University of Nanking - Linguist Yearbook (Nanking, China)

 - Class of 1923

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University of Nanking - Linguist Yearbook (Nanking, China) online yearbook collection, 1923 Edition, Cover

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Text from Pages 1 - 173 of the 1923 volume:

THE LINGUIST 1922-1923 PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENT BODY OF THE NANKING LANGUAGE SCHOOL OF TI-IE DEPARTMENT OF MISSIONARY TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF NANKING NANIQNG-CHINA k a 5 ,,. VH.. . , "n 'f'. .- .- f ,J 5'-."11."i uf1,1'.f 1 ': ARTHUR J. BOWEN, PRESIDENT. UN LL.D. IVERSITY OF NANKING "THE LINGUIST" UNIVERSITY OF NANKING BOARD 012 TRUSTEES Robert Elliott Speer, President James H. Franklin, Vice-President Russell Carter, Treasurer Eric M. North, Secretary Leslie B. Moss, Assistant Treasurer and Assistant Stephen I. Corey r Abram E- Cory Disciples of Christ Robert A. Doan . Frank A. Horne A - Frank Mason North Methodist Episcopal, North William J. Stitt Eben B. Cobb 7 John L. Severance Presbyterian, North Robert Elliott Speer S James Henry Franklin Mornay Williams Baptist, North Samuel Hall Chester - Presbyterian. South BOARD OF MANAGERS Arthur I. Bowen, President fex-oliiciob Wilbur F. Wilson, Secretary Lewis J. Owen, Treasurer Frank Garrett 7 Alexander Lee . Elliot I. Osgood. M. D.S Guy W. Sarvis Frank D. Gamewell John C. Ferguson 2 Lauress J. Birney S Wilbur F. Wilson Edwin C. Lobenstine' Samuel J. Mills Wen Pei-shan J. E. Williams.'9"" Earl H. Cressy ' J. V. Latimer Francis J. White""""' Mason P. Young. M.D.p Chang Po-ling Hwang Hsi-chen Wang-Chenhg-ting ru ing-s u - i Robert Case Beebe. M.D.--Life Member 'Frank S. Niles alternate Disciples of Christ Methodist Episcopal, North Presbyterian, North Baptist, North Presbyterian, South Elected by the Board of Managers Elected by the Alumni """George C. Hood, alternate. """"'Percival R. Bakeman, alternate Secretary 2 "THE LINGUIST" A KEY COMMODITIES OF ADVERTISERS W Banks . . . Books and Stationery ' ' Boots and Shoes . Department Stores . Drugs . . . ' . . . . Engineering, Electrical, Building Supplies Express Companies ..... Fruit . . Hotels . . Jewelers . . . Laces, Swatow Work, Etc. Milk Products . . Newspapers . Optical Companies . Ovomaltine . Petroleum Products . Photographs, Developing . Printers . . . Provisions, Groceries Sporting Goods . Steamship Companies Tailors .,.. ' . . Zeiss Lenses, Optical Instruments, Etc . . . Page . 162 121,165,168 . 132 150,156 120,148 134,138 . 146 . 140 122,144 . 130 122,126,169 . 142 . .140 . 124 .' 136 158,160 128,130 . 152 132,148,152 . 156 . 154 138,152 . 144 Readers of THE LINGUIST, This table is designed to serve you. HTHEIJNGUBTU 3 INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Admiral Line , . . American Drug Company . . American Express Company . American-Oriental Banking Corp . Andersen, Meyer 81 Co., Ltd. . Bridge House Hotel . . . Broadway Store . . Brownie Photo Company . 'Carlowitz 81 Company . Chi Chang Company . . . China Press .... Chinese American Publishing Co . 'Chinese Optical Company . . Edward Evans 81 Sons, Ltd. . Gee Shing Fruit Shop . Heng Kong . . Hip Seng Company . Ismer 8z Company . Mactavish 8z Co., Ltd. Mission Book Co ..... Nanking Dispensary .... Nestle 81 Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk 'Oriental Press ...., Pan Chuang Chong -.-- Rose, Downs 8: Thompson, Ltd. Sam joe 8z Company . . . Seng Chun 81 Company . Siber I-Iegner 8z Company . . Squires Bingham Company . . Standard Oil Company of New York Texas Company .... 'Tsei Hwa 81 Company . 'Wee-Wee Company - VVing On Co., Ltd. . Yangtse Hotel . Zee Van Shang . Co.. Page 154 120 146 162 138 122 148 128 144 126 140 168 124 165 140 138 169 130 130 121 148 142 152 152 134 132 122 136 156 158 160 152 150 156 144 132 B-5 ' -" H.L,, ll ONVI .LS1I'1 "TI-IE LINGUIST" TO OUR CHINESE TEACHERS THE LINGUIST IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED BY The sroaohf Body ofthe Nanking Language School 1922-23 He who comes to China to labor among the Chinese finds himself, at first, helpless as an infant. Every'door of communication with the millions he seeks to help is shut. But it is our teachers who are opening these doors for us and are patiently making intelligible those amazing strings of rapid fire sounds. They deserve our undying gratitude. With good reason then, do we dedicate this account of our first year's ex- perience and observation in China to our Chinese teachers. Our teachers have not only given us an introduction to the language, great as that task is, but they have also introduced us to the mind and heart of China. In them is personified the courtesy, kindness and good fellowship which are characteristic of the nation. They are living examples of infinite patience. Their ability as teachers has given us an insight into the wonder- ful capacity of the Chinese people. We are happy to count them as personal friends, and to convey to them this mark of our high esteem and gratitude. "THE LINGUIST" CHARLES SCULL KEEN. M.A. DEAN. DEPARTMENT os MISSIONARY TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF NANKING A "THE LINGUIST" A Trlbute To Our Dean 'I have fought the good fight, I have finish ed the course, I have kept the faith ' II Tum 4 7 Worn out by a raging fever wuth serious complncatxons, Charles Scull Keen fought the good fight and I-inxshed the course at 9 40 pm on May twentleth after a servxce of 21 years ln China Hls was a vigorous lnsplrmg and vncto rxous personalxty He fought agamst pretense, sham, evxl and unrlghteousness m any form and fought for the advancement of the Kingdom of God everywhere and partxcularly ln China We shall remember him for hls msplrmg personality, for his spontaneous wit which dally qulckened our minds and lxghtened our task and for the bngness of hxs spxrlt, for hxs emphasxs on essentials and for hxs mspxratlon nn servxce Lack of space prevents an adequate ap preclatlon of his work lf we were capable of makmg one but xt must be recogmzed that his development of methods of teaching Chmese smce the foundmg of the Language School nn 1912, wnll stand as a monument to his greatness as a teacher and as a standard for the future He had the faculty to make a very dlffxcult subject a surprnsmgly pleasant task Further than thxs ran throughout all the actlvltles of has department the motif of iittmg the student for effective and full servlce In Mlssxonary work These dommant purposes were carried out to the hlghe t degree by the organlzatnon of the Department of Missionary Trammg He enhsted the loyalty of his large staff of Chinese teachers as well as of hundreds of students who studied under him And withal he was an unfalllng friend We stxll feel the force of has personality, and we know that hxs wlsh for us even now ns to "carry "To us he flung the torch, "This ours to hold it high.' The Student Body Nanking Language School. . 11.1. . , , - . A-1 o 4 1 - 1 1 1 . 1,, 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 l " 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 0 1 1 . 1 .I . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 . . 1 1 1 97 011 7 1 "THE LINGUIST" . I' ,' 1 CHIA FUH TANG. PRINCIPAL OF THE NANKING LANGUAGE "THE PRINCE OF PEDAGOGUESU SCHOOL "THE LINGUIST" 9 THE LINGUIST STAFF EDITORIAL STAFF Editor . . W. C. Lcwvniaumimc Associate Editor . . EMELINE BUWNE. ---4+-o-1 CONTRIBUTING STAFF, by Departments. Medical . Evangelistic Educational Sociological Historical Art . Activities Social . Literary . Photographer , 1 , n , . . R. A. PETERSON. OSWAI.D G-OULTER. . . A. BREDE. J. W. Decker. MRS. I-I. C. Rum.. . Mus. RUTH QP. BREDE. LOUIS BYSTED . Miss BERTHA PARK. Miss DoRoT1-Iv BASCOM ' iS. P. KIRN . C. L. WOODBRIDGE BUSINESS STAFF Business Manager . . CARL ROBART Circulation Manager . I. B. YAUKEY. 10 "THE LINGUIST" I , nq.' -. -v I I - J 1 1: 'mm 115 l LINGUIST STAFF. 1922-23 BOTTOM ROW LEFT 'TO RIGHT: WOODBRIDGE. RUHL. PARK, KIRN. SECOND ROW LEFT TO RIGHT: ROBART. BOWNE. LOWDERMILK. BASCOM. GOULTER. THIRD ROW LEFT TO RIGHT: BYSTED. PETERSON. YAUKEY. DECKER, BREDE. ' . MRS. BREDE ABSENT. 'lTHE LINGUIST" 11 C O N T E N T S BY GENERAL TOPICS 1 Page Chinese Medicine . 14 ff The Glad Evangel . . 21 ff Education, The Ten Per Cent .... . 33 if Social Aspects of the Confiict of Two Civilizations 40 ff Jottings from Chinese History . . . 48 ff Famines and Their Prevention. 55 rf Chinese Athletics . , .62 , The Language School . . 63 1? From the Eastyand from the NVest . 67 ll School Calendar .... 71 Activities outside the Curriculum . 78 China for christ-Hymn . . 85 i A Day at Language School 87 tif Learning Chinese . 91 Daily Chapel Service . 95 hc Social Life . . . 97 H' The Language School Play 103 As the Guest of an official . 106 Seeing Palestine in China. 109 Whatto take to China . 113 12 'fTI-IE LINGUIST" FOREWO RD. Perhaps only the newcomer would be so bold as to undertake the publication of a book with the avowed purpose of Thr: Linguist this year. The justification of the task must rest with our readers. To state the primary purpose specifically, it is to make articulate the first year's reactions of the resident student body of the Language School, to the conditions in Chinaias we find and understand them. And. in addition to this purpose it is hoped that this volume will furnish reminders of the many happy associations together. At the outset, we are mindful of the general unfairness of first impressions. The newcomer to any country enters, so to speak, by the back gate and is apt to see more, in proportion, of the unsavory conditions than one who is a long resident. It is rarely that the first year's resident comes to know the best features of a country. For this reason it is not the intention of the editorial staff to exaggerate many features of China that have been used in the past perhaps too often to arouse interest in the work for China. It is rather to give our readers glimpses of our visions of the fundamental forces that are at work or must be put to work in this period of renaissance in China. We may have undervalued some and overvalued others. Consequently The Linguist can in no wise compete with the works on China written by residents of long standing. Nor is it the intention that it should. It is only hoped that our first year's impressions will find a corresponding appreciation in the minds of thinking persons in the Home lands and will both arouse interest in and create friends for China at a time of her greatest need for guidance and counsel of true friends. The plan of the book is to make a brief survey ofthe several fields of endeavor in China coupled with a projection of the work to be done. as well as to givea "close up" of the activities of our first year at Language School. The subjects are listed in the table of contents. NVithout the full and generous cooperation of the entire student body this book would have been impossible, and the Editor wishes to take this opportunity to bespeak his lasting appreciation of the counsel, inspiration and assistance from the staff individually and from the Student body as a whole throughout the work of publishing The Linguist. In response to the call for material much more has come in than could possibly be included within the covers of this volume. And the selection has had to be made on the basis of representative articles as well as to length. For this generous response the Editor is very thankful. W. C. L. ANCIENT LIND OF CHINA ANCIENT LAND OF CHINA Oh ancient land of China, Four thousand years, the same, WVhose glory lay in wisdom, Whose scholars gave them fame 5 Oh China we all love thee, And pray that God may he Thy source of all true knowledge, Andlearning's deepest sea. Oh beautiful for rivers, A Rich plains and mountains vast, Whose voice of inspiration, Has sounded from the pastg Today, God calls thee, China, To stand with those who see, The problems of the future Have also need of thee. Though once thy gifted sages Had seen a light afar, They lost the purer radiance Of Christ, the Christmas starg His love, by faith illumed, His peace, awaiteth thee, To teach thee God, the Father, Whose truth sets all men free. May every gate be open, May every city wall Behold the new world vision, NVith Christ supreme o'er all. Lord God, raise for us leaders, That China strong may be, And thru thy Church triumphant, Attain to unity. -Margaret Dieter Sung to tune Materna 14 "THE LINGUIST" CHINESE MEDICINE THE ART OF HEALING IN ANCIENT CHINA. The history of the art of healing in China throws much light on the backward state of medicine. Going back to times of great antiquity, we find the record of Shen-nung1fB. C. 2737-2697j who is known as the father of Chinese medicine. He compiled a book giving the curative and toxic effects of a great number of herbs thus bringing together the first collection of medical knowledge in China of which we have any record. ' In the tenth century B. C. free clinics were established by govern- mental edict? The decree of Han Pinl A. D. made definite pro- visions for isolating cases oi contagious diseases in outhouses where they could be treated, thus anticipating the modern isolation hospital. Charity hospitals were founded at the time of Nan Tsi. Buddhism, after its introduction into China about 65 A. D.,- was very active in organizing Homes for the Sick which were managed by priests and nuns. These Homes continued until 845 A. D. when they were demolished in accordance with imperial decree and the Budd- hists compelled to return to private life. Following 985 A. D., governmental institutions were founded to care for the sick and provisions made in them for training practitioners of medicine. Hwa Teo, who lived at the time of the Three Kingdoms, was celebrated for his skill in surgery. .He meta tragic end at the hands of the ruler of one of the kingdoms because he advised trephin- ing the rulers skull forthe relief of an obstinate headache due ap- parently to ,intracranial disease. This eminent surgeon was credited with the performance of many successful surgical and medical measures. Unfortunately, his records were burned by the wife of his prison attendant and the knowledge that Hwa Teo attempted to hand' down to posterity was lost because of her superstitious fears. FACTORS CAUSING DEGENERATION OF CHINESE MEDICINE From these isolated instances, we see that, almost before Vlfestern medicine had its birth, Chinese medicine had made beginnings in most of the helds of medical endeavor. Yet none' of these movements survived to a healthy growth. Their degeneration was usually a matter of a few decades at the most. That this should have hap- pened was .inevitable when one considered the system under which they developed. A great part of the medical knowledge worked out by men of genius and observation was lost, or distorted due to the fact that such knowledge was handed down from father to son. Inevitably, superstition, magic rites, and folklore sayings crept in and soonf the merits of the original discovery were hidden under a mass of details which destroyed its value. The high ideal of medicine as a science for the good of society as a whole was not manifest in the practice of the native doctor. Naturally the lack of such ideals among the members of the profession precluded the possibility CHINESE MEDICINE 15 of the people having any greater regard for the skill of the doctor than they did for the soothsayer or the temple priest. In fact, because of the supposed supernatural origin of bodily ills, the temple priest was consulted as frequently as the doctor and his copy of magic rites secured and burned to the sound of throbbing drum and low toned bell. Even the ignorant coolie of the street who had secured a prescription of a remedy with occult powers was deemed worthy of a trial, The men of worth and knowledge and reputation with lines of treatment of dehnite value had to combine their few helpful facts with rites of magic and superstition to satisfy a clientele haunted by a fear of the supernatural. 1 '-JWVV ' ni A fipi ,229 J . iff 4 'ai 0 xi H ?,v: VV? V AAF The Yang and Yin CONCEPTIONS UNDERLYING CHINESE 'MEDICINE 3 The teachings of Chinese medicine are a weird mixture of facts. misconceptions, and superstitions. They rest on the fundamental -belief that life is based on the perfect equilibrium of two principles the Yang and the Yin. These two principles are supposed to underly the universe and their expression in the human body is but one manifestation of universal life. The Yang is the warm, active principle and is symbolized by the sun. The Yin is the moist passive principle and is symbolized ,by shadow. If the 'Yang is in excess, there is a condition of excitation. If the Yin is in excess, there is a condition of depression. The action of these two principles is manifested in twelve organs. The six organs in which the Yang is found are located inthe abdomen. The six in which the Yin resides are the brain, spleen, right kidney, and the organs found in the chest. These twelve organs are connected to each other and to the hands and feet by twelve channels, six for the Yang and six forthe Yin. The Yang tends to arise in the body and the Yin tends to descend. METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT. The practitioner of Chinese medicine considers the pulse as the most important diagnostic element and, frequently, its palpitation is the only examination made. The right hand of the physician is :used to feel the left pulse of the patient and, with the left hand, he 16 "THE LINGUIST" feels the right pulse. The pulse must be palpated with each finger at weak, moderate. and strong pressures for a period of nine in- spirations. Each finger of the physician reveals information con- cerning the condition of a specific part of the body. There are twenty four main types of pulses and twenty seven which prog- nosticate death. Occasionally, the tongue is examined if the pulse does not give sufficient information. From its appearance some thirty six conditions can be diagnosed. All organs have their appropriate elements, colors. times, and seasons. For instance. the- heart has red as its color, fire as its element, summer as its season. and noon as its hour. Therefore, heart troubles would be apt to manifest themselves in a flushed, feverish patient who became ill at noon on a summer day. The remedies used by the Chinese doctor uncontaminated by' VVestern medicine are many in number and various in source. They range from bones of the tiger. much prized for relieving nervous debility, to kaolin, arsenic, andthe mereurials which are used for some of the same conditions in which they have been found of value in Occidental medicine. Rice wine is used to prepare tinctures and extracts of herbs, barks, seeds, and roots. Plasters are favorite remedies. In some districts acupuncture is extensively usedl for treating disease. there being three hundred and eighty recognized sites where the body may be punctured by the needle used. THE INADEQUACY OF CHINESE MEDICINE. The basic conceptions underlying Chinese medicine renders it impossible that this system can be adequately developed to meet the needs of the people. Without definite knowledge of the structure- of the human body, with misconceptions of the functions of the various organs, with vague, erroneous ideas of the causation of disease. there has been no opportunity to build up a rational. science. The ,higher ideals that should underly the relation of physician to the- social order have been lacking. There is no knowledge of pre- ventitive medicine and hygiene. Except in isolated instances, com- municable diseases are not recognized as such. Yet, until the advent of Western medicine, one fourth of the world's population depended on this system for its medical needs. Even under present conditions, it is estimated that over ninetynine per cent of the sick of China receive no other treatment than that administered by the native- trained doctor, the neighbor, or the temple priest. 4 1-.. , . 0, f-IVA. it WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA 17 WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA EARLY BEGINNINGS. One of the first records of the use of foreign remedies in China was the administration of quinine for the relief of a fever to the emperor Kang Hsi in 1692 by Jesuit missionaries. The results were successful and aided in maintaining cordial relations between the imperial court and the Jesuits. The next work was done by doctors associated with the East India Company. Pearson vaccinated some Chinese against smallpox in 1805, Morrison and Livingston opened a dispensary for the poor in Canton in 1820 and Colledge opened the Macao Ophthalmic Hospital in 1827. The work of these men among the Chinese supplemented their work among the representatives and employees of the East India Company. The lirst medical missionary appointed as such was Parker of Yale who came to Canton in 1835 and opened a hospital there. This institution with its glorious tradition of service is still carried on in better equipped surroundings but with the same lofty aims and ideals that characteriied the original enterprise. The high purpose dominating the aim of the early missionaries, is well stated in the terms they used to define their aim. This aim they stated was to bring the Gospel of jesus Christ to the Chinese, to work in conjunction with other mis- sionary forces, to aid in the winning of conlidence and allaying of suspicion, to relieve physical suffering, and to train Chinese youths to help their own people. One of the large modern Mission Hospitals in China 18 "THE LINGUIST" GRONVTH. By 1850, nine medical missionaries had arrived for work in China. By 1887, more than one hundred and. fifty had worked in China. In, 1902, after the Boxer' uprising, there were one hundred men and women engaged in medical work. The great impetus given missionary work following the Boxer trouble was especially noted among the medical forces. By 1917, there were fourhundred medical missionaries in China and, at present,,there are over five hundred medical represen- tatives of the various missionary societies in the field. ' . This force of doctors is working in two hundred and seventy five hospitals. A number of these'hospitals have been built, organized, and staffed by the women members of the profession. invaluable service is rendered by foreign nurses without whose help the high grade, efficient work set as an ideal would be impossible of fulfillment. Pharmacists, dentists, and laboratory teclmicians fill essential places toward rounding out service that the medical profession is giving the Chinese people. ' . MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA The greater part of medical education in China has been carried on in schools founded, manned and supported by missionary forces. The present medical schools have grown from humble beginnings to magnificent institutions because of the vision held by those great spirits who founded them and the strong men who still carry on. Efforts are being concentrated in building up the present institutions to a high plane where they can turn out graduates with higher grade scientific training and backed by the worthy traditions and high ideals of the medical professions of Europe and America. Themedical schools supported by foreign agencies cannot hope to provide an adequate medical personnel for the four hundred million people of China but they can blaze the way by furnishing China with model schools and hospitals and by training men forleadership in building up the Chinese medical profession. "THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE LIFE." Weamissionaries of a later day will, in all probability, never ap- preciate the difficulties and discouragements that were endured by these resolute predecessors of ours. Faced with antagonism, privation, lack of companionship, meager equipment, and little funds, they succeeded through great faith. They gave their all, some through years of service in the great cities, others through work in the far frontier stations. They gave health to millions of the sick of body and through the love and confidence thus won pointed their patients on to the Great Ideal. Day after day, week after week, year after year, they worked -on. Overcoming great obstacles that they might fulfill their great purpose. The memory of those who have given their lives that the millions of China mighthave more abundant physical and spiritual life is a wonderful inspiration to us who follow on. The great traditions of their love and sacrifice, the records that they left in the hearts of those whom they loved and served, and the great works that live after them testify to their wholehearted service to the Master. They have left us a noble heritage to carry on to high fulfillment and we can do no less than accept this sacred trust. WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA 19 THE NEED OF HELP. The survey of past accomplishments is a challenge to us to take up and extend the work. This challenge is made doubly emphatic when we survey the enormous needs of China which are now met in so small a way. At the present ltime, each hospital has an average quota of one and one third million people. Of two hundred and forty :six hospitals reporting, sixty nine per cent have only one doctor. Each doctor has an 'average quota ofover three quarters of a million of people. Fifty two percent of the hospitals in which these doctors serve have no foreign nurses. Because of the comparatively small .number of hospitals and the limitedstaffs, only eight out of every hundred sick Chinese are seen by these doctors or their Chinese assistants. This means that each year in China. a column of people standing three abreast and reaching from New York to San .Francisco are without any adequate medical attention during their illness. To bring the present hospitals upto the minimum standard advised by the China. Medical Missionary Association of two foreign doctors and one foreign nurse to each hospital, one hundred and seventy doctors and one hundred and thirty nurses are needed. Yet these hospitals when staff and maintenance and equipment are fully provided can only hope to serve a small percentage of the Chinese people. - . ' mx.: 'M ,,' , . l - ', i . ,, , ' V - , r , 4.-5' - 1 I. 1' N-A . if - s , , Washing rice and vegetables, preparatory to cooking, in a pond which receives sewage and other filth. Only by drinking tea does the Chinese escape epidemics of communicable diseases from sm face pools such as these. Wells furnish only a small part of the drinking water used by the people. 20 "THE LINGUISTH THE CALL OF THE SERVICE. The call of the service extends into many fields. To those who are interested in preventitive medicine and public health with their problems of sanitation and popular education, China otiers the greatest field in the world today. To those who are interested in fighting those great scourges of mankind such as tuberculosis and leprosy, there are millions waiting with their faces turned toward the wall for one who can give them hope. To those with the blood of pioneers in their veins, the call comes to enter the new fields out on the far frontiers where the great adventure of bringing a gospel of love and service and healing has a virgin field. The call comes to each one so equipped that they can help bring this service to its fullness. Doctor, nurse. pharmacist, dentist, technican, all are needed to complete the work. And in all and through all this service as a golden thread runs ,the fact that many of thosewho are reached by the ministry of healing are brought into contact with the Great' Physician and, through him, receive the gift of life eternal. Acknowledgment is made to Drs. King, Voss and Vtfoodbridge whose invaluable assistance made this paper possible. R. A. Psrizxsou. M. D. References. 1. MacGowan: A History of China. 2. Wong: Chinese Hospitals in Ancient Times. C.M.M. jour., Vol. XXXVII, QNO. 1. 3. Cadbury: Medicine as Practised by the Chinese, C. M. M. jour., Vol. XXXVII, No. 6. 4. Balme: Modern Medicine in China. A Tea House THE GLAD EVANGEL 21 TI-IE GLAD EVANGEL What is "Evangelistic Work" in China? NVhat does the evangelistic missionary do? Does he hold big evangelistic campaigns? Does he have charge of a church and preach regularly? VVhat are the needs and opportunities in the evangelistic iieltl in China just now P . Is the greatest need for evangelistic workers or for educational workers in China just now? These questions and many others crowd upon young people at home when their thoughts turn toward missionary work as a career, If we may judge by memories of our own days of preparation. An attempt will be made to answer these and various other queries from the point of view of a group of students who have spent one brief, crowded and happy year in China. Only a year ago we were college and university students at home, so we look at our Iield of service- from the'point-of view of the present generation of students and young people. It is a proud day for a man when he gets "a call to a larger field of service." The first thing we realized when we found ourselves deposited in the midst of about 400 million souls was that we have been called to "a larger ileld of service" with a vengeance. If there are too many struggling churches in your town we would like to give You a call to this larger field. You may have the care of a hundred thousand souls not one of whom has ever heard an adequate presenta- tion of the gospel. They have never seen one of Christ's"'living Epistles" and they never will see and never will hear these things unless you come. , Just how does the evangelistic missionary set about his work? His methods are varied. I-Ie rarely holds big evangelistic campaigns and if he does hold them, he usually has Chinese to do the reaching, In fact he is not primarily a "preacher" at all. He may inrequently preach on Sundays but the Chinese preachers are of course much more effective for regular preaching t an a foreigner can hope to be. The foreign evangelist does, however, have a vast number of duties which are most essential to successful missionary work. He may oversee the work of from one to fifty native helpers. These will be- preachers, evangelists, teachers, bible women, carpenters, gardeners, etc. Usually a man takes charge of the men's work and a woman missionary oversees that for the women. The evangelistic missionary must aid in and organize the work of preaching, singing, social service, visiting the sick, famine relief, advising and guiding new Converts, see to the payment of native helpers, teach his preachers- and helpers, ,direct the construction and repair of buildings and furniture, carry on boys clubs and reading rooms organize numerous bible classes and inquirers classes, distribute portions of scripture and other literature. He may have anything up to thirty outstations which he must visit once or twice or even more times a year. He ,22 "THE LINGUIST' will find every imaginable kind of complication in the work, all of which he is expected to straighten out. ln short, he is responsible for guiding the education in Christian ideals of all his constituency from kindergarten to native pastors. ln the Language School are new missionaries connected with many denominations. They represent every shade of theological belief, yet to the best of our knowledge there has not been a shade of dissensionor unpleasant controversy during the whole year. This is because we are faced with a gigantic taskg the winning of China for Christ. When our many denominations realize the world's sad and bitter need they can and will unite, not on statement of doctrine, but on something far more important, i.e.g the winning of the world to its Savior. "Don't interfere with them, their religion is all right for them and they get alongall right." it hardly seems necessary to answer that objection to mission work, but perhaps a 'few illustrations will show the reasons for evangelistic work in China as we see it. A few brief word pictures will perhaps enable you to judge for yourself whether or not we should give them a knowledge of Christ. Outside our gate the women are washing their food in a filthy pool witha green scum on it. In the same pool they wash their clothes and let the ducks and geese paddle. Filthy sewerage empties into it and a vile stench arises, but every day they sit on the bank and wash their rice and vegetables there. Of course disease sweeps off multitudes. The 'Village Washtub A THE GLAD EVANGEL. - 23 , A religious procession is passing. It consists of the most disreputable looking women carrying torn banners, little children. half-clothed in rags and dragging little wagons filled with the most inane looking wooden dummies Iever saw, a few priests in dirty brown gowns complete the procession. Such a procession often. presents the most despicable travesty on religion that could well be- lmagined. . Step inside this temple, to one side is a ragged shake-down in. which the dirty, stolid-looking priest sleeps. Behind the idol are some dirty tables on which tea is served if you order it. Before the Idol is an old can lilled with sticks. For the fraction of a penny you may have the priest shake the can and the stick that first tumbles out will tell your fortune. One's ideas of a "temple" suffera sudden. eclipse. This dirt and squalor a temple? Yes indeed! And that represents religion to masses of people in many towns and villages we- have seen. NW .t4159.1.-ff:-5'3jjQ :H '. ' " j'3'i'7" ' 7 - J. 1 - ' . qt. Vg . V" it v half' V" . 55121. X ' I . t. F1 l l is i . .-W ,"f.j,l '-ue. 'y uf "'A,ist.. ' in I v Ul mer ? ' A..-M, -K rx. A+ .tigvi - ,r L ' E 'U 'mfr '1:p.,,, . t . .- ' -' -is A, ' -swf ' ' ' W ifffxfftliiir' X . , X 'Ki tt, Children in the Street. A woman sits beside the dusty road dressing a child's sores. She- Was tearing the scabs off the suitering child's head, as the little one Sat in the dust and dirt of the hot street, swaying in its weakness and exhaustion. A tilthy, agonized little child, an ignorant, stolid mother' Outside a hovel of a home. Do they need Christ? Of course many Chinese deplore these conditions just as we do, but they have no remedy. Christian friends, you have. You have life and love and hope and joy in Christ. We are overwhelmed with the immensity oi our task, "Come over and help us l" So universal is the feeling that the missionary is somehow not just an ordinary mortal that one aspect of his life almost came as a. surprize to us. We discovered that the missionaries' life is a perfectly normal, vigorous human life. Most people have the tendency to Drovincialism which makes them feel that the particular spot on the- globe with which they are familiar is the mosh, if not the only,- 24 "THE LINGUIST" desirable place in which. to live. W'e are all somewhat like the man in the Arkansas mountains who, when he heard ol New York said, "How can people bear to live so far away." So people as they consider missionary work, think that life in the mission field, a place "so far away," cannot be quite normal. The first year at Nanking quite disillusions one. Here we have electric lights, a large daily newspaper, from Shanghai with as up-to-the- minute news as the' average American paper. We turn to "Mut and Jef" and "Bringing up Father" before perusing the news columns just as do the folks at home. There are three or four deliveries of mail a day. One may have the tradesman call, including the barber and tailor if he wants them. We have regular train and boat service several times daily, automobiles and even radio broadcasting. You may have your library and typewriter and almost anything else you have at home. The fact is China is no "further away" than London or New York or Berlin or San Francisco or Melbourne, in fact one rapidly comes to feel that the Chinese were partly right when they called China the "Middle Kingdom." When we go to our stations we do not have so many conveniences, but we have something worth more than all of them put togetherg we have the most fascinating work that ever falls to the lot of man to do, the building of a great people in the knowledge of Christ. we-TTR-Iliff -N W ' is This building constructed of bamboos and matting is the type of building used for evangelistic meetings in Nanking THE GLAD EV.-XNGEL 25 CHINESE EVANGELISTIC MEETINGS The time of special evangelistic endeavor thruout China is during the Chinese New Year holiday season. Every church has its campaign with revival services and the use of other evangelistic agencies such as posters, tracts and prayermeetings. This is an opportune time because all work has ceased, all stores are closed and the people who work long hours the rest of the year have a complete holiday. It is not only an opportune time but a very necessary time for the Christian forces to show their utmost activity. With millions of peopleihaving nothing to do' but ainuse themselves and the only forms of amusement they know being connected with some form of gfambling, the appeal to the church is tremendous. The weaker Christians must be looked after and kept from falling back, while the Crowds of people must be reached. v-. .. , - ' -e.t.....i, ...--- - V -- Two men paste up large gospel posters and then turn round and preach to the crowd that invariably gathers. This is part of the work of the Biola Evangelistic Bands in I-Ionan. The ten bands with twelve men CChinese3 in each band have in one year visited 200,000 homes and established 33 self-supporting churches. They have held bible-classes and conducted evangelistic services in scores of places. Thus evangelism goes on apace,.but huge areas are still untouched and await those from Christian lands who will say, "Here am I, send me." 26 "THE LINGUIST" In Nanking an amusement district exists which has many of the' same forms of amusements that go with street carnivals includingg sideshows, games of chance, street fakirs, and even the Punch and- judy shows. Here the people gather in such crowds that it is with dihiculty that one can make his way. Here it is that the clinches of Nanking have united in holding union evangelistic meetings. The mat shed shown in the above picture was built for the services. The building will seat about three hundred. The services last for several hours and the people come and go much as they do at a cou- tinuous performance moving picture show. A general invitation to become Christians can hardly be given for the polite Chinese would probably accept in a body. The Chinese may give ready assent to what the preacher is saying, for it is obviously good doctrine. His: ready acceptance of the doctrine, however, may carry no determination' to live a changed life nor to relinquish pagan practices. The greatest calamity that could befall a church would be to have a large member- ship of such people. If interested the people are invited to sign cards and they are then followed up by the mission working in their locality.. About 400 people signed cards during the progress of this meeting,. and many of these are now receiving regular instruction in the- Christian message. "COME ON IN, THE WATER'S FINE" After our first plunge into the depth of work in the "Flowery- Land" we say to all who stand on the bank anticipating the adventure, "Come on in, China's fine." T By the way, that is not a bad illustration of the way one feels when he once gets into missionarygwork. Before going in swimming a boy stands on the bank contemplating the cold water and shivering at the thought of the shock when the plunge shall be taken. After the first plunge, how delightfully refreshing the water is, what ex- hileration as you swing your arm in long vigorous strokes. So people often stand afar off and look upon the mission field as a place of deprivation and a place quite undesirable for "real guys" like them. lt is somewhat of a surprize to experience an all-round vigor, a physical, mental and spiritual exhileratiou during the first year in' China. The physical vigor is perhaps due to the climate for there's some snap to a Nanking winter, and you'd better prepare for it by bringing a few extra warm clothes along. There is some vigor too, in the eager mind of young China asyou find when you get into a bible class with a few dozen keenly alert individuals. You find when you meet the evangelistic, medical, and educational missionaries on the- field that you come in contact with a group of people with as vigorous mentality and energetic personalities as you have ever met. Still greater, tho, is the spiritual exhileration which comes to the missionary who sees the hungry multitude around him while he knows that he has the bread of life for which those millions wait. We glory in the' inestimable and boundless privilege of being, ambassaeliorsof God to. the largest race in this wide world.. TUHE GLAD EVANGEI, 27 THE NEED FOR EVANGELISTIC WORKERS As to the need for evangelistic workers in China, we want to present the situation as we see it. Medical missions were established for the combined purposes of the alleviation of suffering which is consequent upon the lack of medical care, and of winning the good will of the people. They have accomplished these purposes most gloriously. Now on the one hand medical education is firmly established in China, and sl1e is rapidly producing young doctors, and on the other hand the people are open to all kinds of missionary work and are generally very friendly toward the foreigner. The evangelistic workers should now quickly step into the open door which our medical brethren have provided for us. They have done their work well. VVill the church now send out the thousands 'of capable, trained men needed to teach the millions that can be reached. Educational workers, also, have had two chief aims 5 to introduce Western education as an aid to the spread of the gospel, and to train leaders for the church and for the nation. China has learned the need for modern education and is establishing schools of every grade from kindergarten to university. There is still equally great need for instilling Chinese leaders with the Christian ideal, but these leaders must now be very largely reached during their period of study in government schools. The great need now is for evangelistic workers with preparation in the best methods of religious education, so that the pupils of government schools can be preached. We can let the government schools teach what are usually thought of as the secular subjects while we supply the religious training so greatly needed by China's future leaders. No more opportune moment could be desired than the present offers. Students are interested in everything western, and can be reached thru athletics and games of all kinds, clubs, bible classes, etc. The ancient religions of China are almost utterly discredited among students and something must quickly take their place. Fellow Christian students ot the homeland, it is for yon to say what it shall be. The heart of the Chinese student,like many of his ancient temples from which the images have been cast out is an empty slhrine. Can you say "To write the name of Jesus there is my supreme elightf' 28 "THE LINGUIST" EVANGELIZING WITH DR. MACKLIN A morning spent with Dr. Macklin in the Nanking tea houses is anovel fascinating experience. Dr. Macklin is better known to the masses of people in this section of China than any other foreigner. He is not only known but is honored and lovedg honored for risking his life to Isave the city of Nanking from destruction during the revolution, and lovfed for his many years of medical service. During his thirty years in .China he has been one of the most daring and aggressive pioneers. inievangelisni, and .he is still at it. I-Ie attacks the absurd temple practices and yet is respected by the priests. .. . .1 ' On 'Sunday morning before breakfast Dr. Macklin with two or three students starts out on foot. After an hour's walk wc arrive at one of the big tea houses in the centre of Nanking's densest popula- tion. The tea house will seat five hundred people and is visited by more than that number during the course of the morning. The Doctor selectsa table directly in front of the door, gets the tracts ready for distribution, orders the meal, and as the people come in we hand each one some Christian literature. The novel and surprizing experience is not one whit more pleasant to a new-comer than are the delicious new flavors of the Chinese food. To adequately describe that meal alone would take more room than this whole narrative. so eating such a meal may be looked forward to as one of the delightful experiences awaiting the new-comer. Before all the literature is distributed hundreds of people will be seated at the tables reading the bible stories and the Christian messages. Tea and food will get cold on many a table as the readers learn of that bread of life, and of the water of life. perhaps for the first time. Here a silk gownecl business man will stop to talk with the Doctor or a Buddhist priest will sit and- chat. What seed is there sown, much of it in good ground, if fine faces and vigorous personalities are any evidence. One might sit in an American commercial hotel and see no more capable looking men than come to these tea houses to talk business and drink tea. In one day we distributed fifteen hundred pieces of literature. During the past eight years Dr. Macklin has distributed about one quarter of a million pieces of Christian literature. How many church members owe the inception of their interest in Christianity to Dr. Macklin's aggressive evangelism,ronly the judgment day will tell. To recount the fascinating incidents of one such morning would require many pages and to tell of similar trips to the country and to the villages would require a whole book. The mornings with Dr. Macklin are an invaluable part of a new missionaries introduction to China and to his particular type of evangelism. No missionary in China knows better how to talk to the common people than does Doctor Macklin. One of the best tributes to his conversational powers. in meeting with the rnan on the street was given by a Chinese who said, "His slang is excellent." ' p D NW i v THE GLAD' EVANGEI. 29 E WORK DURING THE FIRST YEAR During the first year in China and while we, the new mis- sionaries, are still in the language school our evangelistic work resembles the efforts of a young bird learning to fly. lt is feeble and circumscribed. We must study with patience the methods of older missionaries in hopes that later we will have language enough to take our place with them. Most of the language school students have class- es either for the teaching of English or for bible teaching at one or another of the Chinese schools in the city. This gives an oppor- tunity for reaching some of the many Chinese students in the city. The daily contact with teachers gives abundant opportunity to use what little language we have in presenting the Christian message. 'The teachers are a very fine group'of.scholarly men. a number of whom are not acknowledged Christians. However the consecrated Christian life is ever the most potent factor in Christian evangelism and the day must come when the influence of Christian lives will win .all the teachers to Christ. As the year progresses students take more and more part in the work at various mission centres in the city, while second year students teach bible classes and occasionally preach in Chinese. Tract distribu- tion and occasional broken conversation with casual Chinese acquain- tances together with the above activities make up the chief evangelistic efforts of the Language School year. ,, THE WORK OF THE FOREIGN EVANGELIST l , I.N,Cl-IINA This is the day of great- 'intellectual awakening in Chinag her ,young men are fearlessly searching for truth wherever it may be found. The book-stores are flooded with magazines filled with all sorts of progressive ideas on philosophy, science, religion, and society, thc product of the mind of "Young China," During this time of intellectual quickening naturally the Chinese Christians feel that they should have control of their own church. Many foreign workers believe that the present generation will surely see the management of the Christian church pass from foreign to Chinese hands. ln such a situation what shall be the work of the foreign evange- list? It is for older and more experienced men to give an adequate answer. To one in the Language School, looking ahead however, it seems thata few main lines of effort need emphasis. The foreign evangelist must be a man of spiritual power, that is, he must be a genuine representative of Christ. China has intellect, physical power, and marvellous adeptness in manual arts. She can learn only from those who have been with Jesus of the riches and depth of spiritual life with God. The evangelist should be a representative of Christ rather than of any denomination. Today in China when all things are being tested and nothing is accepted on authority of foreigners, the various sects of western Christendom are under scrutiny as never before. The Chinese see no need for some hundred and fifty different groups all professing to work toward the same end, and nevertheless often conflicting with each other. The evangelist of today must place his loyalty above denominations, even with Christ. ff! SIZE? X -X group of idols-each of which represents fl demon or good spirit. Lo 'J H .L iff UNIT JS I fl is THE CHINESE FUNERAL 31 Furthermore, the evangelist should remember that he has come to China to counsel with and advise the Chinese in the conduct of their own church. I-Ie is not a diviiiely appointed boss, though he may have had a definite call to his field of work. His chief joy should be to 'decrease while his Chinese colleagues increase in power, in influence, and in the controlot his work. just in line with this aim, it would seem a wise plan to spend much time in the training of leaders rather than attempting a more general evangelistic campaign which cannot be adequately followed with the necessary training and education to make it effective. A test of such service might beg how many preachers, teachers and writers-Christian leaders of thought- have been influenced? There is a large place for the foreign leader in the development -of religious education in the schools. There is need for trainingin Christian worship, the spiritualizing of prayer, the instilling in the minds and hearts of Chinese youth the beauty and religious concepts found in our Scriptures. There need be nofcondemnation of non- Christian customs, but the quiet teaching of the good, the beautiful, and the true as found in the Bible will commend itself to the students, and the Christian message itself will prove to be its own best advocate. The foreign evangelist will find opportunity also to lead the way in the application of the gospel to social conditions. If the so-called "Christian" west has been slow to realize the social implication of the gospel, is it any wonder that non-Christian China has placed little emphasis on the value of human life or cared whether thousands of the coolie class lived or died? This attitude is changing, and in- stitutional churches are being built to carry their message of practical salvation to the city throngs. Chinese Christians are beginning to realize that economic wrongs done to their brothers are their concern. Here there is need for the finest cooperation and counsel on the part -of the evangelist, for the Chinese Christian has but little experience. Christianity is the Christlike life lived by men. and needs nothing but its own expression for its propagation. The supreme task of the foreign evangelist is to live that life, trusting in the God whom he serves to do the rest. Collaborators: GRACE M. P11412 j. P. FOLLETTE j. I-li. RICCALLUM Oswsmm GoU1,'1'ER. A c1-nNEsi3 FUNERAL Yesterday there passed through the streets of the city the long- est funeral procession I have ever seen since arriving in China. It took one hour for it to pass any single point. For variety of para- phernalia used, this procession, apart from royalty, would have no peer. There were trumpeters blowing the familiar notes of the march of the dead. There were military and police bandsg two lines of boys and girls of schools presumably supported by the deceased, two drvismnsvof Buddhist and of Taoist priests: dining tables set with food .md carried by bearers: tables of sticks o-f sandal woodgan 32 ' ""l'i:-IE l,lNGUIST"' automobile cleverly fashioned of bamboo and paper, a carriage three fourths' size, drawn by a life-sized paper horse mounted on wheels: large tloats of sacred animals'and birds made of gorgeous yellow chrysanthemumsg children carrying numerous silk banners, huge paper men, boxes, furniture, etc, tablets borne of fourg an enlarged picture of the deceased, as wgll as .a sta.tue,.als.o,,borne on a sacred table. A riderless horse immediately preceded the line of special friends of the deceased who were walking within long streamers of white cloth. The coffin, covered with a red pall of richly embroidered satin was carried on a large platform swung from a pole with a dragon's tail at one end and the dragopnfspliead, with long white beard and deer's horns, at the other. Immediately in front of the coffin, borne by thirty-two coolies, were the sons, dressed in white cotton cloth, with a head dress of sack-cloth. These sons were each carried hy two friends. As the procession passed the banks of the deceased and the shops- of special friends, there was a pause while mats were spread on the streets and the sons bowed with their heads to the ground. The pro- prietors came out and also bowed down before the broken-hearted QU mourners. Lastly came a score or more of sedan chairs bearing the wives, concubines, and children of the household, wailing out their grief. ' During one of these pauses, I inquired ofa gentleman inthe procession who the deceased was, and what was the approximate- expenditurc. He said that the deceased was Chen Shiso4mei, one of the wealthiest citizens in the province, that there was being expended fully 325,000 on the funeral, and that the procession alone cost about i53,000. NVhen the average wage of a day laborer is not more than 255.00 a month, one can by comparison realize how enormous the expenditure of this funeral really was. .ln the procession were scores of beggars, men, women, and children, employed to carry banners, for which they each received a few pennies. As I stood in- the midst of the huge crowd of on-lookers, I recalled the lines of Gray's e'eg5': "The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power," with the- accent of "boast" and "pomp" Residing in a city with a population' of 800,000, with its- very limited recreational facilities in librariesg thousands of poor children such as those who carried the things in the procession, who because of the pinch of' poverty are deprived of an educationg public sanitation at a standstill because of the lack of public funds? places of historic interest fallen into decayg one can readily appre- ciate what there is of apathy, of selfishness, of utter lack of con- sciousness in folks who are. of a civilization thoroughly saturated' with heathen practices. ' ' - 1 If a son in China ,wishes to show filial devotion to an aged or sick father, he buys the casket and places it around the house in order to prove that ie is preparing a good future life for the father, THE TEN PERCENT A33 THE TEN PERCENT y Every one who comes to China, whether Christian' worker or mere traveler, visits the old Examination Halls which are in every capital city. In many places they are in complete ruing in others the material has been used to build schools for Western educationg and in still others, as in Nanking, sectionsofe them have been preserved as monuments to Chinese scholarship. Each booth is about three feet square' by six high: They are built in long rows, cover acres and acres, and mnnber in each place into the thousands. Three-day examinations were held in these booths annually. The candidates for honors 'were shut up in them for three days, during which they wrote essaysrunder eightheadsg if they were successful they passed-were recommended for special examination at Pekingg if they were physically weak and could not stand the strain they passed out, and were carried out of their cubby-holes the next morn- ing. The subjects of the examination were the Chinese Classics, literature and history, nothing ofa practical nature. Education was not considered as an end in itself, but merely a means to political office. It was not unusual, then, to find men of eighty and ninety taking the examinations. I learn from a Chinese teacher that besides the Chinese language, literature,and classics, a little geography and astrology were taught in the schools. When a Chinese boy recited to his teacher he stood with his back to the tutor, holding out his hand, palm up, behind him. For every error in reciting the lesson he should have memorized, he received from one to ten stinging blows from the teacher's ferule, the number depending upon the disposition of the teacher. ' This 'ruly' element of education is probably still retained in many private and government schools. 1 The scholarship of the old education is comparable to that of the Medieval Scholastsf There was nothing forward-looking in it, everything was referred back to authority, the more ancient the authority or the source, the more certain and truthful the matter. China has never 'reasoned induetively, if she has reasoned at all. This presents a striking "contrast to Occidental education, which is now based on the scientific spirit and not on books and ancient lore. The purposes of our 'education is to give us as complete and varied a store of knowledge as possible and to train us to use that knowledge that we may live in understanding of our fellows and to fit us to be of most service to them. Our education brings us closer to life and to life's problems and is forward-looking. Under the old Chinese system, the more a man studied, the--farther removed he was from the problems of life. True, he studied ethics, but this only in the abstract and as a sort of ideal ethics, much as we should study Plato's "Republic" to-day. His learning was not applied to life, even though the ultimate goal of all his laborious memorizing wasaposition in authority over multitudes. Education was individual, unorganized, haphazard, in private schools of a few students each, or by tutor. I 34 " THE LINGUIST " Fortunately, by lmperial Decree, this old education was abolished in September, 1905, and plans for universal governmental education were instituted. Primary education was to be made compulsoryg all the provincial governments . were to establish primary, high tmiddlej, and normal schoolsg and the national government was to es- tablish universities, technical colleges and higher normal schools. A good beginning has been made, but much of the tax money that should go to education goes to pay the army and government otiicials and sinecures in the school administration, so that there is little left for teaching. And the subjects of the new education are decidedly Occidental in nature and number. But so far, compulsory education exists in the edict only. Regarding government schools, since the report for the year ending july 31, 1916, no statistics have been issued by the minister of education. The iigures for that year are as follows: I Kind of School No. of Schools No. of Students Primary Schools- 1126, 71412 127,714 4,186,962 industrial 8 similar Schools of Primary Grade- l.7ll 531,10-l Middle Schools 444 69,770 Normal Schools, Secondary grade ,211 27,975 Industrial Sz other Schools of Secondary Grade- 455 28,710 Higher Normal Schools- 10 2,357 Colleges, Professional Schools 19-Us 76 25,373 Total. . . . . 130,621 4,294,251 Of course there has been much progress since 1916, but as the figures of that year are somewhat only on paper they may be taken as tairly accurate of conditions to-day. For the number of schools and students listed, there were 198,976 teachers and 130,799 adminis- trative officers: for every three teachers, two administrative oilicers! CU "Educational Directory and Year Book of China "-19.21, p. 76. C21 "China Year Book "-1921-2, p. 556, gives these Hgures. i I "A vast Examination Hall accommodating 20,000 students." 'THE TEN PERCENT 35 The pay of the teachers is very uncertain, even in the universitiesg several times it has been necessary for the teachers to strike in order to get their pay. The government schools employ, with a few exceptions in special courses in the universities, only native teachers. Those who contemplate teaching in China, would do well to consider the various mission schools. The latter offer opportunities for teaching of all kinds, from the kindergarten to the university. Though the government has begun to educate, the missions still have an immense and permanent educational work to do. There is an enthusiastic and progressive and ambitious spirit in all their workg they are attempting work often beyond their physical capacity. The Chinese, in many instances, find the mission schools much better than those established by the governmentg and this will be so until the government devotes more money to education. English is an essential subject, required of all students in the mission schools, from the higher primary grades to college. VVith few excep- tions the teachers of English are foreigners, whereas in the government schools the teachers of English are Chinese. But English is not the only subject taught by foreigners. Any one burning with the sacred hre will find a candle to light, no matter what the subject he teaches. To present an adequate idea of all the education in China, a few figures of mission schools will be necessaryg accurate Iigurcs are hard to get, for all the year books vary. The "China Year Book" for 1921, 2, p. 816, gives the following for China, including Manchuria and Mongolia: Primary Schools, 6617, students, 184,481g Middle Schools, 2913 students, 15,2l3. This authority lists some 56 colleges and universities with a membership of 12,494, but this tigure will also include students of Primary and Middle School grade, since a great many colleges and universities have students of all grades' In comparison witn the ligures of the government schools, what the mission schools lack in quantity they make up in quality and stability. Besides the government and mission schools there are many private elementary schools maintained by only one teacher or per- haps two. Many of my students were put into such schools before they went to the mission schoolg or else their fathers had private tutors for them, tutors that had only a few pupils. No fair notion of the extent of education in China and of her educational needs can be had until we remember that her population 15 conservatively estimated at 400,000,000. The number of students, 4.5oo,ooo, is but a small percentage of the whole, only one and one- fourth percent! Contrast this with the United States where the children between seven and thirteen years of age who go to school are fourteen per cent of the population. In the United States about six per cent are illiterate. I have been unable to get any figures on illiteracy in China, but I think a fair estimate is ninety percent. E. A. Ross states t"The Changing Chinese," p.342j that "not one woman in a thousand and not one man in ten can read." So much for the C13 See also "Educational Directory 8: Year Book of China," 1921, p. 16. C V 36 " THE LINGUIST " status of education in China, which status cries unto the Occident for remedy. China is intensely eager for Vtiestern culture and civilization, and she will get it in one way or another. lf we are anxious that she adopt the good and avoid the evil of our civilization we must give her our best ideals along with our culture. And our best ideals are embodied in 'Christianity-but Christianity considered as an active force in daily conduct rather than as doctrine or dogtna, for China has had the latter for more than twenty centuries with what results we all know. We must teach the Chinese our ideals through example rather than by precept, and this can be admirably done by young men and women teachers who live Christianity. It matters not what onewishes-to or can teach. Thersubjects- are the same as in America. There is great demand for English a11d Science and History and Political Science. English increases the earning power of the student and is a required subject in the mission schools. Science--biology, chemistry, physics, are desired be- cause they are at the basis of our material, our medical and our agri- cultural progress. Teachers of medicine and of its preparatory sub- jects will find their efforts compensated in untold ways, for China has never had a medical science based on sound analysis. Though the Chinese are a virile race, they do get sick - horribly sick-and if they get well from the severe treatment of the native doctors it is just by chance. lf a baby happens to become sick, for instance, it is exposed to wind and weatherg if it lives, well and goodg if it dies it was probably demon infested, anyway, and so might as well be dead. Scabby bodies, scrofulous heads, infected teeth, trachomatous eyes. and other gruesome ills need attentiong and the Chinese must be 'taught our medicine before the race as a whole will be healed. Sani- tary engineers are also needed, for the Chinese must betaught sanitary hygiene. A step in this direction has already been made in the Pro- vince of Kiangsu, under the auspices of the provincial civil police. Professor C. W. Woodworth, provincial entomologist, has organized a Sanitary police, whose duty it is to exterminate the breeding places of Hies and mosquitoes and other disease-spreading insects. I The Chinese Q .cs il "Some of the cells still stand." ' l. The work of these police has been cinematographed and eventually will he shown in other provinces of China and in the United States. THE TEN PERCENT 37 must :also be taught to plant trees and to care for them. Floods and famines will not cease coming until the mountains and the hill-sides are reforested. For this work, and that of the teaching of' agriculture, extension workers will be needed. and these must be trained. There is need-. also, for teachers of physical education, for the Chinese have never known the relation of exercise and athletics to health and morals. All the mission schoolsfaim to imbuet the Chinese with the'ideai of Western sportsmanshipg for a Chinese foot ball team will think nothing of walking oi? the gridiron in the midst of battle. The,colleges and universities are rapidly increasing in size-- Larger faculties and more buildings are being added as soon as money Can be had for the purpose. It must be remembered that these are Only about ten years old and that they have a membership on the- avcrage of about 350, the size of the average small college in America. 'l'he rate of progress of such schoo'ls as the University of Nanking, the XVest China Union University, the Canton Christian College, the Hongkong University, indicates that in not a very long time the mission and government universities will each number their students by the thousands. It seems to me that foreign teachers will always be- needed for university subjects and tor English in other grades, for the Chinese do not like to learn English from a Chinese teacher. Catalogs of many of the Chinese universities can be consulted in the libraries of all the large universities in America. They give an adequate idea of the scope of their teaching and their facilities, which are quite' similar to those of American colleges, except that Chinese language and literature are listed. They cannot give the hope and the joy and the spiritual satisfaction that comes from trying to teach a newly awakened people. But this must not be understood to mean that the Chinese are not like American school boys and do not want to "work" their teachers in the same way. They are as glad of a holiday and short assignments as any students. And sometimes the whole class will petition the instructor to relieve it of a tinal examination, one class at the University of Nanking even going so far as to invade the- teacher's home and after half an hour-'s characteristic preliminary polite small talk, present their petition. Strictness is always necessary 5. but it the students can not get what they want, they bear no resent- ment toward the teacher. They have a sense of humor, even. though they are sensitive and do not like to fail in class. The other day, the word "blockhead" appearing in the lesson, I asked the student who had been reading what the word meant. He evidently had not studied his lesson and could not answer. Ilet him stand for a few :minutes to give his brain a chanceg meanwhile the other students began to smile, being the more amused the more he exempli- hed the word. Because of the great difference between the English and the Chinese languages. teachers of the former are often exasper- ated at the seeming stupidity or uncomprehendingness of the Chinese. Sometimes their pronunciation is extremely difficult to understand and. I have to call upon the class to interpret. But their pronunciation of English is probably no worse than our pronunciation of Chinese. 38 " Tl-IE LINGUIST " Though he be discouraged at times, a teacher of English' has his compensations in the unintentional humor of the compositions he receives. English written according to Chinese sentence structure is extremely ludicrous. A short time ago I asked the class to watch some animal or insect for a few minutes and then write in detail what they saw the animal or insect do in that time. I received the following paper from an earnest youth who writes in another theme that after graduating from middle school "without stopping I went the college with my own feet walked about eight hundred miles, even there is a railway, but that is my luck and fortune 1" An Interesting Horse. When I walking on the street, there was a tall horse who stands beside of the road with his carriage. Who seems to me very interesting animal, because I stop my walking and watch him for a few minutes. He is about eight feet tall one. He has a numerousiyellow brown furton the whole his body. His whole body is very fat and. it seems to me vividful and strongest one among his group. I am the tirst time to see such a fatest horse. The head is very large, where are the eyes which appeared round and round and so big 501116 times close or open with the eye's shelter. which is so bright and vividly well done with his body. The cars are very big, moves with himself turn right or left sometimes up and down, and try to hear some noise with them. The teeth are in the Mouth. And the mouth is very big and wide, Sometimes t'ry to get something with his tongue. He has two legs on the front side and two legs on the behind sides altogether four legs, which :1 very long and where have the knee. So he can easily bend with his legs. The hoofs are aparted two ways. It can walking very convenience to him. And the hoofs are very strong and hard too, whatever it will he never mine to him anyplaces. I-Iis tail is very long, some times play with its long tail, Thelmost long hair is on the tail. It is very useful to use the tail hair. We can use different ways with it. Instances such as this can be multipliedg I speak but from my own limited experience. To meet students socially, in one's own home, is always a delight. Some are timid and accustomed to the polish and grace of the old generation, others are forward and quite modern in their courtesy. If they are amused at our attempts with chopsticks, they do not mind our amusement at their attempts with knife and fork. And they are appreciative asagroup, much more so than American students. This brief survey ,of education in China and its needs and the opportunities and possibilities for teaching is not complete without indicating the teaching that can besdone in Nankmg in the year that is spent in residence at the Language School. Almost every student teaches English, one, two, or more hours at week. Many assist the teachers in the schools of their own missions. . The Y. M. C. A. and the Y. NV. C. A. have both day and evening classes which are partly taught by language school students. The government has an orphanage in Nanking to which two of the students golfor two hours each week. The Theological Seminary sometimes needs help in English for one or two hours. And it has been the custom for five young women to devote an hour a week each at four o'clock to teach- ing the wife of the military governor, Chi Tai Tai, who is very anxious to learn English. These brief contacts with the Chinese are .very helpful andinspiring and are welcomed by all who have the opportunity to takeadvantage of them. Sometimes some teaching, especially of music, can be done at Hillcrest, the school for the children of the foreign community. A. BREDE THE WESTERN HEAVEN 39 THE VVESTERN HEAVEN Where is the Western Heaven? Lies it hallowed still Over the rondures rolling beyond the far-seen hill? lVaits it for those who, toiling the live-long day, Urope for its sweet inelosures, yearning to End the way? Beneath the barrows' creaking, with the load's unyielding press, Beneath the modulate moaning-me-ting. with measured stress, The two-fold swinging burden's two-fold weariness, Comes still its illusive whisper, that somewhere it waits to bless? NVhat if I told you the vision that broke on my sight lo-day, As, high on the hill-top gazing, I grieved for vast Cathay? Scanning the far horizon, on a sudden il beheld .l low, behind the grasping tinger of age-long growing need, Not a leaf or tree was standing. remained not even a weed To hold the fond illusion that behind might be withheld The wondrous lair lilysium of the chastened and Saintly eld. fVith saddened face averted. 'l was mourning in sore dismay l'i1ose whom the Western Heaven had lured but to betray, NYhen, lifting my eyes to the eastward, fair as lair as could be, I beheld, in earth's bosom implanted, her new and beanteous Tree! R. P. B. A wayside shrine. l 40 .t THE LINGUIST " SOME SOCIAL ASPECTS. OF THE CONFLICT OF Two Ctvttazartons , We who come to China become conscious'-'fquiekly of the fact that underneath the surface of the seemingly placidsociety about us there are great forces cbt-ing and flowing, heaving-land' surging: Occasionally these forces come to the surface in some outburst, 'and then we get a conception of their hiddenipower. lil-:duced to its simplest and most inclusive terms, what we' are .witnessing is the struggle between two very different civilizations for the mastery of a great people. The new and pushing NVest is making adesperate attempt to oust the hoary, oriental civilization of China. Little wonder that the conliict is a bitter one, even more bitter than the surface conditions would indicate. w NVe have tried to present certain aspects of this struggle for the information of those interested in the future of our adopted -country. - We have attempted to talce you, our readers, into the home. into the market place and into the school-. We are very conscious of our limitations as we make the attempt. We are limited by the space available-we only wish we could take you on further, e. g.,, 'into the political and military situation of this fioundcring democracy. We are even more circumscribed by our own comparatively limited opportunity for observation, and our limited experience. But one would have to be blind not to see the things which we have presented for your consideration, and so having seen them we pass them on to you. - J. W. DECKER . LOOKING BACKVVARD AND DIVIDED . , . A One need live in China only a very short while to become conscious of the fact that the essential organization of Chinese -society is radically different from our own. and that this organ- ization must be reckoned with by those who desire to influence Chi- nese life. Q The west has its family systems, but none of them can compete with the Chinese family system in its influence and power in the life of the people. At times this system has been the veritable bulwark of the nation, protecting it from disintegration and disaster. In the 'present age it is proving the stronghold of conservatism, the very 'citadel against which the attacks of progress are often dashed into a thousand impotent fragments. The present family system is sustained lby the practice of .ancestor worship, and the beliefthat direycalamities willxsurely follow if the ancestral rites are neglected or the elders -sho,yvn'any disrespect. These ideas were taught by the ancients, reiterated by Confucius, and are an inseparable part of the makeup of ev,grggApChinese. To the family belongall those who worship a common ancestor. Very precise laws govern this unit. Virtual life' and death powers arevested-e in the-- senior member. H-is word' is -lawwonr all LOOKING BACKWARD AND DIVIDED 41 matters. whether it be the punishmont of the guilty or the selection of a wife for one of the members of the clan. Under him come the various members of the family, each in his proper rank-grandfa- thers over fathers, fathers over sons, older brothers over younger. To the average western mind, accustomed to thinking in terms of nations, or to the more modern Christian thinker whose field is the world, 'this reverence and slavelike obedienceto one's'1elders is almost incomprehensible. The system inevitably leaves the older and more Conservative element of the nation in control, while the younger and the more progressive element must submit, or else spurn that which iS surrounded by the holiest of sanctions. And thus the whole trend of thought becomesbackward insteadrof forward. Within the family there is the liveliest spiritofcooperation. What affects one member affects all, whether good or ill. One man's Success is the clan's forruneg his trouble is their concern. The man who through industry or good luck is able to attain to some degree of prosperity shares it with all his familyg the poorer and less fortunate can expect a measure of relief at his hands. -Thus it often happens that the proprietor of a store or the manager of a concern must employ members of his family only, instead of those who may recommend themselves to him by their diligence and industry. This of course has its advantages and its disadvantages. It tends to level fortune and to alleviate suffering and poverty, both of which are greatly needed in China. On the other hand it curbs the ambition Of many superior men, and encourages laziness on the part of the less energetic. But perhaps the greatest disadvantage of this system IS the resulting division of society into small units between which there is but little cooperation. In a normal community as we know it In the West many enterprises are undertaken by the community as a whole. The building of schools and hospitals, the paving and upkeep of the streets, the lighting system and the water supply, are all generally under public management. NVe have learned that, looked at from a religious, altruistis, or purely selfish point of view, the age old question, "Am I my brother's keeper," must still be answered affirmatively. One cannot have life abundantly unless his neighbor also enjoys advantages like his own. But not so in China. Each family cares for its own members, but there its responsibilities end. Those who are not fortunate enough to be protected by a large and Wealthy clan must do the bestutliey can This lack of cooperation, this indifference to one's,,neighbor's condition, is felt in countless Common, everyday ways, and prevents real progress. As a rule the Streets are poor and dirtyg the lighting system, it it can be called Such, of the lowest order, except for wells and numerous ponds there is no water supply system, and nw drainageg the schools are quite in1flequ1te, or wholly lackingg there is no community attention Po general sanitary or other needs. In recent years, the invasion of weste-rn ideas, education and religion, a freer spirit is beginning to develop and manv younger Chinese arebreaking, away from the ancient customs, looking 'beyond the boundary of'the family, of the communityip and' the- nation as ta' whole. But the 42 " Tl-Ili LINGUIST " power of the family is still paramount, and until the people can learnlto transcend its limits and look to the welfaregof all, they cannot hopte to enjoy such advantages as we take for granted. 'Another serious bar to social' unity and' cooperation is the still prevailing system of class distinctions. This system has not become as fixed and rigid as the caste system in India, nevertheless society is pretty clearly divided into three distinct classes-- upper, to which belong the teachers and officialsg middle, to which belong the mer- chants andthe artisans 5 and tlielower. or coolie class. While theoreti- cally it is quite possible to rise from a lower to a higher class, practi- cally there are many grave, almost unsurmountable, difficulties in the wav. Between these classes there is not a great deal of intercourse, and less cooperation. It is not surprising that the lack of national unity is felt every- where- in the language, in the monetary system in inter-provincial relationships. The dialect of one community is almost unintelligible in another only a hundred miles awayn Money good in this province is discounted in the next. One section may be at war with another, and the rest of the country neither know nor care about it. Thus we see China today. divided and hampered by almost uncon- querable prejudices. The Chinese have always been great wall builders. and today walls, literal and figurative, confront us on every hand. There are walls around houses, schools, temples 3 walls around the parks and walls around the cities, each excluding the rest of man- kind from the one little unit around which it is built. At one time the nation attempted to build a wall which would shut out its trouble- some neighbors. But even as the Great Wall, that colossal monument to Chinese industry, skill and engineering. has proven futile and fallen short of its purpose, so we may hope to see the various walls which separate each from his neighbor prove useless and ineffective. Until that happens it will be impossible for China to become a strong and united' nation,and to take its place among the nations of the world. The task of breaking down these hampering walls is indeed a great adventure. It will be a long, slow process which will demand patience, perseverance and wisdomg the customs and superstitious of three or four thousand years cannot be eradicated in a generation. But those who can love men, and believe in God. can have their part in this great adventure, and they, in time, will be privileged to see it succeed. l R. F. lung , J er: I X Qi X ' Z z' 'J at ' 4. s ff W- . . g ,. W fig! .1 :Lv , , Q yr 4' K THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND Tl-IE NEW 43 THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND THE NEW A walk down an ordinary Chinese street gives one a fascinating glimpse of what the industrial life of Mediaeval Europe must have been. Here a tradesman is beating various metals into pots and pansg next door a man is making wooden pails, tubs and other vessels. The silversmith, tinsmith, tailor, cobbler and many other craftsmen in their shops, full width opening on the street, may be seen at work. In addition to their few simple tools one may often see in the same room the cook-- ing stove, the table where the family eats, and even the beds for the 'prentiees behind the counter over which the goods they make are sold. With all their simple equipment they often produce wondrously line wares. As one passes other houses one can hear the crude wooden machinery as it spins the silk or cotton thread, and the clack of the no less rude looms. Nanking is a city world famed for its silk goods, hut one would search in vain for any silk factories. In winter the cloth IS made in the homes where in springthe silkworm is fed on the mulberry leaves stripped from the tree in the back yard. Elsewhere the art of basket making, crockery making, or of some other industry, has been handed down from father to son since a thousand years before the first 'prentice learned his trade in English or Flemish shops. Would that a faithful picture could stop with this picture of primitive home manufacture, that one could tell of a people abundant- ly provided with the necessities of life by the labor of their own hands! The opposite is the case. Population has ever increased, but produc- tion has remained practically at a stantlstillg machinery has never been developed, and workmen have been abundant. The result is that the Qheapest commodity in China is man himself. Here there are mil- llons of people always 011 the verge of starvation. The slightest shift In the nice balance of food production and consumption will precipitate hundred of thousands over the verge, and famine results, as the past few years, bear terrible testimony. In the shops of the tradesmen the hours are long and working conditions frightfully poor. No sadder Sight awaits the eyes of those that come to China than that of man turned into a hopeless beast of burden. Here are a half dozen men hitched to a wagon, bareheaded, stripped to the waist, straining up hill with their terrible load, therea woman staggers by, bowed under a huge burden of fuel, building material or fertilizer. Men wheel huge barrows laden with merchandise, reeling and gasping under theirload. These are not just occasional sights, but are ever before our eyes as We have travelled through city after city. Off the few railways and main waterways all kinds of transporlationis largely by man-power, Whether it be pulling a boat upstream, hauling a cart along the road, Carrying people in chairs, or pulling them in rickshas. Human labor is the cheapest and most abundant article in China, and therefore for the world's markets the most valuable. Now that distances are less' significant Chinese labor is a- great gold' mineg here IS an exhaustless supply of exploitable labor, used to working- under unsanitary conditions, ordinarily too ignorant to organize, effectually driven by the danger of starvation to take what wages can be gotten, 44 H THE LINGUIST 'i Westerners and Orientals alike are busy exploiting this mine of labor. Already the great chimneys of giant factories have appeared on China's skyline. Canton, Shanghai, Tientsin and many other centers are rapidly developing great manufacturing industries. Not only does China offer an unlimited supply of cheap labor, but in the future will also produce an exhaustless supply of raw material. With her four hundred millions of population rapidly developing a demand for all kinds of manufactured articles, from mechanical toys to railway locomotives there is tooa market that offers boundless possibilities. Truly a field to delight the unscrupulous manufacturer, where incon- venient minimum wage laws, child-labor laws, accident compensation and other factory laws are unknown ! ' The results are almost too pitiful for words. Dr. Eddy recently found that the usual hours of labor per day are twelve or more, with night shifts.' Many factories work their hands far beyond twelve hours a day. Usually there is no rest on Sunday, but the grind goes on until the human machine breaks down and is cast on the scrap heap of derelict humanity that abounds in every oriental city. Dr. Eddy found thousands of boys and girls, of from seven to fifteen years of age, at work in factories: they get only a pittance for their work, from six to fifteen cents a day. Women, with babies strapped to their backs orleft to play beside the machines, labor all night in the ill lighted buildings. Even men get but thirty cents a day and skilled labor only from forty to sixty cents. When it is remembered that these figures are in the Mexican dollar, which is about half of an American dollar, one sees how shockingly low the wages are. They are low even for Oriental standards. A description -of working conditions fills one with indignation. Boys working in match factories are compelled to use a cheap grade of phosphorus which causes a decay of the bones of the face. In the silk factories little children, manipulating the cocoons in scalding water suffered from steamed eyes, but were not protected in any way. No attention is paid to the moral conditions of women and girls in the crowded factories. It is totally impossible for the workers to provide decent. living quarters on the low wages, and as a result they live in crowded hovels unfit for animalsto herd in. Unguarded machinery leads to permanent crippling of child workers, but no provision is made for compensation for these cripples. Manufacturers excuse themselves by saying that they must compete with the cheap products of the home manufacture with their long hours and bad working conditions, and sadly enough there is some truth in what they say. And in justice it must be added that there are factories which offer exceptions to the conditions noted above. Little wonder that recently there were fifty-two strikes in Canton and thereabouts in nine monthsz. The old labor guilds are being 1. Sherwood Eddy: The Social Gospel in Chinn.the Chinese Recorder, Feb. 1923. 2, "The Living Age," May 6, 1922, THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND 'PHE NEW 45 replaced by labor unions which aim to use the strikes as a weapon to get higher wages. Often the manufacturers are in league with the authorities. and the police imprison or intimidate the strikers, as recently at Cheioo and Hankow. It is notable, however, that the strikes have been markedly successful in achieving their purpose in Several instances, doubtless because public attention is thereby called I0 the shamefully low wages. 'In the ship ing strike at Hongkong the workmen won a real victory in the struggle for an approach to a living wage. A ' The stage is all set forthe same bitter conflict that has attended the industrial revolution of western nations. Must all the horrible stages be passed through again: strikes, lockouts, bread lines, starving families, possibly dynamite and riots? We can expect all of these unless the principles of Christ are applied, and the relations of em- ployers and men are placed on the plane ol brotherhood and justice. Christianity can aid China in establishing working conditions which will be humane and racticable. Christianity can teach the need of, and lead in establishing laws for guarding life, governing working and living conditions, setting a minimum wage, and maximum hours of labor, excluding women and children from unsuitable work, as Well as safe-guarding the employer. A start has been made in setting H social program by the National Christian Conference. Indeed good results are already following, for the Chinese Chamber of Commerce Elt Chefoo. a large manufacturing city, agreed to adopt the minimum Industrial standards ser by the confcrenceh While China is in her present state of Hux is the time to urge a program of social justice. ,Phe Chinese have become keenly critical, and the Christian program If presented in its practical aspect must appeal to them by its justice Und basic soundness. But the opportunity for genuinely Christian S0Cial engineering and guidance is simply boundless. OswALn GOLTLTER. 46 " THE LINGUIST " THE NEW LEARNING AND THE STUDENT. just as the spirit of the old classic scholar was characteristic of old China, so the Student Movement at present is the most significant evidence of her new day. The student has dominated China in her sleeping, and he is also leading her in her awakening. What could be more typical of that ancestor-bound China of only a few decades ago than the slavish confinement of the student to the ancient Classics of Confucius and Mencius? Generation after generation memorized the words of these remote sages and none dared the sacrilege of a new idea. From time to time they repaired to the now fabled examination halls, there to shuffle the phrases of the Classics into new arrange- ments, and for this accomplishment to receive their degrees, only to return and teach their children that they in their day might repeat the endless round. That was education, as China knew it, until about twenty years ago. But today, how ditiferent! Today there are 10,000 students in twenty-hve modern colleges and universities throughout the country, the growth largely of the last decade. Each year increasing numbers of students are going abroad to continue their study, and even those who remain at home are satisfied with nothing less thana world scope in their thinking. Such men as Haeekel, Bergsen or Tolstoy are referred to with scarcely less familiarity than Motzu, Yang Chu or Hsu Ch'ing. Probably nowhere else in the world would John Dewey and Bertrand Russel have been givena larger welcome or a more eager hearing than that accorded by the Chinese students. The college libraries and reading rooms are continually occupied, and more than live hundred student magazines, touching on every subject under the sun, havesprung up almost overnight. China is experiencinga true Rennaissanee. , While the old scholars dared to question nothing, those of the present leave nothing go unquestioned. The family, the most sacred institution in all Chinese life, is held up and examined just as fearless- ly as the questions of industry, or philosophy, or government., And we may be sure that in such an atmosphere the religions are receiving their shareof attention,-- and especially Christianity, for it is the religion of 'the West, the religion of largest present interest to China. In this examination there is not the restraint of reverence fer an established order, nor is there the tolerance which with us grows out of the gradual development of our views from childhood onward. The questions cover anything from the existence of God to the truth of the Scriptures, and often begin with a query as to the need for any religion at all. Under such scathing examination, the Church, the Scriptures, and every phase of Christianity is being tested, with, we hope, ultimately good effect. Itis interesting in this connection to see how the person of Christ stands out unscathed in the attack, and is being made the rallying point of Christians throughout the Student world, JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 47 I But the Chinese student is alert not only in his thinking butin his action as well. There was ageneral feeling of surprise in 1919 when the students joined hands and in three months terminated the official Careers of three ministers of the government, because they were "traitors to japanng led the president and his entire cabinet to resigng and nerved the Chinese delegates at Paris to astound the powers by refusing to sign the treaty with Germany. But today it is the normal thing. The spirit, long brewing, has tried its strength and found it adequate, and today the moral influence of the students is no small factor in the determination of government policies. The student class IS easily the most active element in the country and it is also the most fllert to any message, whether it be Christianity or Bolshevisin, Idealism or materialism. What shall we make it? T - j. B. YAUKEY. -1--41 - 1 There are three great organizations working here with the one aim of giving "Light" to China. The "Standard Oil" is permeating the most interior places to bring its light, The "British American Tobacco" Company has as its ambition a light in the mouth of every Chinese,-The light of a cigarette. The Missionary organization is here to bring Light. The Light of Jesus Christ. Shall not the Christians do as much for their Savior as these people are doing for private gain? -.,, .-pu-:nu-yur-wi . . A Craftsman 48 " 'FI-ll? LINGUIST " JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE IIISTCRY ',l'I-Ili GROWTI-I AND 1'lX'I'lf1N'll OF T1--lkl CHURCH IN Cl-UNA. The jesuits, coming to China by way of the overland routes. began their work as early as 1600. Matteo Ricci and joannes Adam Schaal figure prominently in Chinese annals. They made no attempt to interfere with Chinese customs like ancestor worship and idol wor- ship, so no hostility was encountered. By 1636 no fewer than 340 treatises had been published,-some on religion, some on natural philosophy and mathematics. The troubles attending the fall of the Mings had a serious effect on the work of the Jesuits, but it revived under the Manchus. Protestant Christianity began to come to China about the middle of the last century. The period previous to 1900,-the year of the Boxer Uprising,-can be called the Pioneer Period, the planting-time of the Church in China. It took Christianity into every province, altho in many cases the occupation was weak. In North China the era of greatest advance was the decade immediately preceding the Boxer Movement. During this time mission stations increased nearly four- fold. The China Inland Mission and the Church Missionary Society were particularly active. The Christian Church was largely known but little understood. lt was supported by treaties which gave it a political tinge much enhanced for a time,-about 1900,--through in- demnities and special privileges granted to Roman Catholic priests. Suspicion on the part of the officials and misunderstanding on the part of the people were the predominating attitudes before 1900. Then came the Boxer Uprising against Western expansion, which included Christianity as something also Western. Territorially it affected only one tenth of China, but the effect went deep into the whole country and into the whole life of the Christian Movement. How real was the stoppage of Christian work is shown from the fact that all the schools in the north and west of China were temporarily abandoned or closedg churches, chapels, and other foreign property were looted, burned, or destroyedg hundreds of native Christians and employees, as well as many missionaries were massacred. ' But the Boxer Movement came as a stimulus. 'It focussed thc attention of the world on China, and the attention of China upon her- self. Pagan superstition gave an exhibition of its futility which will never be forgotten. The two decades since 1900 have been distinctly revolutionary in tendency. More significant than any other change has been that in the temper ofthe people. China is now moving in the direction of a Chinese Church giving in its own terms its Christian belief. There is no longer that passive Chinese acquiescence in Christianityg the Chinese Church is now positively reacting to its inner message. Since 1900 it has entered into its own experience: it is no longer dependent only on the experience of the missionaries. It is making an earnest attempt to live first thc spirit of Christ, and in addition to promoting the salvation of the individual it is now trying to put him to work. China today is not the China of 20 years JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 49 ago,-outwardly nor inwardly. About three fourths of China Proper IS now claimed by Protestant forces, and 7 provinces of the 18 report 110 unclaimed area whatever. In the last 20 years as many missionary residential centres have been opened as in the previous 93 years. There is a tremendously rapid increase of Christian contacts totaling now nearly 10,000 evangelistic centres of all kinds. A part of the royal way to the Ming Tombs. the resting place of the first emperor of the ming dynasty. 1338-1398. The small stones on the backs of the elephant monoliths were tossed up by women wishing sons, each believing that She would be-blessed with as many sons as stones lodged on the back of the elephant. It is not recorded who started the idea or when. FOREIGN INTERESTS IN CHINA. H The Treaty of Nanking in 1842 marks the beginning of formal treaty relations between China and foreign nations. As early as 266 A. D.-during the Han Dynasty,-overland routes of intercourse were begun with India, Greece and Rome. It was not until 1516, however, that maritime trade began. The Portuguese were the Iirst to arrive, settling at Ningpo, Amoy, alld later, at Macao. In 1548 the Spaniards followed, taking possession of the Philippines. The Dutch came somewhat later, settling at Formosa and the Pcs-- cadores. Maritime trade gradually gravitated to Canton where the English had succeeded in spite of Portuguese opposition, in establishing a factory. The year 1720 saw the birth of the notorious Co-Hong System in Canton,-an organization of native merchants to regulate the prices of commodities in their own interest. Later it became a government organization and made itself useful to officials as a channel of wealth. Pigeon-English is a relic of Co-Hong days. It was form- ed at Canton by taking words from all European and Asiatic lang- uages and corrupting them sufficiently to suit Chinese taste and grammar. About this time trade was being carried on at Canton with the French, Danes, Prussians, Mexicans and other foreign nations, but none was so important as that of England. England was naturally anxious to begin diplomatic relations with China, so in 1792 she sent Lord McCartney as an ambassador. He knelt on both knees before the Emperor but could not bring the latter to discuss a single point so p H THE LINGUIST" of business, for in theteyes of the Chinese an envoy came to do homage- and to bring tributeg it was his duty to receive his orders and not claim to negotiate business. The manner of reception of this English ambassador confirmed the belief of the Chinese that the emperor was the universal sovereign. In 1816 a second English embassy was sent under Lord Amherst. upon his immediate arrival he was summoned to appear before the Emperor. He begged to be excused on the ground of fatigue and the non-arrival of his uniforms. This so offended the Emperor that he prtleged the embassy to leave at once. Thus England's second overture ai e . From 1840-43 England engaged in the Opium War with China. Opium is mentioned in China annals as early as the Sth century. In 1729 laws were made interdicting its use. But it continued to pour in from India under the East India Company in spite of the efforts of the government. In-1834 England appointed a Superintendent of Trade to protect the traffic and extend it to other parts of the Empire and to open direct communications with the central government. Thereupon the opium question took on a new phase. The Chinese awoke to the fact that for years enormous wealth had been going out of the country and in return they had no benefit except the baneful opium. In 1839 the English merchants were ordered to deliver up all the opium in their possession. 20,000 chests representing a market value of 89,000,000 were disposed of by mixing the opium in trenches of lime and salt water and drawing them off to the sea. The foreign merchants were then asked to file a bond binding themselves not to engage in opium trade on pen- alty of summary execution, and confiscation of ships and cargo. The English objected. The result was war. The Treaty of Nanking drawn up after the war provided among other things that five ports should be opened to foreign trade and residence, Canton, Amoy, Fooehow, Ningpo and Shanghai. These are called treaty ports. A treaty was made with America, France and other nations also, and was subject to revision at the end of twelve years. In 1858 the Treaty of T.ientsin provided for the opening of 3 more ports, on the Yangtze River, foreign residence at Peking, and the toleration of Christianity. The question of Customs Tariff was also made a part of the treaty. By it China was deprived of her free will in the matter of import and export duties, and from that day to this has not been able to adopt any measure of her customs revenue without the consent of foreign governments. p .. In 1876 the Chinese legation was established in London, and later in other countries. The Chino-japanese war, 1887-95 opened the eyes of- the Chinese to the errors of Lheirgovernment. China came out of the struggle deeply humiliated. , European powers, eager for land, busied them- selves with schemes for the division of her territory. Their threaten- ing attitude naturally frightened the Chinese and lent strength to the new forces that had been gradually but steadily gaining ground in China. After the Chino-Japanese war there was a marked increaseof JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 51 anti-foreign agitation. Anti-missionary riots led to the massacre of two German missionaries in Shantung. Germany retaliated by helping herself to Kiaochow, forcing China to lease it to her for 99 years, with the right to build fortifications, and docks, to land and station soldiers, to control railways and mines in the whole of Shantung. The game of land grabbing was then' the order of the day. Russia got Port Arthur, Talienwan, and a strip of adjoining landg Great Britain compelled China to lease 400 square miles of land and water including a part of the mainland opposite Hongkong g France got lease of Kuangchourwan for 99 years. In 1896 it was agreed that Russia receive all railway concessions north of the great wall while Great Britain should have those in the Yangtze Valley including the provinces of Chekiang and Honan. Great Britain also secured a promise from China that she would not surrender any part of the Yangtze Valley to any other foreign power. In this way each power had China ear-marked for exploitation. The parts so marked were called in diplomatic language "spheres of influence." In 1899 both Russia and Germany threw open theirleased territory to foreign commerce. Availing himself of the opportunity John Hay, Secretary of State of the U.S.A. addressed a circular letter to Euro- pean powers and to japan. proposing the Open Door Policy, which had for its object the maintenance of China's integrity and the assur- ance of equal rights to all. This policy put a stop to further spheres of influence. Foreigners in China are not amenable to Chinese courts, but to consular courts of their own nationality. This privilege is called "Extraterritoriality." In view of the desire of the Chinese govern- ment to bring the judicial system into accord with that of western nations, both Great Britain and the U. S. have agreed to relinquish their extraterritorial rights when they are justified in such a step. The boycott of 1905, whereby China refused to buy American goods because of the anti-Chinese agitation in the States,-threatened China's friendly relations with the U. S. but its effect was only tem- porary. The return of Boxer indemnity funds by the U. S. is an evi- dence of the improved relations between the two countries. Mrs. l-l. C. R. Graves 52 " 'l'HP1il.INGUlS'1' " 'fsQUEEzE." Today I bought a ton of coal. Thai is, I meant to buy a ton ol coal. I think l bought an interest in a store. a bowl ol rice, a chicken, a new coat, a gilt for the family god, a pipciul of tobacco, and a half ton of coal. My coolie told me that my coal was gone. l told the cook to buy me a ton of coal. He sent the table boy to tell the coal man to bring me a ton of coal. The coal man sent his coolie with a wheelbarrow full of coal. 1 thought it was a half of a ton. My cook said it was a ton. My cook said a ton of coal cost twenty dollars, My cook has been in this house twenty-one years. His word is sacred truth. His wo1'd is law. I gave him twenty dollars. The coolie got twenty centsg he told me my coal was gone. The table boy got forty centsg he told the man to bring' the coal. The gateman got ten centsg he allowed the boy to go out ofthe gate to tell the coal man to bring me a ton of coal. The gateman got a dollarg he allowed the coalman's dirty coolie and dirty coal to come in thru his nice clean gate house. The policeman on the corner got a dollar 5 the squeeking wheelbarrow disturbed his nerves. The coolie who pushed the wheelbarrow got twenty centsg that is the way he earns his living. My cook got three dollarsg he ordered my coal. The coalman got the restg he furnished the coal. IN CHINA, WE CALL THAT "SQUEEZE." Thcreby is the currency of the land kept in circulation. Thereby do our servants lay up for themselves treasures on earth. IN CHINA, WE CALL THAT "SQUEEZE." R. L. M. ,.. T i x It ,W Market Scene SAYINGS FROM THE ANLEGTS. 53 CHINESE PROVERBS A fraction of time, an ounce of gold. lt is hard to buy a fraction of time with an ounce of gold. If you lose an ounce of gold you can still get along but there is no place to seek for a lost fraction of time. If you wish to know the road ahead you must question those who have travelled that way before. Truth does not come from the false, nor false from the true. Time flies like an arrowg days and months like a shuttle. He who is unwilling to Sl1'l'l:Cl' trouble will never attain to being a man above other men. . A twitching of the left eye denotes wealth. that of the right eye signifies calamity. lf as a usual thing you do not burn incenseg in a crisis you will embrace the feet of Buddha. - He that takes medicine and neglects to diet himself, wastes the skill of the physician. The mouth of the wicked is sweet but the heart bitter. Those who can talk are not equal to those who can perform. Talking about virtue is not as good as practicing it. Men die for gaing birds perish to get food. A stupid man has no eyes in'his heart. Gpen your eyes wide so as to take in a broad range of visiong stand on your heels and be a man. The summer insect cannot speak of iceg the frog in the bottom of the well should not talk of the heavens. Good and evil are rewarded at lastg though travelling far and flying high there is still no escape. A boundless bitter seag turn your head and there is the shore. Irrigation Pump. I 54 " THE LINGUIST " A part of the royal way to the Ming Tombs, which lies at the foot of the mountain CPurple Mountain in the grove seen at the foot of the mountain to the right of center. ' SAYINGS FROM THE ANALECTS. The filial son avoids causing anxiety ' The higher type of man is not a machineg he first practices what he preaches and afterwards preaches what he practices. Learning without thought is uselessg thought without learning is dangerous. Hear muchg reserve what causes you doubt and speak guardedly of the restg You will then suffer little criticism. To see the right and not to do it is cowardice. It is the moral character of a neighborhood that constitutes its excellence, and how can he be considered wise who does not elect to dwell in moral surroundings? Only the virtuous are competent to love or hate men. The student who aims at wisdom and yet who is ashamed of shabby clothes and poor food is not worthy to be discoursed with. . The wise man in his attitude towards the world has neither predilections nor prejudices He is on the side of what is right. The man of honor thinks of his characterg the inferior man of his position. The man of honor desires justice, the inferior man favour. One should not be concerned at lack of position, but should be concerned about what shall lit him to occupy it. One should not be concerned at being unknown, he should seek to be worthy of being known. V Virtue never dwells alone it always has neighbors. A man who is without good faith. I do not know how he is to get on. A wagon without its yoke-bar, or a carriage without 'its collar-bar for the horses. how can it be made to go! From the Confucian Analects. FAMINES AND THEIR. PREVENTION 55 FAMINES AND THEIR PREVENTION Death by starvation is terribleg famine and pestilence among millions of humans is unspeakable. The word "famine" causes a shudderg it arouses an instinctive or racial dread. Few appeals to the human heart are more potent than the distress of starving men, women and children. Generous responses have anwered the calls of famine sufferers in China, both by the Chinese and by the sympathetic world at large. In the famine of 1920-1921 which affected six provinces of north China and a population of fifty million, fully thirty seven million dollars were donated for the relief of starving people. Approximately eighteen million dollars C9 million Gold? were contributed by foreigners, either through Govern- ment representatives, the Red Cross or Missionary organizations. The stage was set for as great or a worse famine than that of 1878-1879 in the same general region when between nine and thirteen million people are estimated to have perished. But with the aid of existing means of communication and a knowledge of the approaching famine condition in sufficient time to call on the outside world for relief, such a disaster was mitigated. These catastrophies are appalling, but are all the more lament- able when avoidable. Those who have been most closely connected with the large projects of famine are agreed upon the possible pre- vention of the recurrence of general and devastating famines. The hurried relief of people already in the first stages of starvation, per- mits, if at all, only the most elementary constructive relief. Such relief does not go far toward the prevention of another equally serious famine. A ' Measures, therefore, looking to the permanent prevention of famines are necessary, are obligatoryg are huminatariang are Christ- ian. It is the only Solution to the problem of the heavy loss of life and the enormous wastage of intellectual, economic and spiritual values. The prevention of these losses and wastage furthermore contributes to national and world economy and makes possible pro- gress in the power and experience of millions of people. It is difficult to appraise the multiplying benefits that must flow from the permanent prevention of famine in China. The program of permanent famine prevention in China was set in motion by far sighted men to work out ways and means of putting a stop to these hideous phenomena. Two agencies have undertaken such a program in cooperation, namely. The International Famine Relief Commission and the University of Nankingn Famines have occurred intermittently in China since very ancient time. As early as 1700 B. C, it is recordetl that Emperor Tan prayed for the relief of his people from famine. The list at the end of this article is a striking chronology of disaster recorded of the single county in Anwhei province. 1. The Peking University is also planning to cooperate in the program. 56 "THE LINGUIST" .Transportption in the interior. The wheelbarrow is the truck of the rural sections of Qhma, and transports more tonnage than any other agency. unless it be the carrying pole. I A Chinese saw mill: Practically all the lumber used in the interior of Chlll21.lS sawed in this manner. , Without.uniform.1x1dus.trl,alHprogress a modern sawmill would create the unemployment problem in China, - FAMINES AND TTTEIR PREVENTION 57 Crowded populations have therefore long been at the mercy of recurring cycles of drought and excessive rainfall. And the common belief Knot always exclusively Chinesej that famines were visitations from the displeased gods operated against any very far reaching pre- ventative measures. The granary system--possibly not unlike that of Pharoah's time-was generally in use in China, yet it failed to pre- vent recurring disasters. The fundamental causes of famines were not generally under- stood. They were attributed to the consequence of draught and floods against which the Chinese felt impotent. While droughts in other A "home" of the all too large numbers of people whose margin between production and consumption is dangerously small. countries may cause hard times, they do not cause famines. So a more fundamental cause must be found. The American Red Cross Report on China Famine Relief 1922 says. "A population with ac- cumulated property can withstand an occasional Hood or drought provided it has access to the sources of food supply on the outside. But Chinese farmers have little accumulated property and a very de- ficient access to outside sources of supply." While there are several recognized contributing factors, the fundamental cause is the low economic condition of the rural populations. Fully 80 percent of the population is rural, deriving its livelihood chiefly from the cultivation of the soil. The margin between production and consumption is so small that a short harvest causes sullering and a crop failure produces famine conditions. In the famine of 1920-1921-out of a population of 48,843,000 affected, 19,895,000 were entirely destitute after a year and a half of drought, and those not destitute were unable to give aid to their less fortunate fellow men. Altogether insufficient oc- cupations of gain-exist for the farmer during the winter or idle months. He can expect to accumulate little sttplus, if any, from the normal harvests. 58 " 'I'l-IE LINGUIST " Several factors contribute to this condition of approximate poverty. Over crowding on cultivated land is one of them. A study of twenty seven farm villages revealed that the cultivated land was supporting over 1200 persons to the square mile. Another is the absence of sufficient rural improvements, such as sufficient and deeper wells, irrigation systems and roads. Another is the low average productivity of crops due to insect infestations, fungal diseases or inferior crop plants. And yet another is the general deforestation of the hills and mountains. This denudation is judged sufficient to convert a more general distribution of rainfall into the cloudburst typeg to produce extreme stages of high and low water in the river systems, and to cause the erosion of the soil from the uplands and to transport it to the lower reaches of the rivers where it silts up the river beds, interfering with irrigatiompreventing navigation and causing widespread floodstYellow Riverj. Still another factor is the small use made of the wide areas of hill and mountain land that might profitably be growing forests to create communal wealth, to furnish profitable occupation for the farmer during the otherwise idle winter months and to furnish raw materials for the development of industry as well as other beneficial results. Sure indications of famine areg people begin to eat Hower seeds, fullers earth, corn cobs, leaf dust, elmbark, roots, tree leaves etcetera for food they remove the wood beams from house roofs for fuel and for saleg farm animals disappear from the country sideg farm im- plements are sold for the wood contained in themg people begin to migrateg families sell their children,-first the girls for servants, con- cubines, secondary wives or prostitutes, and lastly the boys 5 the death rate becomes excessive. Such are some of the indices that a famine is abroad in the land. ' Famines consume the substance of a countryg they leave the sur- viving population with the meagerest resources,-often without farm animals, implements or even seed grain for planting the next crop. The relief by outside agencies during famine does not materially alter this result. The baneful effects linger for years. Progress in all activities is thrown backward. Natural resources lie idle undeveloped, commerce with the outside world is stopped and the development of the intellectual and spiritual capacities of a people is stiiicd. The measures of permanent famine prevention may be divided into two broad classificationsg Q15 large scale engineering projects including flood control and river training and Q25 the general im- provement of the economic status of the rural population: The large scale engineering projects will be most suitably handled by river com- Nllltlrll -lx lmQx1 :R V s-f- EWG .4 I E WX" " ,f ,eitltml , -3 ' ' " ' i g griii-"Q .- , z ff- - -,- M . ug g4:Af'r: fl f . FAMINES THEIIR PREVENTION. 59 missions under the International Famine Relief Commission in coope- ration with the Provincial or National governments. These projects will affect principally the deltas of the large rivers of North China. The improvement of the economic status of the rural population falls naturally into two general lines of activity, namelyg the improvement Of agricultureand the reforestation of the wide areas of non-agricul- tural land, and affects the extensive river basins. t While the river control and training projects may be directed by foreign and Chinese engineers in cooperation, the application of me- asures for tl1e improvement of agriculture and reforestation must be done principally by trained Chinese personnel. This calls for a pro- gram such as has been worked out by the College of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Nanking. It demands a trinity of effort, Research, Education and Extension. Some of the important flclivities in which Chinese must be trained areg the sinkingof-wells fWater Supply Geologyj 3 irrigation works Clrrigation Engineeringj g road construction lCivil Engineeringjz improvement of farm crops tAgronomyjg protection of crops from insects and fungi fEconomic Entomology and Plant Pathologyl improvement and extension of the cultivation of tree fruits C1-Iorticulturey 5 the production of fuel wood and industrial timber cn the hill and mountain lands Qliorestryj and the creation of rural credit and savings banks QRural Economicsj Research is needed to determine the scientific methods applicablelg Education to train the Chinese workers and Extension to secure the application of the measures over extensive regions. The funds remaining unused from the last famine and allocated for these purposes are making possible a substantial beginning on this tremendous problem of permanent famine prevention in China, but to be effective withinQ a reasonable time the Chinese effort must be guided and supplemented by foreign support and personnel. The Challenge is clear cut,-to prevent another famine from flood or drought. W. C. L. l l A C0untryman's Home 60 44 :PHE in A CHRONOLOGY OF FAMINES Exutractsufrom a chapter of the official Gazetter of Nanhsuchow, Anhwel Province, China. Chow Dynasty B. C. 591 570 Han Dynasty B. C. 48 Ching Dynasty A. D. 318 319 Sung Dynasty A. D. 960 962 Chin Dynasty A. D. 1216 Ming Dynasty A. D. 1482 1493 1509 1523 1525 1535 1536 1618 1640-41 Tsing Dynasty 1649 1651 1659 Famine. Famine. Flood summer and fall, houses and lives de- stroyed. Locusts destroyed crops Locusts destroyed crops Famine. Famine. Locusts. Dry. people hungry and sick. Too much rain and snow, without fuel for tire from fall to next spring. Too dry in the summer, locusts cover the sky great famine and men eat one another. Summer dry, fall too much rain, great famine until 1524, men eat one another. Spring rain hurt all wheat and barley, sum- mer dry, locustsg In fall locusts appear- ed again. Dry until 1533 and locusts and people ran away. Hwai River flooded. Summer too much rain till May 1537, Rain and snow never stop. All wheat and 'barley crops hurt, a bundle of fuel cost 1000 cash- , Summer too much rain, fall dry, locusts ap- peared, all rice and bean crops failed, great famine. Dryness and flood alternate, great pestilence followed, whole population ran away, al- most none was left.e Sun eclipsed on first day of the 10th moon Earthquake on 15 day of 2nd moon. Heavy rain fall for twenty days, rivers flood- ed and houses destroyed, famine.. A CHRONOLOGY OF FAMINES 61 1673 - Summer heavy rainfall for two months, famine. 1681-87 River Hooded continually for seven years and heavy rainfall continued also-people ran away from home-famine. 1692 Locusts Flew, covering the sky-famine. 1697 Spring drought, autumn heavy rain fall, rivers llooded--famine. 1706 Spring heavy snow, summer heavy rain fall and famine. 1709 March flood, too much rain in the fall, rivers flooded, destroyed thousands of houses- famines "roots of grasses and bark of trees all eaten up" The prices very high, dead along the roads. 1741 lfloocl continued during summer and autumn, famine. , 1742 Heavy rainfall through out May, no rice 1756 U crop-famine. 1756 Famine - pestilence - dead seen along the roads. 1785 Drought in the spring and locusts appeared abundantly. Famine in thc falland winter. 1786 Famine and pestilenee in the spring, good harvest and wheat in the summer. 1796 Famine. 1804 liamine in the spring. Yellow river flooded in the summer. 1833 Famine. 1843 G Famine. 1852 Summer rain over two months-all crops submerged. Peach trees flower in the 1 fall, famine. 1856 Drought in summer, locusts appeared abun- dantly. 1857 Famine in spring, heavy rain fall in autumn- all lields submerged. 1863 Famine. . 1867 Famine. 1887 Good crops 1888 Crops not prosperous. End. Note: The above list was compiled from a much longer chronology in which floods, earthquakes good harvests and droughts are recorded. Only those items, with a few exceptions, containing the translation of famine were selected for this list. The -famine of 1878-79 is' not listed but the years of 1875-76 are Credited with drought and the years 1876-77 are credited with locusts. The year 1878 is omitted. 62 " THE LINGUIST " CHINESE ATHLETICS. Two age old Chinese conceptions militate against the full adoption of athletics and sportsmanship in athletic contests by Chinese students. Physical prowess and scholarship have been and still are to a very great extent considered exclusive of each otherg muscular strength is indicative of the coolie class and feeblencss of the gentleman and scholar. And even in the modern institutions of higher learning despite the campaigns for athletics many of the more intellectual students are invalids or die of tuberculosis. And again, the question. of "face" hampers the athletic contest. The Chinese, by living in such crowded conditions, have developed a technique of living together that omits the personal encounter or the settling of an issue' directly by the parties concerned. The "middleman" is always called in to act in a dispute or in an important matter. This is done to save the "face" of the loser or of him whose idea does not prevail. -Thus to lose in an: athletic contest is to lose face, and is tantamount to a disgrace. Un- fortunately athletic games do not provide for the "middleman," but call for the personal encounter, the matching of skill and physical strength and nerve. It is a slow and sometimes a tedious process to inculcate the conception ol sportsmanship into the athletic contests. Yet already great advancement has been made. in mission institutions- generally. Athletic associations have been organized. Conference' games are played. Despite these facts, however, awide field here exists for the developmenit of athletics in China, to make for the physical vigor of intellectual and spiritual leaders. It is only another way for conserving the efforts expended in raising up intellectual and spiritual leaders- among the Chinese. Basket Ball in China Univ. of Nanking playing Univ. of Nanyang THE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 63 TI-IE LANGUAGE SCHOOL Years in Session- Eleven, 1912-1923. 'Growth in Students- First Year Registration- 47. Growth- Second to Sixth Year- 21.69Z, Seventh to Eleventh- 128.47'Z, Average Growth 75.08'Z, 'TotalNumberof Students to Date 870 Spread of Students from the School- According to statistics available we End that students have gone to all but two of the interior provinces of China, and also to Mongolia and Manchuria. A total of thirty-one ,have either re- turned to their home countries, or have made changes in their China. residence that we are unable to follow. Based on the above 19 areas, 81.692, are in five provinces 18.4W, are in thirteen provinces or U.S.A. Kiangsu ...377 Hunan -- ...114 Anhwei .. 95 Chekiang 08 Kiangsi .. 56 Fukien .. 20 I-Iupeh .. 18 Szechuen 18 Honan .. 16 Shantung , 15 Kwantung... . 12 Chihli... 11 Kwcichow... . 9 Yunnan .. 4 Shansi .. 2 Shensi 1 Manchuria - 1 Mongolia .. 1 U.S.A. or? 31 Plans for future-enlarged plans- The Dean, while on furlough this past year, urged the need for additional dormitories and an Administration Building. His eH'orts were successful in 1118.12i.11CI'1iOI11CBOU.l'C1SWCl'CI113dClOl'EZ1llZC perhaps more than ever before the need for, and the scope of work the De- partment of Missionary Training is doing, and hence the need for greater financial assistance. Through a system of rents and fees whereby all students of all Missions, whether or not afnliated in the work of other Departments of the University of Nanking, can enter on the same basis, the Home Boards have pledged themselves to raise the funds necessary to secure adequate buildings and equipmentg the Increased charges to be remitted after the necessary funds have been Secured. In this way, plans for two dormitories and an Administra- tion Building within the next Five years are being made. l.ANGLF.fXGIC SCHOOL l'l1e l,ul1guuge School .'XllIIlilliSll'1lliVC Stufnfz Left to Right Miss l,cyc,l:1. Miss Smith. Chia Sain Sen, Dcnn Keen, THE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 65 In addition to the students regularly registered for language study in residence, there is now a large body of students taking the Advanced work by correspondence, while assisting in regular mis- sionary work at their various stations. This fall shows fifty registered as beginning their second year's study, and many more than this are registered forthe work of the third, fourth and hfth years. With the Home Universities recognizing the work of language students, and with better facilities for supervising this work, the Department should, indeed, be a growing one. Mission or other affiliations of the student body- Students have come to this Department from thirty-four Missions or Union Colleges, as well as independently registered either for Mission work or business preparation, over 7192, however, coming as new missionaries under eight Boards. Presbyterian 1914 Presbyterian, South 50 Baptist, North 90 Baptist, South 13 Methodist Episcopal 177 Methodist Episcopal, South ll Christian fDisciplesj 67 Episcopal tAmerican Church 'D 41 Reformed Church of the U.S.A. 30 Y. W. C. A. U 28 Y. M. C. A. 27 United Evangelical 27 Evangelical Association 1 16 University of Nanking 14 American Advent Mission 12 Seventh Day Advent 50 Christian, Reformed 8 ,Lutheran Synod 8 Yale in China 8 Church Missionary Society 7 Congregational 8 Friends 6 Hunan Bible Institute 5 Women's Union .5 Norwegian 3 Ginling College 3 Pentecostal 2 W'esleyan, Methodist 3 Christian Endeavor 2 Church of God 3 Finnish 2 - Free Methodist 2 Hanchow College 2 Canadian Church Missionary Society 1 Independent Z7 Total ' .. . 870 STUDENT BODY 1922-1923 11-'OR NAMES SEE PAGE 122 r-'FJ FROM Tl-IE EAST AND FROM THE WEST 67 FROM THE EAST AND FROM THE WEST. , THE SEA VOYAGE. - ' S soonlas the tender had left Tilbury, -..: ,gg,,g.:,g and the faces of those who had come ,.'.g7:- 'fff?li ' down to see us off were no longer 'A' " 'W " distinguishable, I felt then that the great adventure had begun. There was not a soul on boardl knew,-and at that time the only acquaintance I had was my bag- gage, which I had seen a great deal of for many weeks before- hand. It was some hours before we finally started and we sailed down the dear old Thames, with the lights along the banks. I watched until it was time to turn in. The next morning we were out in' the open sea, with no vestige of land in sight. l didn't like that feeling very much at first, but soonlgot used to it. We all seemed to be on the lookout for the merest suggestion of land. It was lovely to see the white cliffs of the Isle of Vtfight during the first morning. We missed several places of interest during the nights,-Gibraltar for instance, and we only saw Malta in the dim distance. People became very excited when the north coast of Africa came into view, with its bold cliffs and stretches of sand. Everyone collected at the front of the ship as we neared Port Said. My first impressions of the Orient were not very favorable. VVe had hardly anchored before the ship was surrounded by little boats filled with dark skinnell,turbanned men, in long robes, making a real Babel of noise. They scrambled up the stairs,-l wondered half of them were not pushed into the water in the general confusion. And ina surprisingly short time the deck was converted into an Oriental market. They are people who simply refuse to take "No" for an answer and seem to have the idea that our great object in life is to possess ourselves of numberless strings of beads and feathered fans, and to feed on Turkish delight. It was no use trying to escape to a quiet corner of the deck. We were pursued everywhere with people dangling beads and fans in our faces. It was even worse on shore and I was quite relieved when we put off again and entered the Suez Canal. It makes me glad to think Ihave been through that wonderful achievement of man's skill. It certainly is not much to look at. But to see large vessels passing each other in what seemed just a narrow river but with sufficient depth at the very edges for a vessel to tie up, was a wonderful experience. That night was the beginning of the hot weather and though it was November, we could hardly breathe, the heat was so oppressive. Colombo made up for the deficiencies of Port Said. The ap- proach to it is so beautiful. We could see church towers and fine buildings surrounded by tropical trees. That evening we Went ashore. And it was just like being in fairyland-passing the bungalows with their colored lights on the verandas and the scent from tropical 68 " THE LINGUIST " flowers filling the air. That evening my cabin companion and I sat out on one of these verandas and lazily watched the insects-their wings shone with all sorts of colors in the light. There was no other sound but the noise of the crickets and they were obviously busy. The next strange experience was in Hong Kong, where we went to the top of the peak in the funny little tram. It seemed almost a tempting of Providence to risk one's life trying to climb up an almost perpendicular ascent. I wonder if flies have the same feeling as I had when they try climbing up a window pane. But it was worth even that to see the view of the harbour and to sleep in a civilized bed in a bungalow almost at the top of the peak. It made me hate the idea of having to return to the boat with that terrible engine panting all night-though once it was stopped for two hours and there was a high wind and a heavy swell and very few present at dinner so after that we were not so anxious for the engine to take a holiday. But the longest journey comes to an endI suppose and ours ended at Shanghai, where in spite of muddles and such exeitements as other passengers running off with my baggage by mistake, though it could hardly have been marked in larger letters, I made my way to the hotel. After a seven hourtrain ride I reached Nanking at last and entered the Language School. INIARY G1u1f1fI'r1A1s l -061 T , l I l Our tirst ' reception committee",-wharf beggars in their boats beside the ship begging for copper e THE VOYAGE FROM THE E,-XST 69 THE VOYAGE FROM THE EAST V As we put off toward the Golden Gate, a sum- . mer fog settled down over the Bay, making dim, then I ity, y blotting out those faces, long dear to us, which we -A ix f hope to see again. X 2.3. .The " China " was American registered, part I Chinese owned and the crew except officers, was WR f Chinese. Our cabin boy wore black silk pants and a pp 15 'Q ,. white coat. When he met us in the passage way he V ' went to the left, a habit we have since learned to el ,D 4, accept out here.. And after a few days he smiled ,iq 5 back at urs, and brought oranges and apples and pears, .' I after the refrigerator was opened. ,iq V YQ: Speaking of refrigerators, we had fresh milk, pg 'yfi1'151ff kept frozen until wanted. The chief steward said ll that inthe old days travellers had milk only now and 4. .ff again, "Now" when they left the States, and "Again" ,ig U is 3 when they returned. -L' During the happy, carefree days we played N' -5 shuflleboard, or deck tennis, or swam in the tank. Between times we tried to read books with long -qs, sounding titles, suggested by Sherwood Eddy or some E of the other older men. The new' people persuaded the experienced missionaries to give us lectures, and Mr. Eddy took us through the Sermon on the Mount. At the date line Neptune came on board, an experience never to be forgotten by some, and then there were the children who made things interesting. Little jean Follette was the belle of the boat. VVe had a day in Honolulu: red and green, with here and there atouch of yellow flowers. Blue sea, white surf, brown bodies flashing, rainbow after sudden showers. Then there was a tree which looked like an acacia, had pods like a locust, and love red blossoms, soft as rose petals, or as "a skin you love to toucl1,"we saw bananas growing where they could be picked from the dining room window, sugar cane in large quantities, and here and there a leaning cocoanut palm, while sweet odors came from far olf flowering trees. Ten days later we were in Yokohama. Here in the cool of the day we walked through the japanese city. Men were home from work, children out from school, boys were catching birds and insects with gummed Iishing poles. Two or three boys had locusts which made perfectly lovely noises when squeezed, but the boys never batted an eye, you would never know they were enjoying it. QChinese boys are more expressivel Women were drawing water from street hydrants with family keys. Before each door were the familyls sandals, all in a neat row. Inside we could see the people resting on mats, or eating or bathing or reading the evening paper. All were sincerely polite, except the richsha men. At Kobe we went through a market street, covered over with matting, to keep out'the heat, small stores, flies on the lishjpeddlers 70 " TH E LINGUIST " calling their wares, while rats ran out of the shops into open sewers and up inside the drain pipes. Most beautiful of all was our trip through the Inland Sea Myriads of little islands, through which our boat very cautiously wound her way. It was most wonderful at night, with a full moon-Q little villages on the islands and hundreds of small fishing boats with lights on their nets. almost like liretlies in the grass on a summer night. ' Landed in Shanghai we heard a funeral band play "Johnny Get your Gun," and "Over There." At the Missionary Home our room- boy wanted to knowyif we wanted one bath twice or two baths. Wecame to Nanking on a Chinese river steamer. It was to sail' at midnight, bnt all night until four a. m. coolies loaded, shouting,. chanting. and laughing, boatswains whistles. sirens blowing enlivened our "sleep" At four with much noise fl thought it was a riotj we got off down the Whangpoo from Shanghai to the sea, then up the- Yangtzse. The name of the boat was "Chang On," Eternal Peace. Two days later we arrived at I-Isiakwan. Here our veteran- friend gave us an exhibition of bargaining for carriages. We now believe he prolonged it for our pleasure and editication. At least there was no doubt the drivers enjoyed itas with good spirits and quick retort they bantered back and forth. Having agreed, there was still "tea money'3 to talk about. Finally with many words, a few more coppers and many grins, we were off, up the Bund, over the old' wooden bridge, past the American consulate, up the Drum Tower hill' and "home to Nankingf' Happy day long looked forward to! How good tasted the pleasant. dinner that was steaming hot and' awaiting us. - -- XV. li. S. One thing. an ocean voyage brings out all there is in a fellow. With tnost of us all we could keep on our stomachs was our hand. Most of us did the "whale stunt" on the way over, but we retnembered Jonah, that he came out all right, and we knew we would too. --W When one new missionary reached China, she wrote home to her Mission Board that she had thrown up every thing but her appoint- ment. ml--Q A new missionary was breaking in some new territory on the district where no foreign woman had ever travelled. In the inn where she was to eat her lunch, such 'a great crowd had gathered that she decided to eat Chinese food with chop sticks rather than have the table spread in foreign style. U An old woman tisted her way through the crowd until at last she could see the missionary. Then she called out to the crowd who could not see "O Look, sheis civilized just like we arc and uses chopsticks." V . After being in China for awhile, all the .foreign women say that there is no place in the world where a foreign woman is so safe to travel alone as in China. One always feels perfectly safe at night out anywhere with one's ricksha man or, sedan chair carriers or boatmen. Oct. 3 1922: J! 4 ,, 5 D! 6 9 10 14 18 20 21 24 31 Nov.4 6 10 11 12 18 19 20 21 24 25 28 30 Dec. 2 6 12 ' 13 SCHOOL CALENDAR. 1922-1923. 71 SCHOOL CALENDAR. 1922-1923. School opens. Address by Dr. Bowen, Introduction of students. Mr Blackman blushes to own that he .is a Mhethodist. The Reformed group including Mr. Yaukey with his soprano voice, arrive. 1 The first foreign mail arrives. Pres. Mr. Follette Class officers elected. V. Pre s. Mr. Schmidt Sec. and Treas. Dr. Ankeny Lecture by Dr. Lobenstine on Religious condition of China at present. ' Hike to Purple Mountain. Question: "W'hich half of the crowd was lost P" 1 Party given by the old students to welcome the new students. We realize that all the fun was not left behind in the U. S. A. Bertha Smith decides to take the course over again in january. Movies at Y.M.C.A. Margurite Clarke in "Out of the Di-tts." fAlso out of the arklj Hike on Wall to the South City. Meigs Hall entertains at tt a. 1-l'1lloive'en Party at the Language School. Chrysanthemum exhibit at the University Gardens. Moonlight ride on the canal. U.S.A. Consul, Mr. John K. Davis gives talk on the duties of an American citizen in China and later receives our registration papers. Armis'ice Day. Hike to the Twelve Caves. Vaccination day at Meigs I-lall. Athletic Meet at Middle School. Sherwood Eddy speaks at Sage Memorial Chapel. Mr. Guerry finds the right teacher in the right place at the right time. First Lecture on Buddhism by Dr. Reichelt. Second Lecture on Buddhism by Dr. Reichelt. Trip to the Buddhist Monastery at Pao Hwa Shan. The cool darkened station affords a pleasant relief from the November heat. Our lirst snow Hurry. Miss Rouzee speaks at Chapelfi Philosophy of the Mis- sionaryf' Thanksgiving. A full day. Chinese Drama. Six-thirty until eleven! Dr. Herman Liu talks on "The Necessity of Training Chinese Leaders." Kathleen Parlow Violinist, plays at Community center- Tennis Tournament, men's singles won by XV. C. Lowdermilk. 72 " THE LINGUIST " 19 Examinations. Much midnight oil burned. 20 Christmas Party for the teachers and their families. Our Chinese teachers give further proof of their dramatic ability. 21 Service of Christmas music at Chapel. Dec 22 iChristmas vacation. t Jan 2 Christmas Eve, carolling in Nankmg. jan. 3, 1923: Second term opens. Introduction of new students. 9 '13 15 19 20 22 24 25-29 27 26 29 30 31 Feb. 1 Feb. 6 7 8 9 9 i 1923 Our president delivers an oration of welcome in Chinese which is interpreted with difficulty by the Dean. ' We receive our First lessons in Character writing. Party at the Community Center for the members of the January Class. The thrilling drama oi "The Poisoned Peanut" is produced. lPresident Mr. Follette Election of Class officers V. Pres. Dr. 'Woodbridge I Sec 8: Treas Mr. Cutchins Baseball game. "Little Ladies vs. Amazons." Movies at Y.M.C.A. "Three Musketeers." Andy arrives at Chapel on time. First real sign of winter. Snow. "Fox and Geese" warms us up at recess. Bishop Birney speaks on "The Privilege of Un- seltislmessf' Lecturesby Dr. Rawlinson on "Chinese Life and Cus- toms" Dr, Rawlinson as guide takes us to the various Temples in Nanking. Meigs Hall announces the engagement of Dr. Voss. "They would rather love what they cannot have than have what they cannot love." Birthday Party for Mrs. Keen. Dr. Coulter from Western Reserve University speaks in Chapel. "XVhat I would, that doI notg but what I hate, that do I." Election of the Linguist Stahl Little XfVillie proves that he is old enough to vote. Ping-pong Tournament. Teachers vs. pupils. Li Shui Yci victorious. Inspiring talk by Mr. Saunders who demonstrates a joyful spirit may be retained even though one suffers from a great affliction. Mr. Luccock, last year's president talks in Chapel on "The Fatherhood of God as limited only by our sonshipf' Pastor Ting speaks on thc "Student Volunteer Move- ment in China." Timothy Liu gives splendid talk on "The Three Qualifications of a Missionary." Lecture on Radio at Community Center. SCHOOL CA L-ENDAR 1922-1923 73 14 Cupid himself comes to school but his arrows fall to the earth we know not where. ' i ig China New Year vacation. 28 Miss Elizabeth Gottwald and Mr. john Alston married at Sage Memorial Chapel. Mar. 1 Mrs. Goddard leaves for furlough amid the popping of fire-crackers. 9 Mr. Mills presents a social survey of the South City and explains the social service work recently begun there. 10 Mrs. Geldart gives Reading, "Enoch Arden" at the Community Center. 13-14 Examinations. Once more Midnight oil is in great demand. 16 Start for Peking. Eighty seven strong. Mr. Yaukey looking for a partner. 29 Spring vacation ends. 30 Glorious moonlight. Spring is here. April 1 Easter. An ideal Easter Day. 2 Mr. Thelle discovers that Bill Cutchins' family is not going to stay in Nanking during the summer. 6 Arbor day. 9 Lecture on Phonetics by Dr. flfewksbury. 14 Visit to the Mint, in Nanking. 14 Tennis Tournament announced. Mr. Yaukey still look- ing for a partner. 16 Miss Porter of Teachers College, Columbia, speaks at Chapel. 16 Name of School play announced. "All's well that ends well." 17 Name of School play announced. "Leave it to Dan" Mr. Guerry wants to know. "XVho is Dan ?" 18 Name of School play announced. "Ain't Nature grand ?" 19 Name of School play announced. "The taming of the shrewf' 20 Name of School play announced. "Two buckets of gore or the mother-in-law's revengef, 19 Mr. Garrettspeaks at Chapel. 27 School Play given for the members of the Nanking Association. The Linguist goes to Press, ll 1. fry, J' 5 A!.,.g, 5 'Tift f..L 5 'iwiiifii A 'ffr . t., , " 57' '74 " THE LINGUIST " rf. "' -" Q' .,,. ,. ' ,,.,,,. 1 4 I 43,1 1. 3 Y I -up W '."7ff'-,':1'6 'L' ' ,. - F... , y '.., 'v,W'bf 4' 'fy ', ,fy 'jif'4'p'::g: , 2 - A- 1 lixccutivc Committee. Lilllglmge School Student Body First Term, 1922-.23 Huttom row. Icft to riglmtg Axmkellcy, Kingman, Bnsco1n,Bystcd Sccuml row ,A, ., ,, 3 Ruhl. Altnlzm, VVhite, Third row ,, glfollcttv. Sclnuidt. tw 5' n LANGUAGE SCHOOL 75 'V gg. 81' Q9- if wifi' I Ns. , ' an ' 4" ry ht , wt , , a 'i .I W- lwwyzpr yi I MQ I We v , r ' " N , . i 1 . x. L 22-23. Executive Committee, Language School Student Body, Second term I9 Bottom row left to right: Stone, King, Skilling. 2nd Row ,, ., ,, Lowderniilk, lflzitter, Deaconess Pitcher, Woodbridge gird row 1, 1 - Stewart, Cutchins, Decker, lfollcttc. "THE LINGUIST" Wai-. N N Our Preceptresses Mus. J. R. Gonmum P DEACONIJISS C. C. PITCHIQR ? -3.7 " - .-as z f 5 ' 7 .J 4? I 1 LANGUAGE SCHOOL The Girls at Meigs Hall l Cllryszmtllcmum Show. 78 ll THE LINGUIST " . OUR ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE THE CURRICULUM Some of our friends in the Homeland have asked in their letters what we can find to do outside school hours. The difficulty is to find enough time for the things to be done. In a city of so many different types of schools as is Nanking, no lack of work exists for those who are willing to help. Calls are continually coming in from some school. institutional church or other, whose staff is underxnanned to request the Language School students to assist in some way or to teach English. And the Language school students have responded gen- erously. A complete list of the institutions assisted need not be given here. But the following activities gives an idea of the type of work done. Several of our young women have given one or more hours per week to teaching at the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. XV. C. A., the Methodist Girls' School, The Quakerage and several similar in atitu- tions. Three of our young women have been teaching English to the wife of the Provincial Military Governor. Several of our students have taught at the University of Nankingg ten have assisted in the Middle School of the National Southeastern University. A number of Bible and Sunday School classes have been organized and instructed by our students. A very commendable piece of work in the form of a much needed dispensary has been instituted under the auspices of the Adult Bible class. Semi-weekly clinics are held with Dr. C. I-I. Voss in charge, assisted by Dr. R. Peterson and Dr. WVm. Ankency and two graduate nurses the Misses Dunlap and Gerhling. Other members of the class conduct evening classes and church services for the same group of persons who are treated in the clinic. A regular schedule has been made outg certain evenings of the week are given over to instructing the young people and other evenings to evangelistic meetings and preaching services. Rev. L. E. Blackman has charge of the Evangelistic work and is ably assisted by a native preacher Rev. Wang, who also conducts classes for the young people in the afternoons. Mr. Earl Otto has charge of the educational work. SIGHT SEEING Let us not leave the impression, that we do nothing but work, teach and study. We are far too human and fun-loving for that. The old saw, "All work and 'l' 'l' if " is just as true in China as elswhere. Many 'interesting places exist about Nanking and we have availed ourselves of the opportunity to see some of them. Saturday has been the usual day for these hikes and sight seeing. Almost every Saturday a party has made a hike or trip. Space does not permit me to describe them all. The brief accounts of a few will afford a glimpse of the year's sightseeing. MING TOMBS , On Chinese Independence day, October Io, a group of hikers left Meigs Hall for Purple Mountain, Ming tombs and Spirit valley. The young women live in Meigs I-Iallg they are the life of any party such fgrove of trees, the largest in the vicinity of Nanlcing. On October OUR TRIP TO PAO HWA SHAN 79 -as this. The historic resting place of the iirst emperor of the Ming dynasty--Hung WVL1 U368-98D was visited. The royal way to the tomb lined on each side by massive animals, elephants, camels, horses and others,carved in stone aroused our curiosity. Set, as they are in 'the common places of peasant farming, they seemed to recall a -glorious past, about whicl1 we want to know more. s KN Attention! Ready for a"'l1ike" Then there was Spirit Valley where rests an ancient temple in a .21 we "took" the wall. Mounting the massive city wall that surrounds Nankingat the I-Ian Si Men gate we walked along the top to the South 'Gate, Nan Men. From the wall the ancient city of Nanlcing' spread out before us. The curved oriental roofs of the public buildings discernable in the film of haze at once distinguished the landscape from one of the Occident. This wall is 21 miles in length, is IO to 20 feet wide and from I5 to 50 feet high. It is constructed entirely of large, dark grey burned brick. Not sufficient wood material exists in the region to burn so large a number now. It would appear that about 500 years ago when the wall was constructed that the mountains and hills must have borne a heavier cover of trees than at present, for coal was not in use then, to supply sufficient fuel for the burning. Then there were numerous temples visited, such as Kuling An and the Monastery, Buh Gy Go, the Temple of Confucius and others. OUR TRIP TO PAO HWA SHAN. Saturday, November 25, was finally fixed for the visit to the celebrated monastery at Pao I-Iwa Shan. The weather man had a grouch. If we had tried to pick a very disagreeable day we could not have succeeded better. But despite wind and weather we went 80 "'THE LINGUIST" sixty seven strong, including our Dean and his mcther Mrs. Keen and Dr. Reichelt, an authority on temples and ceremonies and other things Buddhistic, who acted as our official guide. After a train ride of two hours and aclimb over' a Chinese highway CFootpathJ for six miles we reached the monastery set in a rambling grove of trees high up on a mountain ridge. After the lunch in the refectory-an experience to many of us-one of the chief priests conducted us from one hall and courtyard to another. Dr. Reichelt interpreted and explained. ' The Monastery of Pao I-lwa Shan is one of the oldest and most noted of the Buddhisqmonasteries in China. Some ofthe buildings are said to be about two thousand years old. At the time of our visit some six hundred monks and priests were quartered there. At certain times of the year especially during the ordination ceremonies- of the priests, two thousand and more priests assemble at this one place. We were shown the ordination platform, said to beagift direct from Heaven, where the candidates are required to recite whole volumes of Buddhist literature from memory without a mistake- X1Vhen the candidate to the priesthood accomplishes this task his head is shaved and the nine or twelve holes are burned in the top of his head, which is a sign that he is a full fledged member of Buddha and is on his way to Nirvana. XVe saw some ofthe priests in their living quarters, which are small, dark and smelly. In such places they study and memorize their manuscripts. Further in our rounds we came to the great kitchen where enormous quantities of rice are cooked. It was a cold day with llurries of snow and there was much stamping of feet to keep warm. But we thanked the courteous priest for his kindness set out forthe six mile hike to the station- And the train was two hours late. But it was great day, not to be forgotten. And the lessons of it will linger in our minds. For the task that lies before us was made clearer by the moreimtimate glimpses into the strength of the Buddhist order and into the devotion of its adherents. Yet despite the persistence of Buddhism, it has failed to save the people or the civilization. 5 '., ,, :fgpfliii f p ,tglll aM'e'Z if 45321 H ,pf L fan- H w GOING TO PEKING S1 PEKING OR PERISH. i 5 ln the preceding paragraphs we have tried to give the reader an Idea of the pleasant and profitable way in which we spend some of our time outside of school hours. The trip to Peking, which is becoming an annual affair was the best of all. Without going into detail, we will give a resume of our experiences and the places visited. "Peking or Pet-ish," was our slogan, and we saw Peking. There is no doubt about that, and Peking also saw us, eighty-seven Strong. To accommodate this number of passengers arrangements were made for two "private" cars. Barring the absenqe of a few panes of glass which allowed the wind and rain to enter, we managed very nicely. A person can sleep on the hard side of a board if he is tired enough. What did we care about rain and cold of our first day's journey? "A bad start, a good ending? Didn't we come into Peking in grand style, with our private car attached to the finest express train in China? Trulyg there's no rest for the wicked' and the good people of the North China Language School saw to it that we were kept busy. For the benefit of future parties who will make this trip, we give Z1 list of the most important places visited. First on the list comes the beautiful Temple of Heaven and Altar of Heaven, the Temple of Agriculture, Lama Temple, Confucian Temple, Gbservatory, British Legation, Central Park, Forbidden City and Museum, Bell Tower. Drum Tower, Great Wall, the P.U.M.C., Summer Palace, jade Fountain, Winter Palace, Coal Hill, Hall of Classics, North China Language School, Y. M. C. A., and countless Curio shops, rug factories and stores of all descriptions. VVe were privileged to at- tend two receptions given for our special benefit 5 one by his Exellency President Li of China and the other by the students of the Language School. We also had the good fortune of meeting General Feng Yu- Hsiang at his camp near Peking. General Feng is known as the Christian General of China, and it was a pleasure to see for ourselves the fine type of man he really is. He is exerting a great influence Overhis own men, and its affect will be felt throughout the whole country before long. China needs many leaders of just this type of men. men who have the welfare of their country at heart and who are not afraid to-stand up for the principles of right and justice. The success of our trip to Peking is largely due to the untiring efforts of Mr. Petrus, Mr. Barkman and others of the North China Language School, Dr. Liu and Mr. Crouse of the Methodist Mission and others. We are very grateful to them for the kindly interest through their willingness to help us at all times. .Louis C. Bvsriitn. A "THE LINGUIST" GOING TO PEKING. It's an event in anyone's life To go to Peking, ' Next in importance to seeking a wife, To prowl about Peking. City of palaces sights to behold, City of parasites for plunder too bold, City of propaganda such as cannot be told, Unrivalled Peking. Attractions abound on every side, Marvellous Pekingg Streets may be narrow, or streets may be wide In dirty Pekingg The Temple of Heaven, to pious souls dear, The National Museum, to greatness so near, The ancient Observatory, instruments queer, Historic Peking. The alleys, the lanes, and the hutungs, In crisscross Peking, May be trying to folk of bad lungs, In dusty Peking, But the busy, great, main thoroughfares, Where the merchants exhibit their wonder war And camel trains bring in the desert airs, Are the boast of Peking. You'll want to see the Temple of Llama, Religious Peking, It is the scene of continuous drama, Dramatic Pekingg ' All States underheaven have legations, Missions are there from all nations, And schools representing all stations, Jealous of Peking. P. U. M. C., Tsing Hwa, and the Y's, Of foreign Peking, Yen-king, Hwei-wen, bless your eyes, Scholastic Peking, But when you have seen all there is to be seen, And been everywhere there is to be been, "O men chae sie ren" still best on the screen, Alluring Peking. The senators strut and all have their say In static Peking, Perhaps scarcely more than butterfly play, Fantastic Pekingg CS Thick walls, and wide gates, of imperial mould, Within this enclosure the new and the old Contend for whatever is there to be sold,- So it seems in Peking. -Anonymous, l CHINESE PROVERBS 83 CHINESE PROVERBS EQLHVALENT TO U. s. A. coMMoN sAY1Nos. The best of friends mast part. Even although you accompany the princely man a thousand li, tinally you must bid him farewell. A stitch in time saves nine. If alittle hole is not repaired, it will increase to a foot and a half. Two heads are better than one. The knowledge of one man is not equal to that of two. Easier said than done. To behold a task is easier than to do it. In one ear and out the other. Enter by the east ear, exit by the west. What's eoerybody's business is nobody's business. When one priest carries water there is some to drink, when two priest together carry water there is some to drink, when three priests carry water there is none to drink. You can't get blood out ofa turnip. It is useless to look for bones in a hen's egg. There arc two sides to every question. To know only one side of the case and not to know both. If yon 'want a thing done, do it yourself. Making requests of others is not comparable to asking them of yourself. Evil companions corrupt good manners. If you follow the good you will learn the good, if you follow the beggar you will beg for food. All men are brethren. All within the four seas are brothersg Loch the stable after the horse is stolen. When the guest comes we sweep the floor, When the thief goes we close the door. i V Like teacher, like' pupil. b The illustrious teacher produces a good disciple. As you would that nz-en should do unto yon, do ye also -unto them. What for yourself wouldbc a bother, Do not bestow upon another. Where there's a will, there's a way. VVhere there is a purpose it will finally be accomplished. Whatsoerer a man soweth, that also shall he reap. Sow a melon reap a melon, sow a bean, reap a bean. Self praise is no recommendation. A quack doctor has no ehicacious medicine. Man loolceth on the out-ward appearance but God looketh on the heart. In drawing a tiger you draw his skin. it is difiicult to draw his bonesg in knowing a man you know only the outward appearance, you cannot know his heart. ' L"1.'1-IE LINGUIST" The Altar in a Buddhist Temple CHINA FOR C1-IRgIST 85 C l'llNA FOR CHRIST A l-""4"f'-A Wwflff .P , 'I-I -1 Tue- 1 - ' ll In . 1 -.m....-...:: ::f...::::-...:E:i A- is ::r.e::::: uinnzlp-:filo ld v : lu -' ' ' ' Kauai: 0 J o g g e A El-"' 1-113:33-flgfnf:l '1":i:2:::""n11:11S:::n2'E 4,1-E ' :F :I nr ::l nun nu:-1:11a ' .J ' 4 E 'N PP li-. P nz nn In .l . I1 - l !i-Q1lY'1"1 llnizlns I1 ' I 1 I miaggilig :l2g'fl:g::T523:I.if:r , a o - - H 55. E5:"i'5f"55'iii5""" Qmrus if P WF ,, .,.d , G :: :E IZ I1 lr , H1 JX D' R?" - . ""'? :::.f"::i5 :5:5"":F:':."5E'f'P3"'2 5 ' ' Q I D 0 5 - :Jai-:anna-:la-ln U llgginii- 1 r.-3: :5 55: 5:2 3: :: 2 :- - :, i Y 1 - I 1 H So 51 4- PP V 10 ' " P QQ Q ilig-EijiEi:En3l': .fiEE5ifg:E5Q : , , ., e ,e - - 5 - . I L gn!!!ggggggeggal-:5gq::iig::i1ull:ilI V - . xl 11 11 ,, I 1.1: ::n :E 1' China for Christ. 1. Father in Heaven, we bring our supplication For this our school which we have learned to loveg May she now prove a blessing to this nation, Striving in Love for higher things above. Cho. God bless our China, cleanse her from sin, Show us the multitudes we must win. White is the held, Lord, workers are fexvg Send Thou more reapers, thy work to do. 2. Lord, we would bring thy Gospel of Salvation, Tidings of Love, to these thy Children dear, We hear thy call and without hesitation We come to serve, to make thy Message clear. . "THE LINGUIST" 3. Thou, Lord of Hosts, art God of all Creation, And we thy servants humbly bow to Thee, Giving our all in perfect Consecration We ask for nought but what Thou dost decree. 4. In Thee our work shall lincl its consummationg Help us to toil in perfect harmony, Strengthen our faithg give ns this consolation That through thy Name we gain the Victory. Louis C. Bvsrlsn. p '.c,3..' their day our night. v i . U ' . 2. Ours represents the new hemisphere and civiliza- tion, theirs represents the old. 3. We look forward to a better or golden age, Chinese' look back to the golden age. We say the compass points to north, Chinese compass points to south. Our designation of cardinal directions are, N.E. S.E. NAV. S.W. and the Chinese say E.N. ILS. W'.N. W.S. Dates, we write day, month, year, the Chinese write year, month' and day. VVe shake each others handsin greeting, the Chinese shake their own hands. Our given name is first and surname last. The Chinese just reverse. Our books begin at the left. Theirs begin at the right. Our printing runs across. Theirs up and down. Our pupils face teacher to recite, Chinese recite with back tot teacher. We study our classics. They memorize theirs. We say we put our knowledge in our heads. The Chinese say they put it in their 'ldu dz" or stomach. In America the school teachers are mostly women while in China. they are mostly men. V Address. XVe write City, County, State. They write State, County, City. We place stamp on the right side of envelope. The Chinese on' the back side. In America the women wear gowns and the men wear trousers- but in China this custom is just reversed. In America, the women's dresses are elaborate and the men's plain. In China the men's have always been more elaborate than. women's. In America, the men only wear hats out of doors. The Chinese wear hats in doors. In U.S. women use parasols, fans and jewelry. In China the men. all do. ,'i'Q'f2. Posrres on THE EAST AND WEST. lr 1. Opposite sides of the world, our night their day, Q in A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOOL 87 A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOGL A typical day begins at half past eight with chapel. Sounds like college, but instead of faculty members, the students lead in turn. Or it may be that a veteran missionary speaks to us. This is a period. of particular inspiration. Then follows the study of Chinese. VVe ieel the years drop off,. for we are as children beginning with one phrase and then another and. another, progressing in as halting a manner. Without text books and with at least three of our senses functioning we go through the day. The lirst period is taken up with learning new words which are demonstrated to us or explained in the Chinese that we have formerly learned. Chia Sain Sen, our Principal, a splendid pedagogue, re- commended by the American Educator, John Dewey, with inimitable acting and humor makes us see the meaning of the new and weird sounds that he pronounces. Many are the visitors who come to watch and hear this celebrated Chinese teacher go through the performances of the new word class. For the second period the class dividesg one A half remains for review of the new words which by another teacher are linked up with the known words in simple sentences: the other half goes to private teachers. Each student is assigned a number correspondingto a smallf Entrance to the Compound 88 "THE LINGUIST" 1 table on one side of which sits a Chinese teacher. And at this time he goes to his individual teacher, who receives him in that inimitable courtesy of the Chinese gentleman. Here the student has an opportunity to try out his knowledge of,Chinese. Who will record the mistakes in to11e and sound perpetrated upon our long suHering teachers? Year in and year out they listen to the gropings of babes i11 the language for utterance,-and never with the discourtesy of a smile, unless we both see the humor of the mistake. Language School Groundsg Meigs Hall to right, Language Sel1ool to the left. Then comes recess. Restless we are to get at the various sportsg the girls to volley ball, or indoor baseball and the boys to volley ball, Youngsters again. happy for the relaxation from sustained attention. These pictures give an idea of what we do at recess. Dignity isleft indoors. For Ph D.s and M,D.s and B.D.,s and all jump into the spirit of play. -A game of volleyball at recess. . At the sound of the bell all return to the class rooms and reverse the order ofthe classes preceding recess. Then for the fourth class of the morning we gather into groups of ten or twelveand under the guidance of a. Chinese teacher, again try to reply in complete Chinese sentences to his questions to us. Not a worrl of English is used. A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOOL S9 At the noon hour we are out and away to lunchg the girls to Meigs Hall and the married people to homes of the community where many of us are hospitably lodged for our tirst year in China. On our way from the Language school we pass through the narrow streets or along the paths and meet the Chinese children who have a cherry "Kello" for us. There are the coolies carrying, at the ends of a bamboo pole anything from buckets of waterto babies in a basketg or a drove of moth eaten donkeys overloaded with baskets of brick or stoneg or rickshas whizzing past bearing sleekly attired women or absent minded bespecktacled students. Or one may be accosted by professional beggars old and young, blind or lame. Another Game of volleyball at recess The afternoon session begins at two o'clock and is divided into two sessions with a recess between. One of these is devoted largely to oral review wherein we repeat phrase by phrase the increasingly complex sentences containing the words that have been demonstrated to us in the former new words classes. The other is given over to- writing the Chinese character. It is a case of where every little stroke has a meaning. Committee of VVelcome Rainy Day Promenade 90 "THE LINGUIST" School is out at four o'clock and we scatter each to some activity -or recreation, whether it be teaching English to a class of Chinese students at the Y.M.C.A. or to the tennis courts. Dinner comes at seven o'clock. And this particular evening we .all go to the "Community Center" where in a large reception hall .artistically furnished and decorated we listen spellbound to the XVorld's greatest woman violinist, Kathleen Parlow. It seems that never before had we heard a concert under more agreeable circum- stances. The warm glow of the hreplace finds a response in each 'appreciative listener and the artist seems to enjoy her art. In the shaded light of the room the Hickering light of the flames from the 'grate play upon the artist as she entrances us with the mysteries of harmony. Then it is over and we go home tired after a full day. And so goes each busy and happy day, D. B. Several years ago a new arrival in China started out one afternoon to walk through the Nanking streets to see the sights and he thought he knew the way home. But when it was almost dark, he discovered that he was lost and more-over was unable to tell a ricksha man where to take him. So he solved the problem like this: He knew the way home from the Chinese hospital, so he pretended that he was dreadfully sick, he doubled all up and stumbled into a ricksha without saying where he wanted to go. The man took him to the hospital from which place he was able to find his way home. Last Fall Bertha Smith went into a money changing shop and asked, ii " May I change my clothes? She thought she was going to say, "ko-e-huang-tsan Qmay I change my moneyj " but said instead, " ko-e huang-e-shang. " - r lg v LEARNING CHINESE 91 LEARNING CHINESE The Chinese language has the reputation of being very difficult to learn. The difficulty has been exaggerated. Consider that a quarter ofthe inhabitants of the globe speak one or another dialect of Chinese, and the vast majority of these people are illiterates. As a pre-requisite to the study ofChinese, students must free their minds of this prejudice. But nothing is gained by underestimating the seriousness of the task. The Chinese language offers one of the greatest intellectual challenges that ever confronted a keen-minded student. In the early days the method oi learning Chinese from a private teacher was universally employed. The private teacher served the best that he knew, but he was unacquainled with the scientific methods of pedagogy. His day is largely over for starting a student in the knowledge of Chinese. A new clay has arrived. The Language School at Nanking has put into use practically all the tested pedagogical methods of teaching spoken language, In a word the direct or natural method is used. It attempts to make it possible for the student to acquire the language as the "native" does. It is in harmony with the latest findings of psychological research and experiment. It is limited in its application only by the ingenuity of the teacher. The teacher is the crux of the language study. And it has taken years to discover this fact. It has remained for the child to point the way. The program of the numerous classes, new word class, review, individual teacher, group conversation, writing and public speaking classes .is designed to throw about the student those conditions that a child faces in learning its mother tongue. But while the principles are simple the methods are varied and often complex, five hours per day in close association with Chinese trained teachers who will speak no English soon does wonders for the student. The danger of monotony is overcome by weekly reversal of classes and by a rotation of individual teachers. 92 "THE LINGUIST" The pace for the day's' study is set by the Chinese teacher' who presents the new words orally to the students. Chia Sain Sen, our Principal, cleverly and energetically presents the new words by the use of acting, story. gesture and only in terms ofthe words previously learned. Students repeat phrase by phrase the Chinese sentences spoken by the teacher. At no time is English resorted to except at the end of the new word class when the Dean, C. S. Keen, clears up any misunderstanding and writes on the board the phoneti- cized new words for copying in note books. Then when the sounds are still fresh in the students' minds they are rehearsed audibly under the leadership of a qualified teacher until their pronunciation and use become habitual. In the review classes and in the. conferences with the individual teachers no- Chinese teacher is permitted to introduce into the reviewing any word that has not been previously given in the new word classes.- Certainly a remarkable discipline. In the conversation classes the student is made to construct sentences in reply to questions in Chinese. The sentence is the minimum unit. The consistent following of these simple principles prepares the student in an academic year to understand and use--if imperfectly at times--most of the common idioms of the spoken language. The course in Chinese is continued for five years, the first year in residence at the Language School and thereafter at the stuclent's station, by correspondence and the use of a private teacher. "The Chinese spoken language is terse, forceful, logical and beautiful, but it is difficult. Given a right attitude, however. proper conditions and modern trained teachers it would seem that any intelligent person with the patience to apply himself may acquire such degreeof progress in the use of the Chinese language as will enable him to express himself with acceptance to the Chinese as well as with some small satisfaction to himself." C. S. K. W. C. L. , THE DAILY CHAPEL SERVICE 93 THE DAILY CHAPEL SERVICE ouiz nENoM1NA'r1oN AL -'MEL'r1No Por" Aside from helping us begin our day aright, the daily Chapel service is one of the greatest factors in the promulgation of harmonious fellowship among the students. This service brings us into a verit- able forum where the numerous and inevitable problems are often helpfully solved by the rich experiences of those older in the Service who have forcefully and eloquently attested to the riches of grace in Christ Jesus. One could no more afford to be absent from Chapel than from the New Words class, for this period of quiet morning worship is, in very reality, another kind of New Words class. From the lips and hearts of the students and distinguished Veterans in the Service whom we are privileged to have visit us occasionally, come messages which guide and sustain, as well as inspire and challenge us to a better fulfillment of our task. u - The business of being a Missionary is an enormous realityy intertwined with as many problems as there are temperaments, there- fore we are very grateful for the many helpful solutions which set us aright in our thinking and strengthen our hearts for the task. The ideals which motivated our coming to China are held aloft in these Tervices and we are constantly reminded of our great purpose in this and. VVho could express our gratitude for the insight of Chinese religious thot as given to us by such earnest and prominent Chinese Christians as Dr, Herman Liu, Pastor Ding Li May and Dr. Timothy lliu? Tho engaged in different fields of work, they each one emphas- 1SQCl the necessity of training Chinese leaders so effectually that they be able to direct the affairs of the Chinese Church according to Chinese conception. Urging the cultivation of Chinese friendships and a more intimate knowledge of the Chinese people in their home life, Miss Rachel Lee, a charming and 'cultured Chinese girl of Nanking., bespoke for her-own people the joy which she has had in her friendships with foreigners. We would not know where to begin or end were we to attempt to present to our readers the thots which have come from those who have given years of faithful service to the land of their adoption. Time and space do not permit of such a review but we want to share with you some of the especially helpful messages. Miss Rouzee of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, a brilliant and eloquent exponent of the Bible now teaching many classes m Nanlcing, stressed the necessity of a Philosophy of Religion--a philosophy which would makelour lives radiant. Bishop Birney of the M. E. Conference, whom we so love to have visit us made this stabilizing point in one of his messages, V "At times one's life is God' centered but ,it very easily becomes self-centered, therefore it bee hooves onealways to place God at the center of one's life." Dr. 94 "TI-IE LINGUIST" Richardson of the Nanking Theological Seminary also gave us opportunity for deep reflection when he said. "One is responsible for the power one might have." In the light of such a thot one dare not neglect the privilege of prayer or fail to make the effort to develop the best in oneself. The indispensibility of Love was beautifully interpreted by Mr. Frank Garrett of the Disciples of Christ. Love was given first place and tho knowledge is necessary, the facts of knowledge should be interpreted in the light of the spirit and life of.jesus,,Christ. Faith justified! Yes, fully and truly in the relating of stories about the harvest of souls from seed sown years before and so Mrs. Smith of the China Island Mission, proved the infallibility of God's powers. A strong message from Dr. Coulter of Western Reserve Univ., helped quicken us in guarding against the snare of perversity. "For the good that I would, I do not but the evil which I'would not. that Ido." One felt consciously strengthened as one listened to Dr. C. T. Paul of the Disciples of Christ, who measured life in its every dimension, proving the wondrous capacity for service possible to everyone. Miss Porter. of Teacher's College, Columbia Univ., re- freshed our memory about the need of self-control. 'We had already learned the vital truth that in this land especially, loss of temper is a detrimental attitude. Everyone surely desired more than ever to get a firmer grip on himself after hearing Miss Porter. Truly no greater inspiration was derived from anyone than from Mr. Saunders, the blind evangelist of the China Inland Mission. Thru privations undergone during the Boxer trouble he has been deprived of his sight but not of his faith! Keen and vigorous he preached the joy of the Christian religion and his radiant countenance gave proof that one can overcome all things. Had he not spoken, the joyousness of his personality would have been an inspiration. Thus, week by week, new treasures are unfolded to us, new visions of our task come to us leaving us stronger and happier. Whoever could inwardly cherish and foster denominational barriers after such infallible proofs of the "four-square" love of God truly needs a new vision and a larger faith. ' ' I4.M. S.? M. s. g BUDDHISM Lccfwcs by K. L. Reiclzell, Plz. D. Christian Mission to Buddhists, Nauking. On November 21 and 24, 1922, Dr. K. L. Reichelt of Nanking, with two illuminating lectures gave the students of the Language School an insight into the mysteries of Buddhism. In speaking of the approach to Buddhism Dr. Reichelt emphasized that it is Christ and not Dogma that is at the center of Christianity. It is the Missionary's duty to give to the people of China the whole Christ, the COURSE OF LTCCTURES 95 Logos, the Source of Light and Life of all time. When truth is found in other religions the Christian need have no cause to fear: for lall truth comes from God the Father of all. Buddhism since the revolution has been growing. Temples are Still being built and old ones repaired. A few years ago two thou- sand priests were ordained at one time. Plans are made for a Buddhist University. The Mahayana is the form of Buddhism found in Chinag it has for its motive "To save all living Human Beings." This religion has undergone a great transformation since its 'introduction into China about 61 A. D. 'China and Indiaboth have had their influence upon it. It is said that Indian Zoroasteriau and 'Christian tNestorian Churchj intluences were at work, especially -during the middle ages, up to the 10th century. Some of the teachings of Buddhism are, Works of Faith, Monasticism, The Coming of a Messiah from the West, Masses for the Dead, The Trinity. i . Ten Schools exist in Buddhism, some of which have lost iintluence. One is the School of the Law, one has The Gospel -and each has its own literature. Of the more active schools the Chang -and Pure Land Sects are the most active. A typical temple of the Chang Tsung contains the following symbolisms. As one enters the main gateway he looks into the face of the Smiling Buddha, their Messiah. He next notes the four kings -arranged along the walls, the Black King from the North with his pearl and snakeg the lVhitc King from the East with sword in hand: and then the Red and Blue Kings from the south and west with umbrella and guitar. He then sees the patron saint of the temple and .the Head Guardian who represents holiness and justice and who is -looking into the face of the patron saint. Thus justice is restrained .and law and grace meet. A In the main temple images represent Law, Buddha and the Com- 'munion of Saints. Here also are the lesser dignitaries down to the ,Kitchen God. Behind the altar with its hangings and smoking 'incense is foundthe Trinity. It consists of three images to represent The Great Physician of the Lost 'Paradise in the East, in the center the Historical Buddha who works in the present with all its distress, :and on the left Anitava or King of The Western Paradise. The flatter idol becomes in the Pure Land Sect another trinity. Dr. Reichelt pointed out reasons why Buddhism has had such a hold upon its adherents throughout the past. He closed with a plea Ithat the Truth for which the Buddhists seek might be clearly and fully xrevealed to them through jesus Christ. Some of the girls from. the dormitory refused to use rickshas during the early part of the winter. One preferred the Franklin-Otto, -and several others the Spreng-buggy. 96 "'l'H,li l,lNGUIS'l"' COURSE OF LECTURES Hy Re-zf. Franle Rawlimmzi, 17.19. Editor of the Cliivzvse Rt't70.l'll't'l' on Some Elvimwzts in the Spf-ritual lnlzvrifanrv of Cliilna. This subject was treated in eleven lectures. The general aim was- to study, to some extent, Qlj, the religious psychology of the Chinese- and QZJ, the points of contact between Christian and Chinese religious- concepts and attitudes. The first 'lecture dealt'with "The Approach." This showed how the first responses of the Chinese to the Christian message are apt to- lme to the ideas already known to them. Throughout this and all the lectures it was evident that there is no distinction between religious and secular life in China. The second lecture gave a running' description of temples and images under the title "The Objective Reminders of Religion." The religious systems of China were than treated briefly, Confucianism being included. Considerable attention was paid to Confucian ethics, both as taught by Confucius and as heldf by Coniucianists, and the close approach at some points to Christian ethics emphasized. In connection with Buddhism the ,l-linayana and. Maha fana s stems were noted and com ared. The nadir of reli ious l Y P g life in China was found in Taoism, and in the lower idolatrous aspects. of Buddhism. The lectures then dealt with some religious conceptions of the Chinese derived in large part from these religious systems. lim turn the Chinese conceptions of sin, salvation, prayer, veracity the soul and the future life were discussed, all being illustrated by reference to Chinese literature and custom. Two lectures were given to the subject "Some Chinese ldeas of a supreme Being." Here it was shown that while the worship of a. Supreme Being has been secondary in emphasis, yet many references to the concept of a Supreme Being are found scattered throughout literatureg thesereferences have to do, in the main, with the characters. for "Heaven," "S-hangti" and "Shen" ln connection with these ideas of a Supreme Being and the religious conduct of the people, many' true theistic ideas were pointed out. The germ of faith, the sense of personal and social responsibility, together with the prominence givenr to love were, with others, presented as important permanent elements in the religious life of the Chinese. Some attention was given to the points of conflict between Christianity and Chinese religions. The correlation of Chinese ethical ideas with conduct was treated in a general way. The importance of preserving the valuable elements ini national festivals was also indicated. Comparison was made of some Christian and Chinese religious ideas, and the way these Christian ideas im rove upon the Chinese religious ideas indicated. And finally it was sliown how Christ's revelation of God and lflis Sonship make available to the Chinese that fellowship with God which they have 'failed ,to emphasize or experience to any extent personally, and. provides that life which is the only dynamic of true spiritual living. 0 SOCIAL LIFE 97 SOCIAL LIFE V The solemn, long-faced, sanctimonious missionary is out of date. -ln fact, if he ever existed, and there is abundant evidence to show that he did not, he has long since joined the company of the dodo, the dinosaur, and other extinct species. Given, a group of Language School students, any time. any place, under any circumstances, and you have proof more than ample to convince the most skeptical. F rom the tirst morning when we haltingly introducedxourselves, until the present moment, our work has in itself been characterized by such a fSpirit of comradeship and social-mindedness between student and stu- -dent and between students and faculty that arbitrarily to select a group -of activities and classify them as .Usocial life" is to leave a false umpression. W'e cannot. however, include everything, and if we Sketch only the high lights, it is with the hope that you may be able Ito fill in something of the background of larger fellowship which we -enjoy in the Nanking Language School. ' '-Those absenting themselves from this party do so at their own risk" was the gruesome warning attached to thenotice of our first get Together and get acquainted party given by the advanced students -early in October at the home of Mr. and Mrs. James McCallum, and anyone who had the bad judgment to think of staying away certainly Pan a risk-the risk of missing a good time. Shall we ever forget it-the riclcsha ride over when ricksha rides had not yet lost their novelty, the usual blood-curdlmg quarrel with the coolies. and then the lantern-lighted yard and the jollity of "Three Deep." It was not -an outdoor party for long, however. Before everyone had stumbled more than twice, we were lI'ldOOI'S and engaged in hunting through dusty corners of our brains for "stunts,,' those born in January pre- fsenting one stunt, those born in February another, and so on. u QQ "Oman jesse ran" was present of course. "Du sh wygwha ran" has probablybeen translated in ways that are various, but we doubt whether it ever created the sensation that it did when rendered by Louie Bysted as f-And Ikie said to his little boy, 'This is one grand Ship."' It was on this occasion too, that we were first introduced to that immortal classic "In My Little Cottage .Pudding by the Sea." As sweetly and harmoniously sung by Earl Otto and judy Allen, it had -Hn appeal to the emotions which mere printed words can never have, .but we quote a stanza for what it is worth. 98 "THE .l.INGUIS'l"' The bed ticked and they also say the sea sighed, The cellar stared to see the chocolate drop, A waterman's fountain pig pen'a?Q'afeatnre ' Xvould be extremely novel, would it not? And that is all, won't some courageous creature Step quickly up and flag my train of thought? CHORUS. In my little cottage pudding by the sea, ' My Gwendoline is waiting there for me, And she surely is a prize with her sweet-hazel eyes, In my little cottage pudding by the sea. Unfortunately one of our members was unable to resist the lnlling combination of so many dulcet strains and the delicious refreshments which had been served to us. 1-le went to sleep in the corner and dreamed through "It may be that only in Heaven I shall learn to speak Chinese" and even the selections by the Meigs I-fall quartet, but apparently his nap was unsatisfactory, for later he joined with great enthusiasm in "Oh Iwent to sleep, but it wasn't any use-sing Polly Wolly Doodle all the day." As we followed his obvious suggestion and said goodnight, if there was one thought up- permost in our'minds even stronger 'than appreciation of the hospitality we had enjoyed, itwas the wish that our friends at home might have been there. To anyone who still thinks of China as only one degree removed from the jungle, a place where ordinary human intercourse is impossible and social development ceases,the normality of that party would have come as a revelation. ' I Halloween! What visions of hobgoblins, ghosts, and witches the word conjures up! What memories of childhood pranks and tricks! And in a land where superstition and belief in an outworn system of magic are rife, what freeedom in the consciousness that after all, our revival of equally outworn practices is only play. How we did play too! There were some familiar features of our home Halloween parties that were missing to be sure-the futile drippings that one gets in bobbing for apples, the trip backwards down cellar, the refreshments of doughnuts and cider-but there were new elements that more than compensated for the loss of these old favorites. Who would hazard a fall downstairs when by purchasing a piece of paper from the hag who brewed fortunes in her kettle, he might know his fate, or who would have'exchanged his balls of puffed rice for the best American doughnut? The costumes in the procession that passed through the hair-raising experiences of the Chamber of Horrors that evening were original and varied to say the least. Mr. Iiolleite, our distinguished and tactful president, gave' SOCIAL LIFE 99 us a shocking exhibition of reversal to type, when he appeared rouged. coiffed, and powdered to the nth degree as a Broadway-or Main Street-flapper. It is no exaggeration to say that he took the prize-a Chinese lantern. Aunt DinahQDr. Brown,jwho as a colored mammy was "jest so sca'ht o'dem dare, ghost'es dat she plum knew she was goin' t' have de hydrostatics" carried off the other lantern. One could scarcely have called Mr. Keen the lion of the occasion. but he undoubtedly was the elephant. Conjecture as to the identity of the peanut hunting animal had been widespread for some time before unmasking, and it was a great surprize to the combined collection of darkies, ghosts, Indians and clowns to find that our "dignified" Dean had consented to play this role. fThe morale of the student body has been noticeably lower ever since, but after all this is beside the point and a Language School secret.j We ended the evening with games on the lawn, and so our first Chinese Halloween passed into the realm of delightful memories. "The air is full of mystery, And secrets are awing" was as true of Nanking Language School just before Christmas as it ever is of any school anywhere. Knowing that it has become custom- ary for the teachers to present a play as a part of the Christmas activities, it seemed strange that all of them should feign ignorance. Not a word did they breathe about their preparations for the play. Meanwhile stockings were made and filled with a variety of Chinese goodies to be distributed to the children of the teachers on the day to which we were all looking forward. Loving the teachers as we do, we had long been anxious to meet their wives and families, so that it was with great pleasure that we greeted our guests. How the thought of those Chinese children lingers in our minds- -black hair smooth and shining, dark eager eyes half afraid, half curious, and each child seeming to rival the others in the brightness of his clotn- ing and the number of padded garments he could wear without falling over. But "there is neither East nor west" When it comes to children at a Christmas party. Although they could understand and enjoy the tableau which depicted Christmas Eve in a Christian home and were pleased by the charming songs and finger plays of Mr. Chia's two little girls, it was evident that to them the climax of the afternoon lay in the tree and the stockings not to mention that presid- ing spirit, Father Christmas. To us. however, "the play's the thing." How,the,teachers for three-quarters of an hour maintained aplav containing notonly quick and witty repartee but having a sound plot as well, and all within the limits of our vocabulary, will forever remain a mystery. But they did it, in their own inimitable manner and with the sense of humor that characterizes all Chinese from the highest to the lowest. Much of the delightfulness of the presentation lay in the subtle play on words and the. interchange ,of words having the same pronunciation both in English and Chinese. Any interpretation must necessarily be lame, but it is a temptation to quote one example. For instance, with the exchange of only two 100 "THE LINGUISTH initial consonants, the proverb f'Tl1ere is no task under Heaven whicha zealous man fears" was made to say "There1s no task under Heaven which a newt servant-fears." Our own unanimous opinion was and is that there is no task under Heaven which our Christmas and New Year and then a new class. It wasin honor of the'-Ianuary class that the stupendous theatrical production "1ljacobi" or "The Poisoned Peanut" was first Nankmg. The audience, while appreciative, was strangely indifterent tothe pathos of the play- -a tragedy in three acts-- -and it was received with peals of laughter. The cast was as follows. jacobi, a self-made boot-black trillionaire ..... ...... E arl Otto Lucy Ann, a simple country maiden ...... ...... E rua Flatter Sophronia, a sophisticated city girl ..... - .. .Emelme Bowne teachers could not accomplish. T g g 6 The acting left nothing to be desired either in actual portrayal or in the atmosphere which it created. From the moment when the hero expressed his wish to share " 'Whfith one dear girl, my own" my early love, My Lucy Ann, sweet gentle little dove' we knew that complications were bound to arise, so that when Sophronia appeared, we were not surprized to find her luring away jacobi's atTections. But true worth ever conquers, even though it perish in the attempt. Lucy Ann in spite of her temporary anger and command to "Take back thc box thou hast given lfVhat is thy polish to me F" p had agreed to receive Jacobi once more into her good graces when alas! alas !' enter the villainess, and in the end a sad, sad triple suicide and murder. It was with difficulty that we could resume sufficient composure to play games under the direction of Dorothy Bascom and Mr. Keen-which may account forthe fact that nine- tenths of the group were relegated to the floor during the playing of "The Chinese do not like 'l"' and that a few of the men were notice- ably preoccupied and had to be inspired by their partners in the race to exchange chairs. p SOCIAL LIFE 101 To Mrs. Keen's birthday, we owe the party held in the Keen home on january 29. It was intended to be a surprize, but if you have ever tried to pilot sixty Language School students up a slippery narrow Chinese road when the air is so clear and cold and crisp that the slightest sound penetrates and carries, you will have your doubts- as to the genuine amazement which our coming could have brought. But surprize or no surprize, everyone joined heartily in wishing Mrs. Keen "Health and wealth and happiness," while Earl Otto, again in the foreground, presented her with a bouquet of flowers "red and green and yellow," congratulating himself in song during the presentation that he was "a lucky fellow." Perhaps he was, but the rest of us had our share 'oi good fortune. For once. regardless of -our tests in Chinese characters, we could all be monkeys, and most of US proceeded to prove it by the alacrity with' which we moved in the alphabet game--the vowels especially being called on to display a truly simian agility. The chief difficulty lay in a confusion of phonetics, poor English, and Chinese. Mrs. Anderson electrified us in one of the other games by announcing that her name was "Lea, Lea, Lea," and even some of the men showed sudden inability to tell who they were. Not so with the Reformed Mission. Between 'iAnk -Ank-,Ank., and Yauk-,Yauk-,Yauk-,"they succeeded in giving us a lively representation of Detroit and its leading industry. XVe wish it were possible to continue to draw for you the intimate close companionships of our everyday life and the bonds which are binding us more and more closely together as the days go by, but that is beyond the scope of this resume. For all who come'after us, we can only wish the same union in common Christian fellowship and the same harmonious relationships, as they prepare to give their lives in the most worth-while of all services. BERTIIA Smrrit Q' C C U A young house-wife Cnot one of the present Language classl knew some Chinese. but even then it is easy to use the wrong tone or the wrong word in managing a house-hold. This special time there were to be guests to dinner and the table boy was told to go upstairs and bring the chairs from all the rooms and to be sure that there was "one piecie chair" at each place at the table. XVhen the guests arrived and went to the table, the hostess was -astonished to iind a bar of soap beside each plate. lf there is one thing we are more careful about than another in China, it is that the water we are to drink be carefully boiled. Thus treated, it is spoken of as drinking water. I heard the other day about a woman who was planning a dinner for guests and she told the cook in preparing sliced cucumbers for the table, to put them to soak in water. She was very anxious that he put them in water that had been boiled so specilied drinking water. When she lead the company to dinner, they were all ,surprised to find a few slices of cucumber in the glasses of water at each place. 102 "'ri-ta L!NtlUlS'l"' THE VVEDDING One of the most noteworthy events of our year has been the marriage of"MissrElizabeth Gottwalt to Mr. john.Alston. Imagine- a moonlight night, the brilliant not-a-cloud-in-the-sky variety, with. balmy spring air, even though the date is the last of February. Then picture a roadway bordered with a hedge and trees, gay with Chinese lanterns of all colorsg anda canopy, also festooned with lanterns, leading to the door of Sage Chapel. The interior is lovely, with bamboo screening off the seats and aisles at eachside and forming a fitting background for the ceremony that is to follow. Branches of' it cover the front of the platform, while above are potted plants and ferns. Mrs. Anderson is the soloist, and thenlo the familiar strains' of Lohengrin, the bridal party moves down the aisle. Margaret Keen and Ruth Hamilton are the flower girls, Miss Bertha F. Park, Miss- Rachel Franklin, Miss Besse Milner, Miss Rose Waldron, the brides- maids and Miss Erna Flatter the Maid of Honor. The ushers are Mr. E. C. Robinson, Mr, NV. Smith, Mr. A. -I. Hope, and Mr. E. P. Mills. Mr. E. A. Fowler is the best man. Mr. Keen gives- away the bride, who is beautiful in her wedding gown, filmy veil, and shower bouquet. Dr. Price of Nanking performs the ceremony, and as the Mendelsohn Wedding March is played, the bride and ,groom and their attendants leave the church. Later Mrs. Molland is hostess at a reception given in their honor at her home on The Hill. After a honey moon to Manila the bride and groom are making their home in Puchen, Ku, China. Two new missionaries were sharing the same cabin on the boat coming over. One fellow was a big healthy man who had never known a sick day in his life. The iirst morning out, a terrible storm was raging. The big fellow got up, had his cold bath as usual and then ate a big breakfast. He came back to his cabin and ridiculed the cabin mate who was with great difficulty trying to shave. The' boat rolled and pitched and screwed. After a moment the boasting young man looked at his room mate with a helpless, hopeless expres- sion, and putting his hands in the form of a cup before his mouth, he said "Quick, when-e'll I put this" Needless to say he "put it" with- out being told. ?. ..-... ,Afew yearsuago. a man was trying' to smuggle opium into Chengtu. I-le was also a butcher. He drove his cows in'through the city gate every evening and butchered them at night. At iirst he had no trouble. Finally suspicion rested upon him and the soldiers took the cows and slaughtered them. In the cows' stomachs were found little round tins of opium which the cows had been forced to swallow. At that time, when-the Dowager prohibited, it was final. The man lost his head the next day. fWe do not advocate quite nch drastic measures but we wish there was some power in China to see that the laws are enforced. WHNT ARI-1 'l'Hli WILD WAVES SA YINC 'IOS WHAT ARE THIS XNILD YVAVES SAYING. l . - i 4 l i Play rommillvr' and PItlj'K?I'.Y of my Lmyyimgp S,-11001, The Language School Play has become an annual event -looked forward to by the Community. This year the plot was quite original and unique and the performance was of high order, and well praised. The Play Committee was composed ol: Besse Milner. Chairman Dorothy Basconl Etna ifi,lLlU.C1' Emeline Bowne Mrs. Ruth Brcde Myrtle Stone Bertha Smith Dr. WflClKlb1'lClg'C lfiilfl Otto C. S. lic-en XVHAT ARE THE XVILD NVAVES SAYING? An original play written and produced hy the students ofthe Language School for the pleasure of the patrons of the Nanlcing' Association. on the evening of April 27th, at the Young Mcn's Christian Association, .. X X-. ,A 4 1 l04 "'l'HI'I LINGUIST' D-R-A-M-A-T-I-S P-E-R-S-O-N-A-AE Mission Board Secretaries all of New 'York City ti Suburb of Philaj ' Jeremiah G. Spearmint .... jesse B. Yaukey Ignatius M. South . . . Stanley liirn tialusha D. Flintheart . Oswald Goulter Lettitia B. Feathertuss . Irene Gehrling Adeniram j. Skinnem . . Albert Steward Amy 'lil'E2:ltCll1WCll Qwidowj Helen Skilling lchahod Youngtnan . . ,lustin Follette lidith 'l'ravers .... liertha Smith 'Cornelius johnson . . . L. E. Blackman Mr. Gia tl-lead Chinese Tcacherj Wang Yao-ting Dean . . Baron Toppe Language School Students .luha 'Hawkins .Iunc Stevens Sarah Buckley ,tack Dalton Bertha Park Lydie Shields Dorothy Bascom XVilliam Cutchins . George Stevens .... . William Ankeney Other Students, Supernumeraries, etc. etc. S-Y-N-O-P-S-l-S Matrimony having become so prominent, a part of Language School life, the Board Secretaries are forced to ,adopt measures to save young, unmarried women to the work. Protests on the part of the Secretaries have proved of no avail, and even the dean, upon his return from furlough, has been unable to stem the matrimonial tide. The mischief still goes on. In desperation the Secretaries call a conference in New 'York to discuss ways and means of coping with the situation. VVith seriousness .and dignity the wltole situation is canvassed. Varying and divergent opinions are expressed and not a little warmth generated, but no way out of the difficulty appears until the last speaker, a young bachelor, one-time student in the Language School, now on sick leave and serving his Board as Candidate Secretary, suggests that the good of the Language School can be conserved and the young women saved fto t-he work if the language were taught hy radio broadcasting. The idea is received with enthusiasm, and adopted. The experiment is tried out under the direction of its originator, 'but with results differing greatly from those anticipated. The students are quick to see in radio possibilities quite beyond the limits of mere Language study, and thru its use out of hours many engagements are consummated. Taking advantage oi differing wave-lengths, George Stevens of Chinkiang succeeds in diverting to his cousin julia, june Stevens in Nanking, his roommate's Cjack Daltonj proposal of mar- riage intended for his cousin's roommate, julia Hawkins. George then 'radios ,Iack's identical message to Julia Hawkins, who mistaking its St?l1ClC1'fO1'JZ1Cl'f, accepts, contirming her acceptance by letter. june Stevens, following instructions by mail, also sends confirmatory letter. .-XS THIS GUEST OF .XX Ol"FlCI.'Xl. 105 After a montl1's trial, representatives ot the Language School meet in classroom, Nanking, and listen in while Dr. Youngman, Board Representative in charge of the experiment. radios his findings. lack Dalton takes exception to one item of.,the report which-announces the engagement of julia Hawkins to George Stevens, and is silenced with didiculty with the promise that the matter can be rectified later if necessary. The Secretaries upon hearing the report, reply that the plan has succeeded too well,-far' beyond their expectations. and they advise the return at once to the former methods, stating that it is better to let nature take its course. Thereupon jack questions George and estab- lishes his claimto 'lulia on the evidence he possesses in the form of the letters of connrmation from both julia and ,I une, George not hav- ing foreseen that both letters would be addressed to .lack Dalton. The latter in a final burst of generosity turns over the eousin's letter to George with the twofold suggestion that they marry and that they let nature take her course. General Feng Yu t-lsiang, the Oliver Cromwell ofiChinn, with his family. l06 I -A "THE IJNGUIS F" AS THE GUEST OF AN OFFICIAL. Nine soldiers with fixed bayonets are really rather impressive. Asked for my card, I was tempted to think that ldid not want to go in after all. A few minutes later, I was escorted toward the guest hall. We passed thru court after court, for in a Chinese home, the most honored guests are received in the rooms farthest from the street. Past the servants' quarters, brilliant with the gay colors of the freshly washed quaint trousers and coats of the women of the house, beyond the kitchens until we were niet by my host. His beautiful long blue silk garments lined with whitest lambs' wool, his dignity and bearing, marked him a Chinese gentlemang the respect of my soldier- escort gave recognition of his position as the honored elder son of .an high ohicial of the Republicg and his courtesy and charm, bespoke in him much that is best and hopeful in New China. Continuing on our way, he pointed out the entrance to the chamber where his father even then sat in council with his cabinet, deciding the policies of the nation. I thought of the significance to China and the world of some of the things being decided even as we, unnoticed, passed-japan. Russia, debts, loans, the 21 Demands, England, concessions. railroads, all were there. Thru still more elaborately carved moon doorways into several more courts, and we had reached the guest hall, where I was im- mediately presented to the Honorable Mother who awaited us there. Comfortably plump she was, the sign to the Chinese of great hap- -piness and my western mind found in the calm kindliness of her face sanction of the sign. As I greeted her my eyes took in at a glance the rare teakwood furnitureg the great, high window with the wide seat beneath it. The floors were bare. but inia-corner was a tantali- zing pile of rugs with only a glimpse of satisfying blues and golds peeking out. I saw that one wall was almost covered to the ceiling, scverai layers deep, with small boxes-rich lacquers and varnishes and smooth surfaces-each with its striking black-lettered red tag pasted -on the out-side. Later I was toldthat these boxes containedithe- gifts that had been brought to the grandfather on his sixty-fifth birthday, just passed-and I saw many of the gifts, rare old lacquers, ancient brass of untold value, handsome new brass, wood carvings, until I wished that I dared play thief. But before I had had time to be curious about the boxes, a second very attractive woman came in and I found myself being introduced to my host's "Second Mother." "Second Mothern seemed a bit strange to me but I thought it perhaps but his extremely polite or affectionate way of speaking of his mother-in-law. I was still turn'- ing the matter over in my mind when a gay little bird of a body came dancing in, her smooth black hair not less full of shining lights than her gloriously blue and black, silk garments, her feet, scarlet slippered, twinkling in and out as gaily as if they were not less long than 1ny hand is wide. I think I must have gasped a bit when she was intro- AS 'PHE GUEST OF .KN OlilflCl'Xl. 107 duced as "Honorable Third Mother," for my host, speaking for the lirst time in English, said quite simply and with a frank smile, "My father's third wife." Three NVives! I immediately became alert, watching for any sign of jealousy or ill-feeling. But neither then 'nor during the hours that I was there, did 1 see the least sign of it. Even when a fourth' wife came in, tho no one recognized her by for- mally introducing her, she was received into the conversation with very little if any distinction or difference. The Honorable Mother herself did not enter much into the conversation. Even during the feast which followed she, secure in her honored position, sat back -calmly and quietly while the third Mother directed the servants and -carried all responsibility. All in all. they seemed most like a group of sixteen year old girls having a party while Mother was away. Shortly after the Second Mother's entrance. my host a mere lad himself, had brought in his wife. just a littlengirl she was,with aching bound feet in spite of the beautiful jade ornaments in her banglcss hair, in spite of the cunning fat ball of a baby in the arms of the servant who 'followed her, in spite of the evident pride and affection of her young husband. She had immediately busied herself carrying 'to each Mother the lacquered box of lunglish cigarettes, often putting them to her own lips to light them and then passing them on to the Iilother, They thought it very strange that I would not smoke-but then they knew that foreigners were very queer and one just had to make the best of their strange ways. js- 1 V r Five months in China had scarcely made my knowledge of the ilanguage complete, but 'tis strange how much can be done with a very few words and many smiles. As we drank fragrant in-ehid-tea, etc. watcrmellon seeds and other dainties, they told me many things of the history of their own families and of their husband's family. llearned lthat 1 was only the second foreign woman with whom they had ever -come in contact. According to the ancient customs 'for the conduct of the women of a wealthy, honored ollieial family like theirs, no man -outside of the family is ever allowed to come into the women's por- '-tion of the house 5 the women seldom leavethe house and then only to go IOS "'l'Hl:l l.lNGl.'lS'll" in heavily curtained carriages or cars to the equally secluded women's quarters of one of the friends of their husband. They marvelled at the yellow of-my hair, like children, they wondered at and gloried in the fact that their skin, was even whiter and pinker than mine, a member of the white raceg they were astounded to find that I wore no heavy padded garments like theirsg and, because she was greatly con- cerned lest I be freezing to death, as she sat beside me the gay little- Third Mother dared lift the hem of my skirt to see how many pet- ticoats I had on. It was all just as it should have been, according to the stories that I had read. I loved it. After we had taken tea, we walked thru the garden-more accu- rately called the Rockery! The path led into quaint tea houses, past lovely ponds fiecked with gold fishes. over rocks into cool corners to handsome marble benches under great trees such as I had seen only inf temple courts, down into a dimly lighted cave-the shrine of an idol worshipped by at least two former presidents of the Chinese Republic' but now deeply covered with the dust of neglect and disbelief-until' we came back to the guest hall to find it prepared for the feast, the.- event. . There was the usual parleying over who would have to submit to being so extremely impolite as to be the first to seat himself at the table, but that having finally been accomplished, the feast began. Ac- cording to Chinese custom, the desserts are served first. and so, in the centre of the table was placed a dish of The Eight Precious Fruits and dish after dish of sweets and delicacies were placed about it. lt is. Chinese custom, too, that each should reach into these dishes with his own chop sticks, unless the guest has the honor of having the hostess, first serve her with her own chopsticks. So one Mother and then another served me--each vying with others to see who would be first to serve me from each dish., I do not know how many dishes we were served. As quickly as each had had sufficient from one dish, it was taken away and another, steaming hot, was set in its place in the circle. From time to time, the chopsticks, the two small dishes of fragile blue and whitest China, and the long brass spoon were exchanged for clean ones by one of the two women servants and the one man servant who attended each guest. A ,A For four hours we sat at the table. and the family was as much in- terested in each new dish as was I, for they, you see, had not provided the feast. VVhen some outsider wants to gain favor or to pay for a past favor, he expresses to the ofiicial his desire to provide a feast for him and for his honorable family. And so, the official, de- siring to give this feast, had merely notified the man at the head of his long list-and the feast had been provided. At the end, the family determined the name of the feast according to the combination of meats and vegetables and fishes served CEverything from delicious chicken to jelly fish and sea slugs !'y 1 stated the known cost of such a feast, and expressed their opinions of the donor. I am glad that I am not an ofhcialseeking favor or position. SEEING PALESTINE IN CHINA 109 My host goes to America this summer with his wife and baby. I wonder il he will linil in my America thc same charm and courtesy that I found in his home. Asl lclt. lie said "My people like you very much. They say you are not proud." Proud? who are we Americans that we should be tooproudto be friendly? It's small wonder that we win them so slowly to Christianity. RUTH L. MYERS. i A good catch: Fishermen after a haul in a large pond in the interior of China, Ponds are very numerous and serve the twofold purpose of water sup- ply and meat supply. SEEING PALESTINE IN CHINA. A journey from "Jericho to jerusalem" in China today will bring before us in reality the scenes and customs that we have long visua- lized in our imaginations only. In China, away from the railroads, we travel a "day's journey." We start with the dawn, either on foot or on donkey in order to reach our destination while it is yet day. Otherwise we shall arrive to find that "there is no room in the inn" and shall have to accept such shelter as can be found. As we pass through the country immediately outside the city wall, we see the swine herders tending their swine among the tombs and graves. Soon we come to the fields "white unto harvest." Here and there the men are at work on the threshing floor, while some distance away the poor folk from the city are gleaning after the farmers who are laboriously cutting the grain with sickles. Some fields are already harvested and in these the oxen are plowing with the same cumbersome wooden yoke and plow of two thousand years ago. As we travel on in the early morning we are interested in the fisher- men who are fishing with nets in the ponds and streams. As we near a farm house, we notice how the people are crowding around it. 110 "THE LINGUTSTH We remember the story of jesus going to raise the boy from the deadg I-Iow the crowd was so great that llc could scarcely enter. The Bible often speaks of the wailing for the dead. As we draw still nearer we can hear the women weeping. Only those who have heard the Oriental woman "wail" can quite understand these Biblical ex- pressions. V The day is now "far spent" and we are weary with the slow travel- ling. We too, come to the "village well" where all the villagers come at some time during the day. We sit on the stone curb, which today is furrowed deep by the constant rubbing up and down of the ropes of the water buckets as they supplied for centuries the water for which "men thirst again." While we are refreshing ourselves, the village folk come out to see us. How often they bring a sick child to us and ask for help or medicine. If we are friendly and talk to them or are able to help them with the medicines that we always carry with us. they too will return unto the village and. tell them "all things that we have said and done to them." So that soon the whole country side knows about us and is eager for our return. . I' -- ,z ,gs ittartgfff ' 1 r -- . sa .ff...- .,,.-.-..v,,, .1 ,r ,.v .3 This iS nQt l'lalziarn.'bnt, the burrow might be his ass. SEEING PALESTTNE IN CHINA 111 Who has ever travelled much in China and not seen over and over again the crowds which gather so quickly at any unusual eventg Or has not seen the doorways so crowded that if one were to enter, it would have to be by way of the roof. VVe can easily understand why laccheus had to climb a tree in order to see jesus. How eagerly do the Chinese sit or stand for hours to hear some preacher speak with a message. The Oriental has no thought of the time if he is eager to hear or to see. No wonder jesus could not send the people away but "fed the multitudes" where he was. We can more clearly understand how, after Peter's powerful sermon, more than three thousand were added to the church in one day. The Orient seems full to overflow- ing with children, and always where jesus was, the children too, would gather. How natural it was for jesus to cal-l a child to him and bless It or use it in his parable. The next day is a feast clay. For just as in Bible times there were Special feasts days and various gods, so in China today. As we draw nearer to the city the crowds increase. We notice some dusty weary travellers, dressed in a different garb. Upon inquiry we find that they are famine sufferers from the north, and like Ioseph's brerln-en are coming south with their asses to take back food and grain for their families. All along the crowded way are the beggars, the halt, the lame, the maimed and blind, and here and there a demoniac, all reaching out their hands for help. Of course Jesus' great svmpa- thetic heart went out to them and He healed them before He preached to them. How apt was Jesus' story of the good Samaritan. for here travellers "pass by on the other side" and leave those who are in trou- ble or need, to their own fate. H . -, " ra ,at I 1 'XG gil A well which has furnished water for centuries We are now within sight of the great wall of the city of our destination. We enter by way of the water gate which is muddy and slippery from the hundreds of buckets of water which the people have carried into the city during the day. We pass by the great city temple. Here in the Orient the temple and court is a noisy market place. It must have been such a scene ashthis which aroused the 1122 "Tl-lli l,lNGUlS'l"' wrath of jesus at the desecration ofthe sanctity of the holy te1nple and made l'lim take a scourge and drive them out saying 'fllily l"ather'S house is a house of Prayer." As we pass down the crowded streets of thc city we see enacted before us many times the story of the rich man revclling in his plenty and the poor scabby beggar "Lazarus" pleading on the door step for bread. XVe realize anew why jesus said "the poor ye have with you always." Many customs too, are identical with those of Palestine, twenty centuries ago. The servant is sent out to inform us that the feast is now prepared and we are invited to come for 'fall is ready." Wine is still an important part of the wedding feast. The Chinese man of today has very much the same attitude toward woman as did the apostle Paul. As of old, every oriental man feels he must have sons, even though it means he must take unto himself several wives or concubines. The Bible speaks of "hiding tl1e treasure." The oriental has no other way except hiding or burying his treasure. We can see the man wrapping his talents in a napkin, for here everything of value is wrapped in a square cloth or napkin for carrying or safe keeping. When jesus could no longer struggle under His cross,a passing Workman was commandeered to carry it for Him. So in China, when troops are moving or necessity arises, any available man may be commandeered into service. The most precious idea of Christ as our mediator is one most natural to the Chinese. The Oriental idea is always that a middle personality should act for one in all matters of importance, and that Christ should intercede for us at the Father's throne is a realistic idea for the Chinese. , With the Chinese naturally familiar with Bible times and customs, is it not possible that this developing, thinking, living Church of China today in this twentieth century, may give to the past interpretations of the Bible new richness and life? I. M. L. PACKING 113 ATHLETICS AND Spoars. D Athletics and outdoor sports are common forms of recreation for foreigners in China. And the Language School students have been glad to avail themselves of the excellent opportunities for such games as tennis and for hunting. To most of us it was quite a surprise tg find deer hunting within three miles of the center of the ancient: city of Nanking,-much nearer than we were accustomed to in the Hoinelands, A thirty minute ricksiiatli-ide or an hour's walk takes one from the University center to pheasant, wild duck or geese shooting or deer hunting country. And 'during the game season venison, pheasant, duck and geese were very common articles of food on our tables, The Chinese hunt very little and then only with the most primitive of guns. PACKING 5 I were coming to China again 'HQ And had my clothes to buy, ' lg. I wou1dn't have to chew m ,L I , Y,PeU, 'G And think, and think, and Slgllj J J And then not know just what to choose ' Or what to leave behind- No precious time 1'd have to lose In making up my mindg . For though I've been out just a year And still have lots to learn, I've found some things are very dear While some the Chinese spurn. And others, every store will sell- The price is moderate too- So all new comers might do well To glance these pages thru. First, let me say that when you sail The world's not all behind. 'l'here'll be folks out here without fail, And they'rc by no means blindg They may have gazed on Chinese styles And even tried them too, But they're not living in the wilds, So they'll relish something new. "THE LINGUISTU Then bring along some new style clothes, Some dresses, thick and thin, And don't forget to put in hose, A dozen pairs, drop in. A word, about these self-same hose, They will not always wear, Almost before the owner knows 'l'hey'll spring a leak or tearg So why not bring along with you If you would have the best, Some bulls of darning cotton, new. The amahs willldo the rest. Now, other things you'll find quite high Toothpaste, tooth brushes, soaps, Pins, buttons, thread--one needs must b You'll put these in, I hope. Another thing that you should mark, Though you may think it strange, ' A pair of glasses, colored dark, They'll helpkeyou get your range. 1 Now shoes the Chinese try tofniake, i And often they succeed, ' But bring a lotg it's,no mistake, You'l! find for them a need. And hair pins, bring them out with you, For they cost money here, But buying hairnets, a very few, You can get them,-never fear! If,you're inclined to have some play Bring tennis racket, shoes, For sometime in your busy day These things you'd like to use. Books, magazines and things to read Are always in demand- 'Twill truly be a kindly deed To have such things on hand- In short, bring everything you own And all your friends donateg What you can't use, you'll surely loan No matter what their state. But after all is said and done, I tell you this true- There's really nothing' neath the sun, That will count as much as YOU. N. C. M. u y WHAT SHALL l TAKIQ 115 WHAT SHALL I TAKE? Who can describe that "lost" feeling which comes over one as he attempts to list the articles of clothing and equipment which he prepares to take to China? We have not forgotten how we debated with ourselves whether we should spend a small fortune laying in a supply of ivory soap, whether it really was necessary to buy the heavy wool clothing, and whether or not it was foolish for us to take up space in our already over-filled trunks by putting in our tennis racquets. So, as we are now, able to sec for ourselves just what is difficult or easy to get here in China, we should like to have you, who are coming out, profit by our mistakes. In the first place there is one important .thing to be considered, namely the location of your station. lf you are to be in one of the larger cities such as Shanghai or Peking you will find that it is posg- ible to buy foreign-made goods. If however you are to be in a small inland city which has little use for imported articles, you will have to bring a supply of such things as soap, toothpaste etc. with you or, as is frequently done, you may by mail-order, obtain these things from the nearest large city. The advertisements in this book, and we urge you to look them over, will give you a fairly good idea of what may be purchased in the large cities or ordered by mail. Briefly stated, bring every thing that you have on hand and would use at homey But be sure to include the following classes of articlesg FOR YOUR HOUSE: Matresses, bed springs and pillows tBed steads may be had in China advantageously. This applies to furniture as well.l Table linen tLuncheon sets are best secured herej Mirrors: Frames are satisfactorily made here Piano and Phonograph and a big supply of good records. China ware and cooking utensils. All personal things such as books and pictures. flirames are advantageously secured in China.j MISCELLANEOUS: Steamer rug. Unbreakable thermos bottle. First aid kit. Small hammer and penknife. . Mosquito netting for beds. Typewriter, if you expect to use one, but the standard typewrirel-5 may be purchased in Shanghai. Personal musical instruments. FOR WOMEN 3 Heavy woolen clothing, summer clothes may be had quite inex- pensively here but variety of materials is limited. 116 "TI-IE LTNGUISTH Rain coats, rubbers and overshoesg These are hard to get here. But the Chinese umbrellas are cheap and serviceable. Bathing suit. Hats: QShanghai and Pekin are about the only places where they may be purchased- and they are expensivej Shoes: Un most places shoes can be copied and made at a small cost but if you have trouble with your arches it is best to bring a good supply of well fitting shoes.j Stockings, woolen- tSilk stockings can be secured herej. Tennis racquet and shoes: Both thesearticles and good balls may be purchased here. Subscription to your favorite style book. Notions: thread, needles, pins, buttons, elastic and ribbons, snaps, FOR MEN: Heavy woolen clothing, underwear and overclothing. But suits may be made in China at lower cost than in America. If, however, you are fastidious about a fit bring a few suits along. Summer duck suits may be secured advantageously here. Field or hiking clothes, including your favorite hobnailed shoes. Raincoats, rubbers and overshoes: These are hard to get in China. Shoesg See the list for women. Wading boots for duck shooting. A good supply of woolen socks. Shotgun: Good duck, geese and Chinese deer shooting may be had in most parts of China along rivers and in the mountains. Rifle: Wild boar shooting may be had in many parts of China. If you have a rifle bring itg but it will be necessary to secure a permit from the Chinese authorities through your consul to import it. Some delay will be caused unless you writc ahead to the Consul of Shanghai, China, for a permit so as to take it with you. It takes time to get this permit CFrom one who knowsj. Army camp cot. ' Bed roll for out door use, with tarpaulin etc. Tennis equipment, but good racquets may be purchased in Shanghai. Excellent.opportunities for tennis are found in most foreign communities. , Neckties, collar buttons, collars. Felt hats. Camera if you have one. Films and developing service are to bc had here. I A Chinese Feast is a Royal Gorge as long as the Colorado. ln China. when one asks- the number ol children in the family, llle reply only includesboys, for girls are not considered worthy of mention. ' ' RICKSHA SKETCHTCS 117 RICKSHA SKETCHES The policeman wins. , ' ' ' roua of four of us, who went out One day lm ile2.i1eigci1ai12itigt ainong the ricksha men. There together, near y agitiu and it seemed that the one who had been Wei? Hvelmfinnwest dzigdrft get a passenger,-at least that was the waiting tie .3 gaake out of it, -and so he started an argument best We Coin 'iiwuming beside them. They had to put down the with thebot-leiiiorder to reply to his accusations, for the Chinese flckslm alrbnljt effective without the use ofhands. 'llhere we sat at langu?ge If of the main streets with autos wluzzing past and the side of one Waxing eloquent and more eloquent in argument. Our!r1diSh'?lmenlicl11't come to blowsg they didn't even touch each Oh' no' Iii,-ctl the accepted theory of argumentation in China Qther' for evl cn KGS the biggest noise and emits the largest number IS: the wrnnelrbglgaexplosioirs in the shortest time. A crowd very ot- monosy a 1 'mst as it does in America whena fight is in progress, quickly gatherecfiiilference. The people in the crowd said not a wordg -but with one tched and listened. Finally the crowd became so they Simply Wa t gl a traffic block and then a policeman appeared large that It ci-ig edispersed the crowd layer by layer until he came to on the scenc.f the disturbance. Then by the simple procedure of the .center 0 noise and exploding faster than the disturbers he tiiegeand we went peacefully on our Way. , 1- W , 2 at r "-.K Fl. I I A guardian of thc ,f peace: a type of po- liceman encountered at all street intersec- tions in Nanking. He also exercises judicial powers by settling ., disputes and quarrels s of the neighborhood. fl 'ff fi! Ji 113 "'l'l-IE I,lNGU'IS'.l"' ........ --I - -Fw- K f . iw- 9 , . ' I . 6215 , ,Ivo Y ,Q 5 'A 1- 4 ., I X ' -TW- 3-- r . ' . 57' 7112, Hfxx ' ' - ,inf ffl'-f Ufgff - Q ' iz" 3?- f"'?' 5-7 :Zig -""' .I . . X x . L .iyz " M , ' 1 - 7 wx . f f A Mp" J ff: .- wr ,sig - . 4- x 4' 'I V1 xlilfbg ,h . .ful -, A 4 In A I ,Fila W "A" --:-jL.A.....,, .l 7 i 7 .f . ,Ffjf ' fig' fm,-,fy I 7 ' fri:--Hg',"1:,' 12:7 ff, S ,A W nn il ...,. .-m,p3' 'E g f . 1 - ., --9 , ix 3- 'I " 'V 7 . I y . . 9 h l U , , ' A "- If 1 .5 In NMR 1, 1 4 V AA - - fl' KH, f -i T 'S' ,I , jx: ,.fgN.N. f'97"ri""" 'L : fa we ,Q- Satisfnction of having attained the correct tone. "TI-IE LINGUIST " 119 I rf . I ! l I Mother and Son at Breakfast. The problem of the child on the street: Without play-grounds, it is forced to run the gauntlet of infections from- untold diseases on the filthy streets. A child is. not counted in the census until it attains the age of eight so heavy is infant and child mortality, To inHuence the childhood of to-day is to in- fluence the manhood of to-morrow. . 4 v 4 -Qian., ,' X A, A U Q , -. A HA ,, V vm A . , , iff' 4. ,,,4gm ' pp mu ffl' !!!l'!!. Mm! ' K li nn lang, ., -I V 475 ' -f161r-'Wt 'Q'u"'1 it 319.191-pm-,Lg - -J,-. illill E 1, .1--,1-.... .. ,- - -., M,-A.,..., 71312 . -, , f 13: gif, 1..2 ttf: V713-'M " fx?-3,5-QSM" '- -af Some University of Nanking Buildings LINGUIST A D'VER"IlISIffR PHCSPHCR IS TC THE BRAIN WHAT ELECTRIC LIGHT IS T0 A CITY. VVITHOUT PHOSI-'I-IOR YOU ARE IN TI-IE DARK. However it must be the right kind of Phosphor, because Phosphor as such is a strong poison. In thc right kind of chemical combination it is harmless. Such a preparation is KOFA GLYCOPHOSPHATES They are assimilable, they are harmless-that is non-poisonous. An occasional overdose will do no harm. One of the principal constituents is a Calcium Salt of Glycerophosphate. The Calcium Component helps to build up the bones. The Phosphor is available for the formation and improvement of nerve and brain substance. Phosphor is important because in any kind of brain work a small amount of Phosphor is used up. THIS IS A SCIENTIFICALLY ESTAB- LISHED FACT. Unless this is replaced, the final result may be a nervous breakdown. KOFA GLYCOPHOSPHATES are sweet as sugar and may be taken with tea, coffee, milk or water. 53.00 A LARGE BOTTLE AMERICAN DRUG COMPANY 40-42 NANKING ROAD ---- SHANGHAI. LINGUIST JXI'DV1I3RTISER "OUR JOB, me DISTRIBUTION or cnmsrmn LITERATURE, YOUR JOB, T09 'Y YQDU X ll I , f CHCRH SLJQEI Jil To Jwvcp A CRYING NEED FOR GOOD BOOKS! WY? .IIRE THE I,'LlI'.f1II'l.N'U HOUSE FUR CHINESE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE LANGUAGE STUDY aooxcs MEDICAL Booxs IN CHINESE .ALSO BOOKS LN' ENGLISH General, Religious, Educational, Historical, Literary. Sociological, Scientific, Etc. Our Household Department Ia Fm Becoming the MI,.Immae.' SERVICE OF SUPPLIES Wlivre-cmff' you gn, wc' endcaffor fo supply your awry need. THE MISSION BOOK CO. 13 North Szechuen Road SHANGHAI ,J l i ' l u 12 2 l,lNCUlS'l' .fXDVl2R'lllSER SENG CHUN 84 OO. CA1295 BROADWAY. SHANGHAI? Extelzd lo you a Cardin! H"eIc0me.' Lei our Swatow 9Drawn 'Z17orR,' Ci?o1or C'?ross1S'titc6,' 'ff2'1i2'l'l4l?.4.1E4E?f? Isaequer and Silver wares .' loinens, Silks, Ernbroideries, etc., prove We are manufacturers. Wholesale and Retail Dealers to you the worth of the Chinese artistic taste. In Visiting Nanliihg stop at THE BRIDGE HOUSE Warm in Winter Cool in Summer Hot and Cold Water and latest Sanitary Arrang ements A Clean, Comfortable and Good Tzible Y 0 ' yn lf Ilrdfl' I9 orezgn Manage 6721 STUDENT DIRECTORY 123 THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING DEPARTMENT OF MISSTONARY TRAINING ST UDENT R OST ERS RESIDENT STUDENTS-SCHOOL YEAR 1922-1923. - will fiilik SE I HU 5lE'Ml3i FFF! Bl' R 5135145 litter!!! :Gita 5355 EETHIRSZ Hifi! Rliilllm WWE Q4 Classesj. I. CLASS ENTERING OCTOBER 1921- Julia F. Allen ................... . . ., .............. Danville. Kentucky. Mt. Holyoke, B. A. College of Missions. Educational work, Nanking. Christian Mission. , n ...................................... . ' ' cl-T:dg:golTegc.oTXcT B. College of Missions, HUM" Ohm' Evangelistic and educational work, Chuchow, Anwhei. Christian Mission. Eleanor Blackstone ............................,..... Nanking, China, Hillcrest High School. Methodist Episcopal James Blackstone ..... ......................... .... N a nking, China. Hillcrest High School, Methodist Episcopal. Elvira M. Braden .......................... .... L owell, Mass, Columbia: Y.W.C.A. Training School. Y. W. C. A. Nanking. Edith Johnson. .................,...... .... I ,atham, Kansas, Kansas Sanitariuni, R. N. Nurse, Shanghai. Seventh Day Adventist. 'Virginia Kirk, .......................,,...... .... D es Moines, Iowa. Drake University, A. B. Educational work, South Gate. Nanking. Christian. .James H. McCallum, ............................. 1. . .Engenc. Oregon. University of Oregon, Yale, College of Missions, B, A. B, D. Evangelistic work. South Gate. Nanking. Christian. ' Earl Otto, ...................................... Covington, Kentucky. University of Cincinnati, A. B., M. A. Educational Work. Nantungchow, Ku. Christian, Howard L. Shull, ............................ Burlington, New jersey Washington Missionary College, B. A. Educational, Nanking. Seventh Day Adventist. Helen Skilling, ........,............................. Los Angeles, Cul, University of Southern California. Business College, Secretarial, Nanking. Presbyterian. South. .Naperville, Ill. Ralph W. Spreng, ................................. Valparaiso University, Western Reserve University, M. D. Physician, Yuhsien, Hunan, United Evangelical. II. CLASS ENTERING JANUARY,1922- john William Decker.. .. ..... ........................ N ew York Citry .Richmond College, M. A., Th. D. S. Baptist T. S. General and educational, East China. Baptist North, LINGUIST JXDVTCRTISER -..........-." Save your eyes-"............-..- C ' VISION pf IIIROIBHSCIENIIIIC I 2 Q 'C . .. . I I 1 -E-ASQ ff: in L' X T o ' 'I l 1, l ' 2, I, H :Li-:fig 1914 lg! elf N one's study of Chinese language, both written and ! speaking, his eyes are required to spend most of the gyfifjj time in getting acquainted with the Chinese charac- ' ters which are brand new to the new comer in his life. You are greatly handicapped in the class room with those who have fully equipped eyes, if your eyes are at faultg or even your vision seems to be good but you are feeling the sensation of strain. The eye is a living, changing, highly adaptable organ that can be driven to function long after the margin of safety has been passed. But when this is done the penalty must inevitably be paid, even though nature apparently defer collection of her debt. The frequent examination of your eyes at Chinese Optical Company will tell whether they need aid of glasses or not. It will involve you in no obligation to visit us. Optome- trist in charge of refraction is American educated in his special work and you can rest assured to have quality services required in Modern Optometry. Missionaries are allowed an extra discount of regular selling price. til Q ee HE le eil '11 CHINESE OPTICAL COMPANY Corner of Nanking 8: Lloyd Roads SHANGHAI Branches in all leading cities 8: Hongkong STUDENT DIRECTORY 125 I BFE -13: Mrs. Margaret Laws Decker, .... N Y - Richmond co11ogo,B. A. ew Drk Cay' Ba t' t, N. E E75 152 Mrs. Nina Culver ....... ....... , ..... .... ....... Q u i nge: Kaiigin Taylor University Evangelistic Work, Nanking. Stewart Foundation. iii H S Elsie B. Heidenreich, ............ ...................... W oodbine Ill West Side Hospital, R.. N. ' Nurse, Hunan. United Evangelical. W Ei? B2 Mrs. Lee S. Huizenga, .............. ..... ,,,, l . U. B. A. Hospital. Englewood' N' J ' Nurse, Rukoa, Ku. Christian Reformed. W'1'lllli!..E'. Louise C. May, .................................... New York Citv Massachusetts Leuccal Hospital, Boston. ' Nurse, General Hospital, Wuhu. Methodist, North, 5 Eli BJ: Mrs. Eva Anderson McCallum., ........................ Riverside. Cal Whittier, College of Missions, B. A. South Glate, Nanking. Christian. 532 :js 1111 Alice M. McBee, .................................... Zanesville, Ohio. Ohio Wesleyan, B. A. Educational work, Hitt Training School, Nanking. Methodist, North, FE ya AE Ben H. Schmidt, ................................ Yakima., Washington Northwestern University, and Univ. of Oregon. Y. M. C. A. M W BI Mrs. Mary G. Schmidt, ....... ........ S outh Pasadena, Cal. Occidental, A. B. Y. M. C. A. , National Y. W. C. A. Training' SCIIOOI. Q ii E Lydie M. Shields, .......................... ...... P hiladelphia, Pa Penna. Hospital Training School- R. N. Nurse, Hunan. United Evangelical. 5 QE B3 Locke White ,.... ................,.................... B lackburg, V'a Davidson College, N. C., A. B. Evangelistic., Hsuchowfu, Southern Presbyterian, 5 B75 H12 Mrs. Emma Edmunds White .................. , ........ Blackburg, Va, Randolph-Mac'on,, B. A., M. A. Hsuchowf.u,, Ku. Southern Presbyterian. I ll fb 181 .Iva M. Williamson, .................................. Zanesville, Ohio. Ohio Wesleyan, B. A. Evangelistic, Hitt Training School., Nanking Methodist Episcopal. III. CLASS ENTER-ING OCTOBER, 1922- BZ U F5 Mr. Roger M, Altman, .............. Takoma Park, Washington, D, C Editorial -work, Shanghai. Seventh Day Adventist. 9E15fEBililB: Mrs. Ethel Lee Anderson,. . --.---..-...--.---... .-... E lgin, Illinois. North Western University, B. S., M. A. Educational, Yuhsien, Hunan. United Evangelical. i QE E Q! Dr. Wm.. M. Ankeney. ,......... .......... . ............. . ..Zenia,, Ohio Heidelberg University, Western Reserve Medical., A. B., M. D. Medical, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Reformed C11'u'rch of U. S, A, lf IINLLLXIXIII R CHI CHRNG COMPRNV MANUFACTURERS V and EXPORTERS Swatow Drawn-Work and h Embroideries Hand-made Laces Color Cross Stitch Work Bead Necklaces ' and Ivory Free Jnspecfion Jnviiea at 1297 Broadway, Shanghai sTUDaN'r Dnuzcfroay 127 E TE W George I. Appcli, ...................... .. ....... ..... I Jortla d O - wana VValla Colle-ge,B. A. H ' 'emu Evangelistic, East China. Seventh Day Adventist, HE W H3 Banton, Harold li .....,... . ..... ............. f ..... B '1 M ' Dartmouth, A. B. ngori A ame General. Nanking. American Advent. 3115 BFE ill: Mrs. Harold E. Banton, ........ . ....... ....... B angor Maine General., Nanking. American Advent. i lil!! Q ,lil Dorothy E. Buscom, ............................ Fargo, North Dakota Fargo, B. A. A liducational, Shaowu, Fukicn. American Board, FFF! Q C L. E. Blackman, ....................... .............. P rinceton, N C VVake Forest, B. A. S. Ban. Theo. Seminary Louisville Ky. '.l'h. M. i livangelistic, Yangchow. Ku. Baptist. South. H1 lilli EJ: Mrs. Gladys Yates Blackman, ..................... ....Sanford N C George Peabody., B.S. Missionary Training School Louisville Ky. an I V livangelistic, Yangchow. Ku. Baptist, South. i " 'EL Ei B21 limeline Bowne, .... . ...--..-..-..--...................... Utica N Y Massachusetts General Hospital.. R-. N. ' ' Nursing, educational., Anking Anhwei. American C11-urch Mission HI zi: Q Stephanie Bradford, ..................... - ............ Boyce, yzirgium N. Y. Training School for. Deaconesses. ' Educational, Nanking. Ku. American Church. Z :FE QE Alexander Brede,, ................. ................ D etroit, Michigan University of Michigan, A. B. ' ' lfducationalh University of Nanking. University of Nanking, 22 llrll HJ: Mrs. Ruth Powell Brede. .......................... Berkley., California Univ, of California, A. B. Radcliffe, M. A. University of Nanking. Christian. Q .Lu Susan Willard Brown, ........................... . . .Midville, Georgia Univ. of Missouri, Rush Medical, A. B., M. D. Medical, Shanghai. fMargaret Williamson Hospitall Methodist S, ill! E HSE Christine Brunemeier, ............ . ................... Hubbard, Iowa North Western College., B. S. in H. E. ' Indiustrial, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Evangelical. W All H Louis C. Bysted, ........... ........................... J anesville, Wig Reformed Mission House, A. B., M. H. Theological Seminary, Evangelistic., Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A, 'FEI BW H32 Mrs. Lydia A. Bysted, ................................ Plymouth, Wig Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A. K' ii za M Cameron A. Carter, .................. -. .... ........ Vg Iashingtou' D- C Washington Missionary College., A. B. ' Educational, Nanking. Seventh Day Adventist lil RFE BJ: Mrs. Mabel Bowen Carter-, ........... . .......... ..Takomn Pai-if D C Washington Missionary College. ' ' ' Educational. Seventh Day Adventist El as IN Charlotte A. Dunlap., .............. . ......... .... Vt 'innsboro S C Nursing, East China. Presbyterian, South. LINGUIST ADVERTISER BROWNHE PHOTO C0 16 KU 1 LAN NANIKINGQ CIIHNA Proprietor Telephone H. L. Yao No. 780 Portraits Developing Enlargements Printing Flash-lights Photo Supplies and Picture Framing Work Prompt Prices Moderate Special attention given to PICTURE FRAMES Mail Orders Receive Prompt Attention. STUDENT DIRECTORY 129 WIRE MRM WEEE: Biff? 52M MSR H3355 Emi! H8531 'MMS H555 7519! iii!! 986551 38 12 -'illtlliiif Erna Flatter, ................................... . . .. - Milwaukee State Normal School. 'Wausau' Wm Educational, Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A, Justin P. Follette, ..... I .................... ......... I amul, California University of California, Drew Theological-, A. B., B. D, Evangelistic, Nanking. Methodist Episcopal. Mrs. Clarice W. Follettei, ..................... Santa Maria, California University of California, A. B. Evangelistic, Naulcing. Methodist Episcopal. Rachel G. Franklin, .......................... ..... P liiladelpliia Pa Vassar, A. B. ' Educational, Changsha, Hunan. Presbyterian. Irene A. Gehrling, .................................. Cincinnati, Ohio Grace Hospital, Virginia. I Medical, Anking, Anhwei. Amerlcan Church Mission. Ella Mary Gernhardt, ............................ Woodburn, Iridigma Wheaton College, A. B. Educational. Hengchow, Hunan. Presbyterian. Elizabeth Gotwalt, ...... . ......,.............. ,,,, , , Frankford Hospital Training School, Ri. N. Married February, 1923, Mrs. John Alston, Puchen, Ku, Oswald Goulter, ............................... . .... Phillips Unive-rsity, Yale, M. A., B. D. Evangelistic Luchowfu, Anghwei. Christian. Mrs. Irene Goulter-, ................ . . ......... . . .. College of Missions, Evangelistic, Luchowfu, Anghwei- Christian. Justine E. Granner, ........................ ' ...... ... .Hubbard, Iowa, North Western College, B. A., Nursing. Ill. Training School R. N-. Tungjen, Kweichow, Izvangelicalu Sumner Guelrry, .................................... Charleston, S, C, University of the South, B. A. Va. Episcopal Seminary Evangelistic, Kiangsu. America'n Ch-urch Mission Joseph A, Guild, .................................. Washington, D, C. VVashington Missionary College, Evangelistic, Kiangsu. Seventh Day Adventist Frances Willard King, .................... . ....... St. Lawrence, S, D Huiron College, University of Minnesota, B. S., M, S,, M, D. ' Medical, Margaret Williamson, Shanghai. Women's Union, Mrs. Harry L. Kingman, ....................... Claremont, California. College of the Pacific, A. B. Y. M. C. A. Shanghai. Y. M. C. A. Stanley Paul Kirn, ......... .. ............... . .... Coleman, Michigan North WVestern College, A. B., B. D. ' Evangelistic, Shencliowfu, Hunan. Evangelical Association. Mrs. Esther Weihing Kirn,. . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . .Naperville, Illinois. North Western College, A. B. Evangelistic, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Evangelical Association. -Spring Grove, Pa. Alva, Oklahoma. --MVR, Oklahoma. LINGUIST ADVERTISER ESTABLISHED 1 886 C. ISM ER 85 O. 44 Nanking Road, Shanghai Suppfy Zhe Kes! in WATCHES. CLOCKS. JEWELRY, AND OPTICAL GOODS a Z' fowesf ggrices ..To.. Amateur Ybotograpbers Do you want a reliable firm Qwho have upto date dark rooms and apparatus under FOREIGN Supervisionj to do your developing and printing? If so, send to us. We guarantee to take the greatest possible care with all orders. We have also a large selection of pictures and picture post cards of Chinese native industries and scenery. -3 Mactavish 81 Co., Ltd. PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMISTS Opposite the Garden Bridge SHANGHAI STUDENT DIRECTORY 131 B94 Hllilifli EES! EH!! WSE'- 2522? MSG S955 2.15.1451 55552 Estes were imma mme aaa E'FilB-iii W. C. Lowdermilk, ................................. Willcox, Arizona University of Arizona, Oxford, B. A., CB. S.,J M. A. Forest Research and Educational. University of Nanking. Mrs. Inez Marks Lowdermilk .................... Pasadena, California University of Southern California, B. A. Educational and Evangelistict Nanking. University of Nanking. Besse B. Milner, ....................................... Farley, Iowa Cornell, A. B. Educational, Nanchang. Methodist Episcopal. Natalie Crawford Moffett, ............................ Pensacola, Fla Florida State College, B. A. Educational, I-Iangchow, Che. Preshytefitlll, South. Ruth L. Myers, .................................. Greencastle. 'Indiana DePauw, Northwestern University, B. A. Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal. Orene McElwaine,.... .......... . .... ..................Chester. S. C. Winthrop College, A. B. Educational, Hsuchowfu, Ku. Presbyterian, South, Bertha Iirauces Park, . .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..Palmyra, Illinois. Eureka College, A. B. Educational,Kiangsu. Christian. Robert Alexander Peterson, ........ . ....... .... Sioux City. Iowa. State University of Iowa, B. S.. M. S., M. D. Medical, Wuhu, Anhwei. Methodist, Episcopal. Grace Madeline Pike, .................................. Pasadena, Cal. Los Angeles Bible Institute. Bible Teaching, Changsha, Hunan. Hunan Bible Institute. Dss. Caroline Churchill Pitcher, .......... . ....... Lakeland, Louisiana. New York Training School for Deaconesses. Evangelistic, Nanchang, Ki. American Church Mission. Carl Robart, ........... .. .- ........ ' ............... Copley, Oluo. Baldwin-WVallace, A. B. E Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal. Mrs. Grace Robart ,.........' .................... .... G r eenich, ,Ohio. Baldwin-Wallace, ' Educational, Kiukiaug, Ki. Methodist Episcopal. Hesser C. Ruhl,-- .................................. Philadelphia, Pa. Park College, Hartford Theological Seminary, A. B. Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U'.S.A. Mrs. Hessen' C. Ruhl ,...... ........................ P hiladelphia. Pa. Bryn Mawr, A. B. ' General, Yochow, Hunan. I. Reformed Church, U.S.A. William E. Schubert, ................................ San Diego, Cal. Univ. of Southern California, Drew Theological Seminary, A.B., B.lJ. Evangelistic, Kiangsi. Methodist Episcopal. Emily Mary Schultz, .............................. White Plains, N.Y. Mt. Sinai Training School for Nurses, N.Y.C. Nurse, East China. Baptist, North. LINGUIST ADVERTISER S A M J O E Q C O. GENERAL mronrnns W'e always keep goods of only the best quality. We guarantee the quality of all the goods supplied by us and in case of any articles not being approved of We replace or refund. Special Prices for Large Quantities PHUNESQOFFIGE - - T - - NORTH 1095 BUSINESS DEPI. - - WEST 405 A 1114 Broadway SHANGHAI 'I' EQ EE is E 1HfBzaeiaiisrerrvf1rswfr1flf1e Z QQ zsl: VAN SHANG EH Head Ofiice in SHANGHAI ,J E 5' EH IE H Boot, Shoe and Arms H, FH Weapons Maker p fi H -- + 15 HUA-PAI-LOW-NANKING if 53 Jlt 63' J: 35' ' STUDENT DIRECTORY 133 H1 El M Albert N. Steward, .............................. Missoula, Montana 8553 WEEE REFINE M5352 iii Slllliflir RWM lllli ill 355514: 'Bidi' BQ! lilikm iE'1'llll im! filtllifll: 'Oregon Agricultural College, B.S. Educational, University, of Nanking Methodist. Episcopal Myrtle Stone,............... ...... Boston University, School of Religious Education, Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal Mollie E. Townsend, ................... ...... N.C. College for Women, Bellevue Hospital, R.N. Medical, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal Mrs. Ruth B. Trimmer, ................... . . . . . . New Jersey State Normal, Methodist Episcopal. Charles H. Voss, ............................. .. - . .Baton R . Da. State University, Tulane Medical School, A.B., Ouge, La' Medical, Sutsien, K,u. Presbyterian, Sofuth. Rose E. Waldron, .................... .. . ....... Pomona College, A.B. Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodsit, Episcopal. Mrs. Charles W. Worth, ........... Winthrop, Cornell University, Evangelistic, Kiangyin, Ku. Presbyterian, South. Jeanie W. NVoodbridge, ..................... - . . VVooster College, Educational, Kiangsu. Jesse Baer Ygukey, ............................. Ursinus, Central Theological, A.B., B.D. Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U.S,A, Charles W. Worth, ........................... . . Davidson College, A.B., B.D. Evangelistic, Kiangyin, Ku. Presbyterian, South. - - - --Luzerne, N,Y S.R.E. .Valle Crucis, N,C, . . . . . . Rutledge, Pa M.D. --Los Angeles, Cal, - f -Wilmington, NLC - - - Waynesboro, Po, . . .VVilmington, N.C. IV. CLASS ENTERING JANUARY 1923- Gertrude Beckwith, ..... ................. .... H a ydenville, Mass Hospital, R.N. Nursing, ChaoHsien, K-u. American Advent. Rhoda Burdeshaw, ......... . ................... . . .Dotham, Alabama Asbury College, A.B. Educational, Szechuen. Methodist Episcopal. William S. Cutchins, ..... ....... . - .............. Richmond, Virginia, Princeton University Va. Mil. Inst. Business. Lydia Dahl, ............. . .... . .. . . . .Minneapolis, Minn. Secretarial, Stewart Foundation. Eula Erno,, . ............ .. .... ................... D es Moines, Iowa, Drake University, Womcn's Medical College oi Pla. A.B., M.D. Medical, Chinkiang, Ku. Methodist Episcopal. MrS. Carr N. Eubank, ............................. . Oakhill, Nanking Missouri State University, A.B. Business. - Shanghai, China. 134 LINGUIST ADVERTISER THE " BLACKSTON E " OIL ENGINES FOR REFINED, CRUDE, OR RESIDUAL OILS. SIMPLE, RELIABLE, ECONOMICAL, EASY TO MANAGE, C-LEAN IN WORKING ,i..l... "Blackstone " engines representing many thousands of horse-power now running in China giving utmost satisfaction to users. Ph togrnph of 50 B.H.P. "Bla k t Crude Oil Engine Installed I the Shanghai College I r Driving the Eleclric H Lighting Plant THE "BLACKSTONE" OIL ENGINE REPRESENTS THE HIGHEST GRADE OF BRITISH MANUFACTURE STOCKS FROM 3 TO 75 B.H.P. KEPT IN SHANGHAI Solo Agcnls ROSE, DOWNS 81 THOMPSON fFarEast,, Ltd Engineers 8: Machinery Merchants Q9 06672115072 Road, Sfmilgiunzi STUDENT DIRECTORY 135 E Q MS Patrick C. Gilmore,..A .................. ..... B ristol, England Cains College, Cambridge University. Business. 5 QE ,El Mary L. Griffiths, ......................... . ...... Norwich, England. Durham University, M'.B., B.S., D.T.M. and H, Medical, Kweilin, Kwangsi. Church Missionary Society, NR RR I Wilhelmina Kalsbeek, ...................... Grand Rapids Michigan, Union Missionary Training Institute, Kennedy School of Mission Evangelistic, Rukao, Ku. Christian Reformed. XE ,Ei H Ida Mae Keister, .......................... Vermillion, South Dakota, University of South Dakota, A. B. Educational, Szechuen. Methodist Episcopal. E EFF BJ: Mrs. Moore, .................................. Stewart Fo.undati0n Secretarial, 2? EFF El: Mrs. Martha Smith Schubert, ................. ..... S an Diego, Cal, Evangelistic, Kiangsi. Methodist Episcopal. IW aa H Bertha C. Smith. .............................. ..... M ethuen, Mags, Simmons College, S.B. Secretarial, Nanking. University of Nanking. H E Bla Ellen E. Smith, ...................... . ........... Denver, Colorado, Coe Collge, B. A. Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist, Episcopal. li E H Mabel Taylor, .................... . ............... Cascade, Montana. Northwestern University, B.A. Mont. State Normal College Educational, Chinkiang, Ku. Methodist, Episcopal. E QE ZH Notto Ngrmgm Thelle, ................ ...... . .K1'lStiZll1Sal1O, Norway, Christian Mission to Buddhists, Nanking. Secretarial and Evangelistic. Norwegian Missionary Society, H 152 I Florence A. NVebster, .......................... Fargo, .North Dakota Fargo College Conservatory, of Music ' Musical and stenographic, Hangchow, Che. Baptist, North. r .... ................ . .Champaign Illinois BH H iii E. Pauline Wisegarve , .. .. . , , University of Illinois. A. B. Educational, Nanking. Methodist, Episcopal. .Slvtnghai 4 China Q .Ei DEE! Caspar L. Woodbridge, ............................. .1 , , Princeton University, John Hopkins Medical B. A., M. D. Medical Haichow. Ku. Presbyterian, South. 55 Eli? 'Er Mrs. C. Woodbridge, ............................... Baltimore, Md, Haichow, Ku. Presbyterian, South. I i 136 LINGUIST ADVERTISER N Ebr. JY. wander 1956, gierne Switzerland g THE BEST TUNIC FOOD Ovomaltine is composed of' Diastasic Malt-Extract, full cream Swiss-Milk, fresh Eggs, and flavoured with Cocoa. Ovomaltine is a super nourishment, thus the best restorative. Ovomaltine is indispensable to the Convalescent, the expectant and nursing Mother, to rapidly growing children. If you are overworked, if you are "out of sorts," if you can't sleep, Ovomaltine is the thing for you. The ever increasing demand for Ovomaltine, and the fact that many oi the world's leading Physicians not only prescribe it with great success to their patients, but have made Ovomaltine theirs, and their families' daily beverage, is a striking testimony to the established merits of this very popular Tonic Food Beverage. give it a trial Sold at all the leading CHEM1s'rs he STORES Sole Agents for China Siber lyegner Q Co., glen Building Gbe Band, Sbangljai. Y. M. C. A. ........... . STUDENT DIRECTORY 137 1912-1913. Denomination ,5'1ati0,, 1 Arthur, Rev. J. H. .... . 2 Arthur, Mrs. J. H. .... . 3 Bailey, Rev. W. E.. . 4 Bailey, Mrs. W. E. .... . 5 Boone, Mr. W. D. --.--- 6 Boone, Mrs. W. D. .. 7 Broadhead,Miss AlmaG. 8 Chaney, Miss Florence J. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Clayton, Mr. E. H. ---- - Clayton, Mrs. E. H. Conner, Miss Lottie .... Mrs. Dr. Irwin. - . - . - Derry, Miss Evelyn T... Frank, Miss Marion F Herschleb, Mr. Chas. A. Herschleb, Mrs. C. A... 16 Hyde, Miss Flora A. .- - - 17 Mrs. F.W. Dietrich. . 18 Hynds, Miss lva ........ 19 Jacob, Miss W. E., ..... . 20 Kesler, Miss Mary ------ 21 Lee, Miss Mabel L .----- 22 Lee, Miss Mary E. ..... . 23 Lewis, Mr. John A. 24 Lillegaard, Mr. G. 0. -- 25 Loomis, Miss Jean ...... 26 Mayo, Miss Mary ..-- -- - 27 McDonnell,MissClellaE. Mrs. Fred Brown . 28 Mills, Mr. W. P .... 29 Mills, Mrs. W. P. .. 30 Nasmith, Rev. A. J- - 31 Osborne, Miss Olive .... 32 Pittman, Miss Alma L- -- 33 Rahe, Miss Cora.. . 34 Roberts, Mr. R. C. 35 Roberts, Mrs. R. C. 36 Sloan, Dr. T. D-- - 37 Tayl 38 Tayl or, Rev. W. R or, Mrs. W. R 39 Van Evers, Mr. K ..... Q - 40 Van Evers, Mrs. K 41 Van Wageneu, Miss K Mrs. Steve Bugs. . Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... .Baptist, North .... Baptist, North ........ Presbyterian, North. . Presbyterian, North .... Baptist, North ........ Presbyterian, North.. Baptist, North Baptist. North Methodist, North ...... if. 'nf fI'.'. .' ff I f Methodist, North ...... Y. M. C. A. . .... ..... . . Methodist, North ...... Pentecostal Miss .... Y. W. C. A. ........., .. Methodist, North ...... Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... Melliodist. North ...... Norwegian Luth, Miss. . Methodist, North ...... Pentecostal Mission .... Methodist, North ...... Y. M. C. A. ........... . M. C. A. . . .Baptist, North .. . . S. D. A ....... .......... Baptist. North ........ Methodist, North ...... Presbyterian, North ..-- Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... Baptist, North ........ Baptist, North ........ Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... ...........,..........s Hangchow, Che. Hallgchow. Che. Szechuan. Szechuan. Tsinan, Sung, Tsinan, Sung. U. S. A. Szechuan, Chughong Huchow, Che. Huchow, Che, Sung Tientsin, Chi. U. S. A. Tsinan, Sung. Tsinan, Sung. Nanking Nanking, Ku, Memorial Hos. N'lcing Shanghai, Ku. Chingkiang, Ki. Nanking, Ku, Hangchow, Che. Nanking, Ku. Hunan. Chengtu, Sze. Nanking, Ku. Nanehang, Ki. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Huchow, Che. Shanghai, Ku. Shaohingfu, Che. Wuhu, Anh. Changsha, Hun. Changsiia, Hun. Nanking, Ku. Chengtu, Sze. Chengtu, Sze. 1-Iangchow, Che. Hangchow, Che. Hunan. Nanking, Ku. 42 Vautrin, Miss Minnie . .F. C.. M. S. .......... . . 43 Westbrook, Rev. C. H. .Bapt1st, North ....... . 44 Westbrook, Mrs. C. H. .Baptist North --...... Shanghai, Ku, Shanghai, Ku. 138 LINGUIST ADVER'l'lS1ill Andersen, Meyer E? Co., Ltd. SH .11 .NUH .Xl I H Juzizclzcs Through 0 ut C11 ina Power Engineering Textile Manufacturing Engineering Electrical Supplies Mechanical Equipment and Supplies Building Supplies Railway Equipment and Supplies ima ge HENG KONG COMPANY entlemen 'S TAILUR For many years we have been supplying clothing for missioiiarics Come and fry us and you will know why I-IENG KONG COMPANY Phone N. 1225 M Y9 9 Nghizzczlgen Road STUDENT DIRECTORY 139 45 46 47 43 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 ZS 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 White, Rev. S. G. ..... . White, Mrs. S. G. ..... . Wood, Mr. K. H ........ Youtsey, Miss Edith.. . Andersen, Mr. R. A. . Andersen, Mrs. R. A- - Chapman, Mr. B. B. . . . . Christiansen, Miss Olive Clemons, Mr. Harry --.- S. D. A..... S. D.A ..... ...... S. D. A ........... .. Methodist, North . . 1913-1914. Lutheran Synod ........ Lutheran Synod .... Wesleyan .......... Lutheran Synod .... Presbyterian, North Davitt. Dr. G. G ........ Baptist. North .... Davitt. Mrs. G. G ..... ..Baptrst, North Dennig, Mr, Herbert E.Y. A. .... . . . . Dowling, Rev Dowling, Mrs. Gaunt, Dr. F. Goucher, Miss Mrs. B. B. Chapman. . . . P. H .... Presbyterian, North P. H .... Presbyterian, North P ........ Methodist., North .. Methodist, North .. Gaunt. Mrs. F. P ........ E.lizabethWes1eyan .......... P sb terian, North Cowen, Mr. Vincent H. YC y Hayes, Mr, Egbert M. . M. A. ..... . .. Hayes, Mrs. E. M ...... Y. ln. C. A. ....... . Highberger, Mr. W. W.Presbyterian, North Highberger, Mrs. W. W.Presbyterian, North Hiltner, Dr. W. G .....- Hiltner, Mrs. W. G .... Hixson, Miss Martha B.Methoclist, South,.. Hoy, Miss Gertrude B..Reformed Church.. Kidder, Miss Anna E..Presbyterian, North Deceased Knecht, Mr. T. S. Knecht, Mrs. T. S .... Larsen, Mr. N. A .... Larsen, Mrs. N. A . . . . . . United Evangelical . . .United Evangelical . . Lutheran Synod.. . . Lutheran Synod. - . ..... ss... Leach, Dr. C. D.. Leach, Mrs. C. D Lee. Mr. Alan W. S .... Episcopal .... .......... M' H ttieR Presbyterian North. Maccurdy. iss a . 1 M. C. A. ........... . McCIoy, Mr. C. H ...... Y. McCloy, Mrs. C. H ...... Y. M. C. A. -------- - Mead, Mr. Laurence M.Y. M. C. A- .------.... . Niles, Rev. Frank R .... Presbyterian, North .... Nipps, Mr. J. W ........ Y. M. C. A. -.--------- - Nipps, Mrs. J. W.. .... Y. M. C. A -..-......-. Perkins, Dr. E. C ...... Methodist, North ...... Peterson, Miss Ellen J. .Baptist, North ....... . Powell, Dr. C. A.. ...... Advent Chrlstian Miss-- rs. C. A. . .... Advent Christian Miss. . Powell, M iiiii.Baptist, North ........ ......Baptist, North Shanghai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Wuhu, Anh. Fancheng, Hnp. Fancheng, I-Iup. Wuchang, Hup, Kwangchow, Ho. Nauking, Ku, U. S. A. U. S. A. Chenchow, Hun, Chenchow. Hun. Wuhu, Anh. Wuhu, Anh. NVuchang. I-Iup, Nanchang. Ki, Shanghai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku, Hengchowfu, Hun. I-Iengchowfu, Hun. Shanghai, Ku, Shanghai, Ku, Shanghai, Ku. Yochow City, Hun, Nanhsuchow, Anh, U. S. A. U. S. A. Kwangchow, Ho, Kwangchdw, Ho. Huchow, Che. Huchow, Che. Wuhu, Anh, H waiyuan, An, Nanking, Ku, Nanking, Ku. Peking, Chi. Hwaiguan, An. Tientsin, Chi, Tientsin, Chi. Kiukiang Ki. I-Iangchow, Che. Chaohsien. An. Chaohsien. An. 140 LINGUIST ADV1'lRpTISIfI R GEE SHING FHUIT SHOP ALL FRUITS IN SEASON We are glad to ship in quantities to the interior. You can rely on us to do -- the right thing --- GIVE US. A TRIALI G-EE SIIING- N. Szechuen Road Ext. SHANGHAI THE CHINA PRESS E it THE CHINAIPRESS ij Mg H ff- -Q gg Z jg is the only American Daily in me 531 ig 75 915 ,fy jg 3 IE Sh h ', dth I d' f - ,,, eigirgewigpgser of tif? Ext 15 'E' 'I' T4 'E' W H W is in iiiiiuegilceland circulagoni d 55 Z 52 5 B, B IP B B tu 1165111 resc oo an - studegt rsiews con scientific, ii if gg a Z IE 5 ia 'h Edscqtional, dSpgJrts,l Igollitical. Bu IQ iii: H 75 EE, JE 32 if e ous, a 'oc'a .u 'e ts . . tharigainy othgr dailyliuChi2aF HIE Q 15 if if 55' in If Special rates to Students. I IR ii IW! if 5 71 lil -- WATCH ITS COMIC FEATURES III ii W Wi' Z PII iii 55 Sample copies and rates on application. ?5:ElliIEEiII53E7Ii2l5Ii ST UDENT D I R ECTO R Y 141 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I3 14 15 16 17 18 19 Z0 21 22 23 24 Z5 26 21 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 42 -n Mrs. G. T. Tootell ...... Robinson, Mr. A. G .... Sparey, Miss Edna R .... Stone, Miss Mabel C .... Tenwich, Miss Anna M. Tomlinson, Miss Sada C. Wear, Mr. Robert B ..-- Wilcox, Rev. F. C ....,. Baptist, North ...... . Wilcox, Mrs. F. C ...-.- Adams. Mrs. A. G. . . . . Ammerman, Helen B. . Banta, Frances Irene . . v. iff c. Aff .... Baptist, North . Baptist, North . M ethorlist, North ...... Episcopal ....... Y. M. C. A. ..... Baptist, North . 1914-1915 Baptist, North . Adams, Archibald G ...- .Baptist, North . Reform Church of U. S. ....... Barlow Dr. C. HermanBaptist, N0rth ........ i .... Baptist, North ........ Barlow, Mrs. C. H.. Beck, Karl H ...... Dane, Laura E ...... Darst, Margaret M.. Davenport, Dorothy. . De Jong, Nettie R.. Mrs. H. E. Voss .... Gish: Ellis Preston.. Deceased Hagman, Dr. G- L.. Hagman, Mrs. G. L .... Haist, Virginia E ...... Hamilton, Clarence H-- Hanson, Victor ........ Hanson, Mrs. V ........ Herriott, Grace ........ Hoy, Mabel Ruth ...... Hunt, Faith A .......... Kennington., T. W .... .. Kennington, Mrs. T. W. .ss ...- Reform Church of U. S, C. M. S. ........... . Presbyterian. North .... Presbyterian, North .... Dunkelberger, Sadie .... .United Evangelical F. C. M. 5. ....... . F. C. M. S F. C. 181.5 lf. C. M. S. .... Baptist, North .... Baptist, North .... Presbyterian. North .... Changteh. Hun. Tientsin., Chi, U. S. A. U. S. A. Kuling, Ki. Anking Anh. Ynnnanfu, Yun. .Ningpo, Che, Ningpo, Che. Suifu, Sze Suifu, Sze Yochow, Hunan Nanking, Kiangsu Shaohsing, Chelciang Shnohsing, Chekiang Shenchowfu, Hunan Nanking, Kiangsu U. S. A. U. S. A. Changteh, Hunan Hunan Yuhsien, Hu, Nanking, Kiangsu Nantnngchow, Anhwei Nantungchow, Anhwci .-Xnking, Anhwei Nanking. Kiangsu Shanghai, Kiangsu Shanghai. Kiangsu Hengchowfu, Hunan Reform Church of U. S.Yochow, Hunan Methodist., North ...... Nanchang, Ki, Advent Christian Miss. . Chaohsien, Anh. Advent Christian Miss. .Chaohsien, Anh. L c Carleton . ....... Methodist, North ...... Shanghai. Ku. 3 Y Lankester,'RonaldFarrm-Church Missionary Soc.Yunnanfu, Yunnan ' ' ' ' b t ian, North .... Nanking. Kiangsu Miller, Elizabeth J . .. Myers, Mary E .... ..... Niebel, Dr. B. E ........ Reisner John H ...... Reisner, Mrs. J. H ...... Schaefer, Roland T .-.- Schaefer, Mrs. R. T. . . Smith, Harriet Newell. Search, Blanche T ...... Sayles Florence ...... Preston, Miss Mary .... Mead, Miss Frederica R.Pres y er Reform Church of U. S.Shenchowfu, Hun. Reform Church of U. S.Yochow, Hun. United Evangelical Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. iBapti5t,, North .... Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. Presbyterian, North.. . . Liling, Hunan Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Kiukiang, Kiangsi, Kiukiang, Kiangsi, Ningpo, Chekiang Nanchang, Kiangsi Chinkiang, Kiangsu, 142 IQINGUIST ADVERTISER .JM . A Q L . A ni-.. RECISTERED TRADE MARK -'.i.x3g-' I D N I I The Natural W The Only Milk Food Substitute Simply , for Add Boiled ' Nlother's Water Milk 4 SOLD BY EVERY DISPENSARY AND STOREKEEPER , ll , lil, Builds Bones h ff' 7 and Muscles Add M T' Complete Food Water and After Boil for . 'MILK weaning One Minute "'z.r."::x' Nestlci 8a Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Go. SHANGHAI AND TIENTSIN Johannaber, Mrs. C. F... STUDENT DIRECTORY 143 Short, Samuel McC- - . Smith Clara Belle ..... .United Evangelical ... .Methodist, North ..... Towne Edith .......... Presbyterian, North.. Woods, Velma E ........ Protestant Episcopal Walker, Elizabeth ...... warner, Florence M. . . Univer. Hospital . . . . . .University of Nanking. 1915--1916 Bai-cus, Mr. O. F ............ ................ .... ' I' LlI'lHCi1OVV, Kiangsn, Bliss. Dr. Theodore .... Protestant lipiscopal Bliss, Mrs. T. .......... Protestant Episcopal Blunden, Mr. H. M. .... S, Brittain, Miss R. M. .. . Collins. Miss L. B -..... Craighill, Mr. L. R ...... Protestant Episcopal Davenport. Mr. D. E. . . . , Day. Mr. C. B ......... .Liling, Hunan . Chinkiang, Kiangsu . .U. S. A. ..Anking, Anhwei .Nanking, Kiangsu .Nanking, Kiangsu ..VVnchahg. Hun. Wuchang. Hnp. D, A. .............. Peking, Chi, .Methodist, South ...... Nanking, Kiangsu Davis. Mr. C. H ........ . P reshyterian, iNorth. .. D. .-X. ............. Haukow, Hupeh Brown, Mr. R. J ........ S. F. C. M, S, ............ Luchowfn, Anhwei ..Nanchang, Ki. Q. D. A, .......... ...... Y encheng. Ho. S. D. A ................ Changsha, Hun. .Ningpo, Chekiang Dieterieh, Mr. T. W ..... Methodist, North ....... Nanking, Kiangsu French, Miss H. M ..... Methodist, North. ...... Kiukiang, Kiangsi Fay, Mr. H. V. V ....... Freclericks, Miss Edith. . .l?resbyterian, North... Gardner, Miss M. W .... Mrs. L.. R. Craiglwilln- Garrett, Mrs. F. ...... .. .Protestant Episcopal. .. Glascock, Mr. C. F ...... Hale, Mr. L. L ..... ..... Hale,Mrs. L. L.. ....... Hill. Miss V. C ......... Hoose, Mr. E. A ....... I-loose, Mrs. E. A.. James, Mr. E. H ...... James. Mrs. E. H ....... Johannaber, Mr. C. F.. Lehman, Mr. A. E ..... Lehman, Mrs. A. E-- . McCallum, Miss E. B. . . Mclntosh, Miss E. W.. McMullen Miss N. J.. . . . Moss, Mr. L. B ......... Moss. Mrs. L. B .... .... Newman, Dr. H. W ..... Price, Dr. R. B ......... Price, Mrs. R. B ....... Saboe, Miss. Minnie. .. Sassen, Dr. Augusta A. Shoemaker, Miss. El G. . Methodist, North .Methodist, North ....,. P.C.M.S ............. . Baptist, North.. North. .Methodist, . Methodist, . . Methodist, .Methodist, . Methodist, vlethodist, North North North North .I-Ianchow Che. .Nanchang, Ki .Nantungchow, Ku, .Wuhu, Anhwei ...... .Wuhu, Anhwei . . . . . . . . Ningpo, Chekiang .Kiukiang, Kiangsi .Kiukiang, Kiangsi .Nanking, Ku. . . . .Nanking, Ku. .. . . . . .Kinkiang, Kiangsi North ....... Kiukiang, Kiangsi .United Evangelical. . .. . .United Evangelical ..... .Liling, Hun .Liling, Hun .F. C. M. S .............. Nanking, Kiangsu .Canadian Church Miss Presbyterian, South .... .University of Nanking. .Kaifeng, Honan .Hangchow, Chekiang .U. S. A. .University Nanking .... U. S. A. .Baptist, North ........... Hopo, Tung. . Presbyterian, South . . . .Presbyteriam South . . . .Lutheran. ........ .... . .Yale in China ...... .Baptist, North ........ Sloan, Mrs. T. D ........ P. U. M. C ..... .Taichow, Chekiang .Taichow, Chekiang .IqWE1l'lgCll0lV. I-Ionan .Changsha, Hunan .Huchow, Chekiang ..Pekin 1-I4 I.INGl,'IS'lI .'XDYIfIR'I'ISI'IR YANGTSE HOTEL NANKING THE BEST FOREIGN HOTEL IN NANKING 5 MINUTES FROM RIVER STEAMERS AND RAILWAY STATION A Picturesque Building Standing in a Large Garden 30 Guest Rooms, each with Private Bath and Verandah Spacious and Luxurious Dining and Sitting Rooms Porter Meets all Trains and Boats Terms very Moderate Pi'up1'ivio1's, Mir. 6: Mrs. Wm. Brydon. is the hallmark of highest optical and mechanical perfection. The name-ZEISS-on an instrument ZEISS-Fieldglasses for racing, hunting N travelling purposes ZIEISS-Photo-lenses, 'Yellow screens, etc. ZEISS-Microscopes X accessories ZIEISS-Photo-niicrograpliic-appax-atus ZICISS-Medical-optical-instruments ZEISS-Astronomical-instruments ZEISS-Surveying-instruments ZE1SS-Auto-scarchliglits Oblainable all ozfcl' Clzinn from thc' jirsl class Opticians in your lawn. flgenis for Chinn: CARLOWITZ sr co., 18 'igfggmlfosd' Hankow, Tientsin, Peking, Mukden, Tsinanfu, Canton, Hongkong. ST U Dl'1N'l' D lRli1C'l'OR.Y 145 42 43 -14 45 -lh 47 43 49 50 51 1 Z2 3 -i 5 1 m 7 S 9 10 ll ll 13 1.1 15 16 17 19 19 .20 21 ZZ 23 24 Z5 26 27 .ZS 29 .30 .il .32 33 .34 35 Small, Mrs. A. Stewart, Mrs. W. R .... Thompson, Miss M. B.. Van Hook, Miss L. M.. Wells. Miss L. P ........ Wheeler, Mr. W. R .... Wheeler, Mrs. W. R .... Wilkinson, Miss W. . . Wiltsie, Dr. J. W ...... Wiltsie, Mrs. J. W ...... Andrews Miss Hazel... . Booth, Miss Alma ...... Brown, Miss Ruth G- -- Carr, Miss Jo ............ University of Nanking.. Y. M. C. A ........... . Methodist. North ..... .. Baptist, North .......... Protestant Episcopulu.. l'reshyter ian Presbyterian, , North.. .. North .... lf. C. M. S ............. l'reshyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North... 1916-1917 Nanking, Kiangsu Wuchang, Hup. Kiukiang, Kiangsi. Shaohsing, Chekiang Shanghai, Ku. Peking, Chi. Peking, Chi. Luchowfn, Anhwci Nanhsuchow, Anhwci .Nzinhsnchow, .X nh wei Yangchow. Kiangsu Baptist, South .......... Protestant EpiscopaliunAnking, .-Xnhwei Baptist, North ...... .... Brittingham. Miss H .... .Methodist, North... .. . Carter, Miss Gertrude P.Yzile in China. .... .... Corson,MissMai-gareI:A................... .. Davies, Miss Dorothy Dodd, Rev. Duncan F... Dodd, Mrs. D. F ........ D'Olive, Rev. W. C .... D'Olive, Mrs. W. C ..... Fillmore, Miss Anne L. . Mrs. Charles E. Shedd.. Firor, Miss Marion P .... Ghiselin,Rev Charles,Jr. Gill, Mrs. J.M. B ........ Gary, Miss Cammie.. . . Gregg, Miss Alice H .... Heald. Miss Jeanie V... Hewey, Miss Clarissa A Hewitt, Miss Alden ..... Hutchinson, Rev. Paul.. Hutchinson, Mrs. P.. .. . . lllick, Mr. J. Theron .... lllick, Mrs. J. T ...... .. Kauffman. Rev. D. R .... Kauffman. Mrs. D. R. Kramer, Mr. William J- - Kramer, Mrs. W. J ...... Krespach, Miss Olive... Mrs. Evans. .........-- -- Kulp. Mrs. D. H... Lancaster. Rev. L. H. Libby, Dr. Walter E . . . McClure, Rev. Robert W. Mc Clure. Mrs. R. W .... . Methodist. North . Mrs. H. Milton Wagner.Y. M. C. A ........... . Methodist, North ....... Iilethodist, North. ...... . Methodist, North ........ Preshyteriaii. North. Presbyterian, North .... X. M. C. A. ..... ..... . Reform Church of U. Presbyterian. South .... Protestant Episcopal. . .. F. C. M. S ....... . .. Protestant Episcopal Protestant Episcopal .'Baptist, North... Protestant Episcopal .. . Methodist, North . Methodist, North Methodist, North . Methodist, North . United Evangelical United Evangeli-:al Methodist. North.. Methodist, North.. Baptist, North ..... Presbyterian. South .... Congregational Congregational ..... -. Shaohing. Che .U. S. A. Chinkiang, Kizingsu U. S. A. Wuchzing, Hup U S X Chinkiantg, Kiungsu Chinkiang, Kiangsu Tsining. Shantung Tsining, Shantung Hankow, Hup Yochow, Hunan Taichow, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Wuhu. Anhwei Anking, Anhwci Anking, Anhwei Kinhwa, Chekiang Anking, Anhwei Shanghai Shanghai Nanking, Kiangsn Nanking, Kiangsn Liling, Hunan, Liling, Hunan, U. S. A. U. S. A. Kalgan, Mong Shanghai. Kiantrsu Nankinz. Kizmgsu, Wuhu, Anhwei Shaowu. Fukien .Shaown, Fukien 146 .I'.INGUIS'l' ADVERTISER WHEN YOU NEED BANKING TRAVEL SHIPPING SERVICE Iutrust your business to an experienced and reliable concern with an efficient organization and recognized financial standing. THE MERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY INC. Head Ollicc: Nlaw Yuma .S Kllflcmxrz Rcmlm, SIIANGILAI BANKING DEPARTMENT Culcciuxc Axim SAVINGS AccoUN'rs Dxmvrs Ami llilumsxf CJRDERS TuAx'Er,l-:Rs CHIQQUI-:S-I,121"i'r:1:s Olf CIil'1I7l'l' TRAVEL DEPARTMENT RAlr,wAY 'I'1CzqWl2'1's ANU TOURS-S'1'mAls1111' Bucmlxcs 1gI0'l'EL R12sm:x'A'1'mNs, llmzlzlxczlz INSURANCE SHIPPING DEPARTMENT Gowns SIIIPPIED 'ru ALT, Polx'rs CUSTUMS CIJQARANCIQS S'1'rmAl,:i: 1: lxsuimxcia Otllur Ofiiccs in the Orient YUKQIIAMA Pmiquxu 'l'nf:xTsix CALCUTTA Bommw Iioxmmxo MANILA STUDENT DIRECTORY 147 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 SS S9 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1l 12 13 Me Intosh, Miss Maud.. .Church Missionary Soc.Chukihsien, Chekiang Mc Intosh, Miss Ruby.. .Church Missionary Soc. Megness, Miss Bertha E.United Evangelical Montgomery, Miss L G. ..........-........-f-... Morton. Mrs. E. M .............................. Chukihsien. Chekiang .Yuhsien, Hunan, Ningpo, Chekiang Nanking, Kiangsu Kiukiang, Ki Perkins, Mrs. ,E. C ...... Methodist. North. .... .. Reeder, Rev. Charles V.Presbyterian, North .... Reimer, Miss Minnie F. .Reformed Church U.S.A.Yochow, 1-lun Renninger,MZss Anna M.Evangelical AssociationTungjen, Kwei. Rhoda, Miss Ethel G ............................ Riechers Miss Bertha L.Methodist. North Riggs, Mr. Charles H .... Congregational ......... 4 . Riggs. Mrs. C. H ........ Congregational ......... Ritter, Rev. H. C... . .Methodist, South . .. Ritter, Mrs. H. C ........ Methodist, South Rivenburg,Miss NarolaE.Baptist. North .......... Rogers, Rev. Jesse M.. . Baptist, South ......... . Ruland, Rev. Floyd S .... Presbyterian North .... Schuermsn, Miss Clara E.Evangelical. Assn ...... Shryock, Rev. John K. ..Protestant Episcopal. . .. Smith Mr. Harold V .... Yale in China .......... Weihsien Shantung I-langchow. Chekiang Nanking, Ku. Shaowu, Fukien Shaowu, Fukien Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu SllZll1gl12ll,.Kl21l1gSll Nanking, Kiangsu Shenchowfn, Hunan Anking, Anhwei Changsha, Hunan Changsha, Hunan Smith, Mrs. H. V ........ Yale in China. ..-... Q .... Strother, Rev. Edgar E..Christian En. Soc ...... . Strother, Mrs. E. E. ,..... Christian lin. Soc. .... . Terman, Rev. E. L ...... Methodist, North ...... Terman, Mrs. E. L ...... Methodist, North ...... Trethaway, Miss Lucile Mrs. W. E. Libby ...... ..Methodist, North ..... . Wahl, Rev. Carl B ...... Evangelical Association.Tungjen. Kwei Walmsley,MissEvelynM.Presbyterian. North .... Warfield, Miss Marguerite D ...... Yale in China .......... Williams, Mr. James W.Yale in China .......... Williams, Mrs. J. W.. Wolf, Miss Martha K.. Bachman Mr. George .. Beath, Mr. S. S ........ Beegle. Miss C. D ..... Boone, Miss M. M ...... Bowen, Miss Alice ...... Brunemeier, Dr. E. H.. . Brunemeier, Mrs. E. H.. Bryars, Mr. J. H ........ Crook, Miss W. M ...... Day, Miss Isabella .... Donaldsen, Miss L. F.. Durfee, Miss M. E. ...... - f Yale in China .......... United Evangelical .... 1917-1918. Reform Church of U. S. Baptist ............. Beath, Mr. S. S ........ Baptist ................ .Presbyterian, North... Presbyterian, North .... Methodist, North ...... Evangelical Association. Evangelical Association. Presbyterian, North .... Methodist, North . . . . .. Presbyterian, North... . Presbyterian, North. . . . Y. W. C. A ......... ... Shanghai, Kiangsu .Shanghai, Kiangsu Nanchang, Ki. Nanchang, Ki. Wnhu, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu U. S. A. U. S. A. U. S. A. Liling. Hunan Yochow, Hunan Kaying., Kwangtung Kaying, Kwangtung .Chefoo, Shantung Chenchow, Hunan Nanking, Kiangsu Tungjen. Kweichow Tungjen, Kweichow Changteh,,I-Iunan Chinkiang, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Weihsien, Shantung Nanking, Kiangsu 148 LINGUIST ADVl'IR'l'ISER XVe beg to notify the public that we have temporarily removed during the construction of our own building in Broadway, to No. 1, Boone Road. As we have always supplied lirst class fresh goods at the cheapest priccs possible, all our customers have shown us their preference. For the extention of our business, we have recently established a metal and hardware depart- ment. Orders placed with us will receive our prompt and careful attention. VVine and Spirit Merchants, etc. THE BROADWAY STORE General Store-keepers, Ship Chandles and Hardware and Iron Merchants No. 1, Boone Road, Shanghai. THE NANKING DISPENSAHY Chemists and Druggists Dealers in Photographic Materials, Perfumeries, Soaps, and Toilet Requisites, Surgical Instruments, and Dressings, Dental Goods, English, French and American Patent Medicines, Hospital and Druggistsl Sundries, Books and Stationeries, Manufacturers of Triturated Tablets, Medicated Lozenges, Etc., Etc. canarias irfvtiiziiiiennara STU DENT DIR IQCTORY 149 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2.2 Z3 24 Z5 26 27 ZS 29 30 31 32 33 54 35 36 37 36 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 5 l 52 93 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Gammon, Rev. G. U ---- Gates, Miss M. J -------- Ginuque, Mr. C. D ...... Haskell, Mr. W. W ---- Haskell, Mrs. W. W .--- Hokanson, Miss Esther. Hopkins, Rev. M. A ---- Johnson, Miss M. E ..... Keckman, Miss Anna-- Mrs. W. H. Weigle ..... Konsterlie, Mr. P. T .... Konsterlie, Mrs. P- T-- Korhonen, Rev. Nulo.. Lacy, Mr. W. I .......... Lacy, Mrs. W. l ....-- .- Lanphear, Mr. B. W ---- Louclcs, Miss B. H.. . .. Lowry, Miss Genevieve. Mack, Miss Margaret.. Major, Miss L. L ........ March, Miss C. E. ..... . Montgomery, Mr. J. N. . Montgomery. Mrs. J. N. Myers. Miss H. H ...... Nash, Miss E. D ........ Neville, Miss E. A ---.-- Mrs. L. H. Lancaster . - Perry, Mr. E. W .------. Robinson, Miss F. H .... Russell, Miss Maud ...- Sample, Mr. J..LaV -- -- Schreiber, Mrs. E. P ...- Seeck, Miss Margaret.. Sellemeyer. Miss E l .... Shoub, Miss H. M ------- Baptist, North ... i5.'dff'ifi1 sf 'ff . " F. C. M. S, ..... ..... San Anselm, California Chekiang Tsingtao. Sung. NVuhu, Anhwei Wuhu, Anhwei Baptist. North ........ Huchow, Chekiang Presbyterian, South .... Protestant Episcopal .. Lutheran Evangelical .. Lutheran Evangelical .. Finnish Mission .... Methodist. North .. Methodist, North .. Protestant Episcopal .... M ethoclist, N orth .. Y. XV. C A. ....... . Y. VV. C. A . . F. C. M. S. ....... . Y. VV. C. A. ..... Presbyterian. South Presbyterian. South .... Y. W. C. A ......... Baptist North ...... Southern Presbyterian.. Presbyterian, North .... Methodist, North ...... Y. W, C. A ............ . Univ. of Nanlciuir ...... Kashing, Chekiang United States Wusih, Ku. Kweirch, I-Ionan Kweiteh. Honan Tsingshih, Hunan Yenping, Fulcien Yenping. Fukien Wuhu, Anhwei Nanking, Kiangsu Hangchow, Chekiang l-laugchow. Chekiang Liiclioivfu, Anhwei Tientsin., Chihli Hwaianfu, Kiangsu Hwaianfu, Kiangsu Peking, Chi, Kiuhtwe. Che, Nanking. Ku. Shanghai. liiangsu Nanlcing, Kiangsu Changsha, Hun. i U. S. A. Evangelical Association.U. S. A. Methodist, North ...... Reform Church oi U. S. Methodist. North ...... Nanchang, Kiangsu Shenchowfu. I-Iunau Shanghai, Ku Silsby, Miss Helen ...... Presbyterian, North .... U. A. Smith, Mr. C. S ........ Presbyterian. North .... Nanking, Kiangsu Smith, Mrs. C. S ........ Presbyterian. North .... Nanking, Kiangsu Spencer, Miss Elizabeth Smith, Miss E. W- ----- - Steinheimer, Mr. H. C- . Steinheimer, Mrs. H. C. Stevenson, Dr. P. H .... Stevi-naon, Mrs. P. H.. Strihling, Miss Frances. . Thomson, Mr. J. C ...... Thomson, Mrs- J. C ...- Weigel, Mr. W. H ...... Weil, Miss M. S ........ Wharton, Miss A. L.... Episcopalian Protestant Episcopal Methodist, North Methodist, North P. U. M. C. ........... . P. u. M. C. ........... . Presbyterian, South .... Pres-hyteriau. North .... Presbyterian, North .... Protestant Episcopal .... Reform Church of U. Protestant lipiscopal Anking. Anhwei Anking, Anhwei Nanking. Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Pekin Pekin l-langchow, Chekiang' Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking. liiangsu Vl'usih. Ku. S.Shenchow, Hunan ..Anking, Anhwei LING U IST ADV ERT I S ER THE WEE-WEE COMPANY ls a Modern Chinese Department Store, organized by Chinese Christians and closed on Sunday. It does not sell Wfines and Cigarettes. IL is the only Chinese Store in Shanghai which is run by Chinese men and women. Every article in the store is plainly marked: therefore it has only one price. It handles the following categories of merchandise: TOYS, SOAP, BOOKS, CANDY, DOLLS, GAMES. LACES, CLOCKS. BRUSHES. GROCERIES, JEW- ELRY, NOTIONS. POTTERY, RIBBONS. TINWARE. CHINAWARE, WATCHES, CROCKERY, HARD- WARE, PERFUMES, PICTURES, LACQUERWARE. DRY GOODS, GLASSWARE, MAGAZINES. NOVELTIES. UNDERWEAR, ENAMELWARE. POSTCARDS, STATIONERY, WIREGOODS, WOODENWARE, DRESS GOODS. EMBROIDER- IES, LEATHER GOODS. PHOTO FRAMES, FRAMED PICTU RES, TOILET ARTICLES, SPORT- ING GOODS. ALUMINUMWARE. REBUILT TYPEWRITERS, HOUSE FURNISI-IING GOODS. THE WEE-WEE COMPANY GENERAL MEHCHANDISERS B9-72 Ndfili Slachlwn Road, Shakmhal, Chllla Mrs. John B. Hipps .... ST UDENT D IRIQCTORY 151 62 Wright, Miss Mildred.. 63 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Young, Miss Lois ...... Abbott, Miss Lillie F .... Argelanclerg Frank A.. Beare Thos, J ..... .... . , Deceased Beare, Mrs ..... ......... Boone, Miss Muriel M.. Bovell, Miss Mabel E .... Brodbeclc, Miss Emma L Brown, Miss Lydia E --.- Brown, Miss Marjorie B. Mrs. Ross Asselstrene.. Brown. Dr. Robert E .... Brown, Mrs. R. E ...... Chace, Miss Cora ....... Clemons, Mrs. Harry... . Danuser, Miss M. E ..... Davis, Rev. Ward ...... Davis. Mrs. Ward ..... Day Isabella ............ Dieter, Miss Margaret.. Dubs, Rev. Homer H .... Dubs, Mrs. H. H ........ Du Pee Miss, Nina ...... Duff, Miss Helen ........ Amer. Advent Miss Presbyterian. South 1918-1919 F.C.M.S. .... Methodist, North .. Free Methodist .... Free Methodist .... Presbyterian, North Baptist, North ..... . Baptist, North ...... Baptist. North .... ........ Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. Presbyterian Presbyterian. Presbyterian .Presbyterian Presbytcriuii F. C. M. S. X. W. C. A. .. North North North North .... North United Evangelical . United Evangelical. P. C. M. S... Independent Married .............................. Durfee, Miss M. Elizal::ehY. NV. C. A.. Froom. Rev. Leroy E .... Graham, Harold L ...... Gaaham, Mrs. H. L.. Gundlach, Miss Ida Hill, Miss Ella A .... Holroyd, Rev. Ben ..... Irving. Miss Emma S Jacobson, Gerland A . . . . Jacobson, Mrs CHA. Lawrence, Miss Jane Legge, Miss Della G .... Lewis, Mrs Mary L.. Leyda, Miss Maude L ..., Loucks, Miss Blanche . . Maiden, Miss Daisy V.. Marx, Mr. Edwin . . Marx, Mrs. E ............ Nash, Miss Elizabete D. . .-ss S. D.A .... S. D. A ...... S. D. A ...... ..... Ginling College .... Y. W. C. A F. C. M. S.. Baptist, North ...... Independent. .... . Independent ...... Baptist, North ...... F. C. M. S. ........ . Presbyterian, North .... United Evangelical.. Methodist, North Church of God ...... ..F. C. M. S ...... . F. C. M. S ....... . Baptist, North ...... Pearson, Miss G. W. . .'.Baptist, North.. ... Nanking. Kiangsu Suchow, Kiangsu Nanking, Ku. Kiukiang, Ki. U. S. A. I U. A. . Chenchow, Hun. Suifu, Sze. Yachow, Sze. Shanghai, Ku. U. S. A. Wuhu. Anh. Wuhu, Ki. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Siangtan, Hun. Siangtan, Hun. Nanking. Ku. Luchowfu, flllll. Siangtan, Hun. Nanking, Ku. Nantungchow, Ku. Kuling, Ki. 9 Shanghai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Tsinan, Sung. Tsinan, Sung. Nanking, Ku. Tientsin, Chi. Nanking, Ku. Kinwha, Che. Nanlinghsien, An. Nanlinghsien, An. . . . . Ningpo, Che. Nanking, Ku. Chenchow, Hun. Nanking, Ku. . . . .Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. . ....Kinwha, Che. 52 LINGIITST ADVliR'l'ISliR 1 The Oriental Press e SHANGHAI Printers, Lithographers, Publishers. Advertizing' Agents. Our Specialty Mission and Olfliee Printing. VVe are printers and publishers of the National Christian Conference Report, which is now ready for distribution. .-Xu Octavia volume of nearly SOO pages bound in strong cloth covers. Price Mex, 4.00 net. Postage in Chinn 10 cts. Foreign. 4: cts. On Sale at the Mission Book Store or will be sent postpaid in Clnnzt for Mex S5-LIO. ADDRESS ORIENTAL PRESS, SHANGHAI. TSEI HWA :Sz CO. trnl-: urn' com-lmnmu: NEXT TU 'HUQ POST OFFICIC, lllill MEN CllI.XO. NANKING GROCERIES .. .. .. PROVISIONS STATIONERY .. .. FRESH FRUITS Fresh smoked rolled boneless llillll and bacon at reasonable prices, Best quality zruaranteerl. PRICE LISTS SUPPLIED ON REQUEST Tel. No. City 414 PAN CHUAN CHONG 52 afunfmws muon and seminar oummn :Ei Ei Extensive Stock of Materials of ml the newest styles lor all Season. Ei High-cleee Tailoring for Gentlemen, if 'QA Military Officers and Students. !-.ri Q4 .-It Sill Chia Siang of Drum Tower, Q ivf1N1ffNG XE S'l'UD11iN'l' DIRliC'1'OR,Y 153 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SU 51 52 5.3 5-1 55 S6 57 58 59 60 61 1 2 3 -l - D 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 20 Z1 22 2.3 24 ,Q Mrs. Darling ........ Ritter, Mrs. H. C .... Robinson, Miss Faye H.. Russell, Miss Maud.. Sargent, Dr. Clara ...... Mrs. G. Sheppard ...... Scharffenberg. W. A --.- ,, fMrsl W. A .... Smawley, Miss Eva L Smith, Rev. C. Stanley.. Smith, Joy ......... ..... Therolf. Miss Frances.. Toothaker, Rev. Frank.. Toothaker, Mrs. F ...... Treman, Robert C ..... Deceased .............. Vai-ley,Miss Elizabeth M. Walker, Miss Jennie .... Weigel W. H. Jr ........ Weigel Mrs. .......... .. Wilds, Miss Mamie C .... Anderson, Mr. E. J ..... Anderson, Mr. H. C ..... Bacon, Mr. Wallace R.. Bacon, Mrs. W. R. .... . . Barnes. Dr. William J.. - Barnes, Mrs. W. J. .... .. iilcthoclist, North ....... Mcthotlist, North... Y. XV. C. A.. .... . .. Plymouth Brethren. S. D. A ............ . S. D. A. .......... .. l'resbyte1'ial1, North P reshyteriau. North .... Methodist, North .... Y. N, C, A ........ Stewart. W. R ....... . . . .13-uptist, North ...... Methodist, North .. Methodist. North .. Methodist, North .. Church M issionn ry Soc. Methodist. North... Protestant lipiscopal Protestant Episcopal Presbyterian. North 1919-1920 Baptist, North .... Evangelical .... F, C. M. S. .... .. F. C. M. S. .,..... . Presbyterizni, North Presbyterian. North Bauer, Miss Grace Louise University Hospital. Benjamin. Mr. N. R. S.. . Birkel, Mr. A. H ........ Birkel, Mrs. A. H ....... Bjelke, Mr. J. L ........ Bjelke, Mrs. J. L ........ Bro, Mr. Albin Carl . . . . . Baptist, North ...... Presbyterian, North Presbyterian. North .Baptist, North .... , Baptist. North .... li. C. M.S. Bro, Mrs. Albin Carl .... F. C M. S. ....... . Cartwright, Miss Hesterblethoclist, North Mrs R. M. Vanderburgh ..................... Chaplin. Mr. Maxwell..Presbyterian, North Cohbs, Mr. William C. Jr. Crane, Miss Marietta A. Currie, Miss Mabel C .... Damarest, Miss Mary C. Daniels, Dr. J. Horton. . Daniels, Mrs. J. H.. Davis, Miss Helen .. Ely, Miss Lois Anna .... Fine, Miss Mary D ...... Mrs. P. Twinem .... Business Methodist, North.. .. Presbyterian, North Southern Baptist .. Presbyterian, North .... Presbyterian, North .... Y. NV. C. A ........ . F .C.M.S. ....... . Presbyterian, North .... v X . L. b. A. Nnnking, Ku. .NEll1lilllg,lfll. CllZlIlg'SllZl,.l.'l1lIl. Nanchanz, Ki. Shanghai. Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Nankin1z'.Kn. Nanking, Ku. Nanking. Kn. Wuchang, Hnp. Yacliow. Sze. Yenping, Fu. Yenping, Fu. Hangchow, Che. iVuhn A nh. Nanking, Ku. Soochow. Ku. Shanghai. Ku. Ynhshien. Hun. Nantungchow, Ku. Nuntungchow, Ku- Hwniyuan, Anh. 1-Iwaiyuan, Anh. Nanking, Ku. Ningpo. Che. Chcnchow. Hun. Chenchow, Hun. Kaying, Tung. Kaying. Tung. Chnchow. An. Clinchovx. An. Sl1ungl1:li,Ku. Hwaiyunn, An. lf. S. A. Wuhu. Anh. Soochow. Kult. Yangchow, Ku. Nanlcing, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Nantunchow, Ku. Nanking, Ku. 154 LINGUIST AD VER'l',ISl3R ,buf Tw X ' .lf X N 5 CQADMIFIAL onlENTAL LINELGJ I l THE SHORT ROUTE from Manila, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, Yokohama to Victoria and Seattle I Passenger and Freight T The New Fast American Steamers I l J President jefferson. President Grunt, President jackson, President Mcliinley, President Madison 10 days Yokohzuna to Seattle Wonderful Nleals-Excellent Service Special Rates to Europe Tickets issued to all points in America For i11f01'11mlif111 nlfifllul' fo: ADMIRAL ORIENTAL LINE ' QAgents U.S. Shipping Boardj Yokvlmnm, Kobe, Slzunglmi, llmzgkmlg, Mizilfla, Ilvadqfrurlvrx for Orirnl. ,S'l1u11gl1u1'. GI-10. J. Mc'C.xu'.r11x', rlxxl. Cirazvrul l'ussvngzr1' .-Iycnf. STUDENT DIRECTORY 155 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 -12 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Foster, Dr. J. H ..... Frank, Mr. H. S.. . . . Frank, Mrs. H. S .... Gailey, Miss Helen Giedt, Mr. E. H .... Giedt, Mrs. E. H .... Grier, Miss Isabel . . Griffiths, Miss Helen Hacker, Dr. F. L .... Harmon, Mr. A .... Jordan, Dr. Carl F. . Keller, Miss Lydia H McCollock, Miss G. . Yale Mission ...... Evangelical Assn.. Evangelical Assn.. Presbyterian, North .... Baptist. North .,.. Baptist, North .... Presbyterian, South Methodist, North .. Presbyterian. North Business Baptist, South ...... Methodist, North .. Baptist, North .... MacKubbin,MissMsryE.Prcsbyterian, North Niekles, Miss Florence. .Presbyterituu South Pittman, Miss Annie M..Methoclist, North .. Rietvelcl Miss Harriet. .Y. XV. C. :X ..-.-.- Robbins, Dr. Emma ElizaMeth0dlst, North . . Sargent, Miss Lola L .... Presbyterian, North Schmalzried, Dr. E. W.Evangelical Assn .. Schmslzried, Mrs. W.EvangelicaI. Assn .. Shaak, Miss T. M ..... Married Snyder, Mr. Snyder, Mrs. G. R ...... Deceased Geo. R .... .R. C. U. S. ...... . R. C. U. S. R. C. U. S. Speers, Mr. James M.,Jr.Preshyterian, North Stroll, Miss Harriet .... Thomas, Dr. Harold .... Thomas, Mrs. H .... .... Townsend, Miss. G .... Presbyterian, N0rtl1 liaptist. North .... Baptist, North .... Methodist, North .. Twinem, Mr. Paul De W.University ........ Van Dyck, Mr. David ..Presbyterian, North Van Dyck, Mrs. D ...... Presbyterian, North Walker, Miss Jennie C..Methotlist, North .. Watson, Miss B ........ Church of God .... Whilener, Mr. Sterlingli. C. U. S. .... . Whitenor, Mrs. S ...... R. C. U. S. --.. . Williford. Miss Bessie. .Baptist North.. .. Wilmot, Dr. Frank A. .F. C. M. S. . . . . . Wilmot, .Mrs. F. A. ..... F. C. N. S. --.. - Anderson. Mrs. E.. J .... Baptist, North ........ Argelancler, Mrs. FrankMethodist, North ..... Baclchouse, is Ms F. E.. Changsha, Hun. Tungjen, Kwei Tungjcn, Kwei Changsha, Hun. Kityang, Tung. Kityang, Tung. Suchowfu, Ku. Chengtu, Sze. U. S. A. Changsha. Hun. Yaugchow, Ku. VVuhu, An. Hangchow, Che. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Kiukiang, Ki. Shanghai, Ku. Chinkiang. Ku. Suchow, An. Tungjen, Kwei Tungjen, Kwei Shenchow, Hun. Nanking, Ku. Hwaiyuan. .-Xu. Ningpo, Che. Ningpo, Che. Shanghai, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Hwaiyuan, Anh, l-Iwaiyuan, Anh. VVuhu, .-Xnh. Chinkiang, Ku. Yochbw,'1-Iun. Yochow, Hun. Huchow, Che. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Shanghai, Ku., Ki, Mrs. John Magee ...... Protestant Episcopal ..Nanking, Ku. Luho, Ku. Cox, Mr. Carson W .... Friends ................ Cox, Mrs. Carson W .... Friends ................ Luho, Ku, Douglas, Rev. R. ClydePresbytei-ian. South Douglas, Mrs. R. ClydePresbyterian, South . . . . Kuling, Ki. ....KuIing, Ki. l5fm l,lNGL'lS'l' fXlJYl'2R'l'lSl'IR A complete line -" ' of equipment for T E N N IS and all other SPQRTS .ii Send for Price Lis! lily SQUIBES BINGHAM Co. liz' SHANGHAI "Every thing used In the world ol A' Sport and recreatlon" THE WI G ON C0., Ltd. Nanking Road. Shanghai THE IJIRGESY' DEPARTAIENTAL STORE IN CHINA Direct Importers of piece goods of all kinds of mercliandise Come to us and you will get the satisfaction which you desire It is our purpose to please all the people all the lime. We carry iirst class mcrcliaiidise of every description. Mail orders will be given prompi attention. STUDENT DIRTCCUVORY 157 ,- 12 73 7-l 75 76 77 mlomrowio.-.-...........-L-..- U1-If-CNNn-Ooooxxcnm.:smxo:'-ES0QeX,g.U.,,,:,,N,,, lxb O. 27 ZS 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 -41 42 Froom. Mr. E .......... S. D. A ..... .... . . Gustafson, Rev. David. .Baptist ........... . Meeker, Miss Bessie L..Methorlist, North .. Moore, Miss Emily RuthFriends ............ Naylor, Miss Ethel ..... Wilson, Miss Julia ....-- Aclcley, M. C. ......... . Ackley, Mrs. M. C ...... Bahrenburg. Miss L. H.. Bates, M. Searle ........ Beach, Joseph P ........ Blume, William W ..... Blume, Mrs. W. W ...... Blydenburgh, Dr. G. T.. Blydenburgh, Mrs. G. T. Bogar, Harold G ........ Boss, Miss Marion H .... Bradley, Miss Lina E .... Bridgman, Harold T .... Bridgman, Mrs. H. T .... Butcher, James Irvine. .. Butler, Miss A. L ...... Carter, Miss Alice ...... Chaplin, Mrs. M -------- Clark, Miss Anna R .... Dean, Miss Florence E. . Droz, Miss Lelia B ...... Evans, Mrs. Edward .... Fleming, Miss Marjorie. Gish, Mrs. E. P. ....... . Gray, Frank A .......... Haahti, Miss lnkeri .... Mrs. T. Kaskikallio .... Hall. Miss Mabel S .... James, Herbert C. .... .. James, Mrs. H. C. ..... Jeffer, Miss Alice ...... Judson, Dr. Herbert A. . Kennard, Ralph B ...... Klatt, Miss Maude L .... Lee. Charles Oren ...... Love, Miss Esther J.... Macpherson,MissJeanH. Maddock, Miss Lois ..., Mather, Miss Ruth .... Meebold, Miss Louise Meeker, Miss Bessie L. . Millican, Miss Mary .... Mills, Mrs. S. J ....... , .F1'icnds............ Methodist, North .. 1920-1921 ,.. b. lJ.:X ......... S. D. .-X. .......... .. Presbyterian, South Christian .......... S. D.A. ......... .Method1st, South .. Methodist, South .. Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. S. D. A. ,....... .. Baptist ............ Presbyterian, South Presbyterian. South Presbyterian. South S. D. A .......... Ginling College .... Presbyterian, North Presbyterian, North Baptist ............ Methodist, North .. Baptist ............ Hangchow College. Baptist ............ F. C. M. S. ....... . Episcopal .... . Finnish, ........... . Presbyterian, North.. .. S. D. A. ......... . S. D. A ......... . Episcopal .......... Presbyterian, North Baptist ........,. .. Y. W. C. A. ....... . Methodist. North .. Presbyterian, North Presbyterian, North Mctlloclist, Morth .. Baptist ............ Congregational .... Methodist, North Presbyterian, North Presbyterian, North Shanghai, Ku. Shaohing, Che. Nanchang, Ki. U. S. A. Luho, Ku. Nanking, Ku. Shanghai, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Kiukiang, Kiangsi Nanking. Kiangsn Charuzsha, Hunan Shanghai, Kiangsu Shanghai. Kinngsu Nanchang, Kiangsi Nanchang. Kiangsi Lowaugho, Ycncheng. Chaochow. Shantung Nanking, Kiangsu Yencheng, Kiangsu Yencheng, Kiangsu Shanghai., Kiangsu Nanking., Kiangsu Siangtan, Hunan Hwaiyuen, Anhwei Hangchow, Chekiang Nanchang, Kiangsi Shaohing, Chekiang l-Iangchow, Chekiang Swatow, Kwantung Nanking, Kiangsu U. S. .-X. Tzeli-Hun. Hwaiyuen, Anhwei Yenchow, Honan Yenchow, I-ionan .-Xnking, Anhwei Linchow, Kwantung Shanghai Foochow, Fukien- Wuhu, Anhwei Hwaiyuen, Anhwei Canton, Kwantunxr Nankmg, Kiangsu lrluchow, Chekiang Shuowu, Fukien Nanchang, Ki I-langchow, Chekiang Nanking, Kiangsu 148 l,lNGUlS'l' .-XDX'I'QR'I'lSl'IlQ Sl 26 andard 0iI Company of New York Broadway New York A TIN' Jlfrfrlrf of Q1mell'fff Soeony Products Illuminating Oils Lubricating Oils Gasoline and Motor Spirits Lamps, Stoves and Heaters Road Oils and Material for Road Building Paraffine Wax and Candles Hfllllffl Ofiivex in fha l'r1'nr1'pul t'1'f1'v.v uf .lapan Philippine Islands Turkey China Straits Settlements Syria Indo-China Netherlands India Bulgaria Siam South Africa Greece India Australasia 'Iugoslavia STUDENT DIRECTORY 159 43 Moffat, Miss Anna E .... Presbyterian, North .... Nanking, Kiangsu 44 Monteiro, Miss M. K .... Episcopal ...... , ....... Anking, Anhwei 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 3.1 54 55 56 ow Morgan, Orvin O ...... Morrison. Miss E. K .... .Y. VV. C. A .. .. Mullinnex. M. E ........ Mullinnex, Mrs. M. E.. Nagler. Miss Etha M .... Norclyke, Miss Lela L.. Moyer, Miss Celia L. . . Oleen, C. N .......,.... Oleen, Mrs. C. N.. 0Iive. L. B ............ Olive, L. B ............ Parker, Miss Blanche A.F. C. M. 57 Pettit, Miss Arcola I .... 5SIPierce. Dr. Ethel M .... 59 Pittman, Miss A. M .... f 10 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 7 l f-. 13 7 3 7-l 75 76 77 78 79 SU Sl N2 S3 S-i H5 F6 S7 SS 89 90 91 Ritchey, Geo. E ..... . . . Ritchey. Mrs. G. E,..... Robbins, Miss Lilliath.. S. D. A ........ . Y ....- . W. C. A .... S. D. A.. .... S. D. A. . .... Methodist, North Methodist North Methodist, North ... Methodist, North Baptist, South. .. Baptist. South... S ....... Baptist ......... Baptist, South... Methodist, North University of Nanking.. University of Nanking.. Ginling College, ..... Sehoch, Miss lgnatin K.United Evangelical. Scribner, Miss E. C .... Shinn, Leroy I ..,...... Shinn, Mrs. L. I .....,.. Sloan. Miss E. M -....... Smith, Miss Alice ...... Snyder Miss Ruth F .... Speiden, Miss Evelyn.. Spreng, Ralph W. E .... Spreng Mrs. R. W. E.. Deceased Stampx,D. F ............ Stamps. Mrs. D. F ...... Stroh, Miss Margaret F. Sullivan. Mliss Eva ..... Tatum. Miss Alice Joy.. Teagarden, Miss . Thiele, Edwin R ........ ' Thiele Mrs. E. R .... .. Vierling. Frank ....... Vierling. Mrs. F ....... Wheeler,MissBerniceA. Williams Miss Ethel J.. Wright. Ruth P ........ Zwick, W. Walter ..... Zwick, Mrs. W. W ...... Akerstrom, C. E ........ Appel, George J ........ Amis, Miss Minna Reid.. Y. W. C. A. ........ . .S. D. A ............ S. D. A ....... . ...... Presbyterian, South.. Methodist ........ ' ...... -... -.-. . . . . . . .Yangchow. ......s Chnnking, Szechuen Shanghai, Kiangsu Shanghai, Kiangsu .....Hankow, Hupeh ... . . . . Hankow. Hupeh Nanking. Kiangsu Wuhu, Anh . . . Yenping, Fukieu Yenping, Fukien Kiangsu Chinkiang, Chinkiang. Kiangsu ..... Luchowfu, Anhwei Shaohsing, Chekiang Kiangsu Kiukiang, Kiangsi Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsu Changchow, Hun Shanghai Kiangsu Tatsienlu, Szechuen Tatsienlu, Szechncn .. . Suchowfu, Ku Nanchang. Kiangsi R. C. U. S ...... ........ Y ochow, Hunan Baptist,.... .... ..Chinkiang, Kiangsu United Evangelical ..... United Iivangelical.. . .. Baptist, South .......... Baptist, South .......... Y. W. C. A.. Baptist, South ......., Baptist. South .......... C Nl S S.D.' D. A. ...... . IF. C. M. S. .... .. I'. C. Rl. S. ...... .. Methodist. N orth ' ...... X. W. C. A .......... Presbyterian, North .... R. C. U. S. ...... .. Zierdt, A. Katharine .... .Congregational .... Congregational .... University of Nanking.. S. D. A. ............. . Presbyterian. South. . ft...fffIQ' Ilflf .Yuhsien. Hun Chinkiang, Kiangsu Chinkiang, Kiangsu Nanking, Kiangsn Yangchow. Kiangsu Yangchow. Kiangsu Luchowfu. Anhwei Shanghai, Kiangsu Shanghai. Kiangsu Luchowfu. Anhwei Luchowfu Anhwei Chinkiang, Kiangsu Hangchow. Chekiang Nnnking, Kinngsu Shenchowfu, Hunan Hopo, liwantung Hopo, liwantung Nanking, Kiangsu Nanking, Ku. Yencheng, Kiangsu 160 LINGUIST ADVERTISER TEXACO Petroleum Products HIGH GRADE UNIFORM QUALITY KEROSENE OILS LUBRIOATING OILS Cylindef, Engine, and Machine Oils M O T O R O I L S Gear and Cup Greases WIRE ROPE LUBRICANTS FLOOR OIL METAL POLISH Mineral Turpentine A S P H A L T S Roarl Oils Asphalt Cement R O O F I N G Roofing Felt Roofing Pitch TH E TEXAS CONI PANY SHANGHAI GI I1 atallPz1n 1 alPo1t C ll I eo Tl co Br lc vs " of 's of. ffm 1' 01111.-'lgvllrfm all 0T'l'I' Cllilzn and Korra. STUDENT DIRIECTORY 161 92 Coolcson, Miss L. L.. . . . . ,Methodism North .. 9-1 Farr, Miss Grace ..... . . . 95 Harrison, Mr. S. J ...... 96 Harrison, Mrs. S. J ...... 93 Eide, Miss Mary L ..... 97 Hollingshead, A. W ..... 98 09 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Hollingshead,Mrs. A. W. Holt, Mrs. H. D ......... Methodist, North .. Prcsbytcrizui, South Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. .-Xm. Church Mission .... Kennard, Mrs. Ralph B.Baptist. ..... ..... . . Lavely, Horace T ....., Lavely, Mrs. H. T. .... . . Lawney Dr. Josephine C. Lentz, Miss Grace Z .... McCown, Miss Mary .... Mount, Miss Bessie.. . .. Pollocl:,MissElizabethM. Prohasco, Miss Abbie. . . Redmond, Miss Sarah A. Sanders, William L ------ Shreve, Oliver R ...... . . Sloan, Miss Mary Lee.. Spaulding, L. M. ..... . .Mcthodist, North .. Methodist, North .. Baptist . .......... . . Methodist. North Presbyterian, South S. D, .-X. Methodist, South .. Methodist, North .. .......-.. Methodist, North .. Methodist, North .. S. D. A. ....... . Presbyterian .. ..A. A. M. Spaulding, Mrs. L. M.. . A. A. M. .. . . . . Walborn,Miss1vy Graceli. C. U. S. Mrs. G. R. Snyder .................... Wencke, Misa Doris R.. Methodist ...... . Woods, Miss Margaret.:C. M. S. ....... . 1921--1922 Holroyd, Mrs. A. W ..... Y. M. C, .-X. ...... .. Graham, J. R ...... ..... P resbyterizm. South Ruland, Lloyd S ..... .... P resbyterian Steinheimer, Mrs. Ella J.Metl10diSt N. Allen, Miss Julia .... ..Christian ... Arnold, Miss Gladys C.Christiau Blackstone, Miss EleanorM6tll0diSt --.. Blackstone, Mr. James..Mcll10dist.. . Blankenbiller, Miss H.Christian ,... Braden, Miss Elvira M . . Y. W. C. .-X. . Brown, Mr. Chauncey F. Brown, Mrs C. F. .... .. Presbyterian ...... Presbyterian Q... Caldwell, Mr. Leonard H.University of Nzmking, Caldwell, Mrs Marjorie,University of Nanlcing. Carr, Mr. L. A. ---..- -- Carr, Mrs L. A ......... Charles, Miss Hope, .... Cory, Miss May Louise.. Deahl, Miss Catherine. . Decker, Dr. H. W. .... .- Decker, Mrs. H. Hospital ................ Hospital Methodist .. Christian Episcopal . .. Baptist ..... Baptist ..... Wuhu, .Nnhwei Ycnping, Fukicu Taichow, Kiauigsu tfhinkiang. Kiangsu Chinkiang, lfiilllgsll U. S. .L U. S. A. Shanghai, liiangsu Slumgliui, Kiangsu liiukiang, Kiungsi Kiukiang, Kizuigsi Shanghai, Kiungsu Chinkiang, Kiangsu, Tsingiangpu, Ku. Shanghai, Kiangsu Sh:mglm.i, Kiangsu Nilnlting, Kiilngsu Wuhu, Anhwei Ranking, Kiangsu Shanghai, Kiangsu Suchowfu,1Kinngsu Hochow, Anhwei Hochow, Anhwei Chunking, Szechuen Kirin, Manchu. Tsiang-Kiang-Pu. Ku Nanking, Ku, Nunking. Ku. Nanking, Ku. Chuchow. Anh. Nanking., Ku. Nanking, Ku. Luchowfu, Anh. Nanking ,Ku. Hengchow. Hun, Hengcliow. Hun. Nauking, Ku. Nanking. Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Nankiug, Ku. Nanlcing, Ku. Nnnking. Ku. Shanghai, Ku Shanghai, Ku. BANKING BY MAIL HAS BECOME SO EF- FICIENTLY DEVELOPED THAT WE HAVE AT PRESENT CLOSE TO ONE THOUSAND ACCOUNTS OUTSIDE OF SHANGHAI. WE CORDIALLY INVITE YOU TO DO YOUR BANK- 162 LINGUIST ADVERTISER I ,,TZTiii11i5 if,-7 X' - . N 3 I Q-,g Bt-:f X E f . If ING WITH The American'-Oriental Banking Corp. 15 NANKING ROAD. SHANGHAI plain S'l'UDliN'l' lJlRl'lC'l'UNY ,...?..1.i...-- , ....... ,.-,....-..-....-.. ..,, ,.... ,,.....-... DeKorne, Mr. John C...Christian DeKorne, Mrs. Nettie G.Christian Dykstra Mr. Harry A...Christian Dykstra, Mrs. Florence,Christian Feeker, Miss Rose L ..... Evangelical Assn... . . .. Ferris, Miss Helen, ...... Methodist ..... . Fillmore, Mr.Herbert W.Christian Fillmore, Mrs. Hazel Hill,Christian Fowler, Mr. J. Earl. .... Episcopal Fowler,Mrs. Dorothea L.Episc0pal Fry, Miss Nancy A ...... Christian Fueller, Miss Elizabeth. .Episcopal .... . Gibbs, Dr. Charles, S .... Baptist .. Gibbs,Mrs.MyrtleAlclrichBaptist .. Gray, Mr. FrankA ...... Episcopal Haggard, Miss Esther..Christan ... ... Hanawalt, Miss Ella M.. Methodist South ....... . Harris, Miss Vnne Ruthliaptist .......... ...... Hayes, Mr. Paul G ....... Methodist ...... Hayes, Mrs. Paul G ..... Methodist .... . Hayes. Miss Grace C .... Presbyterian .... ..... Holroyd, Mr. A. WalclieY. lil. C. A. Huffaker, Miss Martha E.Methodist ..... Hughes, Miss Frieclda .Presbyterian Jackson, Miss Vera ............ . . . . ... Jacobson,MissJosephinePresbytCrian . .... . Johnson, Miss Edith. .... Nurse ..,...... Kellogg, Mis Nora ...... Methodist ..... Kingman Mr. Harry....Y. M. C. A ..... .... . Kirk, Miss Virgina ...... Christian ..... Larner, Miss Charlotte.. . Baptist ...... . Luccock, Mr. Emory W.Presbyteriau Magill, Mr. Robert A .... Episcopal ...... Matthes, Miss Hazel .... Southern Presbyterian, McCallum. Mr. James H.Christian ............ McCallum, Mrs Eva A.Christian ,.... ..... McKee, Miss Elizabeth..Presbyterian .. . Mizell, Miss MargueritePresbyterian Owens, Mr. Arthur C..Presbyterian Owens, Mrs. A. C ...... Presbyterian Parker,Miss Hilda Agnes Church of England .... Rolland, Mr. William A.lVlethodist .... Rolland, Mrs. A .... Methodist .... Ruland. Mrs. MargaretPresbyterian Rutledge, Mr. Chester. .Bible Institute. ..... Rutledge, Mrs. Helen F.Bible Institute Tanders, Mr. William L.Meth0dist .... Sanders, Mrs. Alice H.MethodiSt .... Scheufler, Mr. Karl W.Meth0dist.... Scheufler, Mrs. Ada ..., Methodist. .... Reformed,. . .. Reformed,.... Reformed,. . .. Reformed,.... .Tunjen. Kwei ......-. '- ...-...... ...... ... ........-s ... ... . ........-s ... . -sas- 163 Rukao, Rukao, Rukao, Rukao, Kiukiang, Ki. Nantungchow Nantnngchow Wuchang. I-Iup. Wuchang, Hup. Nantungchow Anking Anh. Nanking, Ku. Nanking, Ku. U. S. A. VVuhu. Anh. Nanking, Ku. Hanchw, Che Wuhn., Anh. Wuhu, Anh. Chenchow, Hun. Kirin, Manchu. Ycnping, Fu. Chencbow.. Hun. Nanking, Ku. Hengchow, Hun. Shanghai, Ku. Kiukiang. Ki Shanghai, Ku. Nanking. Ku. Shaoshing, Che. , Hun. Shiangtan Yangchow' Ku. Chinkiang ' Nanking. Ku. Nanking. Ku. Changsha. Hun. Taichow Siangtan. Hun Siangtan, Hun Yunnanfu Kiukiang, Ki ,Ixu. Ki Ku. Hun . Hun. Ku. Ku. Fu. Fu. Kiukiang, Nanking-. Changsha, Changsha, Nanking, Nanking, Yenping, Yenping. 164 S'l1UDliN'l'S llIRl'1C'I'ORY ,.,, 7,, vim-- ,-1, ,,,,,,,,-,.,,,- WM- . .. ... iivk-----N-----W -'----7- 78 79 S0 81 82 S3 84' 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 9.2 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 Schroedter, Miss Marthalivu. Assn. .. . .... Schultz, Miss Emily, .... I-iaptist ...... ..... Scofield, Carl Edward. . Y. M. C. XX. . . . ... .. Scofield, Mrs. C E ...... Y. M. C. A. . . . . Seeger, Mr. Warren A..1:Ipiscopn1 ... ... .. Shaw, Mr. Theodor A.. Shull, Mr. Howard L .... Sinkey, MissFernMyrtle,Metl1oclist ..... ..... Six, Mr. Ray L .......... Christian .. Six, Mrs. Gladys AnclresaC'hristiz1n ..... ..... Skilling, Miss Helen, . . Presbyterian ... ..... Smith, Mr. Herbert R..Metho:list ...... .... . Smith. Mr.. Ethel N .... Ivleflwdisf ..... ..... Stafford, Miss MargestV.Mcthoc1ist --..... ..... Steveen. Mr. Walter T.1iib1e Institute. ........ . Steward. Mrs. Celia B.. .Metllodist ....... . ... Thompson, Min K. L..Presbyterian Thompson, Miss Ethel T.111ethodist ..... ..... Tremnine, Miss Stella . .Christian ..... .... . Weed, Miss KatherineH.l'resbyterian ... ..... Wiley, Mr. J. H ........ Baptist ....... ..... Wiley, Mrs. J. H ........ Baptist ..... ..... .... .Shenchow Anh. Tlilllall fu Shansi 'Vianan fu, Shansi Nanking, lili- Cl1Z1l'lgSllD..I'Il.l11. Nankiug, Ku. Yenping, Fu. Chuchow., A1111- Chuchow, Anh. Nanking, Ku. Nanchang. Ki. Nanchang. Ki. Yenping. Fu. Changsha, I-Iuu. Nanking, Ku Jiiangyin. Ku. Nanchang. Ki Wuhu, Auh. U. S. A. - Shaughai, Ku. Shanghai, Ku. Nanking,Ku' Wilson, Mr. Robert .... Methodist .............. Winter, Mr. T. Edmond.ReformedChurchofU.S.Yochow, Hun. Wood, Miss Muriel, .... W. U. M. S. ......... . . . Decker, Mr. John W .... Baptist . . . . . . . . Decker. Mrs. MargaretL.Baptist ................ Duff. Mr. Alfred H .... Heidenreich. Miss. E. B.United Evangelistic .... 107 Huizenga, Mr. Lee'S .... 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 Huizenga, Mn. Lee S.. Levy. Miss Rubie MHY. Miss Louise C .... Mc Bee, Misa Alice M.. Schmidt, Mr. Ben H .... Schmidt, Mrs. Mary G.. Shields. Miss Lydie M.. White, Mr. Locke ...... White, Mrs. Emma E. Williamson. Miss Iva M. Christian Reformed .... Christian Reformed .... W'es1eyan .............. Methodist ..... ..... Methodist ..... ..... Y. M. C. A. ...... . Y. M. C. A. ........... . United Evangelical .. Southern Presbyterian.. Southern Presbyterian.. Methodist. ........... . Shanghai, Ku. Ningpo, Che Ningpo. Che U. S. A. - - Hu. Ruko, Ku. Ruko, Ku. Wuchang. Hup. Wuhu. Anh. Nanking, Ku. - Hun. Hsuchowfu, Ku. Hsuchowfn, Ku. Nanking, Ku. LINGUIST ADVl'IR'lllSliR 165 .Help for Every EDay flNf0Hd0VdTUOTA'f0V nvgi flflt 1 ff.f and UdTOH?CdSlHd?HfXfSP- HEMELING'S ENGLISH-cmNEsE DICTIONARY Comprising Standurcl Spoken fliuun 1-Inuj lflouk, Newspaper and Documentary Lzuiguzngc. Universally Connnendecl 9525.00 IN YOUR Church, Community, and Sclmol Classes BARROW'S GOOD MANNERS will be specially valuable XfVI'ltlCIl in easy English Interesting -5 Cuversllicg'rm1ml...C,5 gl A hook lo sand to frieud.v at home: "Progressive Ideals of Christian Work in China" hy l REV. FRANK RAw1,lNsoN While they last, our reduced net price: 486 pustlrec. BOOKSELl.ERS-STATlONERS-PUBLISHERS EDWARD EVANS Sc SONS, LTD. 30 North Szechuen Road 107 Victoria Road Shanghai Tienllin I Ill Q Il 1 l-m1 -' u?!!!amge,v.: , , 1 I I i f 2 .f""-il ' Q1 u ,U ,,- . 3- .x ,lla 1-Mlm UU.. u N FI . . A P- MX W 2 EEWMSQ jvlmainm, S E v 0 X. :Wig F P sf ' -mf.,o 2 a ' 'Q F S fa mm X Cui?-gfmfaa' Sq 1---fly my WANG P 00 RW, n nun . 1-" J". .".. ...... ,,,. ELAN GY Swxmmm. : . , U 1 9 J 'Q ,ja f' Q Q Q 7 , ll' 9' Q ,. . - . 2 J V. ,, - V 'QL .' ' I' f - , 1 1- Y' 'Q' 2 H Sf' I S Q Q - , ,v. , ,NI 3' l . g .4 " ' yiegv ' 9 1 F if " U" -U. A H 3 aa " ,, Q1 X Q - - - - . . ., X A x WP.: sg-35 if 9 n I -, . I , E ' ' ' - ' Q g Hp 5, A .il a I :L , - 3 o ,. - X rl 6, . on, Ao. P, b :fl gl auqq , ' O O 8 , 0 0 ' 9 x . , I f ry ' U 5 - 9.1 f Pa e , . . 'a - 9.4, is X 0 3- 1 a I H as h J Pa ' , v 0 1 '21 3- -"""N., ,' X. ' 7 E , F " .---.i N-J v Q V - 2 - ay aiu, ., . 2, 1 ',d,j5...,.' 5.5-N ' . 2 'Jr' gay fffJ9s'x',,gw: . Q jo G fx P3 .'7357r5y""' I 'X . - ,,,.f,, ffff' 1 125355 P ' 0 I, -W---fffaxiiibil' s - 168 l',lNGUlS'I' A DVl'lR'l'llSlili "- -i..--, 4, Mlm YY,--,-Y Y You Don't Send Home for the Food You Eat Then Why Send Home for Brain Food? lDou't send for your supplies of books and stationery from home. us supply you here. You will be surprised when you see our complete stocks of these things. TEXT BO0KSiSCHO0L BOOKS-BIBLES DICTIONAFIIES--ENGINEERING BOOKS MEDICAL BOOKS-FICTION ALL KINDS OF STATIONERY I X 111650. and many more can be secured from us. NVe represent the largest American publishers. You pay no more by buying from us than you would if you bought ut home, and We Give Prompt Service. write for Our Qatalogue level Us Serve you TI"IE CHINESE AMERICAN PUBLISHING CU. THE AMERICAN BOOK SHOP 25 Nanking Road ---- Shanghai 0 0 FEATURING HANDMADE LACES I ART EMBROIDERIES SWATOW DRAWN WORK, COLORED CROSS STITCH WOMEN UNDERVVEAR 1 Staple Jlfcwllanldisf at Rrnxoiznlzlc Prices HIP SENC5 CO1. 21 NANKING ROAD SHANGHAI TELEPHONE TELEGRAM9 n CENTRAL 6704 'HIP9FNG" BRANCH SHOP I5 CUSTOM-HOU9'E ROAD ' VSWATOW cg an ' - 4 PRINTED BY THE ORIENTAL PRESS I

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