several ways. " The other students see the bootstrapper working hard and going beyond normal class assignments. Although this causes some resentment, most students will exert more effort. " Because bootstrappers often increase the size of classes substantially, in- structors are forced to lecture rather than allow spontaneous and free-flowing dis- cussion. Often for the sake of grading, essay exams are replaced by computer- scored multiple choice tests. Is this learn- ing situation created by bootstrap, enroll- ment healthy for the civilian student? " A student is going to get what he wants to get out of a course regardless of the class size, " says Newport. Dr. David Scott, chairman of the political science department, takes a somewhat middle-of-the-road approach in discussing bootstrappers. " I ' ve had those that flunked and those that passed, " says Scott. " As in anything you have good ones, and you have bad ones, too. " Dr. Scott admits there are boot- strappers " who don ' t know how to think. Because they are under such great pres- sure, some tend to look for answers rather than to think about problems. Some simply cannot cope with thinking, " says Scott. " Some bootstrappers may tend to go into courses with deficiencies because of CCS ' s granting of credit. My only criticism is that the College of Continuing Studies tends to give too much credit for what they call ' life experiences. ' " Several members of the faculty, par- ticularly those in the College of Arts and Sciences, agree with Scott. Harvey Leavitt, instructor of English, is one of the more outspoken members of the college. He feels boots graduate from UNO without being exposed to a mini- mum of basic courses in humanities. Leavitt even notes some boots have severe literacy problems. Leavitt feels boots should be exposed to such areas as contemporary novel. poetry, drama, philosophy and sociology outside of law enforcement. " I see a need for this sort of thing because boot- strappers need to open up their minds to the nature of the country other than the rigid confines of what has been military experience, " Leavitt notes. College, according to Leavitt, should broaden the minds of bootstrappers who commonly are conditioned to think in narrow terms. However, Leavitt questions whether UNO, in light of its severe space problems and overcrowding, should under- take this task. Dr. Richard Lane, former head of the defunct humanities department and now associate professor of English, poses serious questions regarding the testing used in granting bootstrappers academic credit for military courses and life experi- ence. Bootstrappers, before they enroll at UNO take military-proctored exams as part of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP). The exams are graded by the military, and the College of Continuing Studies has two performance levels to consider in giving credit. Some universities require a student to score above the sophomore level in order to pass out of a course; other universities only require a score equaling the pro- ficiency of a freshman. UNO falls into the latter category. " If some universities use the sopho- more level and some use the freshman level, then I ' ll need to be convinced we ' re right in using freshman norms, " says Lane. " It would seem to me that any stand- ardized test would have to do a variety of things to really take the place of our English courses. If such a test doesn ' t have language proficiency, skill i n writing and familiarity with literature, you are missing part of the important basic intro- duction to college study, " says Lane. He feels it is of cardinal importance for each department ' s faculty to review 24 the CLEP tests concerned with their area. " Dean Utley has assured me that CLEP tests will be reviewed by the five depart- ments concerned, " says Lane. " You ' re limiting the value that can be gained from an experience here if you give too much credit, " says Lane. He feels too many boots might not be adequately exposed to the humanities because they tend to test out of this area on CLEP tests. Bootstrappers under the Bachelor of General Studies (BGS) degree program are required to earn only 24 hours in their major field. Civilian students generally must earn 36 hours in their major area. " I think the program could work, and yet it could be terribly abused if it ' s a matter of seeking out the so-called easy courses to fill in a major, " says Lane. He admits there are some boots who hold press cards and possess military photo- graphy experience that enroll in be- ginning photography or professional military meteorologists who enroll in the basic meteorology course. " Some kind of careful counseling ought to be done to assure hours taken really add up to something significant, " adds Lane. He also questions the minor area of emphasis offered to boots enrolled in the BGS degree program. Here the boot needs only 12 hours. " Most students have 12 hours in science, and this is hardly a second field for them. It seldom equips them to use it in a meaningful way. " No article on the bootstrap pro- gram would be complete without the opinions of boots themselves. How do they view their civilian classmates? How might the bootstrapper improve his status on campus? What might the civilian stu- dent do to promote a better relationship with the bootstrapper? " I feel they are students the same as me, " says 34-year-old Major Thomas Branning. " As a mature adult I feel I Boot bumper stickers tell the story. Executive operations of Pen and Sword, bootstrap social organization, are explained to newly-elected President Frank Griswold (center) by former presidents Jack Coleman (left) and Don Fritsche. Only a handful of boots turned out to elect officers at the first summer meeting of Pen and Sword. should talk to them and assist them if possible and also try to understand their views. " Branning admits " some, but not the preponderance " of boots enter school with the idea that UNO is just another military post. " Yet 1 don ' t think that the boot in most cases tries to understand the younger student and his problems such as social life and part-time work. " " Some boots, " Branning believes, " can ' t take the appearance of some of the younger students without comment. " Branning feels, " The appearance of stu- dents simply reflects the society I have sworn to defend. " Several boots interviewed believe there is polarization between military and civilian students on campus. What might students do to improve relations with boots? " The first thing that students should do is realize that a boot is under an obligation to his branch of service to complete his education in the time al- loted, " says bootstrap George L. Allen. " Often he may be required to get 24 credit hours in six months. This load gives him no margin for error. He must main- tain a high average as a cushion against failure. This is often why he is labeled ' the curve breaker. ' " Army Captain Charles Pomeroy, how- ever, feels the bootstrapper contributes to much of the polarization by segregating himself with his colleagues rather than socializing more with the civilian student. In recent semesters bootstrappers have become increasingly involved in student activities, and Dean Utiey is pleased with this. Two boots worked on last summer ' s Gateway, and at least half a dozen have become involved in student government. Army Captain Hunter Beaty became involved in the Student Senate because he had " a desire to give my personal view- point, the views of my constituency, and I wanted to see a balance of views on the Senate. " 26 However, College of Continuing Studies Assistant Dean George G. Thomp- son does not view such boot participation with as much favor as does Dean Utley. Thompson feels such involvement should be " kept at a low profile " to guard against boot dominance of campus activi- ties. Former Student Senator Al Davidson, a 24-year-old Army aviation captain takes exception. " Dean Thompson must be afraid of something. I ' ve gotten no co- operation from him. He should realize boots are part of this university. CCS should start to function as part of the university rather than a separate entity. " Army Captain Jack Coleman, president of the Pen and Sword Society, agrees with Davidson. " Extra curricular activities are part of campus life. Boots should be able to participate in everything the university has to offer, " says Coleman. However, the 30-year-old personnel management officer feels activities have to arouse the interest of bootstrappers before they will participate. According to Beaty, many boots taking business courses would like to participate in activities of Delta Sigma Pi, the professional business administration fraternity. However, adviser Frank Forbes won ' t allow bootstrap membership be- cause bootstrappers are enrolled in the College of Continuing Studies rather than the College of Business Administration. Beaty and other boots interviewed said they would like to see this regulation changed. Most bootstrappers, however, with a few exceptions, find they are unable to relate to campus activities. They tend to bury themselves with their classes, families and a few close friends. They emerge only to make an occasional trip to the Pen and Sword office. Pen and Sword is a private organi- zation open to UNO military students. Incorporated by the State of Nebraska and housed off campus at the Prom Town House Motel, Pen and Sword is virtually uncontrollable by student government. The organization has about 700 members. mostly because of the test files, teacher and course evaluations, housing infor- mation and fraternal services offered. Numerous students and organizations on campus would like to have access to the test files and teacher-course critiques offered by Pen and Sword exclusively for its members. While former Pen and Sword President Don Fritsche offered to help any UNO organization to set up similar services, he said the bootstrappers have no intention of sharing their test files with the totality of the student body. He challenged other campus organizations to strive to achieve the " organization " of the bootstrappers in attempts to set up test files. With the troop withdrawals from Viet- nam, there has been some speculation as to the effect of the war de-escalation on boot enrollment at UNO. Officials of the College of Continuing Studies, however, feel the number of men coming from military assignments and annually seeking academic refinement will remain at about 750-800. By RICH BROWN The Pen and Sword was faced with possible dissolvement until a quorum finally assembled to elect new officers to the organization ' s executive council. 1AMES WALKED down Eleventh Street, east of the capitol build- ing, then turned and walked up the broad sidewalk that led to the front of the building. The lane was shaded by large magnolia trees that reflected the late afternoon sun from their shiny leaves. He was tired of walking and in a hurry to get back to his new apartment, but still interested in this new place. He was anxious to see as much as possible his first day in the city. There were Civil War statues and a monument with the names of the men killed in the Alamo next to the lane, and James read the inscriptions, turning backwards as he walked. The capitol building was old and dimly lit inside so that there was an amber cast. There were few people inside, most just passing through. He wandered to the side of the center floor of the building, through a corridor and went up the stairs. On each floor there was a circular balcony with a white railing around it. Below was the center hall with the state insignia on the floor; above was the dome with a large gold star in the middle, at the peak. On the wall surrounding the balcony were portraits of former govern- ors of the state. He walked around the wall, with hands in pockets, reading each brass plate under the paintings and study- ing each face. At the end of the row of paintings he went back to the railing and looked down to the first floor. The only person around was a girl standing in the middle of the insignia, looking up at the dome and turning in a circle. She was obviously dizzy and stopped, spreading her feet to keep from staggering. When she stopped she caught James ' stare and giggled at being caught doing something so childish. Out of politeness, James grinned back but left the railing and went down the steps. " 1 didn ' t know 1 was being watched, " the girl said when James got to the bottom of the stairs. She was merely smiling then. " You ' re very good, " he said. " As a ballerina, I mean. " " Thank you. You didn ' t applaud though. I was afraid you didn ' t like my act. " " Oh I did. You ' re really very good. " He laughed, smiling broadly at the same time as they walked together back through the center hall and out the rear door. " You ' re new at school too, huh? " she asked. " First day, " James said. " I suppose you can tell because nobody who ' s been here ever walks through the capitol. " " Yep. My first time, too. " " I ' m James Baker. You must be Peggy Fleming. Without skates, of course. " " 1 didn ' t think anyone would recog- nize me. My alias is Carol Taylor. " They walked out the back together and the absence of trees let the last glimpse of sunshine warm them. When the sun went down it became chilly so they walked faster. They didn ' t talk a great deal but enjoyed the other ' s com- pany and a chance to forget the strange- ness of being alone. James hoped she lived near his apartment so he could walk all the way home with her. She was the first person he could feel a camaraderie toward. " Do you live in the dorms? " he asked. " No. In an apartment a block from the Drag. " " Where? " " The Drag. Guadalupe Street, the one that runs in front of the campus, it ' s what everybody calls it. How about you? " " I ' m near there, down on Twenty- third, two blocks from Guadalupe. " " Hey, that ' s near me. I ' m on Twenty- fourth. " The pair had something to talk about then, having discovered they were neigh- bors. They talked about food and how they both probably would starve during the year because they had no jobs. They 28 talked of books and movies and records and of all the things young people talk about. " Are you down here with friends? " James asked when they finally got to her apartment. " No. I came to get away from my friends. " " Don ' t you know anyone down here? " " Nope, I just practice dancing lessons in the capitol building, that ' s all. " " Don ' t you live with anyone? " " Oh that ' s what you ' re trying to say! Why didn ' t you just ask if you could come in? Come on, we ' ll find something to eat. " The apartment was half a small house. There was a long hallway that led to the only three rooms, a bathroom on the left, kitchen in the middle, and to the right a large bedroom with a fireplace, bookcase and record player. Carol went to the kitchen, shoving the door to the bed- room-living room open so that James could sit down. " Gee. I didn ' t know I ' d be in a girl ' s bedroom the first day in town. " " Ha. Ha, " came the reply from behind the refrigerator door that was subsequent- ly kicked shut. She dropped a ring of bologna on the table with a chunk of cheese. " Milk ' s all right, isn ' t it, Cassa- nova? " " 1 guess. If you haven ' t got any beer. " " You ' re too young. You don ' t drink beer, do you? " she said, coming out of the kitchen and standing in the doorway to the bedroom. " No, but it tastes good, I mean what little I ' ve ' had. But I don ' t want any. Milk ' s fine. " She went back to slicing the meat and cheese, producing two bulky, inarticulate sandwiches on paper plates. " C ' mere, you ' ll have to get your milk. " They ate sitting on the edge of the bed with the record player producing the sound of the Beatles and a small bedside lamp the only light. After the sandwich she lay back on the bed, next to the pillow, and closed her eyes, listening to the music. James still sat, put the paper plates together and laid them on the floor and crossed his legs. What next, he thought. Now what comes. The ending of the record stopped his thinking. " You have to shut it off, " she said. " It ' s broken. " So James rose with a weary shove that put him on his feet which shuffled him to the record player. He turned the record over, replaced the needle and turned the sound lower. Then he looked at Carol on the bed, her hands resting behind her head, her skirt rumpled and pulled up well above her knees. She had good, long, slender, well-tanned legs. He turned to the mantle, looking at an old picture of a coyote standing on a snowy hill that overlooked a farm. James couldn ' t de- cide. He wanted to have her, but he didn ' t know if that was what she wanted also. Besides that, he didn ' t know how to go about the process. Tom Martin, in high school, had told him that everybody went to college to get laid. That " was what college was for, he had said, to have fun, drink beer and lay girls. Of course, James hadn ' t expected to have the opportunity so soon. Then, also, there was the possi- bility that she didn ' t want him to; that that act was the furthest from her desires. But then why had she asked him into the bedroom? And why was she lying on the bed like that? He looked back at the picture and imagined the coyote suddenly bolting down the hill toward the cattle in the corral at the farm. He turned on his heels. " Are you asleep? " " No, " she sat up, then leaned back on her elbows and looked at him with squinting eyes. " Why? " " J ust wondering. " He walked to the bed and sat beside her, then laid back next to her. Being clumsy and possessing a particular in- experience to which he did not admit to, James offended rather than compli- mented Carol when he pulled her close and kissed her. She kissed back for a moment, then resisted when she felt his hands searching her legs under her skirt. " What are you doing? " she said, sitting up. " Making love. " She stared at him, her face suspended in a caricature of bewilderment. Then she slowly closed her eyes, relaxed, dropped her head and cried. She didn ' t cry loudly, so that the people in the other half of the house would hear, but sobbed and shook silently. She cried for five minutes in that position, her hands lying loosely, sweaty in her lap and her light brown hair shielding the side of her face from James. Finally, when the tears wouldn ' t come freely, she dropped over on her side and buried her head in the pillow and forced the anguish out. And James watched. He sat on the edge of the bed and watched this girl, for she was only a girl to him then. He sat in his stupid corduroy pants that his aunt had given him for school at the start of his senior year. He fumbled with the cuff on his orange sweatshirt that he had worn for intramural football in high school that had a picture of Charlie Brown holding a baseball glove. Then he got tired of watching the girl cry and left the room, shut the door without looking back, strode down the long hallway, and left the house. It was raining softly outside, making a splattering sound on the magnolia leaves. That was the only sound. He walked with his hands thrust deep in his pockets and his shoulders hunched up to keep his neck dry. He went past the bookstores on the Drag again and then down to Twenty- third Street. It was then, going down the street to his apartment, that he felt alone for the first time since he left home. He wished very much that he was Charlie Brown and not a coyote. Story by STUAET ANDERSON 29 EVERYONE knows the college ath- lete is the guy on a 100 per cent scholarship who gets free room and board and $15 a month spend- ing money. To athletes and coaches at UNO, such is a noble dream. While some universities do offer such an attractive program, UNO does not. The jock at UNO gets tuition (100 per cent in some cases), fees and some books paid for. No elaborate athletic dormitory exists, and, more often than not, housing itself does not exist. Any athlete coming to UNO from outside of Omaha can expect the worst. If he ' s got money of his own, the student athlete will manage. For those without, it ' s often a struggle to find enough money to buy a daily meal of McDonald ' s hamburgers. Why, then, does anyone in his right mind come to UNO? Lacking a dormitory, UNO athletes are forced to room at private dwellings like the one below. - : jAwiiMMSiS ' Ai ' iitli iif ' The out-of-town athlete — NO PLACE TO HANG HIS HAT 30 Football coach Al Caniglia said, " The university has a fine reputation away from its immediate area, both academical- ly and athletically. The urban classifica- tion of our university is a plus factor in recruiting. You might say the entire city is the campus. There are no strict con- fines. " With an urban university also come typically urban problems. Former UNO wrestling coach Don Benning, the only black member of the coaching staff, mentioned the varying people a coach works with. " In ath- letics, " he said, " you find yourself work- ing with many different social and economic backgrounds. There are many individual differences, and there will be gaps between the athletes. " According to Benning, " Athletics pro- vide an opportunity for a lot of in- dividuals who would not normally be going to school. Because of this, you have some acute financial problems. " With financial problems come housing problems, " said Benning. " These problems affect the performance of the athlete even when he ' s in the classroom, if you have an athletic program, you ' ll always have some out-of-town students who need housing, " said Benning adding the UNO housing list is " by no means ade- quate. " We have a problem finding housing close to the university for a black ath- lete, " said Benning. " Even though the university housing policy prohibits dis- criminatory listings, vacancies seem to fill up when a black athlete inquires. " Benning said the coaches must use their own contacts to find housing for their athletes. " Quite often someone will agree to house a couple of athletes, but when they show up, and they ' re black, the agreement is sort of forgotten. " The university must show greater responsibility in finding adequate housing for all students, " said Benning. Both Benning and Caniglia agree there might be a greater percentage of athletes working than the average student. " Although there are some excep- tions, " said Benning, " the athlete often works during his off-season to catch up for lost time. " is it right for an urban university allegedly trying to aid in solving the city ' s problems to bring a poor student to Omaha for his athletic prowess and then ignore his needs? According to Benning, " Any athlete i recruit knows the situation completely. The kid knows it ' s going to be extremely difficult. As a coach, though, I ' d like to know my athlete is eating at least one meal a day. If I could know that, I ' d sleep much better. " Faculty Athletic Representative Dr. William Brown has questioned the appropriateness of an intercollegiate ath- letic program without the ability to pro- vide all athletes with a decent place to live. Brown has suggested the construction of an athletic dormitory at UNO. " We have to play fair with the athletes, " he said. But as it stands now many UNO athletes, especially out-of-town blacks, barely have enough money to live. One UNO supporter, an athletic scholarship contributor, has said, " As long as the school brings athletes here for their services, it owes them something. It ' s not fair to bring them here and then forget them. " UNO ' s athletic department has a dilemma on its hands. It can only go so long without a change. The department must either live up to its responsibilities or cease to exist. By STEVE PRIESMAN THE SNAIL ' S-PACED SAGA OF CAMPUS CONSTRUCTION THE MOST concise data available Construction of the $800,000 student center addition is scheduled for completion next January, concerning the 1970-71 space | shortage at the University of - j- - i Nebraska at Omaha informs stu- ; y - dents they are operating in ; approximately 45 per cent of the recom- i • mended standard national space require- — -l — - - . •- - f ents. . It is estimated that upon the com- i K ' f pletion of Kayser Hall, the Milo Bail -i- Student Center addition and phase one of the fine arts complex, total available space will reach 477,006 sq. ft. With an estimated 10,147 full-time student enroll- ment, there will then be a 47.1 sq. ft. allotment -per full-time student, an in- crease of 1 .9 sq. ft. per student. As these figures indicate, progress to- ward eradicating the space shortage on the UNO campus is slowly being made. Popular belief maintains the space problem began in 1968 when the financially decrepit Municipal University ■of Omaha (OU) became part of the University of Nebraska system. Word was then, and is often repeated 33 still, that multitudes of students from the metropolitan Omaha area were encour- aged by the merger to enroll at UNO, and the students kept coming. Public concern for the new university also grew, and overcrowding and mass enrollments were accepted as simple phenomena peculiar to a university undergoing assimilation after a merger. " By 1970 more than 13,000 students will be attending classes at OU. The faculty and classrooms will have to be doubled if Omaha University is to meet the demand. " The above quote is not a remark of UNO President Kirk E. Naylor concerning the rush of students following the merger. It is a 1963 statement delivered by former OU President Milo Bail. The occasion was a 1963 mill levy vote which may have exerted more influence on the merger than any other one item. The reason the mill levy election had such an impact is probably because it didn ' t pass. Funds from the mill levy were to be used for buildings, parking lots, faculty salaries, and other areas of projected need. The focal point of the whole election was called the " Ten-Year Plan. " First envisioned by Bail in 1949 as a master plan for campus planning and construc- tion, the idea was still non-operational in 1963. Until this time there had been many 10-year plans, each changed annually by the strife of financial misfortune and the failure of the city to support its school. The first leg of the Ten-Year Plan was the fieldhouse erected in 1949. The field- house cost about $750,000 to construct. At that time OU had a vigorous athletic program but no place invigorating to put it in. The fieldhouse was only the second building on campus at this time. The first building was the administra- tion building constructed in 1938 follow- ing a move of the original campus from Redick Hall on 24th and Pratt St. At the time of the move West Dodge High, a nickname still attached to the university by stude nts and public alike, was to be situated on the far western fringes of the city. At this time university officials were offered a tract of land west to 72nd St. and north of Dodge St. The land was refused under the presumption that the existing administration building would never get too small. By 1939 student newspaper reports complained of space shortages. Bail, however, foresaw student enroll- ment increases, thus, initiating the Ten- Year Plan, soon to reach an early death. The Ten-Year Plan had many features. The first priority going to the library may never have been realized had the building not been donated. The student center was priority number two. Scheduled for com- pletion in 1956, the center was finished in 1960. Also planned was an applied arts (engineering) building for 1957; it was finished in 1959. For all practical purposes, there ended the Ten-Year Plan. Except for additions to the library and engineering building in the early ' 60s no campus construction Aspirin does little to remedy the headache of campus expansion. Money seems to be the only cure. 34 occurred until after the merger. There was, however, a great deal of campus planning. A classroom office building situated behind the administration build- ing was scheduled for completion by 1964; a fine arts building west of the student center was scheduled for com- pletion in 1965, and an addition to the fieldhouse for women ' s physical edu- cation classes and non-competitive ath- letics was also planned. High rise parking was in the planning as early as 1954. Plans were also drawn up for parking in the Elmwood ravine in the early ' 60s. Parking beneath the stadium in the early ' 60s, a student center addition in 1965, a biology-chemistry building as early as 1962, and an addition to the engineering building almost equal in size to that of the existing engineering building were also scheduled for construc- tion. But Omaha voters refused to be " taken " by this extravagant plea for money. The mill levy was defeated, and shortly afterward Bail resigned as presi- dent. In the fall of 1966, Bail returned and presented a plan to merge the University of Omaha with the University of Nebras- ka. By January a merger plan was before the state legislature. CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FORM NO. 61 APRIL 1970 BIENNIUM PRIORITY: 7 PROJECT TITLE: Classroom - Facul- ty Office Building BRIEF PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 20, 700 sq. ft. general classroom; 39,300 sq. ft. faculty offices; 7,500 sq. ft. special purposes. Funds re- quested: $4,500,000; which is Kayser Hall, the $1,580,000 education building, will be ready for use this fall. The five-story structure will house classrooms and faculty offices. 35 Kayser Hall is the newest addition to campus. equivalent to about $40 per sq. ft. Find above brief concerning proposed classroom office building to the front of present administration building. Current status on project: stagnant. Funds refused by legislature. Inability to begin project imposes severe restrictions on progress of campus planning. We are, however, making progress. Foresee no alternative to raising current 77 per cent classroom usage rate. Currently, temporary annex buildings, totaling 18, are in use 96 per cent of the time the university is open. Administra- tion building classrooms, totaling 23, have 81 per cent usage, engineering, totaling 14, 73 per cent usage; All wine Hall, totaling 17, 68 per cent. Average hour-use per classroom: 43.83 hours weekly. Completion of campus master plan by campus master planning firm Caudill, Rowlett, Scott expected to provide firm base in requesting future expenditures; details to follow. That was the state of the university then; the current campus of the future is now being planned. The campus master plan by Caudill, Rowlett and Scott calls for the university to extend to 69th St. to the west and Howard St. to the south with use of the Elmwood Park ravine, other new parking facilities, and sufficient building con- struction to accommodate 20,000 stu- dents. " The classroom office building and the library are desperately needed. There are so many deteriorating factors right now that we ' re just barely keeping pace. If the classroom office building were approved, we ' d ask for library funding in 197T As it is, everything is put off. " So say s Campus Planning Director Rex Engebret- son. Taking office last summer, Engebret- son is the latest in a long line of campus planners who have nothing with which to plan. Planned as a twin to the education building, the classroom office building was to be funded this year with con- struction set to begin in 1971. But chances look better for the university to obtain funding on the library than the classroom office building. Nebraska Governor J. j. Exon even used the UNO library as a consideration in vetoing the cigarette tax slated to go for construction of the Lincoln fieldhouse. According to Engebretson, library monies will not be directed toward ex- pansion of the present library, but toward the construction of a new library. The present library will become " an area converted to administrative space. It would be almost exactly enough to match administrative needs with an enrollment of 20,000, " says Engebretson. The library would be set in " just about the center of campus — the projected campus, that is. " That would place it slightly to the southwest of the Storz property. It is expected to be five stories, cost $5.5 million, and contain three times the space of the present library. The library would be part of an over-all scheme to make sections of the campus more accessible and would be situated on the " spine, " or main artery of traffic flow for the university. Hopefully, the spine would go right through the first floor of the library and house lounges, food service areas, shops and maybe even a bookstore on the side of a mall. Other planks of the long range plan urge the university to construct three major buildings: a physical education addition to the fieldhouse; a physical science building; and phase two of the fine arts complex. The muscle addition would have a swimming pool, house women ' s physical education classes and contain non- intercollegiate athletic events. The addi- tion would probably be built to the south of the current fieldhouse. 36 The fieldhouse renovation, which was completed last fall, included a new synthetic floor covering plus faculty offices and athletic practice rooms. The physical science building would be almost directly west of the engineering building, and the second phase of the fine arts building will go west of the student center. Engebretson sees 69th St. to about 66th St. from Dodge to Howard as parking with landscaping in front. The majority of new buildings will be five stories at most, " except for one which may go to a tower because of limited landscape in the area. " The tower will be largely faculty offices. " There will be some buildings that will be predomin- ately offices, " says Engebretson. To begin this grandiose plan, Engebret- son says the university would " like to acquire approximately 20 acres in the next two to three years ... to get to about 67th St. The university needs to add 1,339,461 sq. ft. to the campus in order to meet the planning standard of 91 sq. ft. per full-time student, " says Enge- bretson who noted that about four home- owners are ready to sell at the present time. Engebretson says much of the con- struction will be done in stages due to financial distress. " Our needs can be logically and very visibly demonstrated, " he adds. " It is then up to the legislature to review. We hope to get funds in an orderly manner so we aren ' t always in a condition of crisis. " We expect to be in a state of con- struction for about the next 10 years, " says Engebretson, " hopefully with two or three buildings going up at the same time. Once we ' ve finalized the plans somewhat, then we can start obtaining land as the money is available. " Even with all the legislative and financial problems Engebretson and his office have encountered in the past year, he " hopes to begin before 1977. " Engebretson says the master plan will keep in mind the nature of the institu- tion, compactness and urbanity. The campus will be a " foot-traveled campus designed to service the individual. " Total cost for the implementation of the master plan is expected to exceed $27 million. And if they ever get that $27 million, what ' s it mean to the present UNO student? Not much. He ' s still got the parking problem, the classroom space shortage and the cramped eating facilities. But for the student of tomorrow, the planners, administrators and legislators of today might possibly be able to put the lid on Pandora ' s box of troubles and maybe even clean up the evils that have already been loosed. By TODD SIMON 37 WHY WOULD ANYONE WANT TO BE IN A BEAUTY CONTEST ANYWAY? TO THE girls participating, a local beauty pageant is a real and im- portant facet of their lives, it is a serious matter, not the farce it may seem to outsiders who never see the interview where most contests are won or lost. Why would anyone ever want to be in or win a beauty contest anyway? Perhaps the most obvious and the least talked about reason is competition. The desire to win, to wear the crown and walk the ramp also combine with the attention and prestige of being " Miss Omaha " or " Miss UNO, " intangible desires many girls cannot even explain. More practical rea- sons for competing include winning the money and gaining poise and experience. Mariana Bybee, a freshman at UNO and a semi-finalist in the Miss Omaha contest, said, " I tried out partially be- cause of the scholarship offered. It also helps me become poised and learn to feel at ease with the audience. " Mariana, a 5 ' 5 " brunette, competed for the Miss Oregon title the previous year. Mariana ' s roommate and close friend. Sue Perry, said she tried out for Miss Omaha because of the scholarship and because she loves to entertain. Susan is also a UNO freshman who sings in a group called the Brothers and Sisters. " Before trying out for Miss UNO in 1970, 1 thought these beauty pageants were a farce, " said Jeanine Giller. " But after that contest I realized the judges were looking for more than just a beauti- ful face and figure. In order to win, the young lady has to be intelligent, and I liked that. " Mary jochim, currently Miss UNO, agrees. Mary said, " I can understand the rationale behind some radical women ' s lib group in calling pageants " cattle shows, " but you have to have something between your ears to win besides Maybelline eyes and a flashy smile. " To the contestants, these pageants aren ' t just to determine who is the most beautiful but also the most intelligent and the most personable. This is where the interview comes in. The interview is a most important part of the contest. There are no points alloted here, and the audience never sees this phase of competition. During the interview the judges can get an idea of the girl ' s personality. Mary Jochim said, " If you do well in the interview, everything you do from then on will look that much better. " J eanine Giller agrees that the interview session is all-important. " The interview is the key to winning. During this im- pressionable period the judges see your personality, and if you are the best interviewee, you win. " During an interview session the con- testants are taken one-by-one into a special room. Each is then introduced to the judges. Anxious and tense, the con- testant smiles and sits lady-like in front of the semi-circle of judges waiting for the barrage of questions soon to follow. The judges themselves set the mood for the afternoon interview. If they are stern and straight-faced, the girl realizes the seriousness of the matter, as was the case at the Miss UNO pageant. If the judges are full of smiles and kind words, then the interview can be a pleasant experience, as was the Miss Omaha ses- sion. The judges then ask the contestant questions. The interview session at the Two finalists . . . hoping. 38 for more campus beauty, turn page Miss UNO pageant was politically orient- ed with pointed questions being raised. One judge seemed to control tine situ- ation. Eacli semi-finalist has a chance for the crown at this point; therefore, she is likely to be very nervous and upset. Examples of the type of questions raised at the 1971 Miss UNO contest might be as follows: Judge: " Where do you live? " Contestant: " West Omaha. " Judge: " Do you know who your repre- sentative is in the Nebraska legisla- ture? " Contestant: (meekly) " No. " Judge: " Can you give me three articles from the front page of the Omaha World-Herald last week? " Contestant: " The Calley trials, the Millard Annexation and the SST. " Judge: " Yes, but can you give me another local story? " Contestant: (nervously) " I ' m sorry but I can ' t think of any right off hand. " Another judge interrupts and says, " I think that ' s just fine. " Judge: " Can you tell me just who the governor is? " Contestant: (quite shaken by now) " Yes, J. J. Exon, who doesn ' t want to give UNO much money. " (All but one judge laughs.) Judge: " How much money? " Contestant: " I ' m not quite sure, but right now UNO students are paying 50 per cent of their tuition, and with the increase in costs the stu- dents will have to pay 53 per cent of their tuition while other college students pay only 25-35 per cent. " Judge: " You should join Chancellor Varner ' s team. Thank you. " Another contestant had a similar shakedown. She was asked her opinion of the 18-year-old vote. She replied 18-year- olds should vote because they are very aware of what is going on. The most talkative judge then asked who her repre- sentative to the Nebraska Unicameral was, and the 19-year-old contestant didn ' t know. Almost all the girls were asked who their representatives were. Only one girl knew: the winner. In contrast, the Miss Omaha interview was much more personal, with only a few deep questions thrown in to discover each contestant ' s opinions. All five judges asked questions. The interview, whether it be a pleasant or unpleasant experience, aids the girls afterward. Contestants must be ready to answer any type of question in a polite and friendly manner Jeanine Ciller, first runner-up for Miss UNO, said, " I feel the contests I have entered have been worth it. There is so much to be gained, like learning how to wear make-up properly and to feel at ease in front of the audience and judges. " Jeanine also felt the interview will help later on when applying for a job. Second runner-up in the Miss UNO pageant, Nancy Rice, said, " I came out with a lot more than 1 went in with. I ' ve learned to have a lot more poise in speaking with others and in the way I present myself. " " These contests can be beneficial if you enter the contest with the idea of competing against yourself, " said Mary Jochim. " There ' s a wealth of knowledge you can gain by analyzing your perform- ance and discovering where you can improve the next time. " John Love, general chairman of the Miss Omaha pageant, shares these opinions. " Over the years we have found that participation in the Miss Omaha Pageant gives a girl that extra edge of confidence and self-respect that becomes so much more important later. " ■ The announcement . ' Miss UNO 1971 is Mary Jochim. " Runners-up Nancy Rice (left) and Jeanine Giller (right) watch. •Tut; Lambda Chi Alpha Crescent Girl " The 1970 Lambda Chi Alpha Crescent Girl is ... . Trudy Ford. " Trudy Ford, a junior, has been affiliated with the fraternity for three years. As a freshman she was named Pledge Sweetheart, and as a sopho- more she was asked to join the Crescent Auxiliary. Now, as Crescent Girl, Trudy will be president of the auxiliary. Trudy was rush chairman for Sigma Kappa sorority, historian for SPO and a member of the Student Senate. The night she was named Crescent Girl, Trudy also became engaged to a Lambda Chi. Lambda Chi Alpha Pledge Class Sweetheart " On the first day of school, I got to know the Lambda Chi ' s, " Bonnie said, " we got to be good friends. " Then on Nov. 28, 1970 in the Blackstone ballroom. Miss Bonnie Connor was named Lambda Chi Alpha Pledge Class Sweetheart and was given a gold engraved bracelet. Bonnie has many extra-curricular activities, which include Indiannes, Track and Baseball Auxiliary, and Chairman of Ma-ie Day activities. Pi Kappa Alpha Dream Girl " Being named Pi Kappa Alpha Dream Girl was probably the best honor I ever received, " said Sandi Helligso. Sandi has been dating Pikes since she was a freshman. As a junior she cheered for their football team and was elected Pi Kappa Alpha Queen Flush. This year she married Pike Tom Helligso. The Pike pledges gave Sandi a gold sword and a dozen red roses for being Dream Girl. She also has her name engraved on a traveling trophy. Sandi is a senior with a 3.24 GPA and is a member of Chi Omega soror- ity. She also was vice president of Panhellenic and Waokiya. She has also served on the Student Senate and SPO. Pi Kappa Alpha Queen Flush " I was watching the Pike pledge- active football game, and at half time the pledges literally picked me up and carried me off. 1 didn ' t know what was going on. " This is the way junior Diane Doug- las described how she was announced Pi Kappa Alpha Queen Flush. Diane has been dating a member of the fraternity for five years. Miss Douglas is an independent and has worked with the Student Council for Exceptional Children. Sigma Phi Epsilon Playmate Jan Nemecek, a 5 ' 5 " brunette, was elected the 1970 Sigma Phi Epsilon Playmate in December. The dance was held at Eden West. Jan received a dozen red roses and a locket with the fraternity ' s initials engraved on it. Miss Nemecek was also given a heart-shaped necklace, the symbol of the fraternity. As a sophomore, Jan is active in Sig Ep " Little Sisters, " Zeta Tau Alpha and Pin-Ops. She is also secretary of the Ski Club and last year was voted Typical Indianne. 4 • i It. . " --v iiA Tau Kappa Epsilon Sweetheart Glenda Roth, the youngest queen, was recently named Tau Kappa Sweet- heart for 1970. Glenda is a freshman, active in Sigma Kappa sorority, the UNO band and the Baseball Auxiliary. She was pledge class president. " I was looking for my shoes when they announced who won, " Glenda said. " When a TKE member came to escort me, I asked him what he was doing. " Miss Roth was completely surprised when she was elected. The fraternity gave her a dozen red roses. The Hilton was the scene for the dance. Theta Chi Dream Girl " The Theta Chi ' s are probably the most sincere bunch of guys I ' ll ever know, " Jeanine said. " That ' s why I like them so much. " Jeanine Giller was elected Theta Chi Dream Girl at a dance at the Blackstone. She was given a silver platter and a dozen red roses. Jeanine is a member of the Theta Chi " Little Sisters " and Chi Omega sorority. Also included in her activities are Student Senate, cheerleading, debate and Indiannes. Jeanine is currently dating a Theta Chi; her sister is married to a Theta Chi, and her brother was a Theta Chi pledge. UNO Top Co-ed One of UNO ' s most active co-eds, Miss Jackie Hammer was chosen Top Co-ed at UNO on Feb. 12, 1971. A three-judge panel chose Jackie from a group of 12. The winner must be well-groomed and also an active participant in school and community activities. The girls model two outfits and answer a question. The Top Co-ed is chosen on her poise and personality. Jackie maintains a high accumula- tive grade point average and is a mem- ber of Zeta Tau Alpha sorority. Miss Hammer, a journalism major, is also an Indianne and was cultural editor for the Gateway fall semester. Tomahawk Beauty Queen Becoming Tomahawk Beauty Queen " has been great because it has given me a real opportunity to get into activities and to meet people, " UNO freshman Cher Fangman said. Cher is a second semester freshman who stayed out of school a year before coming to UNO. " I was really dissatis- fied with myself. 1 was working some, but I really wasn ' t doing anything, " Cher added, " so I decided to come to college. " Right after the contest Miss Fang- man was spotlighted in the familiar " cherchez la femme " feature in the Sun Newspapers. The tall, slender blonde plans on becoming a professional model follow ing college. Writing, television and broadcasting comprise THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF THE FOURTH ESTATE FROM PUBLIC relations to poetry, the communications art is actively functioning in all its forms at UNO. A quick stroll around the campus will show the broad scope of outlets for communicative talent and ideas. From the main floor of the Student Center, Terry Humphrey is poring over possible cover designs for the next issue of the new quarterly alumni magazine, UNO. in annex 1, a distinctive lamp above the door at KRNO-FM proclaims, " On The Air. " It ' s not quite true, but soon it will be. One corner of the engineering building houses the editorial staffs of the Gateway and Tomahawk. As the established semi- weekly voice of the student body, the Gateway affords excellent opportunities for practical experience in news report- ing, editing and photography. Tomahawk editor Julie Salem has junked the traditional yearbook concept this year in favor of a magazine format, in the face of some opposition, three magazine issues are being published. One retains the yearbook flavor and contains organization and individual senior photos. Upstairs is the university-operated educational television station, KYNE-TV. With full color capability, 60 hours of instructional broadcasting are provided to the greater Omaha area weekly. Grain of Sand emanates from the English department offices in the library annex. The literary magazine gave prizes to winning authors in its May issue. The Office of Information in the " head shed " is the public relations agency for the university. Under the direction of The KYNE television tower exemplifies visual communications on campus. Channel 26 on the UHF band provides educational programs for the Omaha area. Fritz Leigh plays music over KRNO which has been licensed to broadcast this fall as station KVNO. Ralph Bradley, the full-time staff is pri- marily involved in keeping the outside public informed and in maintaining har- monious community relations. Students are actively involved in the daily process of radio broadcasting, tele- vision programming, magazine editing, newspaper reporting and the myriad tasks necessary to support all these functions. Currently some 104 students are working in these fields. Some are paid; many are volunteers. Several receive academic credit for their efforts. In talking with the editors, advisers, station managers and directors, a sense of evolution is evident. Changing patterns of format and procedure are the rule — not change for the sake of change, but planned, progressive change with a defin- ite purpose of improving the service provided. With progress and innovations. problems go hand-in-hand. A closer look at the working level shows how some of these are handled. This year the alumni publication changed from a bi-monthly tabloid to a quarterly magazine. Overall costs will be less, and greater effort will be possible in the preparation of each issue. The maga- zine has a threefold purpose: to provide a forum for communication between alumni; to inform the alumni of matters pertaining to the university; and to fur- ther their continuing education. News reporting is not the intent of the magazine, nor is any fund-raising effort included. Periodic mailings of newsletters and ballots are relied upon to solicit funds and to report facts on topics of immediate interest. Terry Humphrey, executive secretary of the Alumni Association, has a small staff consisting of a secretary and several students. The office is being moved from the student center to the Storz house this summer. In Humphrey ' s words, " UNO has an image problem. It ' s not a school for the rich; it ' s mostly for working class families. " He believes the alumni will take pride in an attractive magazine and will be encouraged to place it on display. The diversity in age, interests and walks of life among the 21,000 alumni is such that an editorial stand on issues is very difficult. Many issues that are currently " hot " on campus may be of little interest to those who have left the campus life far behind. " Most alumni do not have a ' burning heat ' interest in campus affairs, " according to Humphrey. After almost two years of waiting for government approval to begin actual broadcasting, the student staff of FM radio station KRNO beamed nightly pro- grams into the student center during spring semester. Programs " aired " from 4 p.m. to 7 p.m. represented a simulation of the schedule planned for the frequency modulated broadcast. Music heard was middle-of- the-road, jazz, folk and classical. Rock music will be included in the actual programming, but was only occasionally represented then. The reason for this was the familiarity of most of the radio staff members with rock. " The bulk of pro- gramming experience needed is in the other areas of music cited above, " says Station Manager Fritz Leigh, " not rock. " KRNO exists to provide a practical training ground for potential FM radio staff personnel. When operational, it will be a part of the university radio-television department. Following the reception of the FCC license, the station plans to go on the air this fall after a move to the Storz house sometime this summer. " Fine arts programming is the format most needed in Omaha, " Leigh says. 44 Summer Gateway Editor John Malone (right) confers with former editor Dave Mack. The student newspaper is published twice weekly during the regular academic year and weekly during the summer. KRNO-FM radio intends to provide that. " Loved by some; cussed by many; read by them all. " This statement was used for many years by a crusty, country editor in the flag of his weekly news- paper. It seems to reflect the dilemma facing any newspaper that serves a finite, single-area public. Campus newspapers are no exception, and the Gateway might be a typical example. Beginning this school year with the largest Gateway staff ever assembled. Editor Mike Meiches steered his coverage toward the affairs of the local campus. His assistants, many specifically recruited from Omaha high schools, labored en- thusiastically to expand the newspaper and to make it truly representative of the student body. Most of the " Gateway 55 " were new, and one-third of them were freshmen. Says Meiches, " We made a lot of mistakes, but we worked hard and really enjoyed it. " He points out that student publications are basically training vehicles. Dave Mack, second semester editor, says the primary purpose of the Gateway is to inform. " Ideally, the campus news- paper should provide all the information about university activities that any person on campus needs to know. " All other content, such as entertainment features, are of secondary importance. Mack says the two basic problems now are a shortage of personnel and limita- tions on access to information. Although some 15 people are con- sidered st£fffers, most of the newspaper is published by a hard-core staff of about five. The second problem lies in the re- luctance of administration and faculty sources in divulging full information to student reporters, according to Mack. At times this stems from a tendency to hedge on unfavorable facts and to release only the " good " news; sometimes they are just too busy. Students tend to regard the newspaper as an organ of the journalism department. In reality, student editors have a free rein as to the content of their publications, subject to their sense of responsibility to their public, the students. Faculty ad- visers are for mechanical and financial advice and guidance. UNO President Kirk E. Naylor considers student newspapers a means of providing information and a forum for communi- cation. Realizing that some unfavorable situations are bound to occur, he remains a staunch advocate of editorial freedom. " I fully support non-censorship of stu- dent publications. " The Gateway will continue through the summer sessions with publication of one issue each week. John Malone, a sophomore, will edit the 11-paper publi- cation. Employers of budding journalists are interested in any experience that may have been gained, however limited. Practi- cal work in publishing a magazine or newspaper represents a much better set of credentials than compiling an annual or yearbook. This was part of the basic premise of Julie Salem upon her appoint- ment as editor of the 1970-71 Toma- hawk. She proposed, and the Publications Committee agreed, that three issues of a contemporary style magazine be pub- lished during the school year. Amplifying the concept. Miss Salem points out that as many as 50 students can contribute to these three issues, as opposed to about 10 who would nor- mally do the work on a yearbook. Al- though interest in writing for the maga- zine was not overwhelming during the fall semester, the advent of a course in 45 Marian Warden, Office of Information, inter- views Assistant Education Dean Tom Norwood. magazine article writing in January cre- ated a source of potential talent and interest. Thrice-yearly publication of the Toma- hawk renders it more valuable in at least one other regard. President Naylor says the new magazine " appears extremely useful as a public relations piece. " It is placed before the public more often, thereby increasing its audience exposure. It remains to be seen whether the idea will take hold, or if the student majority will prefer to return to the traditional hard-cover yearbook. " I would really like to see the magazine retained, " Miss Salem 46 says, " even if it is in addition to the yearbook. " The Tomahawk has attempted to cover all organizations and facets of campus life in its three issues. The middle issue contains those group photos and individual photos of seniors normally found in a yearbook. KYNE television is a department of the university similar to the band or athletics. It is under contract to the Nebraska Educational Television Commis- sion. The Metropolitan Omaha Educa- tional Broadcasting Association (MOEBA) reimburses the university for the use of production facilities, engineer- ing services and offices. MOEBA is a non-profit corporation composed of public, private and parochial school systems, cultural institutions and commercial broadcasters in Omaha. UNO is a member. The nine-station, Nebraska network is one of the pioneers in state educational broadcasting. More than 100,000 stu- dents and 3,000 teachers are served by this facility. Members are entitled to the programming service, teacher orientation, classroom study-guide materials and other assistance. " This is a team teaching ef- fort, " says Station Manager Paul Borge. Closed circuit television classes are pre- sented on the campus. Video tape lessons are also available for individual study or review by university students. On the air since 1965, KYNE-TV initiated color transmission last year. This made MOEBA the first ETV agency in Nebraska to have full color production capability. Only one-fourth of all ETV stations in the nation originate in color. The campus literary magazine. Grain of Sand, has existed in the same general form since 1951. Just a year ago it was expanded to its present size and began using photos. Prior to the current issue, the maga- zine was published by the English depart- ment. Now it is under the auspices of the Student Publications Committee. The editors are seeking contributions from all students and from faculty members. Traditionally, Grain of Sand has spon- sored a literary contest annually among area high schools, awarding scholarships to authors of the poems and fiction stories selected for publication in the magazine. This spring, a new program was begun, awarding prizes to on-campus winners among the contributors to the May issue. Another recent innovation is the change in cover design and color with each issue. Grain of Sand editors, like those for the Gateway and Tomahawk, are selected each semester by the Student Publi- cations Committee. Unlike the others, Grain of Sand editors ' efforts are purely voluntary. Last spring ' s editor Bruce Arnold be- lieves the offering of cash prizes for outstanding selections created a more professional atmosphere and encouraged writers to contribute to the magazine. He terms the response for the spring issue as " fantastic. " The Office of Information prepares news releases for all media in the Omaha area, hometown news stories dealing with graduating bootstrappers and others, and various feature articles for placement in appropriate publications. This staff also publishes university directories, catalogs, bulletins and newsletters for use on campus. Activities such as press conferences, special luncheons, the president ' s com- munity breakfasts and the University Speakers Bureau are planned and ar- ranged by personnel of the Office of Information. Queries received from news media for information on the activities of indi- viduals or organizations on campus are usually referred directly to a spokesman for that source. Director of I nformation Ralph Bradley is a registered lobbyist with the Nebraska Unicameral and expends the greater portion of his personal effort in that capacity during the legislative session. President Naylor sees the purpose of campus communications as a continual search for the answer to the question, " How can the various publics be best informed and stimulated? " He says all communications media have a direct impact upon people. Sometimes this impact is positive, sometimes negative. Expressing his " real concern that the University of Nebraska at Omaha be presented in a favorable light, " Dr. Naylor says, " I ' m appreciative and pleased with the efforts of all campus communicative agencies, and I ' m con- vinced they are all interested in con- tinuing to do an even better job. " By ED JENKINS Tom Dvorak, producer-director for KYNE-TV, works in the control room during a summer production. Summer programming o n KYNE included a series of programs on the Nebraska legislature. The programs were video taped and later shown over Channel 26. 47 The regents hold an open public session on the first Saturday of each month and generally alternate the site of each meeting among the three campuses. OMNIPOTENT OCTAGON OF ACADEMIA GOVERNANCE OF the University of Nebraska system rests on the shoulders of eight individuals known collectively as the Board of Regents. A mixture of doctors, lavi ' yers, farmers and businessmen, the regents meet monthly to set the policies for the three campuses v hich comprise the system. Administrative and faculty hiring and firing, tuition and fee struc- tures, budgets and appropriations, and land acquisition and expansion all fall into the regents ' dominion. Over the past few months, all of these areas of jurisdiction have meant problems for the regents. At their February meet- ing, the regents voted to dismiss Dr. Stephen Rozman, an assistant professor of political science at the Lincoln campus who was involved in the occupation of the school ' s ROTC building during a protest of the Cambodian invasion. Rozman, claiming the regents ' action against him was " illegal, irrational and arbitrary, " filed suit against the regents asking reinstatement and $100,000 com- pensatory damages. The matter is present- ly being litigated in US District Court. A month later, at a meeting on the UNO campus, the regents chose not to renew the contract of Duke Hubbard, an assistant professor of educational ad- ministration at UNL. Hubbard said he too would contest the regents ' action on the grounds that the board did not notify him before the required deadline, but he has since resigned. At issue in the firing of the Lincoln professors, in addition to their dismissal, was the refusal of the Board of Regents to allow the professors to address the board in their own behalf. Both Rozman and Hubbard asked permission to address the board after the regents ruled in favor of dismissal. Both were denied. When the professors became more vocal in protest- ing their firing, the board hastily ad- journed in both instances. Between the firing of the two Lincoln professors, another problem beset the regents. The regents asked the state to allocate $123.8 million in state funds for the University of Nebraska system during the 1971-73 biennium. Nebraska Gover- nor J. J. Exon slashed the operations request to $80.9 million, causing regents ' President Robert Raun to comment, " The budget proposals are definitely not capable of keeping the University of Nebraska in the forefront of higher edu- cation. " Expansion policies of UNO came under attack at two regents ' meetings. In March, an Omaha woman, Kathryn Reisser, attempted to present the board with a petition calling for " the immediate suspension of all new building projects at UNO until the master building plan is completed and approved. " The regents refused to hear the woman during their meeting since the matter was not on the agenda, but did appoint a committee to hear the woman at the meeting ' s con- clusion. In May, a group of residents to the west of UNO came before the regents to protest proposed university expansion into their neighborhood. Although the item was not on the agenda, Regent Robert Prokop asked the board to permit the group to speak since the regents " are trying to become more and more involved with the public. " The entrance of the regents into the 48 area of administrative hiring was necessi- tated at a March meeting when UNL President Joseph Soshnil resigned. The regents accepted Soshnik ' s resignation with " deep regret " and directed Chancel- lor Durward Varner to launch an immedi- ate search for a successor to Soshnik. The regents exercised their authority over university tuition rates at their April meeting by increasing resident tuition for summer school three dollars and non- resident tuition twelve dollars. This same meeting saw the regents override an attempt by Regent Prokop to refuse tenure to 114 university faculty members. Prokop objected to the tenure system because " it is a failure in that it protects incompetency. " The regent called tenure " the only manner where a man is guaranteed a life-time job no matter what his output and performance is, " but the other regents voted to grant tenure to the faculty recommended. The regents entered the area of stu- dent fees in March by calling for an opinion poll on the university ' s student newspapers. Regent Kermit Hansen asked for the poll as a means of exploring the " possibility of moving the campus news- papers to a self-supporting status. " The results of the poll have since been re- leased, but the regents have not acted on them. Any governing body with a juris- diction as broad as that of the Board of Regents is bound to receive criticism. Criticism of the regents has been loud and frequent during the past academic year. The main kttack levied against the regents has been over what many consider their violation of the Nebraska Open Meetings law. The law requires the regents as elected officials to conduct open, public meetings whenever the expenditure of tax monies is involved. The petition filed by Mrs. Reisser to the board charged that the law " is ignored by the regents who custom- arily have secret meetings. " The charge is in reference to the informal, closed meetings which precede each monthly public meeting. Many people believe the university is governed through the informal meetings, and the public meetings are merely a vehicle for rubber-stamping closed-door decisions. Critics say the frequent unanimity of regent voting attests to this. Regent Hansen disagrees. He says, " It is essential that personnel matters, prop- erty acquisition matters and other matters of a delicate nature be discussed in advance. " However, Hansen stresses, " No formal action is ever taken during our informal meetings, and I ' ve often been surprised by the results of the voting when we do take action at the formal meetings. " A recorded transcript is made of each meeting. Students questioned the regents ' policy on discrimination during a March meeting at UNO. The protest was directed at five regents who are members of a private club having an all-white membership. 49 Presidential hiring will concern the regents for some time. UNL ' s President Joseph Soshnik (left) has resigned; UNO ' s President Kirk Naylor (center) has entered the job market, and President Cecil Wittson (right) of the Medical Center will reach the mandatory retirement age after next year. Chancellor Durward Varner (left) explains a motion on the floor to Omaha Regent James Moylan. Varner presents the progress and problems of the university system at each monthly regents ' meeting. i Another area of criticism of the re- gents is their rule requiring that anyone wishing to address the board must request permission to do so two weel s prior to the board ' s meeting. Used against Rozman, Hubbard and Mrs. Reisser but waived for the group opposing UNO ' s westward expansion, the rule, according to critics, stifles public input at regents ' meetings. Hansen agrees with this criticism and has proposed that a 60-minute discussion period take place before the regents ' public meetings. Raun is also in favor of " a means that will improve communica- tion with students, faculty and the public. " The regents are considering Hansen ' s proposal but have not yet acted on it. Criticism of the regents ' treatment of non-tenured faculty members grew out of the board ' s firing of Rozman and Hub- bard. Rozman ' s dismissal came after a faculty committee appointed by the re- gents found him " not guilty of inap- propriate actions. " Regent James Moylan defends regents ' control over all university employees. " The regents are charged with the ulti- mate responsibility for all university per- sonnel. The final authority over that personnel must rest with the regents. " Possibly because there has been criti- cism over the way the university is being governed, the Faculty Senate of UNL has asked the regents to call for an Academic Constitutional Convention this summer in order to draft a " basic document for governance of the university. " The con- vention would include delegates repre- senting the regents, administration, faculty and students and would be charged with drafting a constitution that would " enumerate the powers, functions and responsibilities of the constituent parts of the university. " The regents have ruled in favor of the convention, and as Hansen put it, " It might make our job a whole lot easier. " ■ IT WAS a dark and dreary day. Super- student sprang from his bed at the first sound of the alarm, his hands still clutching the textbook he had laid aside the night before. He read two chapters while completing his toilet, another chapter as he hurriedly munched his corn flakes. He then dashed to his room and pausing only an instant to admire the walls papered with straight " A " report cards, he snatched up his books and departed for school. " Good-bye, my mother. " " It ' s a dark and dreary day, son! " " Yes, my mother, but tomorrow will be a brighter day. " " Stay home, son. Geminis should forego and avoid any studential activities today. I heard it on KOIL. " " But, mother, I can ' t stay home. It ' s the day of the big test, " and ignoring his mother ' s pleas, superstudent dashed from the house. Walking briskly he had read one and one-half chapters and was halfway to school when he stumbled over a legless beggar on the street and fell sprawling. " Look what you ' ve done, legless beg- gar; you ' ve made me lose my place in a most interesting and enlightening tome, " he cried as he picked himself up. " Lu- ckily my supersharp, superstudent brain noted at the instant of tripping that I was on page 797 of Chapter 49 near the end of the 27th line — right where the ancient by golly! existentialists cleverly put down all comers in a ... . " " It ' s a dark and dreary day, son, " said the legless beggar rudely interrupting our young hero. " Yes, " replied SS, " but tomorrow will be a brighter day. t heard it on KOIL. " " Go home, son. In my dreams last night I was forewarned that today I would be sent sprawling by a stumbling student, and I was to tell you to go home. " " But I can ' t go home. Today is the big test. Why, it ' s the last test of the season. " " Well, then could you spare a quarter for a cup of coffee, sonny? " But the request went unheeded. Supers had found his page. As SStudent arrived at the doors of the administration building something made him pause and look back. And a wondrous thing happened. A vision ap- peared in the sky, and it spake to SupStu saying, " Superstudent, hear me! Oh, ' A ' amasser. Oh, 4.0 fanatic. Listen and heed. This is not your day, boy! Return from whence ye came. " " Shouldn ' t that be to whence instead of from whence? " mused Superstudent. Then a choir of distinguished intel- lectuals appeared singing, " Glory be to superstudent; today is a day for you to be prudent. Forget the big test, and take it on the lam, you can always take a make-up exam. " But SS wrenched his eyes from the vision and, flinging the doors wide, marched boldly down the hall and determinedly into the classroom and sat resolutely in his seat with head held high. He glanced at his watch. " Darn, only enough time for a quick brush up, just eight hours till test time. " In another section of town, as super- student buckled down to some serious review. Professor A. B. Ore, affection- ately known to his students as Professor Ore, arose from a restless, sleepless night. " Damn! It looks like another dark and 51 dreary day. " He nicked himself three times while shaving; the electric tooth brush motor burned out, and when he sat on the stool he forgot to put the seat down and sank to his buttocks in the icy water. " The toast is burnt, and my eggs are runny, " he growled at his wife. His car wouldn ' t start, and he had to take a taxi to school where, upon arriv- ing, he found he had forgotten the lecture notes for his first class. And the co-ed in the front row was wearing a pant suit instead of her usual micro-mini. " It ' s a really dark and really gloomy day, by golly! " exclaimed Prof Ore. Meanwhile superstudent with his super, acutely-trained mind had blanked out all extraneous details and was, of course, oblivious to his surroundings. Devouring about a page a minute, this A. J. Foyt of textbookery had re-read the 10-volume text and was beginning the first of 74 paperbacks ranging from an- cient antiquity to invalid validity. Pausing for an instant to glance at his watch, he started visibly upon perceiv- ing that there were only four hours till test time. A janitor cleaning the classroom had up to this point considered the immobile SS a part of the furnishings, and when SS started the janitor was so startled that he too started. This, of course, startled the already shaken SupStu, and again he started startledly thereby losing almost 30 seconds of study time. " That 30 seconds will have to be deducted from my 5-minute lunch break, " he thought grimly and plunged anew into his work. Meanwhile Professor A. B. Ore was walking to his 12:20 class in elementary elements, when passing through a large group of students, he discovered he was in the middle of a demonstration. Before he could say, " There must be some mistake here; I ' m Professor A. B. Ore, " he found he had been herded along with the demonstrators into a paddy wagon. " There must be some mistake here, " the Professor said to the unkempt individual seated beside him in the paddy wagon. " I ' m Professor A. B. Ore. " Whereupon the occupants of the paddy wagon broke into loud cheers mistakenly assuming that the professor was championing their cause. As Professor Ore emerged from the paddy wagon at Central Police Station, the students called to the waiting TV and newspaper reporters, " This is Professor A. B. Ore. He ' s on our side. " Before the professor could explain his position, he was taken inside. By the time the professor was able to convince the police he wasn ' t part of the demonstration, the afternoon paper was on the street. Emerging from the police station he passed a newsstand and saw the headlines, " Professor Ore Champions Students in their Quest for Open Rest- room Facilities Regardless of Race, Color, Creed or Sex. " As SupStu turned the last page of the 74th paperback, he glanced up and noticed the classroom was full. Looking to the front of the classroom he saw Professor A. B. Ore preparing to hand out copies of the test. " Before we begin, " said Prof Ore, " 1 just want to say that I am a fair man. 1 have always been fair, and I shall always strive to be fair. " " That ' s fair enough, " cried several students. " Shut up, " said Professor Ore gritting his teeth and clenching his fists. " I have a question before the test begins, " said Sup Stu raising his hand. " What is it? " " Well, on page 842 of the text, para- graph 17, line 84, there is a misprint, and I am unsure whether the ancient Athenians had catfish for breakfast on the morning of September 23, 1006, or not. " The professor, caught off balance by this question, which delved deeply into what was probably the key to the whole course, irritably replied, " There are no catfish in the Euphrates! " Superstudent wanted to press the point to determine just what there was in common between catfish, the Euphrates and ancient Athenians, but Prof Ore was passing out tests and seemed in no mood to be trifled with. Three days after the test, superstudent walked with perfect assurance to the bulletin board whereupon test results were posted. He looked smilingly at his latest attainment, but suddenly his smile faded. He had perceived a small mark behind his latest " A " which looked strangely like a minus. " It couldn ' t be, " he thought as he attempted to brush the small mark from the list. Walking swiftly to Prof Ore ' s office, he knocked and upon receiving admittance confidently said, " There has been a mistake, probably a typographical error, but it looks strangely like a minus sign behind my ' A. ' " " No mistake I ' m afraid, son, " replied Prof Ore. " Your knowledge of ancient Armenians is accurate, and you per- formed excellently on the evolution of Exonians. Even if you had bungled Babylonian birth controls I could over- look it, but, well, I think all I need say is breakfast September 23, 1006. " Supstu fell to his knees crying, " I asked about that before the test began! " But he was talking to an empty room. Prof Ore had departed for a con- frontation between his new-found student friends and the up tight faculty. At home alone in his room that night SS asked himself over and over, " Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? etc " with an occasional, " How Come? " Next morning his mother found him lying on the floor, his entire body covered with little minus signs. He began wasting away immediately, was dead within weeks, and he spent the rest of eternity trying to convince the guards at the " Heaven for Straight ' A ' Students " why he should be allowed in. By LES McKlM 53 OUAM P I ' S LAST STAN D LLOYD ROITSTEIN hun g up his headdress last fall after seven years of portraying the UNO Indian mascot Ouampi. He was the seventh student in the 32-year " Indian " history of the university to don native garb and dance at athletic events. A successor to Roitstein had been chosen, but he won ' t be needed. A resolution, passed by an 18 to 7 vote of the Student Senate, a 27 to 0 vote of the University Senate, and approved by President Kirk E. Naylor, has called for the university to " discontinue use of the nanne ' Indian ' for its athletic teams, abolish Ouampi as a school mascot, and end the misuse of the Indian culture at university activities such as homecoming and Ma-ie Day. " The action was sudden and un- expected. University athletic teams had been called the Indians since 1939, when their name was changed from the Cardinals. A cardinal had no significance for a growing municipal university, but an Indian was representative of the country ' s heritage. Why not incorporate that herit- age into university extracurricular activi- ties? The suggestion was made, and a committee ' of alumni approached the leaders of the Omaha Indian Tribe with that idea. They approved, as did students, faculty, administrators and alumni of the university. 30 years passed with no one critical of the Indian nickname. Ouampi danced at football games; homecoming activities ■culminated in the crowning of an " Indian " princess; the annual university holiday became Ma-ie Day, complete with the crowning of another princess; Indian caricatures adorned book covers, sweat- shirts and match books; the student center cafeteria became the Ouampi Room. The beginning of the end of the Indian-Ouampi tradition was in Septem- ber, 1970, when six Indians, enrolled as part-time students at the Center for Urban Education, attended a UNO foot- ball game. Football wasn ' t all they saw. They saw a teepee with a comic carica- ture of an Indian on it and Roitstein in an Indian costume imitating Indian dances. The Indian students thought the carica- ture disgraceful, the Indian costume and dances unauthentic, and the wearing of the sacred headdress by a white youth sacrilegious. They were outraged by what they considered a degradation of their culture, heritage and traditions. The Indian students reported what they had seen to the Indian Youth Council (lYC). Initially, the lYC planned to demonstrate at the next UNO football game. Instead, they wrote a letter ex- pressing their dissatisfaction to President Naylor, Student Body President Steve Wild and the Board of Regents. The letter generated little response, and the issue laid dormant until January when Mike Adams, director of the Man- power for Urban Progress program at UNO, wrote a letter regarding the de- grading nature of the Ouampi caricature. Adams said the caricature carried the same stereotyping effect on Indians as " Little Black Sambo " did on Negroes. The letter was sent to about 20 persons including Student Body President Wild. Pressured by the second letter and by a social welfare class who had read the Adams letter. Wild appointed his vice president, Jim Zadina, to look into the matter. What followed was a series of meetings and telephone conversations between Zadina and representatives of the lYC and the American Indian Center (AlC). At first it was thought that the Indians were only objecting to the Ouampi cartoon caricature. It was the caricature that did the stereotyping and which seemed to be the greatest source of irritation to the Indians. Abolition of the student mascot Ouampi was also dis- cussed. In the course of the meetings, Nate Parker, acting director of the AlC, said complete abandonment of the mas- cot would not be necessary " if the door were open for the Indian to obtain involvement (in the university) . . . . " What was being sought was a compromise in which the university would retain the Ouampi mascot in return for providing scholarships and other aids to the Indian community. The issue finally reached the Student Senate floor when Zadina introduced a resolution asking for both the abolition of Ouampi and the discontinuance of the nickname Indians. The resolution was drafted by a coalition of students from the social welfare class and the lYC. lYC President Pearl Morgan made it clear to the Senate why the Indians were asking the university to do more than abandon the cartoon character. She 55 Lloyd Roitstein, who spent seven years por- traying Ouampi, was bitterly opposed to abolish- ing the Indian mascot, nickname and traditions. argued that the university was using a race of people as a mascot; she added that the Indian headdress and the title of princess were embedded in the Indian religious tradition. A number of the senators accused the university of " unintentional racism. " The matter was left unattended until the following week ' s Senate meeting. Again compromise was proposed in the form of an amendment calling for only the abolition of the Ouampi cartoon char- acter and the promotion of research into an Indian Culture Week. The amendment was killed. Speaking in behalf of the resolution to abolish the nickname and the mascot was Frank Love, executive director of the AlC. Love told the Senate, " This body and the entire university ought to pass this resolution. " Love also had a resolution of his own asking for an Indian counselor at UNO, financial aid to Indians, and the for- mation of a committee to study the idea Indian Youth Council representatives were present at a meeting of the Student Senate to voice their complaint of the university misusing the Indian culture and ask the Senate to end this misuse. of an Indian Affairs program. The Senate approved the former resolution 18 to 7; Love ' s resolution was not considered. Similar action by the University Senate and President Naylor followed. The response to the abolition has been less than favorable by both students and alumni. The point most often raised is that other universities and professional athletic teams employ Indian nicknames. Heavy criticism has been directed toward the Indian attempts to trade use of the nickname for financial aid and scholar- ships. Many feel the university was intimi- dated by a small minority. Roitstein, who was in favor of abolish- ing the caricature but fought strongly against abolishing the mascot and nick- name, has his own impression of how the issue evolved. " At first they (the Indians) were only interested in doing away with the caricature, but then they found out they could get away with whatever they wanted. I was totally against the final outcome. I ' m for helping the Indians, but they hurt themselves when they could ' ve helped. All they accomplished was to create a lot of student ill-will toward the Indian. " Roit- stein said President Naylor told him privately that he was against giving his approval to the resolution but felt forced to do so. Regardless of the campus reaction, the deed is done, and it is not likely that it will be undone. Committees have been appointed to implement the phasing cut of the Indian symbols and activities and to outline procedures for selecting a new nickname and mascot. A 32-year-old tradition has been abolished, and with it a number of minor traditions that grew out of it. It may be a few years before the student center cafe- teria is called anything but the Ouampi Room, but students can look forward to a new nickname for their athletic teams and a new title for their magazine this fall. By DAVE MACK 56


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