University of Nanking - Linguist Yearbook (Nanking, China)
- Class of 1923
Page 1 of 173
Pages 6 - 7
Pages 10 - 11
Pages 14 - 15
Pages 8 - 9
Pages 12 - 13
Pages 16 - 17
Text from Pages 1 - 173 of the 1923 volume:
PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENT BODY
NANKING LANGUAGE SCHOOL
TI-IE DEPARTMENT OF MISSIONARY
UNIVERSITY OF NANKING
. , "n 'f'.
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uf1,1'.f 1 ':
ARTHUR J. BOWEN,
IVERSITY OF NANKING
UNIVERSITY OF NANKING
BOARD 012 TRUSTEES
Robert Elliott Speer, President
James H. Franklin, Vice-President
Russell Carter, Treasurer
Eric M. North, Secretary
Leslie B. Moss, Assistant Treasurer and Assistant
Stephen I. Corey r
Abram E- Cory Disciples of Christ
Robert A. Doan .
Frank A. Horne A -
Frank Mason North Methodist Episcopal, North
William J. Stitt
Eben B. Cobb 7
John L. Severance Presbyterian, North
Robert Elliott Speer S
James Henry Franklin
Mornay Williams Baptist, North
Samuel Hall Chester - Presbyterian. South
BOARD OF MANAGERS
Arthur I. Bowen, President fex-oliiciob
Wilbur F. Wilson, Secretary
Lewis J. Owen, Treasurer
Frank Garrett 7
Alexander Lee .
Elliot I. Osgood. M. D.S
Guy W. Sarvis
Frank D. Gamewell
John C. Ferguson 2
Lauress J. Birney S
Wilbur F. Wilson
Edwin C. Lobenstine'
Samuel J. Mills
J. E. Williams.'9""
Earl H. Cressy '
J. V. Latimer
Francis J. White""""'
Mason P. Young. M.D.p
ru ing-s u - i
Robert Case Beebe. M.D.--Life Member
'Frank S. Niles alternate
Disciples of Christ
Methodist Episcopal, North
Elected by the Board of Managers
Elected by the Alumni
"""George C. Hood, alternate.
""""'Percival R. Bakeman, alternate
2 "THE LINGUIST"
KEY COMMODITIES OF
Banks . . .
Books and Stationery ' '
Boots and Shoes .
Department Stores .
Drugs . . . ' . . . .
Engineering, Electrical, Building Supplies
Express Companies .....
Fruit . .
Hotels . .
Jewelers . . .
Laces, Swatow Work, Etc.
Milk Products . .
Optical Companies .
Petroleum Products .
Photographs, Developing .
Printers . . .
Sporting Goods .
Tailors .,.. ' . .
Zeiss Lenses, Optical Instruments, Etc . . .
Readers of THE LINGUIST, This table is designed to serve you.
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Admiral Line , . .
American Drug Company . .
American Express Company .
American-Oriental Banking Corp .
Andersen, Meyer 81 Co., Ltd. .
Bridge House Hotel . . .
Broadway Store . .
Brownie Photo Company .
'Carlowitz 81 Company .
Chi Chang Company . . .
China Press ....
Chinese American Publishing Co .
'Chinese Optical Company . .
Edward Evans 81 Sons, Ltd. .
Gee Shing Fruit Shop .
Heng Kong . .
Hip Seng Company .
Ismer 8z Company .
Mactavish 8z Co., Ltd.
Mission Book Co .....
Nanking Dispensary ....
Nestle 81 Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk
'Oriental Press ....,
Pan Chuang Chong -.--
Rose, Downs 8: Thompson, Ltd.
Sam joe 8z Company . . .
Seng Chun 81 Company .
Siber I-Iegner 8z Company . .
Squires Bingham Company . .
Standard Oil Company of New York
Texas Company ....
'Tsei Hwa 81 Company .
'Wee-Wee Company -
VVing On Co., Ltd. .
Yangtse Hotel .
Zee Van Shang .
TO OUR CHINESE TEACHERS
IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED
The sroaohf Body ofthe Nanking Language School 1922-23
He who comes to China to labor among the
Chinese finds himself, at first, helpless as an
infant. Every'door of communication with the
millions he seeks to help is shut. But it is our
teachers who are opening these doors for us and
are patiently making intelligible those amazing
strings of rapid fire sounds. They deserve our
undying gratitude. With good reason then, do
we dedicate this account of our first year's ex-
perience and observation in China to our Chinese
Our teachers have not only given us an
introduction to the language, great as that task
is, but they have also introduced us to the mind
and heart of China. In them is personified the
courtesy, kindness and good fellowship which
are characteristic of the nation. They are living
examples of infinite patience. Their ability as
teachers has given us an insight into the wonder-
ful capacity of the Chinese people. We are
happy to count them as personal friends, and to
convey to them this mark of our high esteem
CHARLES SCULL KEEN. M.A.
DEAN. DEPARTMENT os MISSIONARY TRAINING
UNIVERSITY OF NANKING A
A Trlbute To Our Dean
'I have fought the good fight, I have finish
ed the course, I have kept the faith ' II Tum 4 7
Worn out by a raging fever wuth serious
complncatxons, Charles Scull Keen fought the
good fight and I-inxshed the course at 9 40 pm
on May twentleth after a servxce of 21 years ln
China Hls was a vigorous lnsplrmg and vncto
rxous personalxty He fought agamst pretense,
sham, evxl and unrlghteousness m any form and
fought for the advancement of the Kingdom of
God everywhere and partxcularly ln China
We shall remember him for hls msplrmg
personality, for his spontaneous wit which dally
qulckened our minds and lxghtened our task and
for the bngness of hxs spxrlt, for hxs emphasxs on
essentials and for hxs mspxratlon nn servxce
Lack of space prevents an adequate ap
preclatlon of his work lf we were capable of
makmg one but xt must be recogmzed that his
development of methods of teaching Chmese
smce the foundmg of the Language School nn
1912, wnll stand as a monument to his greatness
as a teacher and as a standard for the future
He had the faculty to make a very dlffxcult
subject a surprnsmgly pleasant task Further
than thxs ran throughout all the actlvltles of has
department the motif of iittmg the student for
effective and full servlce In Mlssxonary work
These dommant purposes were carried out to
the hlghe t degree by the organlzatnon of the
Department of Missionary Trammg He enhsted
the loyalty of his large staff of Chinese teachers
as well as of hundreds of students who studied
And withal he was an unfalllng friend We
stxll feel the force of has personality, and we
know that hxs wlsh for us even now ns to "carry
"To us he flung the torch,
"This ours to hold it high.'
The Student Body
Nanking Language School.
. 11.1. . , , - . A-1
1 1 1 .
1,, 1 1
1 1 1 ' 1
1 1 .
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 l "
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 ,
1 1 1
1 1 . 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 I 1
1 1 I
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I' ,' 1
CHIA FUH TANG.
PRINCIPAL OF THE NANKING LANGUAGE
"THE PRINCE OF PEDAGOGUESU
"THE LINGUIST" 9
THE LINGUIST STAFF
. W. C. Lcwvniaumimc
Associate Editor . . EMELINE BUWNE.
CONTRIBUTING STAFF, by Departments.
, . . R. A. PETERSON.
. . A. BREDE.
J. W. Decker.
MRS. I-I. C. Rum..
. Mus. RUTH QP. BREDE.
. Miss BERTHA PARK.
Miss DoRoT1-Iv BASCOM
' iS. P. KIRN
. C. L. WOODBRIDGE
Business Manager . . CARL ROBART
Circulation Manager . I. B. YAUKEY.
10 "THE LINGUIST"
I , nq.'
-. -v I
I - J
1 1: 'mm
LINGUIST STAFF. 1922-23
BOTTOM ROW LEFT 'TO RIGHT: WOODBRIDGE. RUHL. PARK, KIRN.
SECOND ROW LEFT TO RIGHT: ROBART. BOWNE. LOWDERMILK.
THIRD ROW LEFT TO RIGHT: BYSTED. PETERSON. YAUKEY. DECKER,
. MRS. BREDE ABSENT.
'lTHE LINGUIST" 11
C O N T E N T S
Chinese Medicine . 14 ff
The Glad Evangel . . 21 ff
Education, The Ten Per Cent .... . 33 if
Social Aspects of the Confiict of Two Civilizations 40 ff
Jottings from Chinese History . . . 48 ff
Famines and Their Prevention. 55 rf
Chinese Athletics . , .62 ,
The Language School . . 63 1?
From the Eastyand from the NVest . 67 ll
School Calendar .... 71
Activities outside the Curriculum . 78
China for christ-Hymn . . 85 i
A Day at Language School 87 tif
Learning Chinese . 91
Daily Chapel Service . 95 hc
Social Life . . . 97 H'
The Language School Play 103
As the Guest of an official . 106
Seeing Palestine in China. 109
Whatto take to China . 113
12 'fTI-IE LINGUIST"
Perhaps only the newcomer would be so bold as to undertake the
publication of a book with the avowed purpose of Thr: Linguist
this year. The justification of the task must rest with our readers. To
state the primary purpose specifically, it is to make articulate the first
year's reactions of the resident student body of the Language School,
to the conditions in Chinaias we find and understand them. And. in
addition to this purpose it is hoped that this volume will furnish
reminders of the many happy associations together.
At the outset, we are mindful of the general unfairness of first
impressions. The newcomer to any country enters, so to speak, by
the back gate and is apt to see more, in proportion, of the unsavory
conditions than one who is a long resident. It is rarely that the first
year's resident comes to know the best features of a country. For this
reason it is not the intention of the editorial staff to exaggerate many
features of China that have been used in the past perhaps too often
to arouse interest in the work for China. It is rather to give our
readers glimpses of our visions of the fundamental forces that are at
work or must be put to work in this period of renaissance in China.
We may have undervalued some and overvalued others. Consequently
The Linguist can in no wise compete with the works on China
written by residents of long standing. Nor is it the intention that it
should. It is only hoped that our first year's impressions will find a
corresponding appreciation in the minds of thinking persons in the
Home lands and will both arouse interest in and create friends for
China at a time of her greatest need for guidance and counsel of true
The plan of the book is to make a brief survey ofthe several
fields of endeavor in China coupled with a projection of the work to
be done. as well as to givea "close up" of the activities of our first
year at Language School. The subjects are listed in the table of
NVithout the full and generous cooperation of the entire student
body this book would have been impossible, and the Editor wishes to
take this opportunity to bespeak his lasting appreciation of the counsel,
inspiration and assistance from the staff individually and from the
Student body as a whole throughout the work of publishing The
In response to the call for material much more has come in than
could possibly be included within the covers of this volume. And the
selection has had to be made on the basis of representative articles as
well as to length. For this generous response the Editor is very
W. C. L.
ANCIENT LIND OF CHINA
ANCIENT LAND OF CHINA
Oh ancient land of China,
Four thousand years, the same,
WVhose glory lay in wisdom,
Whose scholars gave them fame 5
Oh China we all love thee,
And pray that God may he
Thy source of all true knowledge,
Andlearning's deepest sea.
Oh beautiful for rivers, A
Rich plains and mountains vast,
Whose voice of inspiration,
Has sounded from the pastg
Today, God calls thee, China,
To stand with those who see,
The problems of the future
Have also need of thee.
Though once thy gifted sages
Had seen a light afar,
They lost the purer radiance
Of Christ, the Christmas starg
His love, by faith illumed,
His peace, awaiteth thee,
To teach thee God, the Father,
Whose truth sets all men free.
May every gate be open,
May every city wall
Behold the new world vision,
NVith Christ supreme o'er all.
Lord God, raise for us leaders,
That China strong may be,
And thru thy Church triumphant,
Attain to unity.
Sung to tune Materna
14 "THE LINGUIST"
THE ART OF HEALING IN ANCIENT CHINA.
The history of the art of healing in China throws much light
on the backward state of medicine. Going back to times of great
antiquity, we find the record of Shen-nung1fB. C. 2737-2697j who is
known as the father of Chinese medicine. He compiled a book
giving the curative and toxic effects of a great number of herbs thus
bringing together the first collection of medical knowledge in China
of which we have any record.
' In the tenth century B. C. free clinics were established by govern-
mental edict? The decree of Han Pinl A. D. made definite pro-
visions for isolating cases oi contagious diseases in outhouses where
they could be treated, thus anticipating the modern isolation hospital.
Charity hospitals were founded at the time of Nan Tsi. Buddhism,
after its introduction into China about 65 A. D.,- was very active
in organizing Homes for the Sick which were managed by priests
and nuns. These Homes continued until 845 A. D. when they
were demolished in accordance with imperial decree and the Budd-
hists compelled to return to private life. Following 985 A. D.,
governmental institutions were founded to care for the sick and
provisions made in them for training practitioners of medicine.
Hwa Teo, who lived at the time of the Three Kingdoms, was
celebrated for his skill in surgery. .He meta tragic end at the
hands of the ruler of one of the kingdoms because he advised trephin-
ing the rulers skull forthe relief of an obstinate headache due ap-
parently to ,intracranial disease. This eminent surgeon was credited
with the performance of many successful surgical and medical
measures. Unfortunately, his records were burned by the wife of his
prison attendant and the knowledge that Hwa Teo attempted to hand'
down to posterity was lost because of her superstitious fears.
FACTORS CAUSING DEGENERATION OF CHINESE MEDICINE
From these isolated instances, we see that, almost before Vlfestern
medicine had its birth, Chinese medicine had made beginnings in
most of the helds of medical endeavor. Yet none' of these movements
survived to a healthy growth. Their degeneration was usually a
matter of a few decades at the most. That this should have hap-
pened was .inevitable when one considered the system under which
A great part of the medical knowledge worked out by men of
genius and observation was lost, or distorted due to the fact that
such knowledge was handed down from father to son. Inevitably,
superstition, magic rites, and folklore sayings crept in and soonf
the merits of the original discovery were hidden under a mass of
details which destroyed its value. The high ideal of medicine
as a science for the good of society as a whole was not manifest
in the practice of the native doctor. Naturally the lack of such
ideals among the members of the profession precluded the possibility
CHINESE MEDICINE 15
of the people having any greater regard for the skill of the doctor
than they did for the soothsayer or the temple priest. In fact,
because of the supposed supernatural origin of bodily ills, the
temple priest was consulted as frequently as the doctor and his copy
of magic rites secured and burned to the sound of throbbing drum
and low toned bell. Even the ignorant coolie of the street who had
secured a prescription of a remedy with occult powers was deemed
worthy of a trial, The men of worth and knowledge and reputation
with lines of treatment of dehnite value had to combine their few
helpful facts with rites of magic and superstition to satisfy a clientele
haunted by a fear of the supernatural.
' ni A
fipi ,229 J
. iff 4
xi t.yt H ?,v: VV? V
The Yang and Yin
CONCEPTIONS UNDERLYING CHINESE 'MEDICINE 3
The teachings of Chinese medicine are a weird mixture of facts.
misconceptions, and superstitions. They rest on the fundamental
-belief that life is based on the perfect equilibrium of two principles
the Yang and the Yin. These two principles are supposed to underly
the universe and their expression in the human body is but one
manifestation of universal life. The Yang is the warm, active principle
and is symbolized by the sun. The Yin is the moist passive principle
and is symbolized ,by shadow. If the 'Yang is in excess, there is a
condition of excitation. If the Yin is in excess, there is a condition
of depression. The action of these two principles is manifested in
twelve organs. The six organs in which the Yang is found are
located inthe abdomen. The six in which the Yin resides are the
brain, spleen, right kidney, and the organs found in the chest. These
twelve organs are connected to each other and to the hands and feet
by twelve channels, six for the Yang and six forthe Yin. The Yang
tends to arise in the body and the Yin tends to descend.
METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.
The practitioner of Chinese medicine considers the pulse as
the most important diagnostic element and, frequently, its palpitation
is the only examination made. The right hand of the physician is
:used to feel the left pulse of the patient and, with the left hand, he
16 "THE LINGUIST"
feels the right pulse. The pulse must be palpated with each finger
at weak, moderate. and strong pressures for a period of nine in-
spirations. Each finger of the physician reveals information con-
cerning the condition of a specific part of the body. There are
twenty four main types of pulses and twenty seven which prog-
nosticate death. Occasionally, the tongue is examined if the pulse
does not give sufficient information. From its appearance some
thirty six conditions can be diagnosed. All organs have their
appropriate elements, colors. times, and seasons. For instance. the-
heart has red as its color, fire as its element, summer as its season.
and noon as its hour. Therefore, heart troubles would be apt to
manifest themselves in a flushed, feverish patient who became ill
at noon on a summer day.
The remedies used by the Chinese doctor uncontaminated by'
VVestern medicine are many in number and various in source.
They range from bones of the tiger. much prized for relieving
nervous debility, to kaolin, arsenic, andthe mereurials which are
used for some of the same conditions in which they have been
found of value in Occidental medicine. Rice wine is used to prepare
tinctures and extracts of herbs, barks, seeds, and roots. Plasters are
favorite remedies. In some districts acupuncture is extensively usedl
for treating disease. there being three hundred and eighty recognized
sites where the body may be punctured by the needle used.
THE INADEQUACY OF CHINESE MEDICINE.
The basic conceptions underlying Chinese medicine renders it
impossible that this system can be adequately developed to meet
the needs of the people. Without definite knowledge of the structure-
of the human body, with misconceptions of the functions of the
various organs, with vague, erroneous ideas of the causation of
disease. there has been no opportunity to build up a rational. science.
The ,higher ideals that should underly the relation of physician to the-
social order have been lacking. There is no knowledge of pre-
ventitive medicine and hygiene. Except in isolated instances, com-
municable diseases are not recognized as such. Yet, until the advent
of Western medicine, one fourth of the world's population depended
on this system for its medical needs. Even under present conditions,
it is estimated that over ninetynine per cent of the sick of China
receive no other treatment than that administered by the native-
trained doctor, the neighbor, or the temple priest.
WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA 17
WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA
One of the first records of the use of foreign remedies in China
was the administration of quinine for the relief of a fever to the
emperor Kang Hsi in 1692 by Jesuit missionaries. The results were
successful and aided in maintaining cordial relations between the
imperial court and the Jesuits. The next work was done by doctors
associated with the East India Company. Pearson vaccinated some
Chinese against smallpox in 1805, Morrison and Livingston opened a
dispensary for the poor in Canton in 1820 and Colledge opened the
Macao Ophthalmic Hospital in 1827. The work of these men among
the Chinese supplemented their work among the representatives and
employees of the East India Company.
The lirst medical missionary appointed as such was Parker of
Yale who came to Canton in 1835 and opened a hospital there. This
institution with its glorious tradition of service is still carried on in
better equipped surroundings but with the same lofty aims and ideals
that characteriied the original enterprise. The high purpose dominating
the aim of the early missionaries, is well stated in the terms they used
to define their aim. This aim they stated was to bring the Gospel of
jesus Christ to the Chinese, to work in conjunction with other mis-
sionary forces, to aid in the winning of conlidence and allaying of
suspicion, to relieve physical suffering, and to train Chinese youths to
help their own people.
One of the large modern Mission Hospitals in China
18 "THE LINGUIST"
By 1850, nine medical missionaries had arrived for work in China.
By 1887, more than one hundred and. fifty had worked in China. In,
1902, after the Boxer' uprising, there were one hundred men and
women engaged in medical work. The great impetus given missionary
work following the Boxer trouble was especially noted among the
medical forces. By 1917, there were fourhundred medical missionaries
in China and, at present,,there are over five hundred medical represen-
tatives of the various missionary societies in the field.
' . This force of doctors is working in two hundred and seventy five
hospitals. A number of these'hospitals have been built, organized,
and staffed by the women members of the profession. invaluable
service is rendered by foreign nurses without whose help the high grade,
efficient work set as an ideal would be impossible of fulfillment.
Pharmacists, dentists, and laboratory teclmicians fill essential places
toward rounding out service that the medical profession is giving the
Chinese people. ' .
MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA
The greater part of medical education in China has been carried
on in schools founded, manned and supported by missionary forces.
The present medical schools have grown from humble beginnings to
magnificent institutions because of the vision held by those great
spirits who founded them and the strong men who still carry on.
Efforts are being concentrated in building up the present institutions
to a high plane where they can turn out graduates with higher grade
scientific training and backed by the worthy traditions and high ideals
of the medical professions of Europe and America. Themedical schools
supported by foreign agencies cannot hope to provide an adequate
medical personnel for the four hundred million people of China but
they can blaze the way by furnishing China with model schools and
hospitals and by training men forleadership in building up the Chinese
"THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE LIFE."
Weamissionaries of a later day will, in all probability, never ap-
preciate the difficulties and discouragements that were endured by these
resolute predecessors of ours. Faced with antagonism, privation,
lack of companionship, meager equipment, and little funds, they
succeeded through great faith. They gave their all, some through
years of service in the great cities, others through work in the far
frontier stations. They gave health to millions of the sick of body
and through the love and confidence thus won pointed their patients
on to the Great Ideal. Day after day, week after week, year after
year, they worked -on. Overcoming great obstacles that they might
fulfill their great purpose. The memory of those who have given their
lives that the millions of China mighthave more abundant physical and
spiritual life is a wonderful inspiration to us who follow on. The
great traditions of their love and sacrifice, the records that they left in
the hearts of those whom they loved and served, and the great works
that live after them testify to their wholehearted service to the Master.
They have left us a noble heritage to carry on to high fulfillment and
we can do no less than accept this sacred trust.
WESTERN MEDICINE IN CHINA 19
THE NEED OF HELP.
The survey of past accomplishments is a challenge to us to take
up and extend the work. This challenge is made doubly emphatic
when we survey the enormous needs of China which are now met in
so small a way. At the present ltime, each hospital has an average
quota of one and one third million people. Of two hundred and forty
:six hospitals reporting, sixty nine per cent have only one doctor.
Each doctor has an 'average quota ofover three quarters of a million
of people. Fifty two percent of the hospitals in which these doctors
serve have no foreign nurses. Because of the comparatively small
.number of hospitals and the limitedstaffs, only eight out of every
hundred sick Chinese are seen by these doctors or their Chinese
assistants. This means that each year in China. a column of people
standing three abreast and reaching from New York to San
.Francisco are without any adequate medical attention during their
illness. To bring the present hospitals upto the minimum standard
advised by the China. Medical Missionary Association of two foreign
doctors and one foreign nurse to each hospital, one hundred and
seventy doctors and one hundred and thirty nurses are needed. Yet
these hospitals when staff and maintenance and equipment are fully
provided can only hope to serve a small percentage of the Chinese
- . ' mx.: 'M ,,' , . l - ', i . ,, , ' V - , r , 4.-5' -
1 I. 1' N-A . if -
s , ,
Washing rice and vegetables, preparatory to cooking, in a pond which
receives sewage and other filth. Only by drinking tea does the Chinese escape
epidemics of communicable diseases from sm face pools such as these. Wells
furnish only a small part of the drinking water used by the people.
20 "THE LINGUISTH
THE CALL OF THE SERVICE.
The call of the service extends into many fields. To those who
are interested in preventitive medicine and public health with their
problems of sanitation and popular education, China otiers the
greatest field in the world today. To those who are interested in
fighting those great scourges of mankind such as tuberculosis and
leprosy, there are millions waiting with their faces turned toward the
wall for one who can give them hope. To those with the blood of
pioneers in their veins, the call comes to enter the new fields out on
the far frontiers where the great adventure of bringing a gospel of
love and service and healing has a virgin field. The call comes to
each one so equipped that they can help bring this service to its
fullness. Doctor, nurse. pharmacist, dentist, technican, all are needed
to complete the work. And in all and through all this service as a
golden thread runs ,the fact that many of thosewho are reached by
the ministry of healing are brought into contact with the Great'
Physician and, through him, receive the gift of life eternal.
Acknowledgment is made to Drs. King, Voss and Vtfoodbridge
whose invaluable assistance made this paper possible.
R. A. Psrizxsou. M. D.
1. MacGowan: A History of China.
2. Wong: Chinese Hospitals in Ancient Times. C.M.M. jour.,
Vol. XXXVII, QNO. 1.
3. Cadbury: Medicine as Practised by the Chinese, C. M. M.
jour., Vol. XXXVII, No. 6.
4. Balme: Modern Medicine in China.
A Tea House
THE GLAD EVANGEL 21
TI-IE GLAD EVANGEL
What is "Evangelistic Work" in China?
NVhat does the evangelistic missionary do?
Does he hold big evangelistic campaigns?
Does he have charge of a church and preach regularly?
VVhat are the needs and opportunities in the evangelistic iieltl in
China just now P .
Is the greatest need for evangelistic workers or for educational
workers in China just now?
These questions and many others crowd upon young people at
home when their thoughts turn toward missionary work as a career,
If we may judge by memories of our own days of preparation. An
attempt will be made to answer these and various other queries from
the point of view of a group of students who have spent one brief,
crowded and happy year in China. Only a year ago we were college
and university students at home, so we look at our Iield of service-
from the'point-of view of the present generation of students and
It is a proud day for a man when he gets "a call to a larger field
of service." The first thing we realized when we found ourselves
deposited in the midst of about 400 million souls was that we have
been called to "a larger ileld of service" with a vengeance. If there
are too many struggling churches in your town we would like to give
You a call to this larger field. You may have the care of a hundred
thousand souls not one of whom has ever heard an adequate presenta-
tion of the gospel. They have never seen one of Christ's"'living
Epistles" and they never will see and never will hear these things
unless you come. ,
Just how does the evangelistic missionary set about his work?
His methods are varied. I-Ie rarely holds big evangelistic campaigns
and if he does hold them, he usually has Chinese to do the reaching,
In fact he is not primarily a "preacher" at all. He may inrequently
preach on Sundays but the Chinese preachers are of course much
more effective for regular preaching t an a foreigner can hope to be.
The foreign evangelist does, however, have a vast number of duties
which are most essential to successful missionary work. He may
oversee the work of from one to fifty native helpers. These will be-
preachers, evangelists, teachers, bible women, carpenters, gardeners,
etc. Usually a man takes charge of the men's work and a woman
missionary oversees that for the women. The evangelistic missionary
must aid in and organize the work of preaching, singing, social
service, visiting the sick, famine relief, advising and guiding new
Converts, see to the payment of native helpers, teach his preachers-
and helpers, ,direct the construction and repair of buildings and
furniture, carry on boys clubs and reading rooms organize numerous
bible classes and inquirers classes, distribute portions of scripture and
other literature. He may have anything up to thirty outstations
which he must visit once or twice or even more times a year. He
,22 "THE LINGUIST'
will find every imaginable kind of complication in the work, all of
which he is expected to straighten out. ln short, he is responsible
for guiding the education in Christian ideals of all his constituency
from kindergarten to native pastors.
ln the Language School are new missionaries connected with
many denominations. They represent every shade of theological
belief, yet to the best of our knowledge there has not been a shade of
dissensionor unpleasant controversy during the whole year. This is
because we are faced with a gigantic taskg the winning of China for
Christ. When our many denominations realize the world's sad and
bitter need they can and will unite, not on statement of doctrine, but
on something far more important, i.e.g the winning of the world to
"Don't interfere with them, their religion is all right for them
and they get alongall right."
it hardly seems necessary to answer that objection to mission
work, but perhaps a 'few illustrations will show the reasons for
evangelistic work in China as we see it. A few brief word pictures
will perhaps enable you to judge for yourself whether or not we
should give them a knowledge of Christ.
Outside our gate the women are washing their food in a filthy
pool witha green scum on it. In the same pool they wash their
clothes and let the ducks and geese paddle. Filthy sewerage empties
into it and a vile stench arises, but every day they sit on the bank and
wash their rice and vegetables there. Of course disease sweeps off
The 'Village Washtub A
THE GLAD EVANGEL. - 23
, A religious procession is passing. It consists of the most
disreputable looking women carrying torn banners, little children.
half-clothed in rags and dragging little wagons filled with the
most inane looking wooden dummies Iever saw, a few priests in
dirty brown gowns complete the procession. Such a procession often.
presents the most despicable travesty on religion that could well be-
Step inside this temple, to one side is a ragged shake-down in.
which the dirty, stolid-looking priest sleeps. Behind the idol are
some dirty tables on which tea is served if you order it. Before the
Idol is an old can lilled with sticks. For the fraction of a penny you
may have the priest shake the can and the stick that first tumbles out
will tell your fortune. One's ideas of a "temple" suffera sudden.
eclipse. This dirt and squalor a temple? Yes indeed! And that
represents religion to masses of people in many towns and villages we-
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Children in the Street.
A woman sits beside the dusty road dressing a child's sores. She-
Was tearing the scabs off the suitering child's head, as the little one
Sat in the dust and dirt of the hot street, swaying in its weakness and
exhaustion. A tilthy, agonized little child, an ignorant, stolid mother'
Outside a hovel of a home. Do they need Christ?
Of course many Chinese deplore these conditions just as we do,
but they have no remedy. Christian friends, you have. You have
life and love and hope and joy in Christ. We are overwhelmed
with the immensity oi our task, "Come over and help us l"
So universal is the feeling that the missionary is somehow not
just an ordinary mortal that one aspect of his life almost came as a.
surprize to us. We discovered that the missionaries' life is a perfectly
normal, vigorous human life. Most people have the tendency to
Drovincialism which makes them feel that the particular spot on the-
globe with which they are familiar is the mosh, if not the only,-
24 "THE LINGUIST"
desirable place in which. to live. W'e are all somewhat like the man
in the Arkansas mountains who, when he heard ol New York said,
"How can people bear to live so far away."
So people as they consider missionary work, think that life in
the mission field, a place "so far away," cannot be quite normal. The
first year at Nanking quite disillusions one. Here we have electric
lights, a large daily newspaper, from Shanghai with as up-to-the-
minute news as the' average American paper. We turn to "Mut and
Jef" and "Bringing up Father" before perusing the news columns
just as do the folks at home. There are three or four deliveries of
mail a day. One may have the tradesman call, including the barber
and tailor if he wants them. We have regular train and boat service
several times daily, automobiles and even radio broadcasting. You
may have your library and typewriter and almost anything else you
have at home. The fact is China is no "further away" than London
or New York or Berlin or San Francisco or Melbourne, in fact one
rapidly comes to feel that the Chinese were partly right when they
called China the "Middle Kingdom." When we go to our stations
we do not have so many conveniences, but we have something worth
more than all of them put togetherg we have the most fascinating work
that ever falls to the lot of man to do, the building of a great people
in the knowledge of Christ.
we-TTR-Iliff -N W '
This building constructed of bamboos and matting is the type of
building used for evangelistic meetings in Nanking
THE GLAD EV.-XNGEL 25
CHINESE EVANGELISTIC MEETINGS
The time of special evangelistic endeavor thruout China is during
the Chinese New Year holiday season. Every church has its
campaign with revival services and the use of other evangelistic
agencies such as posters, tracts and prayermeetings. This is an
opportune time because all work has ceased, all stores are closed and
the people who work long hours the rest of the year have a complete
holiday. It is not only an opportune time but a very necessary time
for the Christian forces to show their utmost activity. With millions
of peopleihaving nothing to do' but ainuse themselves and the only
forms of amusement they know being connected with some form of
gfambling, the appeal to the church is tremendous. The weaker
Christians must be looked after and kept from falling back, while the
Crowds of people must be reached.
v-. .. , - ' -e.t.....i, ...--- - V --
Two men paste up large gospel posters and then turn round and
preach to the crowd that invariably gathers. This is part of the work
of the Biola Evangelistic Bands in I-Ionan. The ten bands with
twelve men CChinese3 in each band have in one year visited 200,000
homes and established 33 self-supporting churches. They have held
bible-classes and conducted evangelistic services in scores of places.
Thus evangelism goes on apace,.but huge areas are still untouched and
await those from Christian lands who will say, "Here am I, send me."
26 "THE LINGUIST"
In Nanking an amusement district exists which has many of the'
same forms of amusements that go with street carnivals includingg
sideshows, games of chance, street fakirs, and even the Punch and-
judy shows. Here the people gather in such crowds that it is with
dihiculty that one can make his way. Here it is that the clinches
of Nanking have united in holding union evangelistic meetings.
The mat shed shown in the above picture was built for the services.
The building will seat about three hundred. The services last for
several hours and the people come and go much as they do at a cou-
tinuous performance moving picture show. A general invitation to
become Christians can hardly be given for the polite Chinese would
probably accept in a body. The Chinese may give ready assent to
what the preacher is saying, for it is obviously good doctrine. His:
ready acceptance of the doctrine, however, may carry no determination'
to live a changed life nor to relinquish pagan practices. The greatest
calamity that could befall a church would be to have a large member-
ship of such people. If interested the people are invited to sign cards
and they are then followed up by the mission working in their locality..
About 400 people signed cards during the progress of this meeting,.
and many of these are now receiving regular instruction in the-
"COME ON IN, THE WATER'S FINE"
After our first plunge into the depth of work in the "Flowery-
Land" we say to all who stand on the bank anticipating the adventure,
"Come on in, China's fine." T
By the way, that is not a bad illustration of the way one feels
when he once gets into missionarygwork. Before going in swimming
a boy stands on the bank contemplating the cold water and shivering
at the thought of the shock when the plunge shall be taken. After
the first plunge, how delightfully refreshing the water is, what ex-
hileration as you swing your arm in long vigorous strokes. So people
often stand afar off and look upon the mission field as a place of
deprivation and a place quite undesirable for "real guys" like them.
lt is somewhat of a surprize to experience an all-round vigor, a
physical, mental and spiritual exhileratiou during the first year in'
China. The physical vigor is perhaps due to the climate for there's
some snap to a Nanking winter, and you'd better prepare for it by
bringing a few extra warm clothes along. There is some vigor too, in
the eager mind of young China asyou find when you get into a bible
class with a few dozen keenly alert individuals. You find when you
meet the evangelistic, medical, and educational missionaries on the-
field that you come in contact with a group of people with as vigorous
mentality and energetic personalities as you have ever met. Still
greater, tho, is the spiritual exhileration which comes to the missionary
who sees the hungry multitude around him while he knows that he
has the bread of life for which those millions wait. We glory in the'
inestimable and boundless privilege of being, ambassaeliorsof God to.
the largest race in this wide world..
TUHE GLAD EVANGEI, 27
THE NEED FOR EVANGELISTIC WORKERS
As to the need for evangelistic workers in China, we want to
present the situation as we see it. Medical missions were established
for the combined purposes of the alleviation of suffering which is
consequent upon the lack of medical care, and of winning the good
will of the people. They have accomplished these purposes most
gloriously. Now on the one hand medical education is firmly
established in China, and sl1e is rapidly producing young doctors, and
on the other hand the people are open to all kinds of missionary work
and are generally very friendly toward the foreigner. The evangelistic
workers should now quickly step into the open door which our medical
brethren have provided for us. They have done their work well. VVill
the church now send out the thousands 'of capable, trained men needed
to teach the millions that can be reached.
Educational workers, also, have had two chief aims 5 to introduce
Western education as an aid to the spread of the gospel, and to train
leaders for the church and for the nation. China has learned the need
for modern education and is establishing schools of every grade from
kindergarten to university. There is still equally great need for
instilling Chinese leaders with the Christian ideal, but these leaders
must now be very largely reached during their period of study in
government schools. The great need now is for evangelistic workers
with preparation in the best methods of religious education, so that
the pupils of government schools can be preached. We can let the
government schools teach what are usually thought of as the secular
subjects while we supply the religious training so greatly needed by
China's future leaders. No more opportune moment could be desired
than the present offers. Students are interested in everything western,
and can be reached thru athletics and games of all kinds, clubs, bible
classes, etc. The ancient religions of China are almost utterly
discredited among students and something must quickly take their
place. Fellow Christian students ot the homeland, it is for yon to say
what it shall be. The heart of the Chinese student,like many of his
ancient temples from which the images have been cast out is an empty
slhrine. Can you say "To write the name of Jesus there is my supreme
28 "THE LINGUIST"
EVANGELIZING WITH DR. MACKLIN
A morning spent with Dr. Macklin in the Nanking tea houses is
anovel fascinating experience. Dr. Macklin is better known to the
masses of people in this section of China than any other foreigner. He
is not only known but is honored and lovedg honored for risking his
life to Isave the city of Nanking from destruction during the revolution,
and lovfed for his many years of medical service. During his thirty
years in .China he has been one of the most daring and aggressive
pioneers. inievangelisni, and .he is still at it. I-Ie attacks the absurd
temple practices and yet is respected by the priests.
.. . .1
' On 'Sunday morning before breakfast Dr. Macklin with two or
three students starts out on foot. After an hour's walk wc arrive at
one of the big tea houses in the centre of Nanking's densest popula-
tion. The tea house will seat five hundred people and is visited by
more than that number during the course of the morning. The Doctor
selectsa table directly in front of the door, gets the tracts ready for
distribution, orders the meal, and as the people come in we hand each
one some Christian literature. The novel and surprizing experience
is not one whit more pleasant to a new-comer than are the delicious
new flavors of the Chinese food. To adequately describe that meal
alone would take more room than this whole narrative. so eating such
a meal may be looked forward to as one of the delightful experiences
awaiting the new-comer. Before all the literature is distributed
hundreds of people will be seated at the tables reading the bible
stories and the Christian messages. Tea and food will get cold on
many a table as the readers learn of that bread of life, and of the
water of life. perhaps for the first time. Here a silk gownecl business
man will stop to talk with the Doctor or a Buddhist priest will sit and-
chat. What seed is there sown, much of it in good ground, if fine
faces and vigorous personalities are any evidence. One might sit in
an American commercial hotel and see no more capable looking men
than come to these tea houses to talk business and drink tea.
In one day we distributed fifteen hundred pieces of literature.
During the past eight years Dr. Macklin has distributed about one
quarter of a million pieces of Christian literature. How many church
members owe the inception of their interest in Christianity to Dr.
Macklin's aggressive evangelism,ronly the judgment day will tell. To
recount the fascinating incidents of one such morning would require
many pages and to tell of similar trips to the country and to the
villages would require a whole book. The mornings with Dr. Macklin
are an invaluable part of a new missionaries introduction to China
and to his particular type of evangelism. No missionary in China
knows better how to talk to the common people than does Doctor
Macklin. One of the best tributes to his conversational powers. in
meeting with the rnan on the street was given by a Chinese who said,
"His slang is excellent." ' p D
THE GLAD' EVANGEI. 29
E WORK DURING THE FIRST YEAR
During the first year in China and while we, the new mis-
sionaries, are still in the language school our evangelistic work
resembles the efforts of a young bird learning to fly. lt is feeble and
circumscribed. We must study with patience the methods of older
missionaries in hopes that later we will have language enough to take
our place with them. Most of the language school students have class-
es either for the teaching of English or for bible teaching at one or
another of the Chinese schools in the city. This gives an oppor-
tunity for reaching some of the many Chinese students in the city.
The daily contact with teachers gives abundant opportunity to
use what little language we have in presenting the Christian message.
'The teachers are a very fine group'of.scholarly men. a number of
whom are not acknowledged Christians. However the consecrated
Christian life is ever the most potent factor in Christian evangelism
and the day must come when the influence of Christian lives will win
.all the teachers to Christ.
As the year progresses students take more and more part in the
work at various mission centres in the city, while second year students
teach bible classes and occasionally preach in Chinese. Tract distribu-
tion and occasional broken conversation with casual Chinese acquain-
tances together with the above activities make up the chief evangelistic
efforts of the Language School year. ,,
THE WORK OF THE FOREIGN EVANGELIST
l , I.N,Cl-IINA
This is the day of great- 'intellectual awakening in Chinag her
,young men are fearlessly searching for truth wherever it may be
found. The book-stores are flooded with magazines filled with all
sorts of progressive ideas on philosophy, science, religion, and society,
thc product of the mind of "Young China," During this time of
intellectual quickening naturally the Chinese Christians feel that they
should have control of their own church. Many foreign workers
believe that the present generation will surely see the management of
the Christian church pass from foreign to Chinese hands.
ln such a situation what shall be the work of the foreign evange-
list? It is for older and more experienced men to give an adequate
answer. To one in the Language School, looking ahead however, it
seems thata few main lines of effort need emphasis. The foreign
evangelist must be a man of spiritual power, that is, he must be a
genuine representative of Christ. China has intellect, physical power,
and marvellous adeptness in manual arts. She can learn only from
those who have been with Jesus of the riches and depth of spiritual
life with God. The evangelist should be a representative of Christ
rather than of any denomination. Today in China when all things
are being tested and nothing is accepted on authority of foreigners, the
various sects of western Christendom are under scrutiny as never
before. The Chinese see no need for some hundred and fifty
different groups all professing to work toward the same end, and
nevertheless often conflicting with each other. The evangelist of
today must place his loyalty above denominations, even with Christ.
-X group of idols-each of which represents fl demon or good spirit.
JS I fl
THE CHINESE FUNERAL 31
Furthermore, the evangelist should remember that he has come
to China to counsel with and advise the Chinese in the conduct of
their own church. I-Ie is not a diviiiely appointed boss, though he
may have had a definite call to his field of work. His chief joy
should be to 'decrease while his Chinese colleagues increase in power,
in influence, and in the controlot his work. just in line with this
aim, it would seem a wise plan to spend much time in the training of
leaders rather than attempting a more general evangelistic campaign
which cannot be adequately followed with the necessary training and
education to make it effective. A test of such service might beg how
many preachers, teachers and writers-Christian leaders of thought-
have been influenced?
There is a large place for the foreign leader in the development
-of religious education in the schools. There is need for trainingin
Christian worship, the spiritualizing of prayer, the instilling in the
minds and hearts of Chinese youth the beauty and religious concepts
found in our Scriptures. There need be nofcondemnation of non-
Christian customs, but the quiet teaching of the good, the beautiful,
and the true as found in the Bible will commend itself to the students,
and the Christian message itself will prove to be its own best advocate.
The foreign evangelist will find opportunity also to lead the way
in the application of the gospel to social conditions. If the so-called
"Christian" west has been slow to realize the social implication of the
gospel, is it any wonder that non-Christian China has placed little
emphasis on the value of human life or cared whether thousands of
the coolie class lived or died? This attitude is changing, and in-
stitutional churches are being built to carry their message of practical
salvation to the city throngs. Chinese Christians are beginning to
realize that economic wrongs done to their brothers are their concern.
Here there is need for the finest cooperation and counsel on the part
-of the evangelist, for the Chinese Christian has but little experience.
Christianity is the Christlike life lived by men. and needs nothing but
its own expression for its propagation. The supreme task of the
foreign evangelist is to live that life, trusting in the God whom he
serves to do the rest. Collaborators: GRACE M. P11412
j. P. FOLLETTE
j. I-li. RICCALLUM
A c1-nNEsi3 FUNERAL
Yesterday there passed through the streets of the city the long-
est funeral procession I have ever seen since arriving in China. It
took one hour for it to pass any single point. For variety of para-
phernalia used, this procession, apart from royalty, would have no
peer. There were trumpeters blowing the familiar notes of the march
of the dead. There were military and police bandsg two lines of boys
and girls of schools presumably supported by the deceased, two
drvismnsvof Buddhist and of Taoist priests: dining tables set with
food .md carried by bearers: tables of sticks o-f sandal woodgan
32 ' ""l'i:-IE l,lNGUIST"'
automobile cleverly fashioned of bamboo and paper, a carriage three
fourths' size, drawn by a life-sized paper horse mounted on wheels:
large tloats of sacred animals'and birds made of gorgeous yellow
chrysanthemumsg children carrying numerous silk banners, huge
paper men, boxes, furniture, etc, tablets borne of fourg an enlarged
picture of the deceased, as wgll as .a sta.tue,.als.o,,borne on a sacred
table. A riderless horse immediately preceded the line of special
friends of the deceased who were walking within long streamers of
white cloth. The coffin, covered with a red pall of richly embroidered
satin was carried on a large platform swung from a pole with a
dragon's tail at one end and the dragopnfspliead, with long white beard
and deer's horns, at the other. Immediately in front of the coffin,
borne by thirty-two coolies, were the sons, dressed in white cotton
cloth, with a head dress of sack-cloth. These sons were each carried
hy two friends.
As the procession passed the banks of the deceased and the shops-
of special friends, there was a pause while mats were spread on the
streets and the sons bowed with their heads to the ground. The pro-
prietors came out and also bowed down before the broken-hearted QU
mourners. Lastly came a score or more of sedan chairs bearing the
wives, concubines, and children of the household, wailing out their
During one of these pauses, I inquired ofa gentleman inthe
procession who the deceased was, and what was the approximate-
expenditurc. He said that the deceased was Chen Shiso4mei, one of
the wealthiest citizens in the province, that there was being expended
fully 325,000 on the funeral, and that the procession alone cost about
i53,000. NVhen the average wage of a day laborer is not more than
255.00 a month, one can by comparison realize how enormous the
expenditure of this funeral really was. .ln the procession were
scores of beggars, men, women, and children, employed to carry
banners, for which they each received a few pennies. As I stood in-
the midst of the huge crowd of on-lookers, I recalled the lines of
Gray's e'eg5': "The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power," with the-
accent of "boast" and "pomp"
Residing in a city with a population' of 800,000, with its-
very limited recreational facilities in librariesg thousands of poor
children such as those who carried the things in the procession,
who because of the pinch of' poverty are deprived of an educationg
public sanitation at a standstill because of the lack of public funds?
places of historic interest fallen into decayg one can readily appre-
ciate what there is of apathy, of selfishness, of utter lack of con-
sciousness in folks who are. of a civilization thoroughly saturated'
with heathen practices. ' ' - 1
If a son in China ,wishes to show filial devotion to an aged or sick
father, he buys the casket and places it around the house in order
to prove that ie is preparing a good future life for the father,
THE TEN PERCENT A33
THE TEN PERCENT y
Every one who comes to China, whether Christian' worker or
mere traveler, visits the old Examination Halls which are in
every capital city. In many places they are in complete ruing in
others the material has been used to build schools for Western
educationg and in still others, as in Nanking, sectionsofe them have
been preserved as monuments to Chinese scholarship. Each booth is
about three feet square' by six high: They are built in long rows,
cover acres and acres, and mnnber in each place into the thousands.
Three-day examinations were held in these booths annually. The
candidates for honors 'were shut up in them for three days, during
which they wrote essaysrunder eightheadsg if they were successful
they passed-were recommended for special examination at Pekingg
if they were physically weak and could not stand the strain they
passed out, and were carried out of their cubby-holes the next morn-
ing. The subjects of the examination were the Chinese Classics,
literature and history, nothing ofa practical nature. Education was
not considered as an end in itself, but merely a means to political
office. It was not unusual, then, to find men of eighty and ninety
taking the examinations.
I learn from a Chinese teacher that besides the Chinese language,
literature,and classics, a little geography and astrology were taught
in the schools. When a Chinese boy recited to his teacher he stood
with his back to the tutor, holding out his hand, palm up, behind him.
For every error in reciting the lesson he should have memorized, he
received from one to ten stinging blows from the teacher's ferule, the
number depending upon the disposition of the teacher. ' This 'ruly'
element of education is probably still retained in many private and
government schools. 1
The scholarship of the old education is comparable to that of
the Medieval Scholastsf There was nothing forward-looking in it,
everything was referred back to authority, the more ancient the
authority or the source, the more certain and truthful the matter.
China has never 'reasoned induetively, if she has reasoned at all.
This presents a striking "contrast to Occidental education, which is
now based on the scientific spirit and not on books and ancient lore.
The purposes of our 'education is to give us as complete and varied
a store of knowledge as possible and to train us to use that knowledge
that we may live in understanding of our fellows and to fit us to be
of most service to them. Our education brings us closer to life and
to life's problems and is forward-looking. Under the old Chinese
system, the more a man studied, the--farther removed he was from the
problems of life. True, he studied ethics, but this only in the
abstract and as a sort of ideal ethics, much as we should study Plato's
"Republic" to-day. His learning was not applied to life, even though
the ultimate goal of all his laborious memorizing wasaposition in
authority over multitudes. Education was individual, unorganized,
haphazard, in private schools of a few students each, or by tutor.
34 " THE LINGUIST "
Fortunately, by lmperial Decree, this old education was abolished
in September, 1905, and plans for universal governmental education
were instituted. Primary education was to be made compulsoryg
all the provincial governments . were to establish primary, high
tmiddlej, and normal schoolsg and the national government was to es-
tablish universities, technical colleges and higher normal schools.
A good beginning has been made, but much of the tax money that
should go to education goes to pay the army and government otiicials
and sinecures in the school administration, so that there is little left
for teaching. And the subjects of the new education are decidedly
Occidental in nature and number. But so far, compulsory education
exists in the edict only.
Regarding government schools, since the report for the year
ending july 31, 1916, no statistics have been issued by the minister
of education. The iigures for that year are as follows: I
Kind of School No. of Schools No. of Students
Primary Schools- 1126, 71412 127,714 4,186,962
industrial 8 similar Schools of
Primary Grade- l.7ll 531,10-l
Middle Schools 444 69,770
Normal Schools, Secondary
grade ,211 27,975
Industrial Sz other Schools of
Secondary Grade- 455 28,710
Higher Normal Schools- 10 2,357
Colleges, Professional Schools 19-Us 76 25,373
Total. . . . . 130,621 4,294,251
Of course there has been much progress since 1916, but as the
figures of that year are somewhat only on paper they may be taken as
tairly accurate of conditions to-day. For the number of schools and
students listed, there were 198,976 teachers and 130,799 adminis-
trative officers: for every three teachers, two administrative oilicers!
CU "Educational Directory and Year Book of China "-19.21, p. 76.
C21 "China Year Book "-1921-2, p. 556, gives these Hgures.
"A vast Examination Hall accommodating 20,000 students."
'THE TEN PERCENT 35
The pay of the teachers is very uncertain, even in the universitiesg
several times it has been necessary for the teachers to strike in
order to get their pay. The government schools employ, with a few
exceptions in special courses in the universities, only native teachers.
Those who contemplate teaching in China, would do well to consider
the various mission schools.
The latter offer opportunities for teaching of all kinds, from the
kindergarten to the university. Though the government has begun to
educate, the missions still have an immense and permanent educational
work to do. There is an enthusiastic and progressive and ambitious
spirit in all their workg they are attempting work often beyond their
physical capacity. The Chinese, in many instances, find the mission
schools much better than those established by the governmentg and
this will be so until the government devotes more money to education.
English is an essential subject, required of all students in the mission
schools, from the higher primary grades to college. VVith few excep-
tions the teachers of English are foreigners, whereas in the government
schools the teachers of English are Chinese. But English is not the
only subject taught by foreigners. Any one burning with the sacred
hre will find a candle to light, no matter what the subject he teaches.
To present an adequate idea of all the education in China, a few
figures of mission schools will be necessaryg accurate Iigurcs are hard
to get, for all the year books vary. The "China Year Book" for 1921,
2, p. 816, gives the following for China, including Manchuria and
Mongolia: Primary Schools, 6617, students, 184,481g Middle
Schools, 2913 students, 15,2l3. This authority lists some 56 colleges
and universities with a membership of 12,494, but this tigure will
also include students of Primary and Middle School grade, since a
great many colleges and universities have students of all grades' In
comparison witn the ligures of the government schools, what the
mission schools lack in quantity they make up in quality and stability.
Besides the government and mission schools there are many
private elementary schools maintained by only one teacher or per-
haps two. Many of my students were put into such schools before
they went to the mission schoolg or else their fathers had private
tutors for them, tutors that had only a few pupils.
No fair notion of the extent of education in China and of her
educational needs can be had until we remember that her population
15 conservatively estimated at 400,000,000. The number of students,
4.5oo,ooo, is but a small percentage of the whole, only one and one-
fourth percent! Contrast this with the United States where the
children between seven and thirteen years of age who go to school
are fourteen per cent of the population. In the United States about
six per cent are illiterate. I have been unable to get any figures on
illiteracy in China, but I think a fair estimate is ninety percent. E. A.
Ross states t"The Changing Chinese," p.342j that "not one woman in
a thousand and not one man in ten can read." So much for the
C13 See also "Educational Directory 8: Year Book of China," 1921, p. 16. C V
36 " THE LINGUIST "
status of education in China, which status cries unto the Occident
China is intensely eager for Vtiestern culture and civilization,
and she will get it in one way or another. lf we are anxious that she
adopt the good and avoid the evil of our civilization we must give her
our best ideals along with our culture. And our best ideals are
embodied in 'Christianity-but Christianity considered as an active
force in daily conduct rather than as doctrine or dogtna, for China
has had the latter for more than twenty centuries with what results
we all know. We must teach the Chinese our ideals through example
rather than by precept, and this can be admirably done by young men
and women teachers who live Christianity.
It matters not what onewishes-to or can teach. Thersubjects- are
the same as in America. There is great demand for English a11d
Science and History and Political Science. English increases the
earning power of the student and is a required subject in the mission
schools. Science--biology, chemistry, physics, are desired be-
cause they are at the basis of our material, our medical and our agri-
cultural progress. Teachers of medicine and of its preparatory sub-
jects will find their efforts compensated in untold ways, for China
has never had a medical science based on sound analysis.
Though the Chinese are a virile race, they do get sick - horribly
sick-and if they get well from the severe treatment of the native
doctors it is just by chance. lf a baby happens to become sick, for
instance, it is exposed to wind and weatherg if it lives, well and goodg
if it dies it was probably demon infested, anyway, and so might as well
be dead. Scabby bodies, scrofulous heads, infected teeth, trachomatous
eyes. and other gruesome ills need attentiong and the Chinese must be
'taught our medicine before the race as a whole will be healed. Sani-
tary engineers are also needed, for the Chinese must betaught sanitary
hygiene. A step in this direction has already been made in the Pro-
vince of Kiangsu, under the auspices of the provincial civil police.
Professor C. W. Woodworth, provincial entomologist, has organized a
Sanitary police, whose duty it is to exterminate the breeding places of
Hies and mosquitoes and other disease-spreading insects. I The Chinese
Q .cs il
"Some of the cells still stand." '
l. The work of these police has been cinematographed and eventually will
he shown in other provinces of China and in the United States.
THE TEN PERCENT 37
must :also be taught to plant trees and to care for them. Floods and
famines will not cease coming until the mountains and the hill-sides
are reforested. For this work, and that of the teaching of' agriculture,
extension workers will be needed. and these must be trained. There is
need-. also, for teachers of physical education, for the Chinese have
never known the relation of exercise and athletics to health and morals.
All the mission schoolsfaim to imbuet the Chinese with the'ideai of
Western sportsmanshipg for a Chinese foot ball team will think nothing
of walking oi? the gridiron in the midst of battle.
The,colleges and universities are rapidly increasing in size--
Larger faculties and more buildings are being added as soon as money
Can be had for the purpose. It must be remembered that these are
Only about ten years old and that they have a membership on the-
avcrage of about 350, the size of the average small college in America.
'l'he rate of progress of such schoo'ls as the University of Nanking, the
XVest China Union University, the Canton Christian College, the
Hongkong University, indicates that in not a very long time the
mission and government universities will each number their students
by the thousands. It seems to me that foreign teachers will always be-
needed for university subjects and tor English in other grades, for the
Chinese do not like to learn English from a Chinese teacher. Catalogs
of many of the Chinese universities can be consulted in the libraries
of all the large universities in America. They give an adequate idea
of the scope of their teaching and their facilities, which are quite'
similar to those of American colleges, except that Chinese language
and literature are listed. They cannot give the hope and the joy and
the spiritual satisfaction that comes from trying to teach a newly
But this must not be understood to mean that the Chinese are
not like American school boys and do not want to "work" their
teachers in the same way. They are as glad of a holiday and short
assignments as any students. And sometimes the whole class will
petition the instructor to relieve it of a tinal examination, one class
at the University of Nanking even going so far as to invade the-
teacher's home and after half an hour-'s characteristic preliminary
polite small talk, present their petition. Strictness is always necessary 5.
but it the students can not get what they want, they bear no resent-
ment toward the teacher. They have a sense of humor, even.
though they are sensitive and do not like to fail in class. The other
day, the word "blockhead" appearing in the lesson, I asked the
student who had been reading what the word meant. He evidently
had not studied his lesson and could not answer. Ilet him stand
for a few :minutes to give his brain a chanceg meanwhile the other
students began to smile, being the more amused the more he exempli-
hed the word. Because of the great difference between the English
and the Chinese languages. teachers of the former are often exasper-
ated at the seeming stupidity or uncomprehendingness of the Chinese.
Sometimes their pronunciation is extremely difficult to understand and.
I have to call upon the class to interpret. But their pronunciation of
English is probably no worse than our pronunciation of Chinese.
38 " Tl-IE LINGUIST "
Though he be discouraged at times, a teacher of English' has his
compensations in the unintentional humor of the compositions he
receives. English written according to Chinese sentence structure is
extremely ludicrous. A short time ago I asked the class to watch
some animal or insect for a few minutes and then write in detail what
they saw the animal or insect do in that time. I received the following
paper from an earnest youth who writes in another theme that after
graduating from middle school "without stopping I went the college
with my own feet walked about eight hundred miles, even there is a
railway, but that is my luck and fortune 1"
An Interesting Horse.
When I walking on the street, there was a tall horse who stands beside of
the road with his carriage. Who seems to me very interesting animal, because
I stop my walking and watch him for a few minutes. He is about eight feet
tall one. He has a numerousiyellow brown furton the whole his body. His
whole body is very fat and. it seems to me vividful and strongest one among
his group. I am the tirst time to see such a fatest horse. The head is very
large, where are the eyes which appeared round and round and so big 501116
times close or open with the eye's shelter. which is so bright and vividly well
done with his body. The cars are very big, moves with himself turn right or
left sometimes up and down, and try to hear some noise with them. The teeth
are in the Mouth. And the mouth is very big and wide, Sometimes t'ry to get
something with his tongue. He has two legs on the front side and two legs on
the behind sides altogether four legs, which :1 very long and where have the
knee. So he can easily bend with his legs. The hoofs are aparted two ways. It
can walking very convenience to him. And the hoofs are very strong and hard
too, whatever it will he never mine to him anyplaces. I-Iis tail is very long, some
times play with its long tail, Thelmost long hair is on the tail. It is very useful
to use the tail hair. We can use different ways with it.
Instances such as this can be multipliedg I speak but from my
own limited experience. To meet students socially, in one's own
home, is always a delight. Some are timid and accustomed to the
polish and grace of the old generation, others are forward and
quite modern in their courtesy. If they are amused at our attempts
with chopsticks, they do not mind our amusement at their attempts
with knife and fork. And they are appreciative asagroup, much
more so than American students.
This brief survey ,of education in China and its needs and the
opportunities and possibilities for teaching is not complete without
indicating the teaching that can besdone in Nankmg in the year that is
spent in residence at the Language School. Almost every student
teaches English, one, two, or more hours at week. Many assist
the teachers in the schools of their own missions. . The Y. M. C. A.
and the Y. NV. C. A. have both day and evening classes which are
partly taught by language school students. The government has an
orphanage in Nanking to which two of the students golfor two hours
each week. The Theological Seminary sometimes needs help in
English for one or two hours. And it has been the custom for five
young women to devote an hour a week each at four o'clock to teach-
ing the wife of the military governor, Chi Tai Tai, who is very
anxious to learn English. These brief contacts with the Chinese are
.very helpful andinspiring and are welcomed by all who have the
opportunity to takeadvantage of them. Sometimes some teaching,
especially of music, can be done at Hillcrest, the school for the
children of the foreign community. A. BREDE
THE WESTERN HEAVEN 39
THE VVESTERN HEAVEN
Where is the Western Heaven? Lies it hallowed still
Over the rondures rolling beyond the far-seen hill?
lVaits it for those who, toiling the live-long day,
Urope for its sweet inelosures, yearning to End the way?
Beneath the barrows' creaking, with the load's unyielding press,
Beneath the modulate moaning-me-ting. with measured stress,
The two-fold swinging burden's two-fold weariness,
Comes still its illusive whisper, that somewhere it waits to bless?
NVhat if I told you the vision that broke on my sight lo-day,
As, high on the hill-top gazing, I grieved for vast Cathay?
Scanning the far horizon, on a sudden il beheld
.l low, behind the grasping tinger of age-long growing need,
Not a leaf or tree was standing. remained not even a weed
To hold the fond illusion that behind might be withheld
The wondrous lair lilysium of the chastened and Saintly eld.
fVith saddened face averted. 'l was mourning in sore dismay
l'i1ose whom the Western Heaven had lured but to betray,
NYhen, lifting my eyes to the eastward, fair as lair as could be,
I beheld, in earth's bosom implanted, her new and beanteous Tree!
R. P. B.
A wayside shrine.
40 .t THE LINGUIST "
SOME SOCIAL ASPECTS.
THE CONFLICT OF Two Ctvttazartons ,
We who come to China become conscious'-'fquiekly of the fact
that underneath the surface of the seemingly placidsociety about us
there are great forces cbt-ing and flowing, heaving-land' surging:
Occasionally these forces come to the surface in some outburst, 'and
then we get a conception of their hiddenipower. lil-:duced to its
simplest and most inclusive terms, what we' are .witnessing is the
struggle between two very different civilizations for the mastery of a
great people. The new and pushing NVest is making adesperate
attempt to oust the hoary, oriental civilization of China. Little
wonder that the conliict is a bitter one, even more bitter than the
surface conditions would indicate. w
NVe have tried to present certain aspects of this struggle for
the information of those interested in the future of our adopted
-country. - We have attempted to talce you, our readers, into the home.
into the market place and into the school-. We are very conscious
of our limitations as we make the attempt. We are limited by the
space available-we only wish we could take you on further, e. g.,,
'into the political and military situation of this fioundcring democracy.
We are even more circumscribed by our own comparatively limited
opportunity for observation, and our limited experience. But one
would have to be blind not to see the things which we have presented
for your consideration, and so having seen them we pass them on to
you. - J. W. DECKER .
LOOKING BACKVVARD AND DIVIDED .
A One need live in China only a very short while to become
conscious of the fact that the essential organization of Chinese
-society is radically different from our own. and that this organ-
ization must be reckoned with by those who desire to influence Chi-
nese life. Q
The west has its family systems, but none of them can compete
with the Chinese family system in its influence and power in the
life of the people. At times this system has been the veritable bulwark
of the nation, protecting it from disintegration and disaster. In the
'present age it is proving the stronghold of conservatism, the very
'citadel against which the attacks of progress are often dashed into a
thousand impotent fragments. The present family system is sustained
lby the practice of .ancestor worship, and the beliefthat direycalamities
willxsurely follow if the ancestral rites are neglected or the elders
-sho,yvn'any disrespect. These ideas were taught by the ancients,
reiterated by Confucius, and are an inseparable part of the makeup of
ev,grggApChinese. To the family belongall those who worship a common
ancestor. Very precise laws govern this unit. Virtual life' and death
powers arevested-e in the-- senior member. H-is word' is -lawwonr all
LOOKING BACKWARD AND DIVIDED 41
matters. whether it be the punishmont of the guilty or the selection
of a wife for one of the members of the clan. Under him come the
various members of the family, each in his proper rank-grandfa-
thers over fathers, fathers over sons, older brothers over younger.
To the average western mind, accustomed to thinking in terms of
nations, or to the more modern Christian thinker whose field is the
world, 'this reverence and slavelike obedienceto one's'1elders is almost
incomprehensible. The system inevitably leaves the older and more
Conservative element of the nation in control, while the younger and
the more progressive element must submit, or else spurn that which
iS surrounded by the holiest of sanctions. And thus the whole trend
of thought becomesbackward insteadrof forward.
Within the family there is the liveliest spiritofcooperation. What
affects one member affects all, whether good or ill. One man's
Success is the clan's forruneg his trouble is their concern. The man
who through industry or good luck is able to attain to some degree of
prosperity shares it with all his familyg the poorer and less fortunate
can expect a measure of relief at his hands. -Thus it often happens
that the proprietor of a store or the manager of a concern must
employ members of his family only, instead of those who may
recommend themselves to him by their diligence and industry.
This of course has its advantages and its disadvantages. It tends
to level fortune and to alleviate suffering and poverty, both of which
are greatly needed in China. On the other hand it curbs the ambition
Of many superior men, and encourages laziness on the part of the
less energetic. But perhaps the greatest disadvantage of this system
IS the resulting division of society into small units between which
there is but little cooperation. In a normal community as we know it
In the West many enterprises are undertaken by the community as a
whole. The building of schools and hospitals, the paving and upkeep of
the streets, the lighting system and the water supply, are all generally
under public management. NVe have learned that, looked at from a
religious, altruistis, or purely selfish point of view, the age old
question, "Am I my brother's keeper," must still be answered
affirmatively. One cannot have life abundantly unless his neighbor
also enjoys advantages like his own. But not so in China. Each
family cares for its own members, but there its responsibilities end.
Those who are not fortunate enough to be protected by a large and
Wealthy clan must do the bestutliey can This lack of cooperation,
this indifference to one's,,neighbor's condition, is felt in countless
Common, everyday ways, and prevents real progress. As a rule the
Streets are poor and dirtyg the lighting system, it it can be called
Such, of the lowest order, except for wells and numerous ponds
there is no water supply system, and nw drainageg the schools are
quite in1flequ1te, or wholly lackingg there is no community attention
Po general sanitary or other needs. In recent years, due.to the
invasion of weste-rn ideas, education and religion, a freer spirit
is beginning to develop and manv younger Chinese arebreaking, away
from the ancient customs, looking 'beyond the boundary of'the
family, of the communityip and' the- nation as ta' whole. But the
42 " Tl-Ili LINGUIST "
power of the family is still paramount, and until the people can
learnlto transcend its limits and look to the welfaregof all, they
cannot hopte to enjoy such advantages as we take for granted.
'Another serious bar to social' unity and' cooperation is the still
prevailing system of class distinctions. This system has not become
as fixed and rigid as the caste system in India, nevertheless society
is pretty clearly divided into three distinct classes-- upper, to which
belong the teachers and officialsg middle, to which belong the mer-
chants andthe artisans 5 and tlielower. or coolie class. While theoreti-
cally it is quite possible to rise from a lower to a higher class, practi-
cally there are many grave, almost unsurmountable, difficulties in the
wav. Between these classes there is not a great deal of intercourse,
and less cooperation.
It is not surprising that the lack of national unity is felt every-
where- in the language, in the monetary system in inter-provincial
relationships. The dialect of one community is almost unintelligible
in another only a hundred miles awayn Money good in this province
is discounted in the next. One section may be at war with another,
and the rest of the country neither know nor care about it.
Thus we see China today. divided and hampered by almost uncon-
querable prejudices. The Chinese have always been great wall
builders. and today walls, literal and figurative, confront us on every
hand. There are walls around houses, schools, temples 3 walls around
the parks and walls around the cities, each excluding the rest of man-
kind from the one little unit around which it is built. At one time
the nation attempted to build a wall which would shut out its trouble-
some neighbors. But even as the Great Wall, that colossal monument
to Chinese industry, skill and engineering. has proven futile and
fallen short of its purpose, so we may hope to see the various walls
which separate each from his neighbor prove useless and ineffective.
Until that happens it will be impossible for China to become a
strong and united' nation,and to take its place among the nations of
the world. The task of breaking down these hampering walls is
indeed a great adventure. It will be a long, slow process which
will demand patience, perseverance and wisdomg the customs and
superstitious of three or four thousand years cannot be eradicated
in a generation. But those who can love men, and believe in God.
can have their part in this great adventure, and they, in time, will
be privileged to see it succeed. l R. F.
er: I X Qi X ' Z
z' 'J at ' 4.
s ff W- . . g
,. W fig!
.1 :Lv , , Q
THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND Tl-IE NEW 43
THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND THE NEW
A walk down an ordinary Chinese street gives one a fascinating
glimpse of what the industrial life of Mediaeval Europe must have
been. Here a tradesman is beating various metals into pots and pansg
next door a man is making wooden pails, tubs and other vessels. The
silversmith, tinsmith, tailor, cobbler and many other craftsmen in their
shops, full width opening on the street, may be seen at work. In addition
to their few simple tools one may often see in the same room the cook--
ing stove, the table where the family eats, and even the beds for the
'prentiees behind the counter over which the goods they make are sold.
With all their simple equipment they often produce wondrously line
wares. As one passes other houses one can hear the crude wooden
machinery as it spins the silk or cotton thread, and the clack of the
no less rude looms. Nanking is a city world famed for its silk goods,
hut one would search in vain for any silk factories. In winter the cloth
IS made in the homes where in springthe silkworm is fed on the
mulberry leaves stripped from the tree in the back yard. Elsewhere the
art of basket making, crockery making, or of some other industry, has
been handed down from father to son since a thousand years before
the first 'prentice learned his trade in English or Flemish shops.
Would that a faithful picture could stop with this picture of
primitive home manufacture, that one could tell of a people abundant-
ly provided with the necessities of life by the labor of their own hands!
The opposite is the case. Population has ever increased, but produc-
tion has remained practically at a stantlstillg machinery has never been
developed, and workmen have been abundant. The result is that the
Qheapest commodity in China is man himself. Here there are mil-
llons of people always 011 the verge of starvation. The slightest shift
In the nice balance of food production and consumption will precipitate
hundred of thousands over the verge, and famine results, as the past
few years, bear terrible testimony. In the shops of the tradesmen the
hours are long and working conditions frightfully poor. No sadder
Sight awaits the eyes of those that come to China than that of man
turned into a hopeless beast of burden. Here are a half dozen men
hitched to a wagon, bareheaded, stripped to the waist, straining up hill
with their terrible load, therea woman staggers by, bowed under a
huge burden of fuel, building material or fertilizer. Men wheel huge
barrows laden with merchandise, reeling and gasping under theirload.
These are not just occasional sights, but are ever before our eyes as
We have travelled through city after city. Off the few railways and
main waterways all kinds of transporlationis largely by man-power,
Whether it be pulling a boat upstream, hauling a cart along the road,
Carrying people in chairs, or pulling them in rickshas.
Human labor is the cheapest and most abundant article in China,
and therefore for the world's markets the most valuable. Now that
distances are less' significant Chinese labor is a- great gold' mineg here
IS an exhaustless supply of exploitable labor, used to working- under
unsanitary conditions, ordinarily too ignorant to organize, effectually
driven by the danger of starvation to take what wages can be gotten,
44 H THE LINGUIST 'i
Westerners and Orientals alike are busy exploiting this mine of labor.
Already the great chimneys of giant factories have appeared on
China's skyline. Canton, Shanghai, Tientsin and many other centers
are rapidly developing great manufacturing industries. Not only does
China offer an unlimited supply of cheap labor, but in the future will
also produce an exhaustless supply of raw material. With her four
hundred millions of population rapidly developing a demand for all
kinds of manufactured articles, from mechanical toys to railway
locomotives there is tooa market that offers boundless possibilities.
Truly a field to delight the unscrupulous manufacturer, where incon-
venient minimum wage laws, child-labor laws, accident compensation
and other factory laws are unknown ! '
The results are almost too pitiful for words. Dr. Eddy recently
found that the usual hours of labor per day are twelve or more, with
night shifts.' Many factories work their hands far beyond twelve
hours a day. Usually there is no rest on Sunday, but the grind goes
on until the human machine breaks down and is cast on the scrap heap
of derelict humanity that abounds in every oriental city. Dr. Eddy
found thousands of boys and girls, of from seven to fifteen years of
age, at work in factories: they get only a pittance for their work, from
six to fifteen cents a day. Women, with babies strapped to their
backs orleft to play beside the machines, labor all night in the ill
lighted buildings. Even men get but thirty cents a day and skilled
labor only from forty to sixty cents. When it is remembered that
these figures are in the Mexican dollar, which is about half of an
American dollar, one sees how shockingly low the wages are. They
are low even for Oriental standards.
A description -of working conditions fills one with indignation.
Boys working in match factories are compelled to use a cheap grade
of phosphorus which causes a decay of the bones of the face. In
the silk factories little children, manipulating the cocoons in scalding
water suffered from steamed eyes, but were not protected in any way.
No attention is paid to the moral conditions of women and girls in the
crowded factories. It is totally impossible for the workers to provide
decent. living quarters on the low wages, and as a result they live in
crowded hovels unfit for animalsto herd in. Unguarded machinery leads
to permanent crippling of child workers, but no provision is made for
compensation for these cripples. Manufacturers excuse themselves
by saying that they must compete with the cheap products of the
home manufacture with their long hours and bad working conditions,
and sadly enough there is some truth in what they say. And in justice
it must be added that there are factories which offer exceptions to
the conditions noted above.
Little wonder that recently there were fifty-two strikes in Canton
and thereabouts in nine monthsz. The old labor guilds are being
1. Sherwood Eddy: The Social Gospel in Chinn.the Chinese Recorder, Feb. 1923.
2, "The Living Age," May 6, 1922,
THE OLD INDUSTRIAL ORDER AND 'PHE NEW 45
replaced by labor unions which aim to use the strikes as a weapon to
get higher wages. Often the manufacturers are in league with the
authorities. and the police imprison or intimidate the strikers, as
recently at Cheioo and Hankow. It is notable, however, that the
strikes have been markedly successful in achieving their purpose in
Several instances, doubtless because public attention is thereby called
I0 the shamefully low wages. 'In the ship ing strike at Hongkong the
workmen won a real victory in the struggle for an approach to a living
wage. A '
The stage is all set forthe same bitter conflict that has attended
the industrial revolution of western nations. Must all the horrible
stages be passed through again: strikes, lockouts, bread lines, starving
families, possibly dynamite and riots? We can expect all of these
unless the principles of Christ are applied, and the relations of em-
ployers and men are placed on the plane ol brotherhood and justice.
Christianity can aid China in establishing working conditions which
will be humane and racticable. Christianity can teach the need of,
and lead in establishing laws for guarding life, governing working
and living conditions, setting a minimum wage, and maximum hours
of labor, excluding women and children from unsuitable work, as
Well as safe-guarding the employer. A start has been made in setting
H social program by the National Christian Conference. Indeed good
results are already following, for the Chinese Chamber of Commerce
Elt Chefoo. a large manufacturing city, agreed to adopt the minimum
Industrial standards ser by the confcrenceh While China is in her
present state of Hux is the time to urge a program of social justice.
,Phe Chinese have become keenly critical, and the Christian program
If presented in its practical aspect must appeal to them by its justice
Und basic soundness. But the opportunity for genuinely Christian
S0Cial engineering and guidance is simply boundless.
46 " THE LINGUIST "
THE NEW LEARNING AND THE STUDENT.
just as the spirit of the old classic scholar was characteristic of
old China, so the Student Movement at present is the most significant
evidence of her new day. The student has dominated China in her
sleeping, and he is also leading her in her awakening. What could
be more typical of that ancestor-bound China of only a few decades
ago than the slavish confinement of the student to the ancient Classics
of Confucius and Mencius? Generation after generation memorized
the words of these remote sages and none dared the sacrilege of a new
idea. From time to time they repaired to the now fabled examination
halls, there to shuffle the phrases of the Classics into new arrange-
ments, and for this accomplishment to receive their degrees, only to
return and teach their children that they in their day might repeat
the endless round. That was education, as China knew it, until about
twenty years ago.
But today, how ditiferent! Today there are 10,000 students in
twenty-hve modern colleges and universities throughout the country,
the growth largely of the last decade. Each year increasing numbers
of students are going abroad to continue their study, and even those
who remain at home are satisfied with nothing less thana world
scope in their thinking. Such men as Haeekel, Bergsen or Tolstoy are
referred to with scarcely less familiarity than Motzu, Yang Chu or
Hsu Ch'ing. Probably nowhere else in the world would John Dewey
and Bertrand Russel have been givena larger welcome or a more eager
hearing than that accorded by the Chinese students. The college
libraries and reading rooms are continually occupied, and more than
live hundred student magazines, touching on every subject under the
sun, havesprung up almost overnight. China is experiencinga true
, While the old scholars dared to question nothing, those of the
present leave nothing go unquestioned. The family, the most sacred
institution in all Chinese life, is held up and examined just as fearless-
ly as the questions of industry, or philosophy, or government., And
we may be sure that in such an atmosphere the religions are receiving
their shareof attention,-- and especially Christianity, for it is the
religion of 'the West, the religion of largest present interest to China.
In this examination there is not the restraint of reverence fer an
established order, nor is there the tolerance which with us grows out
of the gradual development of our views from childhood onward.
The questions cover anything from the existence of God to the truth
of the Scriptures, and often begin with a query as to the need for any
religion at all. Under such scathing examination, the Church, the
Scriptures, and every phase of Christianity is being tested, with, we
hope, ultimately good effect. Itis interesting in this connection to
see how the person of Christ stands out unscathed in the attack,
and is being made the rallying point of Christians throughout the
JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 47
I But the Chinese student is alert not only in his thinking butin
his action as well. There was ageneral feeling of surprise in 1919 when
the students joined hands and in three months terminated the official
Careers of three ministers of the government, because they were
"traitors to japanng led the president and his entire cabinet to resigng
and nerved the Chinese delegates at Paris to astound the powers by
refusing to sign the treaty with Germany. But today it is the normal
thing. The spirit, long brewing, has tried its strength and found it
adequate, and today the moral influence of the students is no small
factor in the determination of government policies. The student class
IS easily the most active element in the country and it is also the most
fllert to any message, whether it be Christianity or Bolshevisin,
Idealism or materialism. What shall we make it? T -
j. B. YAUKEY.
There are three great organizations working here with the one
aim of giving "Light" to China. The "Standard Oil" is permeating
the most interior places to bring its light, The "British American
Tobacco" Company has as its ambition a light in the mouth of every
Chinese,-The light of a cigarette. The Missionary organization is
here to bring Light. The Light of Jesus Christ. Shall not the
Christians do as much for their Savior as these people are doing for
-.,, .-pu-:nu-yur-wi . .
48 " 'FI-ll? LINGUIST "
JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE IIISTCRY
',l'I-Ili GROWTI-I AND 1'lX'I'lf1N'll OF T1--lkl CHURCH IN Cl-UNA.
The jesuits, coming to China by way of the overland routes.
began their work as early as 1600. Matteo Ricci and joannes Adam
Schaal figure prominently in Chinese annals. They made no attempt
to interfere with Chinese customs like ancestor worship and idol wor-
ship, so no hostility was encountered. By 1636 no fewer than 340
treatises had been published,-some on religion, some on natural
philosophy and mathematics. The troubles attending the fall of the
Mings had a serious effect on the work of the Jesuits, but it revived
under the Manchus.
Protestant Christianity began to come to China about the middle of
the last century. The period previous to 1900,-the year of the Boxer
Uprising,-can be called the Pioneer Period, the planting-time of the
Church in China. It took Christianity into every province, altho in
many cases the occupation was weak. In North China the era of
greatest advance was the decade immediately preceding the Boxer
Movement. During this time mission stations increased nearly four-
fold. The China Inland Mission and the Church Missionary Society
were particularly active. The Christian Church was largely known
but little understood. lt was supported by treaties which gave it a
political tinge much enhanced for a time,-about 1900,--through in-
demnities and special privileges granted to Roman Catholic priests.
Suspicion on the part of the officials and misunderstanding on the part
of the people were the predominating attitudes before 1900. Then
came the Boxer Uprising against Western expansion, which included
Christianity as something also Western. Territorially it affected only
one tenth of China, but the effect went deep into the whole country
and into the whole life of the Christian Movement. How real was
the stoppage of Christian work is shown from the fact that all the
schools in the north and west of China were temporarily abandoned
or closedg churches, chapels, and other foreign property were looted,
burned, or destroyedg hundreds of native Christians and employees,
as well as many missionaries were massacred. '
But the Boxer Movement came as a stimulus. 'It focussed thc
attention of the world on China, and the attention of China upon her-
self. Pagan superstition gave an exhibition of its futility which will
never be forgotten. The two decades since 1900 have been distinctly
revolutionary in tendency. More significant than any other change has
been that in the temper ofthe people. China is now moving in the
direction of a Chinese Church giving in its own terms its Christian
belief. There is no longer that passive Chinese acquiescence in
Christianityg the Chinese Church is now positively reacting to its
inner message. Since 1900 it has entered into its own experience: it
is no longer dependent only on the experience of the missionaries. It
is making an earnest attempt to live first thc spirit of Christ, and in
addition to promoting the salvation of the individual it is now trying
to put him to work. China today is not the China of 20 years
JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 49
ago,-outwardly nor inwardly. About three fourths of China Proper
IS now claimed by Protestant forces, and 7 provinces of the 18 report
110 unclaimed area whatever. In the last 20 years as many missionary
residential centres have been opened as in the previous 93 years.
There is a tremendously rapid increase of Christian contacts totaling
now nearly 10,000 evangelistic centres of all kinds.
A part of the royal way to the Ming Tombs. the resting place of the first
emperor of the ming dynasty. 1338-1398. The small stones on the backs of the
elephant monoliths were tossed up by women wishing sons, each believing that
She would be-blessed with as many sons as stones lodged on the back of the
elephant. It is not recorded who started the idea or when.
FOREIGN INTERESTS IN CHINA.
H The Treaty of Nanking in 1842 marks the beginning of formal
treaty relations between China and foreign nations.
As early as 266 A. D.-during the Han Dynasty,-overland routes
of intercourse were begun with India, Greece and Rome. It was not
until 1516, however, that maritime trade began. The Portuguese
were the Iirst to arrive, settling at Ningpo, Amoy, alld later, at Macao.
In 1548 the Spaniards followed, taking possession of the Philippines.
The Dutch came somewhat later, settling at Formosa and the Pcs--
cadores. Maritime trade gradually gravitated to Canton where the
English had succeeded in spite of Portuguese opposition, in establishing
a factory. The year 1720 saw the birth of the notorious Co-Hong
System in Canton,-an organization of native merchants to regulate
the prices of commodities in their own interest. Later it became a
government organization and made itself useful to officials as a channel
of wealth. Pigeon-English is a relic of Co-Hong days. It was form-
ed at Canton by taking words from all European and Asiatic lang-
uages and corrupting them sufficiently to suit Chinese taste and
grammar. About this time trade was being carried on at Canton with
the French, Danes, Prussians, Mexicans and other foreign nations,
but none was so important as that of England. England was naturally
anxious to begin diplomatic relations with China, so in 1792 she sent
Lord McCartney as an ambassador. He knelt on both knees before
the Emperor but could not bring the latter to discuss a single point
so p H THE LINGUIST"
of business, for in theteyes of the Chinese an envoy came to do homage-
and to bring tributeg it was his duty to receive his orders and not claim
to negotiate business. The manner of reception of this English
ambassador confirmed the belief of the Chinese that the emperor was
the universal sovereign.
In 1816 a second English embassy was sent under Lord Amherst.
upon his immediate arrival he was summoned to appear before the
Emperor. He begged to be excused on the ground of fatigue and the
non-arrival of his uniforms. This so offended the Emperor that he
prtleged the embassy to leave at once. Thus England's second overture
ai e .
From 1840-43 England engaged in the Opium War with China.
Opium is mentioned in China annals as early as the Sth century. In
1729 laws were made interdicting its use. But it continued to pour in
from India under the East India Company in spite of the efforts of the
government. In-1834 England appointed a Superintendent of Trade to
protect the traffic and extend it to other parts of the Empire and to
open direct communications with the central government. Thereupon
the opium question took on a new phase. The Chinese awoke to the
fact that for years enormous wealth had been going out of the country
and in return they had no benefit except the baneful opium. In 1839 the
English merchants were ordered to deliver up all the opium in their
possession. 20,000 chests representing a market value of 89,000,000 were
disposed of by mixing the opium in trenches of lime and salt water and
drawing them off to the sea. The foreign merchants were then asked
to file a bond binding themselves not to engage in opium trade on pen-
alty of summary execution, and confiscation of ships and cargo. The
English objected. The result was war. The Treaty of Nanking drawn
up after the war provided among other things that five ports should be
opened to foreign trade and residence, Canton, Amoy, Fooehow,
Ningpo and Shanghai. These are called treaty ports. A treaty was
made with America, France and other nations also, and was subject to
revision at the end of twelve years. In 1858 the Treaty of T.ientsin
provided for the opening of 3 more ports, on the Yangtze River,
foreign residence at Peking, and the toleration of Christianity. The
question of Customs Tariff was also made a part of the treaty.
By it China was deprived of her free will in the matter of import
and export duties, and from that day to this has not been able to adopt
any measure of her customs revenue without the consent of foreign
p .. In 1876 the Chinese legation was established in London, and later
in other countries.
The Chino-japanese war, 1887-95 opened the eyes of- the Chinese
to the errors of Lheirgovernment. China came out of the struggle
deeply humiliated. , European powers, eager for land, busied them-
selves with schemes for the division of her territory. Their threaten-
ing attitude naturally frightened the Chinese and lent strength to the
new forces that had been gradually but steadily gaining ground in
China. After the Chino-Japanese war there was a marked increaseof
JOTTINGS FROM CHINESE HISTORY 51
anti-foreign agitation. Anti-missionary riots led to the massacre of two
German missionaries in Shantung. Germany retaliated by helping
herself to Kiaochow, forcing China to lease it to her for 99 years, with
the right to build fortifications, and docks, to land and station soldiers,
to control railways and mines in the whole of Shantung. The game of
land grabbing was then' the order of the day. Russia got Port Arthur,
Talienwan, and a strip of adjoining landg Great Britain compelled
China to lease 400 square miles of land and water including a part of
the mainland opposite Hongkong g France got lease of Kuangchourwan
for 99 years. In 1896 it was agreed that Russia receive all railway
concessions north of the great wall while Great Britain should have
those in the Yangtze Valley including the provinces of Chekiang and
Honan. Great Britain also secured a promise from China that she
would not surrender any part of the Yangtze Valley to any other
foreign power. In this way each power had China ear-marked for
exploitation. The parts so marked were called in diplomatic language
"spheres of influence."
In 1899 both Russia and Germany threw open theirleased territory
to foreign commerce. Availing himself of the opportunity John Hay,
Secretary of State of the U.S.A. addressed a circular letter to Euro-
pean powers and to japan. proposing the Open Door Policy, which
had for its object the maintenance of China's integrity and the assur-
ance of equal rights to all. This policy put a stop to further spheres of
Foreigners in China are not amenable to Chinese courts, but to
consular courts of their own nationality. This privilege is called
"Extraterritoriality." In view of the desire of the Chinese govern-
ment to bring the judicial system into accord with that of western
nations, both Great Britain and the U. S. have agreed to relinquish
their extraterritorial rights when they are justified in such a step.
The boycott of 1905, whereby China refused to buy American
goods because of the anti-Chinese agitation in the States,-threatened
China's friendly relations with the U. S. but its effect was only tem-
porary. The return of Boxer indemnity funds by the U. S. is an evi-
dence of the improved relations between the two countries.
Mrs. l-l. C. R.
52 " 'l'HP1il.INGUlS'1' "
Today I bought a ton of coal. Thai is, I meant to buy a ton ol
coal. I think l bought an interest in a store. a bowl ol rice, a chicken,
a new coat, a gilt for the family god, a pipciul of tobacco, and a
half ton of coal.
My coolie told me that my coal was gone. l told the cook to buy
me a ton of coal. He sent the table boy to tell the coal man to bring
me a ton of coal.
The coal man sent his coolie with a wheelbarrow full of coal. 1
thought it was a half of a ton. My cook said it was a ton. My cook
said a ton of coal cost twenty dollars, My cook has been in this house
twenty-one years. His word is sacred truth. His wo1'd is law. I gave
him twenty dollars.
The coolie got twenty centsg he told me my coal was gone. The
table boy got forty centsg he told the man to bring' the coal. The
gateman got ten centsg he allowed the boy to go out ofthe gate to
tell the coal man to bring me a ton of coal. The gateman got a dollarg
he allowed the coalman's dirty coolie and dirty coal to come in thru
his nice clean gate house. The policeman on the corner got a dollar 5
the squeeking wheelbarrow disturbed his nerves. The coolie who
pushed the wheelbarrow got twenty centsg that is the way he earns
his living. My cook got three dollarsg he ordered my coal. The
coalman got the restg he furnished the coal.
IN CHINA, WE CALL THAT "SQUEEZE."
Thcreby is the currency of the land kept in circulation. Thereby
do our servants lay up for themselves treasures on earth.
IN CHINA, WE CALL THAT "SQUEEZE."
R. L. M.
SAYINGS FROM THE ANLEGTS. 53
A fraction of time, an ounce of gold. lt is hard to buy a fraction of
time with an ounce of gold. If you lose an ounce of gold you can
still get along but there is no place to seek for a lost fraction of
If you wish to know the road ahead you must question those who have
travelled that way before.
Truth does not come from the false, nor false from the true.
Time flies like an arrowg days and months like a shuttle.
He who is unwilling to Sl1'l'l:Cl' trouble will never attain to being a man
above other men. .
A twitching of the left eye denotes wealth. that of the right eye
lf as a usual thing you do not burn incenseg in a crisis you will
embrace the feet of Buddha. -
He that takes medicine and neglects to diet himself, wastes the skill
of the physician.
The mouth of the wicked is sweet but the heart bitter.
Those who can talk are not equal to those who can perform.
Talking about virtue is not as good as practicing it.
Men die for gaing birds perish to get food.
A stupid man has no eyes in'his heart.
Gpen your eyes wide so as to take in a broad range of visiong stand
on your heels and be a man.
The summer insect cannot speak of iceg the frog in the bottom of the
well should not talk of the heavens.
Good and evil are rewarded at lastg though travelling far and flying
high there is still no escape.
A boundless bitter seag turn your head and there is the shore.
Irrigation Pump. I
54 " THE LINGUIST "
A part of the royal way to the Ming Tombs, which lies at the foot of the
mountain CPurple Mountain in the grove seen at the foot of the mountain to
the right of center.
' SAYINGS FROM THE ANALECTS.
The filial son avoids causing anxiety '
The higher type of man is not a machineg he first practices what he
preaches and afterwards preaches what he practices.
Learning without thought is uselessg thought without learning is
Hear muchg reserve what causes you doubt and speak guardedly of
the restg You will then suffer little criticism.
To see the right and not to do it is cowardice.
It is the moral character of a neighborhood that constitutes its
excellence, and how can he be considered wise who does not elect
to dwell in moral surroundings?
Only the virtuous are competent to love or hate men.
The student who aims at wisdom and yet who is ashamed of shabby
clothes and poor food is not worthy to be discoursed with. .
The wise man in his attitude towards the world has neither predilections
nor prejudices He is on the side of what is right.
The man of honor thinks of his characterg the inferior man of his
position. The man of honor desires justice, the inferior man
One should not be concerned at lack of position, but should be
concerned about what shall lit him to occupy it. One should not
be concerned at being unknown, he should seek to be worthy of
being known. V
Virtue never dwells alone it always has neighbors.
A man who is without good faith. I do not know how he is to get
on. A wagon without its yoke-bar, or a carriage without 'its
collar-bar for the horses. how can it be made to go!
From the Confucian Analects.
FAMINES AND THEIR. PREVENTION 55
FAMINES AND THEIR PREVENTION
Death by starvation is terribleg famine and pestilence among
millions of humans is unspeakable. The word "famine" causes a
shudderg it arouses an instinctive or racial dread.
Few appeals to the human heart are more potent than the distress
of starving men, women and children. Generous responses have
anwered the calls of famine sufferers in China, both by the Chinese
and by the sympathetic world at large. In the famine of 1920-1921
which affected six provinces of north China and a population of
fifty million, fully thirty seven million dollars were donated for the
relief of starving people. Approximately eighteen million dollars C9
million Gold? were contributed by foreigners, either through Govern-
ment representatives, the Red Cross or Missionary organizations.
The stage was set for as great or a worse famine than that of
1878-1879 in the same general region when between nine and thirteen
million people are estimated to have perished. But with the aid of
existing means of communication and a knowledge of the approaching
famine condition in sufficient time to call on the outside world for
relief, such a disaster was mitigated.
These catastrophies are appalling, but are all the more lament-
able when avoidable. Those who have been most closely connected
with the large projects of famine are agreed upon the possible pre-
vention of the recurrence of general and devastating famines. The
hurried relief of people already in the first stages of starvation, per-
mits, if at all, only the most elementary constructive relief. Such
relief does not go far toward the prevention of another equally serious
famine. A '
Measures, therefore, looking to the permanent prevention of
famines are necessary, are obligatoryg are huminatariang are Christ-
ian. It is the only Solution to the problem of the heavy loss of life
and the enormous wastage of intellectual, economic and spiritual
values. The prevention of these losses and wastage furthermore
contributes to national and world economy and makes possible pro-
gress in the power and experience of millions of people. It is
difficult to appraise the multiplying benefits that must flow from the
permanent prevention of famine in China.
The program of permanent famine prevention in China was set
in motion by far sighted men to work out ways and means of putting
a stop to these hideous phenomena. Two agencies have undertaken
such a program in cooperation, namely. The International Famine
Relief Commission and the University of Nankingn
Famines have occurred intermittently in China since very ancient
time. As early as 1700 B. C, it is recordetl that Emperor Tan prayed
for the relief of his people from famine. The list at the end of this
article is a striking chronology of disaster recorded of the single
county in Anwhei province.
1. The Peking University is also planning to cooperate in the program.
56 "THE LINGUIST"
.Transportption in the interior. The wheelbarrow is the truck of the rural
sections of Qhma, and transports more tonnage than any other agency. unless it
be the carrying pole.
I A Chinese saw mill: Practically all the lumber used in the interior of
Chlll21.lS sawed in this manner. , Without.uniform.1x1dus.trl,alHprogress a modern
sawmill would create the unemployment problem in China, -
FAMINES AND TTTEIR PREVENTION 57
Crowded populations have therefore long been at the mercy of
recurring cycles of drought and excessive rainfall. And the common
belief Knot always exclusively Chinesej that famines were visitations
from the displeased gods operated against any very far reaching pre-
ventative measures. The granary system--possibly not unlike that
of Pharoah's time-was generally in use in China, yet it failed to pre-
vent recurring disasters.
The fundamental causes of famines were not generally under-
stood. They were attributed to the consequence of draught and floods
against which the Chinese felt impotent. While droughts in other
A "home" of the all too large numbers of people whose margin between
production and consumption is dangerously small.
countries may cause hard times, they do not cause famines. So a
more fundamental cause must be found. The American Red Cross
Report on China Famine Relief 1922 says. "A population with ac-
cumulated property can withstand an occasional Hood or drought
provided it has access to the sources of food supply on the outside.
But Chinese farmers have little accumulated property and a very de-
ficient access to outside sources of supply." While there are several
recognized contributing factors, the fundamental cause is the low
economic condition of the rural populations. Fully 80 percent of the
population is rural, deriving its livelihood chiefly from the cultivation
of the soil. The margin between production and consumption is so small
that a short harvest causes sullering and a crop failure produces
famine conditions. In the famine of 1920-1921-out of a population
of 48,843,000 affected, 19,895,000 were entirely destitute after a year
and a half of drought, and those not destitute were unable to give
aid to their less fortunate fellow men. Altogether insufficient oc-
cupations of gain-exist for the farmer during the winter or idle
months. He can expect to accumulate little sttplus, if any, from the
58 " 'I'l-IE LINGUIST "
Several factors contribute to this condition of approximate
poverty. Over crowding on cultivated land is one of them. A study
of twenty seven farm villages revealed that the cultivated land was
supporting over 1200 persons to the square mile. Another is the
absence of sufficient rural improvements, such as sufficient and deeper
wells, irrigation systems and roads. Another is the low average
productivity of crops due to insect infestations, fungal diseases or
inferior crop plants. And yet another is the general deforestation
of the hills and mountains.
This denudation is judged sufficient to convert a more general
distribution of rainfall into the cloudburst typeg to produce extreme
stages of high and low water in the river systems, and to cause the
erosion of the soil from the uplands and to transport it to the lower
reaches of the rivers where it silts up the river beds, interfering with
irrigatiompreventing navigation and causing widespread floodstYellow
Riverj. Still another factor is the small use made of the wide areas of
hill and mountain land that might profitably be growing forests to
create communal wealth, to furnish profitable occupation for the farmer
during the otherwise idle winter months and to furnish raw materials
for the development of industry as well as other beneficial results.
Sure indications of famine areg people begin to eat Hower seeds,
fullers earth, corn cobs, leaf dust, elmbark, roots, tree leaves etcetera
for food they remove the wood beams from house roofs for fuel and
for saleg farm animals disappear from the country sideg farm im-
plements are sold for the wood contained in themg people begin to
migrateg families sell their children,-first the girls for servants, con-
cubines, secondary wives or prostitutes, and lastly the boys 5 the death
rate becomes excessive. Such are some of the indices that a famine
is abroad in the land. '
Famines consume the substance of a countryg they leave the sur-
viving population with the meagerest resources,-often without farm
animals, implements or even seed grain for planting the next crop.
The relief by outside agencies during famine does not materially alter
this result. The baneful effects linger for years. Progress in all
activities is thrown backward. Natural resources lie idle undeveloped,
commerce with the outside world is stopped and the development of
the intellectual and spiritual capacities of a people is stiiicd.
The measures of permanent famine prevention may be divided
into two broad classificationsg Q15 large scale engineering projects
including flood control and river training and Q25 the general im-
provement of the economic status of the rural population: The large
scale engineering projects will be most suitably handled by river com-
-lx lmQx1 :R
V s-f- EWG
.4 I E
WX" " ,f ,eitltml
, -3 ' ' " ' i g griii-"Q
.- , z ff- - -,- M . ug g4:Af'r: fl f .
FAMINES THEIIR PREVENTION. 59
missions under the International Famine Relief Commission in coope-
ration with the Provincial or National governments. These projects
will affect principally the deltas of the large rivers of North China.
The improvement of the economic status of the rural population falls
naturally into two general lines of activity, namelyg the improvement
Of agricultureand the reforestation of the wide areas of non-agricul-
tural land, and affects the extensive river basins. t
While the river control and training projects may be directed by
foreign and Chinese engineers in cooperation, the application of me-
asures for tl1e improvement of agriculture and reforestation must be
done principally by trained Chinese personnel. This calls for a pro-
gram such as has been worked out by the College of Agriculture and
Forestry of the University of Nanking. It demands a trinity of
effort, Research, Education and Extension. Some of the important
flclivities in which Chinese must be trained areg the sinkingof-wells
fWater Supply Geologyj 3 irrigation works Clrrigation Engineeringj g
road construction lCivil Engineeringjz improvement of farm crops
tAgronomyjg protection of crops from insects and fungi fEconomic
Entomology and Plant Pathologyl improvement and extension of the
cultivation of tree fruits C1-Iorticulturey 5 the production of fuel wood
and industrial timber cn the hill and mountain lands Qliorestryj and
the creation of rural credit and savings banks QRural Economicsj
Research is needed to determine the scientific methods applicablelg
Education to train the Chinese workers and Extension to secure the
application of the measures over extensive regions.
The funds remaining unused from the last famine and allocated
for these purposes are making possible a substantial beginning on
this tremendous problem of permanent famine prevention in China,
but to be effective withinQ a reasonable time the Chinese effort must
be guided and supplemented by foreign support and personnel. The
Challenge is clear cut,-to prevent another famine from flood or
W. C. L.
A C0untryman's Home
44 :PHE in
A CHRONOLOGY OF FAMINES
Exutractsufrom a chapter of the official Gazetter of Nanhsuchow,
Anhwel Province, China.
B. C. 591
B. C. 48
A. D. 318
A. D. 960
A. D. 1216
A. D. 1482
Flood summer and fall, houses and lives de-
Locusts destroyed crops
Locusts destroyed crops
Dry. people hungry and sick.
Too much rain and snow, without fuel for tire
from fall to next spring.
Too dry in the summer, locusts cover the sky
great famine and men eat one another.
Summer dry, fall too much rain, great famine
until 1524, men eat one another.
Spring rain hurt all wheat and barley, sum-
mer dry, locustsg In fall locusts appear-
ed again. Dry until 1533 and locusts and
people ran away.
Hwai River flooded.
Summer too much rain till May 1537, Rain
and snow never stop. All wheat and
'barley crops hurt, a bundle of fuel cost
1000 cash- ,
Summer too much rain, fall dry, locusts ap-
peared, all rice and bean crops failed,
Dryness and flood alternate, great pestilence
followed, whole population ran away, al-
most none was left.e
Sun eclipsed on first day of the 10th moon
Earthquake on 15 day of 2nd moon.
Heavy rain fall for twenty days, rivers flood-
ed and houses destroyed, famine..
A CHRONOLOGY OF FAMINES 61
1673 - Summer heavy rainfall for two months,
1681-87 River Hooded continually for seven years and
heavy rainfall continued also-people
ran away from home-famine.
1692 Locusts Flew, covering the sky-famine.
1697 Spring drought, autumn heavy rain fall, rivers
1706 Spring heavy snow, summer heavy rain fall
1709 March flood, too much rain in the fall, rivers
flooded, destroyed thousands of houses-
famines "roots of grasses and bark of
trees all eaten up" The prices very high,
dead along the roads.
1741 lfloocl continued during summer and autumn,
1742 Heavy rainfall through out May, no rice
1756 U crop-famine.
1756 Famine - pestilence - dead seen along the
1785 Drought in the spring and locusts appeared
abundantly. Famine in thc falland winter.
1786 Famine and pestilenee in the spring, good
harvest and wheat in the summer.
1804 liamine in the spring. Yellow river flooded
in the summer.
1843 G Famine.
1852 Summer rain over two months-all crops
submerged. Peach trees flower in the
1 fall, famine.
1856 Drought in summer, locusts appeared abun-
1857 Famine in spring, heavy rain fall in autumn-
all lields submerged.
. 1867 Famine.
1887 Good crops
1888 Crops not prosperous.
Note: The above list was compiled from a much longer chronology in which
floods, earthquakes good harvests and droughts are recorded. Only those items,
with a few exceptions, containing the translation of famine were selected for
this list. The -famine of 1878-79 is' not listed but the years of 1875-76 are
Credited with drought and the years 1876-77 are credited with locusts. The year
1878 is omitted.
62 " THE LINGUIST "
Two age old Chinese conceptions militate against the full adoption
of athletics and sportsmanship in athletic contests by Chinese students.
Physical prowess and scholarship have been and still are to a very
great extent considered exclusive of each otherg muscular strength is
indicative of the coolie class and feeblencss of the gentleman and
scholar. And even in the modern institutions of higher learning
despite the campaigns for athletics many of the more intellectual
students are invalids or die of tuberculosis. And again, the question.
of "face" hampers the athletic contest. The Chinese, by living in such
crowded conditions, have developed a technique of living together that
omits the personal encounter or the settling of an issue' directly by
the parties concerned. The "middleman" is always called in to act in
a dispute or in an important matter. This is done to save the "face" of
the loser or of him whose idea does not prevail. -Thus to lose in an:
athletic contest is to lose face, and is tantamount to a disgrace. Un-
fortunately athletic games do not provide for the "middleman," but
call for the personal encounter, the matching of skill and physical
strength and nerve. It is a slow and sometimes a tedious process to
inculcate the conception ol sportsmanship into the athletic contests.
Yet already great advancement has been made. in mission institutions-
generally. Athletic associations have been organized. Conference'
games are played.
Despite these facts, however, awide field here exists for the
developmenit of athletics in China, to make for the physical vigor of
intellectual and spiritual leaders. It is only another way for conserving
the efforts expended in raising up intellectual and spiritual leaders-
among the Chinese.
Basket Ball in China
Univ. of Nanking playing Univ. of Nanyang
THE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 63
TI-IE LANGUAGE SCHOOL
Years in Session- Eleven, 1912-1923.
'Growth in Students- First Year Registration- 47.
Second to Sixth Year- 21.69Z,
Seventh to Eleventh- 128.47'Z,
Average Growth 75.08'Z,
'TotalNumberof Students to Date 870
Spread of Students from the School-
According to statistics available we End that students have gone
to all but two of the interior provinces of China, and also to
Mongolia and Manchuria. A total of thirty-one ,have either re-
turned to their home countries, or have made changes in their
China. residence that we are unable to follow.
Based on the above 19 areas, 81.692, are in five provinces
18.4W, are in thirteen provinces or U.S.A.
Hunan -- ...114
Anhwei .. 95
Kiangsi .. 56
Fukien .. 20
I-Iupeh .. 18
Honan .. 16
Shantung , 15
Kwantung... . 12
Kwcichow... . 9
Yunnan .. 4
Shansi .. 2
Manchuria - 1
Mongolia .. 1
U.S.A. or? 31
Plans for future-enlarged plans-
The Dean, while on furlough this past year, urged the need for
additional dormitories and an Administration Building. His eH'orts
were successful in 1118.12i.11CI'1iOI11CBOU.l'C1SWCl'CI113dClOl'EZ1llZC perhaps
more than ever before the need for, and the scope of work the De-
partment of Missionary Training is doing, and hence the need for
greater financial assistance. Through a system of rents and fees
whereby all students of all Missions, whether or not afnliated in the
work of other Departments of the University of Nanking, can enter
on the same basis, the Home Boards have pledged themselves to raise
the funds necessary to secure adequate buildings and equipmentg the
Increased charges to be remitted after the necessary funds have been
Secured. In this way, plans for two dormitories and an Administra-
tion Building within the next Five years are being made.
l'l1e l,ul1guuge School .'XllIIlilliSll'1lliVC Stufnfz Left to Right
Miss l,cyc,l:1. Miss Smith. Chia Sain Sen, Dcnn Keen,
THE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 65
In addition to the students regularly registered for language
study in residence, there is now a large body of students taking the
Advanced work by correspondence, while assisting in regular mis-
sionary work at their various stations. This fall shows fifty registered
as beginning their second year's study, and many more than this are
registered forthe work of the third, fourth and hfth years. With
the Home Universities recognizing the work of language students,
and with better facilities for supervising this work, the Department
should, indeed, be a growing one.
Mission or other affiliations of the student body-
Students have come to this Department from thirty-four Missions
or Union Colleges, as well as independently registered either for
Mission work or business preparation, over 7192, however, coming as
new missionaries under eight Boards.
Presbyterian, South 50
Baptist, North 90
Baptist, South 13
Methodist Episcopal 177
Methodist Episcopal, South ll
Christian fDisciplesj 67
Episcopal tAmerican Church 'D 41
Reformed Church of the U.S.A. 30
Y. W. C. A. U 28
Y. M. C. A. 27
United Evangelical 27
Evangelical Association 1 16
University of Nanking 14
American Advent Mission 12
Seventh Day Advent 50
Christian, Reformed 8
,Lutheran Synod 8
Yale in China 8
Church Missionary Society 7
Hunan Bible Institute 5
Women's Union .5
Ginling College 3
W'esleyan, Methodist 3
Christian Endeavor 2
Church of God 3
- Free Methodist 2
Hanchow College 2
Canadian Church Missionary Society 1
Total ' .. . 870
11-'OR NAMES SEE PAGE 122 r-'FJ
FROM Tl-IE EAST AND FROM THE WEST 67
FROM THE EAST AND FROM THE WEST. ,
THE SEA VOYAGE.
- ' S soonlas the tender had left Tilbury,
-..: ,gg,,g.:,g and the faces of those who had come
,.'.g7:- 'fff?li ' down to see us off were no longer
'A' " 'W " distinguishable, I felt then that the
great adventure had begun. There was not a soul on boardl
knew,-and at that time the only acquaintance I had was my bag-
gage, which I had seen a great deal of for many weeks before-
It was some hours before we finally started and we sailed down
the dear old Thames, with the lights along the banks. I watched
until it was time to turn in. The next morning we were out in' the
open sea, with no vestige of land in sight. l didn't like that feeling
very much at first, but soonlgot used to it. We all seemed to be on
the lookout for the merest suggestion of land. It was lovely to see the
white cliffs of the Isle of Vtfight during the first morning.
We missed several places of interest during the nights,-Gibraltar
for instance, and we only saw Malta in the dim distance. People
became very excited when the north coast of Africa came into view,
with its bold cliffs and stretches of sand. Everyone collected at the
front of the ship as we neared Port Said.
My first impressions of the Orient were not very favorable. VVe
had hardly anchored before the ship was surrounded by little boats
filled with dark skinnell,turbanned men, in long robes, making a real
Babel of noise. They scrambled up the stairs,-l wondered half of them
were not pushed into the water in the general confusion. And ina
surprisingly short time the deck was converted into an Oriental
market. They are people who simply refuse to take "No" for an answer
and seem to have the idea that our great object in life is to possess
ourselves of numberless strings of beads and feathered fans, and to
feed on Turkish delight. It was no use trying to escape to a quiet
corner of the deck. We were pursued everywhere with people
dangling beads and fans in our faces.
It was even worse on shore and I was quite relieved when we
put off again and entered the Suez Canal. It makes me glad to think
Ihave been through that wonderful achievement of man's skill. It
certainly is not much to look at. But to see large vessels passing
each other in what seemed just a narrow river but with sufficient
depth at the very edges for a vessel to tie up, was a wonderful
That night was the beginning of the hot weather and though it
was November, we could hardly breathe, the heat was so oppressive.
Colombo made up for the deficiencies of Port Said. The ap-
proach to it is so beautiful. We could see church towers and fine
buildings surrounded by tropical trees. That evening we Went ashore.
And it was just like being in fairyland-passing the bungalows with
their colored lights on the verandas and the scent from tropical
68 " THE LINGUIST "
flowers filling the air. That evening my cabin companion and I sat
out on one of these verandas and lazily watched the insects-their
wings shone with all sorts of colors in the light. There was no other
sound but the noise of the crickets and they were obviously busy.
The next strange experience was in Hong Kong, where we went
to the top of the peak in the funny little tram. It seemed almost a
tempting of Providence to risk one's life trying to climb up an almost
perpendicular ascent. I wonder if flies have the same feeling as I
had when they try climbing up a window pane. But it was worth
even that to see the view of the harbour and to sleep in a civilized
bed in a bungalow almost at the top of the peak. It made me hate
the idea of having to return to the boat with that terrible engine
panting all night-though once it was stopped for two hours and
there was a high wind and a heavy swell and very few present at
dinner so after that we were not so anxious for the engine to take
But the longest journey comes to an endI suppose and ours
ended at Shanghai, where in spite of muddles and such exeitements
as other passengers running off with my baggage by mistake, though
it could hardly have been marked in larger letters, I made my way
to the hotel. After a seven hourtrain ride I reached Nanking at last
and entered the Language School.
-061 T ,
Our tirst ' reception committee",-wharf beggars in their boats
beside the ship begging for copper e
THE VOYAGE FROM THE E,-XST 69
THE VOYAGE FROM THE EAST
V As we put off toward the Golden Gate, a sum-
. mer fog settled down over the Bay, making dim, then
I ity, y blotting out those faces, long dear to us, which we
-A ix f hope to see again.
X 2.3. .The " China " was American registered, part
I Chinese owned and the crew except officers, was
WR f Chinese. Our cabin boy wore black silk pants and a
pp 15 'Q ,. white coat. When he met us in the passage way he
V ' went to the left, a habit we have since learned to
el ,D 4, accept out here.. And after a few days he smiled
,iq 5 back at urs, and brought oranges and apples and pears,
.' I after the refrigerator was opened.
,iq V YQ: Speaking of refrigerators, we had fresh milk,
pg 'yfi1'151ff kept frozen until wanted. The chief steward said
ll that inthe old days travellers had milk only now and
4. .ff again, "Now" when they left the States, and "Again"
,ig U is 3 when they returned.
-L' During the happy, carefree days we played
N' -5 shuflleboard, or deck tennis, or swam in the tank.
Between times we tried to read books with long
-qs, sounding titles, suggested by Sherwood Eddy or some
E of the other older men. The new' people persuaded
the experienced missionaries to give us lectures, and
Mr. Eddy took us through the Sermon on the Mount. At the date
line Neptune came on board, an experience never to be forgotten by
some, and then there were the children who made things interesting.
Little jean Follette was the belle of the boat.
VVe had a day in Honolulu: red and green, with here and there
atouch of yellow flowers. Blue sea, white surf, brown bodies flashing,
rainbow after sudden showers. Then there was a tree which looked
like an acacia, had pods like a locust, and love red blossoms, soft as
rose petals, or as "a skin you love to toucl1,"we saw bananas growing
where they could be picked from the dining room window, sugar cane
in large quantities, and here and there a leaning cocoanut palm, while
sweet odors came from far olf flowering trees.
Ten days later we were in Yokohama. Here in the cool of the
day we walked through the japanese city. Men were home from
work, children out from school, boys were catching birds and insects
with gummed Iishing poles. Two or three boys had locusts which made
perfectly lovely noises when squeezed, but the boys never batted an
eye, you would never know they were enjoying it. QChinese boys are
more expressivel Women were drawing water from street hydrants
with family keys. Before each door were the familyls sandals, all in a
neat row. Inside we could see the people resting on mats, or eating
or bathing or reading the evening paper. All were sincerely polite,
except the richsha men.
At Kobe we went through a market street, covered over with
matting, to keep out'the heat, small stores, flies on the lishjpeddlers
70 " TH E LINGUIST "
calling their wares, while rats ran out of the shops into open sewers
and up inside the drain pipes.
Most beautiful of all was our trip through the Inland Sea
Myriads of little islands, through which our boat very cautiously
wound her way. It was most wonderful at night, with a full moon-Q
little villages on the islands and hundreds of small fishing boats with
lights on their nets. almost like liretlies in the grass on a summer night.
' Landed in Shanghai we heard a funeral band play "Johnny Get
your Gun," and "Over There." At the Missionary Home our room-
boy wanted to knowyif we wanted one bath twice or two baths.
Wecame to Nanking on a Chinese river steamer. It was to sail'
at midnight, bnt all night until four a. m. coolies loaded, shouting,.
chanting. and laughing, boatswains whistles. sirens blowing enlivened
our "sleep" At four with much noise fl thought it was a riotj we got
off down the Whangpoo from Shanghai to the sea, then up the-
Yangtzse. The name of the boat was "Chang On," Eternal Peace.
Two days later we arrived at I-Isiakwan. Here our veteran-
friend gave us an exhibition of bargaining for carriages. We now
believe he prolonged it for our pleasure and editication. At least there
was no doubt the drivers enjoyed itas with good spirits and quick
retort they bantered back and forth. Having agreed, there was still
"tea money'3 to talk about. Finally with many words, a few more
coppers and many grins, we were off, up the Bund, over the old'
wooden bridge, past the American consulate, up the Drum Tower hill'
and "home to Nankingf' Happy day long looked forward to!
How good tasted the pleasant. dinner that was steaming hot and'
- -- XV. li. S.
One thing. an ocean voyage brings out all there is in a fellow.
With tnost of us all we could keep on our stomachs was our hand.
Most of us did the "whale stunt" on the way over, but we
retnembered Jonah, that he came out all right, and we knew we
would too. --W
When one new missionary reached China, she wrote home to her
Mission Board that she had thrown up every thing but her appoint-
A new missionary was breaking in some new territory on the
district where no foreign woman had ever travelled. In the inn
where she was to eat her lunch, such 'a great crowd had gathered that
she decided to eat Chinese food with chop sticks rather than have the
table spread in foreign style. U An old woman tisted her way through
the crowd until at last she could see the missionary. Then she called
out to the crowd who could not see "O Look, sheis civilized just like
we arc and uses chopsticks." V .
After being in China for awhile, all the .foreign women say that
there is no place in the world where a foreign woman is so safe
to travel alone as in China. One always feels perfectly safe at night
out anywhere with one's ricksha man or, sedan chair carriers or
Oct. 3 1922:
SCHOOL CALENDAR. 1922-1923. 71
SCHOOL CALENDAR. 1922-1923.
School opens. Address by Dr. Bowen,
Introduction of students. Mr Blackman blushes to own
that he .is a Mhethodist.
The Reformed group including Mr. Yaukey with his
soprano voice, arrive. 1
The first foreign mail arrives.
Pres. Mr. Follette
Class officers elected. V. Pre s. Mr. Schmidt
Sec. and Treas. Dr. Ankeny
Lecture by Dr. Lobenstine on Religious condition
of China at present. '
Hike to Purple Mountain. Question: "W'hich half of
the crowd was lost P" 1
Party given by the old students to welcome the new
students. We realize that all the fun was not left
behind in the U. S. A.
Bertha Smith decides to take the course over again in
Movies at Y.M.C.A. Margurite Clarke in "Out of the
Di-tts." fAlso out of the arklj
Hike on Wall to the South City.
Meigs Hall entertains at tt a.
1-l'1lloive'en Party at the Language School.
Chrysanthemum exhibit at the University Gardens.
Moonlight ride on the canal.
U.S.A. Consul, Mr. John K. Davis gives talk on the
duties of an American citizen in China and later
receives our registration papers.
Armis'ice Day. Hike to the Twelve Caves.
Vaccination day at Meigs I-lall.
Athletic Meet at Middle School.
Sherwood Eddy speaks at Sage Memorial Chapel.
Mr. Guerry finds the right teacher in the right place at
the right time.
First Lecture on Buddhism by Dr. Reichelt.
Second Lecture on Buddhism by Dr. Reichelt.
Trip to the Buddhist Monastery at Pao Hwa Shan.
The cool darkened station affords a pleasant relief
from the November heat. Our lirst snow Hurry.
Miss Rouzee speaks at Chapelfi Philosophy of the Mis-
Thanksgiving. A full day.
Chinese Drama. Six-thirty until eleven!
Dr. Herman Liu talks on "The Necessity of Training
Kathleen Parlow Violinist, plays at Community center-
Tennis Tournament, men's singles won by XV. C.
72 " THE LINGUIST "
19 Examinations. Much midnight oil burned.
20 Christmas Party for the teachers and their families.
Our Chinese teachers give further proof of their
21 Service of Christmas music at Chapel.
Dec 22 iChristmas vacation. t
Jan 2 Christmas Eve, carolling in Nankmg.
jan. 3, 1923: Second term opens. Introduction of new students.
Our president delivers an oration of welcome in
Chinese which is interpreted with difficulty by the
We receive our First lessons in Character writing.
Party at the Community Center for the members of the
January Class. The thrilling drama oi "The
Poisoned Peanut" is produced.
lPresident Mr. Follette
Election of Class officers V. Pres. Dr. 'Woodbridge
I Sec 8: Treas Mr. Cutchins
Baseball game. "Little Ladies vs. Amazons."
Movies at Y.M.C.A. "Three Musketeers."
Andy arrives at Chapel on time.
First real sign of winter. Snow. "Fox and Geese" warms
us up at recess.
Bishop Birney speaks on "The Privilege of Un-
Lecturesby Dr. Rawlinson on "Chinese Life and Cus-
Dr, Rawlinson as guide takes us to the various Temples
Meigs Hall announces the engagement of Dr. Voss.
"They would rather love what they cannot have
than have what they cannot love."
Birthday Party for Mrs. Keen.
Dr. Coulter from Western Reserve University speaks
in Chapel. "XVhat I would, that doI notg but what
I hate, that do I."
Election of the Linguist Stahl Little XfVillie proves that
he is old enough to vote.
Ping-pong Tournament. Teachers vs. pupils.
Li Shui Yci victorious.
Inspiring talk by Mr. Saunders who demonstrates a
joyful spirit may be retained even though one suffers
from a great affliction.
Mr. Luccock, last year's president talks in Chapel on "The
Fatherhood of God as limited only by our sonshipf'
Pastor Ting speaks on thc "Student Volunteer Move-
ment in China."
Timothy Liu gives splendid talk on "The Three
Qualifications of a Missionary."
Lecture on Radio at Community Center.
SCHOOL CA L-ENDAR 1922-1923 73
14 Cupid himself comes to school but his arrows fall to the
earth we know not where. '
ig China New Year vacation.
28 Miss Elizabeth Gottwald and Mr. john Alston married
at Sage Memorial Chapel.
Mar. 1 Mrs. Goddard leaves for furlough amid the popping of
9 Mr. Mills presents a social survey of the South City
and explains the social service work recently
10 Mrs. Geldart gives Reading, "Enoch Arden" at the
13-14 Examinations. Once more Midnight oil is in great
16 Start for Peking. Eighty seven strong. Mr. Yaukey
looking for a partner.
29 Spring vacation ends.
30 Glorious moonlight. Spring is here.
April 1 Easter. An ideal Easter Day.
2 Mr. Thelle discovers that Bill Cutchins' family is not
going to stay in Nanking during the summer.
6 Arbor day.
9 Lecture on Phonetics by Dr. flfewksbury.
14 Visit to the Mint, in Nanking.
14 Tennis Tournament announced. Mr. Yaukey still look-
ing for a partner.
16 Miss Porter of Teachers College, Columbia, speaks at
16 Name of School play announced. "All's well that
17 Name of School play announced. "Leave it to Dan"
Mr. Guerry wants to know. "XVho is Dan ?"
18 Name of School play announced. "Ain't Nature grand ?"
19 Name of School play announced. "The taming of the
20 Name of School play announced. "Two buckets of gore
or the mother-in-law's revengef,
19 Mr. Garrettspeaks at Chapel.
27 School Play given for the members of the Nanking
The Linguist goes to Press,
f..L 5 'iwiiifii
A 'ffr . t., ,
'74 " THE LINGUIST "
rf. "' -" Q' .,,. ,. ' ,,.,,,. 1 4 I 43,1 1. 3 Y
I -up W '."7ff'-,':1'6 'L' ' ,. - F... , y '..,
'v,W'bf 4' 'fy ', ,fy 'jif'4'p'::g:
, 2 - A- 1
lixccutivc Committee. Lilllglmge School Student Body First Term, 1922-.23
Huttom row. Icft to riglmtg Axmkellcy, Kingman, Bnsco1n,Bystcd
Sccuml row ,A, ., ,, 3 Ruhl. Altnlzm, VVhite,
Third row ,, glfollcttv. Sclnuidt.
LANGUAGE SCHOOL 75
'V gg. 81'
if wifi' I
, ' an ' 4"
ry ht , wt ,
, a 'i .I W- lwwyzpr yi I MQ I
We v ,
' " N
i 1 .
Executive Committee, Language School Student Body, Second term I9
Bottom row left to right: Stone, King, Skilling.
2nd Row ,, ., ,, Lowderniilk, lflzitter, Deaconess Pitcher, Woodbridge
gird row 1, 1 - Stewart, Cutchins, Decker, lfollcttc.
Mus. J. R. Gonmum P DEACONIJISS C. C. PITCHIQR
-3.7 " - .-as
z f 5
The Girls at Meigs Hall
78 ll THE LINGUIST "
. OUR ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE THE CURRICULUM
Some of our friends in the Homeland have asked in their letters
what we can find to do outside school hours. The difficulty is to find
enough time for the things to be done. In a city of so many different
types of schools as is Nanking, no lack of work exists for those who
are willing to help. Calls are continually coming in from some school.
institutional church or other, whose staff is underxnanned to request
the Language School students to assist in some way or to teach
English. And the Language school students have responded gen-
erously. A complete list of the institutions assisted need not be given
here. But the following activities gives an idea of the type of work
done. Several of our young women have given one or more hours
per week to teaching at the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. XV. C. A., the
Methodist Girls' School, The Quakerage and several similar in atitu-
tions. Three of our young women have been teaching English to the
wife of the Provincial Military Governor. Several of our students
have taught at the University of Nankingg ten have assisted in the
Middle School of the National Southeastern University. A number
of Bible and Sunday School classes have been organized and
instructed by our students.
A very commendable piece of work in the form of a much needed
dispensary has been instituted under the auspices of the Adult Bible
class. Semi-weekly clinics are held with Dr. C. I-I. Voss in charge,
assisted by Dr. R. Peterson and Dr. WVm. Ankency and two graduate
nurses the Misses Dunlap and Gerhling.
Other members of the class conduct evening classes and church
services for the same group of persons who are treated in the clinic.
A regular schedule has been made outg certain evenings of the week
are given over to instructing the young people and other evenings to
evangelistic meetings and preaching services. Rev. L. E. Blackman
has charge of the Evangelistic work and is ably assisted by a
native preacher Rev. Wang, who also conducts classes for the young
people in the afternoons. Mr. Earl Otto has charge of the educational
Let us not leave the impression, that we do nothing but work,
teach and study. We are far too human and fun-loving for that. The
old saw, "All work and 'l' 'l' if " is just as true in China as elswhere.
Many 'interesting places exist about Nanking and we have availed
ourselves of the opportunity to see some of them. Saturday has been
the usual day for these hikes and sight seeing. Almost every
Saturday a party has made a hike or trip. Space does not permit
me to describe them all. The brief accounts of a few will afford a
glimpse of the year's sightseeing.
MING TOMBS ,
On Chinese Independence day, October Io, a group of hikers left
Meigs Hall for Purple Mountain, Ming tombs and Spirit valley. The
young women live in Meigs I-Iallg they are the life of any party such
fgrove of trees, the largest in the vicinity of Nanlcing. On October
OUR TRIP TO PAO HWA SHAN 79
-as this. The historic resting place of the iirst emperor of the Ming
dynasty--Hung WVL1 U368-98D was visited. The royal way to the
tomb lined on each side by massive animals, elephants, camels, horses
and others,carved in stone aroused our curiosity. Set, as they are in
'the common places of peasant farming, they seemed to recall a
-glorious past, about whicl1 we want to know more.
Attention! Ready for a"'l1ike"
Then there was Spirit Valley where rests an ancient temple in a
.21 we "took" the wall. Mounting the massive city wall that surrounds
Nankingat the I-Ian Si Men gate we walked along the top to the South
'Gate, Nan Men. From the wall the ancient city of Nanlcing' spread
out before us. The curved oriental roofs of the public buildings
discernable in the film of haze at once distinguished the landscape from
one of the Occident. This wall is 21 miles in length, is IO to 20 feet
wide and from I5 to 50 feet high. It is constructed entirely of large,
dark grey burned brick. Not sufficient wood material exists in the
region to burn so large a number now. It would appear that about
500 years ago when the wall was constructed that the mountains and
hills must have borne a heavier cover of trees than at present, for coal
was not in use then, to supply sufficient fuel for the burning.
Then there were numerous temples visited, such as Kuling An
and the Monastery, Buh Gy Go, the Temple of Confucius and others.
OUR TRIP TO PAO HWA SHAN.
Saturday, November 25, was finally fixed for the visit to the
celebrated monastery at Pao I-Iwa Shan. The weather man had a
grouch. If we had tried to pick a very disagreeable day we could
not have succeeded better. But despite wind and weather we went
80 "'THE LINGUIST"
sixty seven strong, including our Dean and his mcther Mrs. Keen and
Dr. Reichelt, an authority on temples and ceremonies and other
things Buddhistic, who acted as our official guide.
After a train ride of two hours and aclimb over' a Chinese
highway CFootpathJ for six miles we reached the monastery set in a
rambling grove of trees high up on a mountain ridge. After the
lunch in the refectory-an experience to many of us-one of the chief
priests conducted us from one hall and courtyard to another. Dr.
Reichelt interpreted and explained. '
The Monastery of Pao I-lwa Shan is one of the oldest and most
noted of the Buddhisqmonasteries in China. Some ofthe buildings
are said to be about two thousand years old. At the time of our
visit some six hundred monks and priests were quartered there. At
certain times of the year especially during the ordination ceremonies-
of the priests, two thousand and more priests assemble at this one
place. We were shown the ordination platform, said to beagift
direct from Heaven, where the candidates are required to recite
whole volumes of Buddhist literature from memory without a mistake-
X1Vhen the candidate to the priesthood accomplishes this task his head
is shaved and the nine or twelve holes are burned in the top of his
head, which is a sign that he is a full fledged member of Buddha and
is on his way to Nirvana.
XVe saw some ofthe priests in their living quarters, which are
small, dark and smelly. In such places they study and memorize
their manuscripts. Further in our rounds we came to the great
kitchen where enormous quantities of rice are cooked. It was a cold
day with llurries of snow and there was much stamping of feet to
keep warm. But we thanked the courteous priest for his kindness
set out forthe six mile hike to the station- And the train was two
But it was great day, not to be forgotten. And the lessons of it
will linger in our minds. For the task that lies before us was made
clearer by the moreimtimate glimpses into the strength of the Buddhist
order and into the devotion of its adherents. Yet despite the
persistence of Buddhism, it has failed to save the people or the
'., ,, :fgpfliii
45321 H ,pf L
fan- H w
GOING TO PEKING S1
PEKING OR PERISH. i
5 ln the preceding paragraphs we have tried to give the reader an
Idea of the pleasant and profitable way in which we spend some of our
time outside of school hours. The trip to Peking, which is becoming
an annual affair was the best of all. Without going into detail, we
will give a resume of our experiences and the places visited. "Peking
or Pet-ish," was our slogan, and we saw Peking.
There is no doubt about that, and Peking also saw us, eighty-seven
Strong. To accommodate this number of passengers arrangements were
made for two "private" cars. Barring the absenqe of a few panes of
glass which allowed the wind and rain to enter, we managed very nicely.
A person can sleep on the hard side of a board if he is tired enough.
What did we care about rain and cold of our first day's journey? "A
bad start, a good ending? Didn't we come into Peking in grand style,
with our private car attached to the finest express train in China?
Trulyg there's no rest for the wicked' and the good people of the
North China Language School saw to it that we were kept busy.
For the benefit of future parties who will make this trip, we give
Z1 list of the most important places visited. First on the list comes
the beautiful Temple of Heaven and Altar of Heaven, the Temple of
Agriculture, Lama Temple, Confucian Temple, Gbservatory, British
Legation, Central Park, Forbidden City and Museum, Bell Tower.
Drum Tower, Great Wall, the P.U.M.C., Summer Palace, jade
Fountain, Winter Palace, Coal Hill, Hall of Classics, North China
Language School, Y. M. C. A., and countless Curio shops, rug
factories and stores of all descriptions. VVe were privileged to at-
tend two receptions given for our special benefit 5 one by his Exellency
President Li of China and the other by the students of the Language
School. We also had the good fortune of meeting General Feng Yu-
Hsiang at his camp near Peking. General Feng is known as the
Christian General of China, and it was a pleasure to see for ourselves
the fine type of man he really is. He is exerting a great influence
Overhis own men, and its affect will be felt throughout the whole
country before long. China needs many leaders of just this type of
men. men who have the welfare of their country at heart and who
are not afraid to-stand up for the principles of right and justice.
The success of our trip to Peking is largely due to the untiring
efforts of Mr. Petrus, Mr. Barkman and others of the North China
Language School, Dr. Liu and Mr. Crouse of the Methodist Mission
and others. We are very grateful to them for the kindly interest
through their willingness to help us at all times.
.Louis C. Bvsriitn.
GOING TO PEKING.
It's an event in anyone's life
To go to Peking, '
Next in importance to seeking a wife,
To prowl about Peking.
City of palaces sights to behold,
City of parasites for plunder too bold,
City of propaganda such as cannot be told,
Attractions abound on every side,
Streets may be narrow, or streets may be wide
In dirty Pekingg
The Temple of Heaven, to pious souls dear,
The National Museum, to greatness so near,
The ancient Observatory, instruments queer,
The alleys, the lanes, and the hutungs,
In crisscross Peking,
May be trying to folk of bad lungs,
In dusty Peking,
But the busy, great, main thoroughfares,
Where the merchants exhibit their wonder war
And camel trains bring in the desert airs,
Are the boast of Peking.
You'll want to see the Temple of Llama,
It is the scene of continuous drama,
Dramatic Pekingg '
All States underheaven have legations,
Missions are there from all nations,
And schools representing all stations,
Jealous of Peking.
P. U. M. C., Tsing Hwa, and the Y's,
Of foreign Peking,
Yen-king, Hwei-wen, bless your eyes,
But when you have seen all there is to be seen,
And been everywhere there is to be been,
"O men chae sie ren" still best on the screen,
The senators strut and all have their say
In static Peking,
Perhaps scarcely more than butterfly play,
Thick walls, and wide gates, of imperial mould,
Within this enclosure the new and the old
Contend for whatever is there to be sold,-
So it seems in Peking. -Anonymous,
CHINESE PROVERBS 83
EQLHVALENT TO U. s. A. coMMoN sAY1Nos.
The best of friends mast part.
Even although you accompany the princely man a thousand li,
tinally you must bid him farewell.
A stitch in time saves nine.
If alittle hole is not repaired, it will increase to a foot and a half.
Two heads are better than one.
The knowledge of one man is not equal to that of two.
Easier said than done.
To behold a task is easier than to do it.
In one ear and out the other.
Enter by the east ear, exit by the west.
What's eoerybody's business is nobody's business.
When one priest carries water there is some to drink, when two
priest together carry water there is some to drink, when three
priests carry water there is none to drink.
You can't get blood out ofa turnip.
It is useless to look for bones in a hen's egg.
There arc two sides to every question.
To know only one side of the case and not to know both.
If yon 'want a thing done, do it yourself.
Making requests of others is not comparable to asking them of
Evil companions corrupt good manners.
If you follow the good you will learn the good, if you follow the
beggar you will beg for food.
All men are brethren.
All within the four seas are brothersg
Loch the stable after the horse is stolen.
When the guest comes we sweep the floor, When the thief goes
we close the door. i V
Like teacher, like' pupil. b
The illustrious teacher produces a good disciple.
As you would that nz-en should do unto yon, do ye also -unto them.
What for yourself wouldbc a bother, Do not bestow upon another.
Where there's a will, there's a way.
VVhere there is a purpose it will finally be accomplished.
Whatsoerer a man soweth, that also shall he reap.
Sow a melon reap a melon, sow a bean, reap a bean.
Self praise is no recommendation.
A quack doctor has no ehicacious medicine.
Man loolceth on the out-ward appearance but God looketh on the heart.
In drawing a tiger you draw his skin. it is difiicult to draw his
bonesg in knowing a man you know only the outward appearance,
you cannot know his heart. '
The Altar in a Buddhist Temple
CHINA FOR C1-IRgIST 85
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China for Christ.
1. Father in Heaven, we bring our supplication
For this our school which we have learned to loveg
May she now prove a blessing to this nation,
Striving in Love for higher things above.
Cho. God bless our China, cleanse her from sin,
Show us the multitudes we must win.
White is the held, Lord, workers are fexvg
Send Thou more reapers, thy work to do.
2. Lord, we would bring thy Gospel of Salvation,
Tidings of Love, to these thy Children dear,
We hear thy call and without hesitation
We come to serve, to make thy Message clear. .
3. Thou, Lord of Hosts, art God of all Creation,
And we thy servants humbly bow to Thee,
Giving our all in perfect Consecration
We ask for nought but what Thou dost decree.
4. In Thee our work shall lincl its consummationg
Help us to toil in perfect harmony,
Strengthen our faithg give ns this consolation
That through thy Name we gain the Victory.
Louis C. Bvsrlsn.
p '.c,3..' their day our night. v i . U
' . 2. Ours represents the new hemisphere and civiliza-
tion, theirs represents the old.
3. We look forward to a better or golden age, Chinese'
look back to the golden age.
We say the compass points to north, Chinese compass points to
Our designation of cardinal directions are, N.E. S.E. NAV. S.W.
and the Chinese say E.N. ILS. W'.N. W.S.
Dates, we write day, month, year, the Chinese write year, month'
VVe shake each others handsin greeting, the Chinese shake their
Our given name is first and surname last. The Chinese just
Our books begin at the left. Theirs begin at the right.
Our printing runs across. Theirs up and down.
Our pupils face teacher to recite, Chinese recite with back tot
We study our classics. They memorize theirs.
We say we put our knowledge in our heads. The Chinese say
they put it in their 'ldu dz" or stomach.
In America the school teachers are mostly women while in China.
they are mostly men. V
Address. XVe write City, County, State. They write State,
We place stamp on the right side of envelope. The Chinese on'
the back side.
In America the women wear gowns and the men wear trousers-
but in China this custom is just reversed.
In America, the women's dresses are elaborate and the men's plain.
In China the men's have always been more elaborate than.
In America, the men only wear hats out of doors. The Chinese
wear hats in doors.
In U.S. women use parasols, fans and jewelry. In China the men.
,'i'Q'f2. Posrres on THE EAST AND WEST.
lr 1. Opposite sides of the world, our night their day,
A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOOL 87
A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOGL
A typical day begins at half past eight with chapel. Sounds like
college, but instead of faculty members, the students lead in turn.
Or it may be that a veteran missionary speaks to us. This is a period.
of particular inspiration.
Then follows the study of Chinese. VVe ieel the years drop off,.
for we are as children beginning with one phrase and then another and.
another, progressing in as halting a manner. Without text books and
with at least three of our senses functioning we go through the day.
The lirst period is taken up with learning new words which are
demonstrated to us or explained in the Chinese that we have formerly
learned. Chia Sain Sen, our Principal, a splendid pedagogue, re-
commended by the American Educator, John Dewey, with inimitable
acting and humor makes us see the meaning of the new and weird
sounds that he pronounces. Many are the visitors who come to watch
and hear this celebrated Chinese teacher go through the performances
of the new word class.
For the second period the class dividesg one A half remains for
review of the new words which by another teacher are linked up with
the known words in simple sentences: the other half goes to private
teachers. Each student is assigned a number correspondingto a smallf
Entrance to the Compound
88 "THE LINGUIST"
table on one side of which sits a Chinese teacher. And at this time he
goes to his individual teacher, who receives him in that inimitable
courtesy of the Chinese gentleman. Here the student has an opportunity
to try out his knowledge of,Chinese. Who will record the mistakes in
to11e and sound perpetrated upon our long suHering teachers? Year in
and year out they listen to the gropings of babes i11 the language
for utterance,-and never with the discourtesy of a smile, unless we
both see the humor of the mistake.
Language School Groundsg Meigs Hall to right, Language Sel1ool to the left.
Then comes recess. Restless we are to get at the various sportsg
the girls to volley ball, or indoor baseball and the boys to volley ball,
Youngsters again. happy for the relaxation from sustained attention.
These pictures give an idea of what we do at recess. Dignity isleft
indoors. For Ph D.s and M,D.s and B.D.,s and all jump into the
spirit of play.
-A game of volleyball at recess. .
At the sound of the bell all return to the class rooms and reverse
the order ofthe classes preceding recess. Then for the fourth class
of the morning we gather into groups of ten or twelveand under the
guidance of a. Chinese teacher, again try to reply in complete Chinese
sentences to his questions to us. Not a worrl of English is used.
A DAY AT LANGUAGE SCHOOL S9
At the noon hour we are out and away to lunchg the girls to
Meigs Hall and the married people to homes of the community where
many of us are hospitably lodged for our tirst year in China. On our
way from the Language school we pass through the narrow streets or
along the paths and meet the Chinese children who have a cherry
"Kello" for us. There are the coolies carrying, at the ends of a
bamboo pole anything from buckets of waterto babies in a basketg or
a drove of moth eaten donkeys overloaded with baskets of brick or
stoneg or rickshas whizzing past bearing sleekly attired women or
absent minded bespecktacled students. Or one may be accosted by
professional beggars old and young, blind or lame.
Another Game of volleyball at recess
The afternoon session begins at two o'clock and is divided into
two sessions with a recess between. One of these is devoted largely
to oral review wherein we repeat phrase by phrase the increasingly
complex sentences containing the words that have been demonstrated
to us in the former new words classes. The other is given over to-
writing the Chinese character. It is a case of where every little stroke
has a meaning.
Committee of VVelcome Rainy Day Promenade
90 "THE LINGUIST"
School is out at four o'clock and we scatter each to some activity
-or recreation, whether it be teaching English to a class of Chinese
students at the Y.M.C.A. or to the tennis courts.
Dinner comes at seven o'clock. And this particular evening we
.all go to the "Community Center" where in a large reception hall
.artistically furnished and decorated we listen spellbound to the
XVorld's greatest woman violinist, Kathleen Parlow. It seems that
never before had we heard a concert under more agreeable circum-
stances. The warm glow of the hreplace finds a response in each
'appreciative listener and the artist seems to enjoy her art. In the
shaded light of the room the Hickering light of the flames from the
'grate play upon the artist as she entrances us with the mysteries of
harmony. Then it is over and we go home tired after a full day.
And so goes each busy and happy day,
Several years ago a new arrival in China started out one
afternoon to walk through the Nanking streets to see the sights and he
thought he knew the way home. But when it was almost dark, he
discovered that he was lost and more-over was unable to tell a ricksha
man where to take him. So he solved the problem like this: He knew
the way home from the Chinese hospital, so he pretended that he was
dreadfully sick, he doubled all up and stumbled into a ricksha without
saying where he wanted to go. The man took him to the hospital from
which place he was able to find his way home.
Last Fall Bertha Smith went into a money changing shop and
" May I change my clothes?
She thought she was going to say, "ko-e-huang-tsan Qmay I
change my moneyj " but said instead, " ko-e huang-e-shang. "
LEARNING CHINESE 91
The Chinese language has the reputation of being very difficult
to learn. The difficulty has been exaggerated. Consider that a
quarter ofthe inhabitants of the globe speak one or another dialect
of Chinese, and the vast majority of these people are illiterates. As
a pre-requisite to the study ofChinese, students must free their minds
of this prejudice. But nothing is gained by underestimating the
seriousness of the task. The Chinese language offers one of the
greatest intellectual challenges that ever confronted a keen-minded
In the early days the method oi learning Chinese from a private
teacher was universally employed. The private teacher served the
best that he knew, but he was unacquainled with the scientific
methods of pedagogy. His day is largely over for starting a student
in the knowledge of Chinese. A new clay has arrived.
The Language School at Nanking has put into use practically
all the tested pedagogical methods of teaching spoken language,
In a word the direct or natural method is used. It attempts to make
it possible for the student to acquire the language as the "native"
does. It is in harmony with the latest findings of psychological
research and experiment. It is limited in its application only by
the ingenuity of the teacher. The teacher is the crux of the
language study. And it has taken years to discover this fact.
It has remained for the child to point the way. The program
of the numerous classes, new word class, review, individual teacher,
group conversation, writing and public speaking classes .is designed
to throw about the student those conditions that a child faces in
learning its mother tongue.
But while the principles are simple the methods are varied and
often complex, five hours per day in close association with Chinese
trained teachers who will speak no English soon does wonders for
the student. The danger of monotony is overcome by weekly reversal
of classes and by a rotation of individual teachers.
92 "THE LINGUIST"
The pace for the day's' study is set by the Chinese teacher'
who presents the new words orally to the students. Chia Sain Sen,
our Principal, cleverly and energetically presents the new words by
the use of acting, story. gesture and only in terms ofthe words
previously learned. Students repeat phrase by phrase the Chinese
sentences spoken by the teacher. At no time is English resorted to
except at the end of the new word class when the Dean, C. S. Keen,
clears up any misunderstanding and writes on the board the phoneti-
cized new words for copying in note books.
Then when the sounds are still fresh in the students' minds they
are rehearsed audibly under the leadership of a qualified teacher
until their pronunciation and use become habitual. In the review
classes and in the. conferences with the individual teachers no-
Chinese teacher is permitted to introduce into the reviewing any
word that has not been previously given in the new word classes.-
Certainly a remarkable discipline. In the conversation classes the
student is made to construct sentences in reply to questions in Chinese.
The sentence is the minimum unit. The consistent following of
these simple principles prepares the student in an academic year to
understand and use--if imperfectly at times--most of the common
idioms of the spoken language.
The course in Chinese is continued for five years, the first year
in residence at the Language School and thereafter at the stuclent's
station, by correspondence and the use of a private teacher.
"The Chinese spoken language is terse, forceful, logical and
beautiful, but it is difficult. Given a right attitude, however. proper
conditions and modern trained teachers it would seem that any
intelligent person with the patience to apply himself may acquire
such degreeof progress in the use of the Chinese language as will
enable him to express himself with acceptance to the Chinese as well
as with some small satisfaction to himself."
C. S. K.
W. C. L.
THE DAILY CHAPEL SERVICE 93
THE DAILY CHAPEL SERVICE
ouiz nENoM1NA'r1oN AL -'MEL'r1No Por"
Aside from helping us begin our day aright, the daily Chapel
service is one of the greatest factors in the promulgation of harmonious
fellowship among the students. This service brings us into a verit-
able forum where the numerous and inevitable problems are often
helpfully solved by the rich experiences of those older in the Service
who have forcefully and eloquently attested to the riches of grace in
Christ Jesus. One could no more afford to be absent from Chapel
than from the New Words class, for this period of quiet morning
worship is, in very reality, another kind of New Words class. From
the lips and hearts of the students and distinguished Veterans in the
Service whom we are privileged to have visit us occasionally, come
messages which guide and sustain, as well as inspire and challenge us
to a better fulfillment of our task. u
- The business of being a Missionary is an enormous realityy
intertwined with as many problems as there are temperaments, there-
fore we are very grateful for the many helpful solutions which set
us aright in our thinking and strengthen our hearts for the task. The
ideals which motivated our coming to China are held aloft in these
Tervices and we are constantly reminded of our great purpose in this
VVho could express our gratitude for the insight of Chinese
religious thot as given to us by such earnest and prominent Chinese
Christians as Dr, Herman Liu, Pastor Ding Li May and Dr. Timothy
lliu? Tho engaged in different fields of work, they each one emphas-
1SQCl the necessity of training Chinese leaders so effectually that
they be able to direct the affairs of the Chinese Church according to
Chinese conception. Urging the cultivation of Chinese friendships
and a more intimate knowledge of the Chinese people in their home
life, Miss Rachel Lee, a charming and 'cultured Chinese girl of
Nanking., bespoke for her-own people the joy which she has had in
her friendships with foreigners.
We would not know where to begin or end were we to attempt
to present to our readers the thots which have come from those who
have given years of faithful service to the land of their adoption.
Time and space do not permit of such a review but we want to share
with you some of the especially helpful messages.
Miss Rouzee of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, a brilliant
and eloquent exponent of the Bible now teaching many classes m
Nanlcing, stressed the necessity of a Philosophy of Religion--a
philosophy which would makelour lives radiant. Bishop Birney of
the M. E. Conference, whom we so love to have visit us made this
stabilizing point in one of his messages, V "At times one's life is God'
centered but ,it very easily becomes self-centered, therefore it bee
hooves onealways to place God at the center of one's life." Dr.
94 "TI-IE LINGUIST"
Richardson of the Nanking Theological Seminary also gave us
opportunity for deep reflection when he said. "One is responsible for
the power one might have." In the light of such a thot one dare not
neglect the privilege of prayer or fail to make the effort to develop
the best in oneself.
The indispensibility of Love was beautifully interpreted by Mr.
Frank Garrett of the Disciples of Christ. Love was given first place
and tho knowledge is necessary, the facts of knowledge should be
interpreted in the light of the spirit and life of.jesus,,Christ. Faith
justified! Yes, fully and truly in the relating of stories about the
harvest of souls from seed sown years before and so Mrs. Smith of
the China Island Mission, proved the infallibility of God's powers.
A strong message from Dr. Coulter of Western Reserve Univ.,
helped quicken us in guarding against the snare of perversity. "For
the good that I would, I do not but the evil which I'would not. that
Ido." One felt consciously strengthened as one listened to Dr. C. T.
Paul of the Disciples of Christ, who measured life in its every
dimension, proving the wondrous capacity for service possible to
everyone. Miss Porter. of Teacher's College, Columbia Univ., re-
freshed our memory about the need of self-control. 'We had already
learned the vital truth that in this land especially, loss of temper is a
detrimental attitude. Everyone surely desired more than ever to get
a firmer grip on himself after hearing Miss Porter.
Truly no greater inspiration was derived from anyone than from
Mr. Saunders, the blind evangelist of the China Inland Mission.
Thru privations undergone during the Boxer trouble he has been
deprived of his sight but not of his faith! Keen and vigorous he
preached the joy of the Christian religion and his radiant countenance
gave proof that one can overcome all things. Had he not spoken, the
joyousness of his personality would have been an inspiration.
Thus, week by week, new treasures are unfolded to us, new
visions of our task come to us leaving us stronger and happier.
Whoever could inwardly cherish and foster denominational barriers
after such infallible proofs of the "four-square" love of God truly
needs a new vision and a larger faith.
' ' I4.M. S.?
M. s. g
Lccfwcs by K. L. Reiclzell, Plz. D.
Christian Mission to Buddhists, Nauking.
On November 21 and 24, 1922, Dr. K. L. Reichelt of Nanking,
with two illuminating lectures gave the students of the Language
School an insight into the mysteries of Buddhism. In speaking of
the approach to Buddhism Dr. Reichelt emphasized that it is Christ
and not Dogma that is at the center of Christianity. It is the
Missionary's duty to give to the people of China the whole Christ, the
COURSE OF LTCCTURES 95
Logos, the Source of Light and Life of all time. When truth is
found in other religions the Christian need have no cause to fear: for
lall truth comes from God the Father of all.
Buddhism since the revolution has been growing. Temples are
Still being built and old ones repaired. A few years ago two thou-
sand priests were ordained at one time. Plans are made for a
The Mahayana is the form of Buddhism found in Chinag it has
for its motive "To save all living Human Beings."
This religion has undergone a great transformation since its
'introduction into China about 61 A. D. 'China and Indiaboth have
had their influence upon it. It is said that Indian Zoroasteriau and
'Christian tNestorian Churchj intluences were at work, especially
-during the middle ages, up to the 10th century. Some of the teachings
of Buddhism are, Works of Faith, Monasticism, The Coming of a
Messiah from the West, Masses for the Dead, The Trinity. i .
Ten Schools exist in Buddhism, some of which have lost
iintluence. One is the School of the Law, one has The Gospel
-and each has its own literature. Of the more active schools the Chang
-and Pure Land Sects are the most active.
A typical temple of the Chang Tsung contains the following
symbolisms. As one enters the main gateway he looks into the face
of the Smiling Buddha, their Messiah. He next notes the four kings
-arranged along the walls, the Black King from the North with his
pearl and snakeg the lVhitc King from the East with sword in hand:
and then the Red and Blue Kings from the south and west with
umbrella and guitar. He then sees the patron saint of the temple and
.the Head Guardian who represents holiness and justice and who is
-looking into the face of the patron saint. Thus justice is restrained
.and law and grace meet. A
In the main temple images represent Law, Buddha and the Com-
'munion of Saints. Here also are the lesser dignitaries down to the
,Kitchen God. Behind the altar with its hangings and smoking
'incense is foundthe Trinity. It consists of three images to represent
The Great Physician of the Lost 'Paradise in the East, in the center
the Historical Buddha who works in the present with all its distress,
:and on the left Anitava or King of The Western Paradise. The
flatter idol becomes in the Pure Land Sect another trinity.
Dr. Reichelt pointed out reasons why Buddhism has had such a
hold upon its adherents throughout the past. He closed with a plea
Ithat the Truth for which the Buddhists seek might be clearly and fully
xrevealed to them through jesus Christ.
Some of the girls from. the dormitory refused to use rickshas
during the early part of the winter. One preferred the Franklin-Otto,
-and several others the Spreng-buggy.
96 "'l'H,li l,lNGUIS'l"'
COURSE OF LECTURES
Hy Re-zf. Franle Rawlimmzi, 17.19.
Editor of the Cliivzvse Rt't70.l'll't'l'
Some Elvimwzts in the Spf-ritual lnlzvrifanrv of Cliilna.
This subject was treated in eleven lectures. The general aim was-
to study, to some extent, Qlj, the religious psychology of the Chinese-
and QZJ, the points of contact between Christian and Chinese religious-
concepts and attitudes.
The first 'lecture dealt'with "The Approach." This showed how
the first responses of the Chinese to the Christian message are apt to-
lme to the ideas already known to them. Throughout this and all the
lectures it was evident that there is no distinction between religious
and secular life in China. The second lecture gave a running'
description of temples and images under the title "The Objective
Reminders of Religion." The religious systems of China were than
treated briefly, Confucianism being included. Considerable attention
was paid to Confucian ethics, both as taught by Confucius and as heldf
by Coniucianists, and the close approach at some points to Christian
ethics emphasized. In connection with Buddhism the ,l-linayana and.
Maha fana s stems were noted and com ared. The nadir of reli ious
l Y P g
life in China was found in Taoism, and in the lower idolatrous aspects.
of Buddhism. The lectures then dealt with some religious conceptions
of the Chinese derived in large part from these religious systems. lim
turn the Chinese conceptions of sin, salvation, prayer, veracity the
soul and the future life were discussed, all being illustrated by
reference to Chinese literature and custom.
Two lectures were given to the subject "Some Chinese ldeas of a
supreme Being." Here it was shown that while the worship of a.
Supreme Being has been secondary in emphasis, yet many references
to the concept of a Supreme Being are found scattered throughout
literatureg thesereferences have to do, in the main, with the characters.
for "Heaven," "S-hangti" and "Shen" ln connection with these ideas
of a Supreme Being and the religious conduct of the people, many'
true theistic ideas were pointed out. The germ of faith, the sense of
personal and social responsibility, together with the prominence givenr
to love were, with others, presented as important permanent elements
in the religious life of the Chinese. Some attention was given to the
points of conflict between Christianity and Chinese religions. The
correlation of Chinese ethical ideas with conduct was treated in a
general way. The importance of preserving the valuable elements ini
national festivals was also indicated. Comparison was made of some
Christian and Chinese religious ideas, and the way these Christian
ideas im rove upon the Chinese religious ideas indicated. And finally
it was sliown how Christ's revelation of God and lflis Sonship make
available to the Chinese that fellowship with God which they have
'failed ,to emphasize or experience to any extent personally, and.
provides that life which is the only dynamic of true spiritual living.
SOCIAL LIFE 97
V The solemn, long-faced, sanctimonious missionary is out of date.
-ln fact, if he ever existed, and there is abundant evidence to show
that he did not, he has long since joined the company of the dodo,
the dinosaur, and other extinct species. Given, a group of Language
School students, any time. any place, under any circumstances, and
you have proof more than ample to convince the most skeptical. F rom
the tirst morning when we haltingly introducedxourselves, until the
present moment, our work has in itself been characterized by such a
fSpirit of comradeship and social-mindedness between student and stu-
-dent and between students and faculty that arbitrarily to select a group
-of activities and classify them as .Usocial life" is to leave a false
umpression. W'e cannot. however, include everything, and if we
Sketch only the high lights, it is with the hope that you may be able
Ito fill in something of the background of larger fellowship which we
-enjoy in the Nanking Language School.
'-Those absenting themselves from this party do so at their own
risk" was the gruesome warning attached to thenotice of our first get
Together and get acquainted party given by the advanced students
-early in October at the home of Mr. and Mrs. James McCallum, and
anyone who had the bad judgment to think of staying away certainly
Pan a risk-the risk of missing a good time. Shall we ever forget
it-the riclcsha ride over when ricksha rides had not yet lost their
novelty, the usual blood-curdlmg quarrel with the coolies. and then
the lantern-lighted yard and the jollity of "Three Deep." It was not
-an outdoor party for long, however. Before everyone had stumbled
more than twice, we were lI'ldOOI'S and engaged in hunting through
dusty corners of our brains for "stunts,,' those born in January pre-
fsenting one stunt, those born in February another, and so on. u
"Oman jesse ran" was present of course. "Du sh wygwha ran"
has probablybeen translated in ways that are various, but we doubt
whether it ever created the sensation that it did when rendered by
Louie Bysted as f-And Ikie said to his little boy, 'This is one grand
Ship."' It was on this occasion too, that we were first introduced to
that immortal classic "In My Little Cottage .Pudding by the Sea." As
sweetly and harmoniously sung by Earl Otto and judy Allen, it had
-Hn appeal to the emotions which mere printed words can never have,
.but we quote a stanza for what it is worth.
98 "THE .l.INGUIS'l"'
The bed ticked and they also say the sea sighed,
The cellar stared to see the chocolate drop,
A waterman's fountain pig pen'a?Q'afeatnre '
Xvould be extremely novel, would it not?
And that is all, won't some courageous creature
Step quickly up and flag my train of thought?
In my little cottage pudding by the sea, '
My Gwendoline is waiting there for me,
And she surely is a prize with her sweet-hazel eyes,
In my little cottage pudding by the sea.
Unfortunately one of our members was unable to resist the
lnlling combination of so many dulcet strains and the delicious
refreshments which had been served to us. 1-le went to sleep in the
corner and dreamed through "It may be that only in Heaven I
shall learn to speak Chinese" and even the selections by the Meigs
I-fall quartet, but apparently his nap was unsatisfactory, for later he
joined with great enthusiasm in "Oh Iwent to sleep, but it wasn't
any use-sing Polly Wolly Doodle all the day." As we followed his
obvious suggestion and said goodnight, if there was one thought up-
permost in our'minds even stronger 'than appreciation of the
hospitality we had enjoyed, itwas the wish that our friends at home
might have been there. To anyone who still thinks of China as only
one degree removed from the jungle, a place where ordinary human
intercourse is impossible and social development ceases,the normality
of that party would have come as a revelation. '
Halloween! What visions of hobgoblins, ghosts, and witches
the word conjures up! What memories of childhood pranks and
tricks! And in a land where superstition and belief in an outworn
system of magic are rife, what freeedom in the consciousness that
after all, our revival of equally outworn practices is only play. How
we did play too! There were some familiar features of our home
Halloween parties that were missing to be sure-the futile drippings
that one gets in bobbing for apples, the trip backwards down cellar,
the refreshments of doughnuts and cider-but there were new
elements that more than compensated for the loss of these old
favorites. Who would hazard a fall downstairs when by purchasing a
piece of paper from the hag who brewed fortunes in her kettle, he
might know his fate, or who would have'exchanged his balls of
puffed rice for the best American doughnut? The costumes in the
procession that passed through the hair-raising experiences of the
Chamber of Horrors that evening were original and varied to say
the least. Mr. Iiolleite, our distinguished and tactful president, gave'
SOCIAL LIFE 99
us a shocking exhibition of reversal to type, when he appeared
rouged. coiffed, and powdered to the nth degree as a Broadway-or
Main Street-flapper. It is no exaggeration to say that he took the
prize-a Chinese lantern. Aunt DinahQDr. Brown,jwho as a colored
mammy was "jest so sca'ht o'dem dare, ghost'es dat she plum knew
she was goin' t' have de hydrostatics" carried off the other lantern.
One could scarcely have called Mr. Keen the lion of the occasion.
but he undoubtedly was the elephant. Conjecture as to the identity
of the peanut hunting animal had been widespread for some time
before unmasking, and it was a great surprize to the combined
collection of darkies, ghosts, Indians and clowns to find that our
"dignified" Dean had consented to play this role. fThe morale of
the student body has been noticeably lower ever since, but after
all this is beside the point and a Language School secret.j We
ended the evening with games on the lawn, and so our first Chinese
Halloween passed into the realm of delightful memories.
"The air is full of mystery, And secrets are awing"
was as true of Nanking Language School just before Christmas as it
ever is of any school anywhere. Knowing that it has become custom-
ary for the teachers to present a play as a part of the Christmas
activities, it seemed strange that all of them should feign ignorance.
Not a word did they breathe about their preparations for the play.
Meanwhile stockings were made and filled with a variety of Chinese
goodies to be distributed to the children of the teachers on the day to
which we were all looking forward. Loving the teachers as we do,
we had long been anxious to meet their wives and families, so that it
was with great pleasure that we greeted our guests. How the
thought of those Chinese children lingers in our minds- -black hair
smooth and shining, dark eager eyes half afraid, half curious, and
each child seeming to rival the others in the brightness of his clotn-
ing and the number of padded garments he could wear without
falling over. But "there is neither East nor west" When it comes to
children at a Christmas party. Although they could understand and
enjoy the tableau which depicted Christmas Eve in a Christian home
and were pleased by the charming songs and finger plays of Mr.
Chia's two little girls, it was evident that to them the climax of the
afternoon lay in the tree and the stockings not to mention that presid-
ing spirit, Father Christmas. To us. however, "the play's the thing."
How,the,teachers for three-quarters of an hour maintained aplav
containing notonly quick and witty repartee but having a sound plot
as well, and all within the limits of our vocabulary, will forever
remain a mystery. But they did it, in their own inimitable manner
and with the sense of humor that characterizes all Chinese from the
highest to the lowest. Much of the delightfulness of the presentation
lay in the subtle play on words and the. interchange ,of words
having the same pronunciation both in English and Chinese. Any
interpretation must necessarily be lame, but it is a temptation to
quote one example. For instance, with the exchange of only two
100 "THE LINGUISTH
initial consonants, the proverb f'Tl1ere is no task under Heaven
whicha zealous man fears" was made to say "There1s no task
under Heaven which a newt servant-fears." Our own unanimous
opinion was and is that there is no task under Heaven which our
Christmas and New Year and then a new class. It wasin
honor of the'-Ianuary class that the stupendous theatrical production
"1ljacobi" or "The Poisoned Peanut" was first staged-.in Nankmg.
The audience, while appreciative, was strangely indifterent tothe
pathos of the play- -a tragedy in three acts-- -and it was received with
peals of laughter. The cast was as follows.
jacobi, a self-made boot-black trillionaire ..... ...... E arl Otto
Lucy Ann, a simple country maiden ...... ...... E rua Flatter
Sophronia, a sophisticated city girl ..... - .. .Emelme Bowne
teachers could not accomplish. T
The acting left nothing to be desired either in actual portrayal or in
the atmosphere which it created. From the moment when the hero
expressed his wish to share "
'Whfith one dear girl, my own" my early love,
My Lucy Ann, sweet gentle little dove'
we knew that complications were bound to arise, so that when
Sophronia appeared, we were not surprized to find her luring away
jacobi's atTections. But true worth ever conquers, even though it
perish in the attempt. Lucy Ann in spite of her temporary anger and
"Take back thc box thou hast given
lfVhat is thy polish to me F" p
had agreed to receive Jacobi once more into her good graces when
alas! alas !' enter the villainess, and in the end a sad, sad triple
suicide and murder. It was with difficulty that we could resume
sufficient composure to play games under the direction of Dorothy
Bascom and Mr. Keen-which may account forthe fact that nine-
tenths of the group were relegated to the floor during the playing of
"The Chinese do not like 'l"' and that a few of the men were notice-
ably preoccupied and had to be inspired by their partners in the
race to exchange chairs. p
SOCIAL LIFE 101
To Mrs. Keen's birthday, we owe the party held in the Keen
home on january 29. It was intended to be a surprize, but if you
have ever tried to pilot sixty Language School students up a slippery
narrow Chinese road when the air is so clear and cold and crisp that
the slightest sound penetrates and carries, you will have your doubts-
as to the genuine amazement which our coming could have brought.
But surprize or no surprize, everyone joined heartily in wishing Mrs.
Keen "Health and wealth and happiness," while Earl Otto, again in
the foreground, presented her with a bouquet of flowers "red and
green and yellow," congratulating himself in song during the
presentation that he was "a lucky fellow." Perhaps he was, but the
rest of us had our share 'oi good fortune. For once. regardless of
-our tests in Chinese characters, we could all be monkeys, and most of
US proceeded to prove it by the alacrity with' which we moved in the
alphabet game--the vowels especially being called on to display a
truly simian agility. The chief difficulty lay in a confusion of
phonetics, poor English, and Chinese. Mrs. Anderson electrified
us in one of the other games by announcing that her name was "Lea,
Lea, Lea," and even some of the men showed sudden inability to tell
who they were. Not so with the Reformed Mission. Between
'iAnk -Ank-,Ank., and Yauk-,Yauk-,Yauk-,"they succeeded in
giving us a lively representation of Detroit and its leading industry.
XVe wish it were possible to continue to draw for you the intimate
close companionships of our everyday life and the bonds which are
binding us more and more closely together as the days go by, but that
is beyond the scope of this resume. For all who come'after us, we
can only wish the same union in common Christian fellowship and
the same harmonious relationships, as they prepare to give their
lives in the most worth-while of all services. BERTIIA Smrrit
Q' C C U
A young house-wife Cnot one of the present Language classl
knew some Chinese. but even then it is easy to use the wrong
tone or the wrong word in managing a house-hold. This special
time there were to be guests to dinner and the table boy was told
to go upstairs and bring the chairs from all the rooms and to be
sure that there was "one piecie chair" at each place at the table.
XVhen the guests arrived and went to the table, the hostess was
-astonished to iind a bar of soap beside each plate.
lf there is one thing we are more careful about than another
in China, it is that the water we are to drink be carefully boiled.
Thus treated, it is spoken of as drinking water. I heard the other
day about a woman who was planning a dinner for guests and
she told the cook in preparing sliced cucumbers for the table, to
put them to soak in water. She was very anxious that he put
them in water that had been boiled so specilied drinking water.
When she lead the company to dinner, they were all ,surprised to
find a few slices of cucumber in the glasses of water at each place.
102 "'ri-ta L!NtlUlS'l"'
One of the most noteworthy events of our year has been the
marriage of"MissrElizabeth Gottwalt to Mr. john.Alston. Imagine-
a moonlight night, the brilliant not-a-cloud-in-the-sky variety, with.
balmy spring air, even though the date is the last of February. Then
picture a roadway bordered with a hedge and trees, gay with Chinese
lanterns of all colorsg anda canopy, also festooned with lanterns,
leading to the door of Sage Chapel. The interior is lovely, with
bamboo screening off the seats and aisles at eachside and forming a
fitting background for the ceremony that is to follow. Branches of'
it cover the front of the platform, while above are potted plants and
ferns. Mrs. Anderson is the soloist, and thenlo the familiar strains'
of Lohengrin, the bridal party moves down the aisle. Margaret Keen
and Ruth Hamilton are the flower girls, Miss Bertha F. Park, Miss-
Rachel Franklin, Miss Besse Milner, Miss Rose Waldron, the brides-
maids and Miss Erna Flatter the Maid of Honor. The ushers are
Mr. E. C. Robinson, Mr, NV. Smith, Mr. A. -I. Hope, and Mr.
E. P. Mills. Mr. E. A. Fowler is the best man. Mr. Keen gives-
away the bride, who is beautiful in her wedding gown, filmy veil, and
shower bouquet. Dr. Price of Nanking performs the ceremony, and
as the Mendelsohn Wedding March is played, the bride and ,groom and
their attendants leave the church. Later Mrs. Molland is hostess
at a reception given in their honor at her home on The Hill. After
a honey moon to Manila the bride and groom are making their home
in Puchen, Ku, China.
Two new missionaries were sharing the same cabin on the boat
coming over. One fellow was a big healthy man who had never
known a sick day in his life. The iirst morning out, a terrible storm
was raging. The big fellow got up, had his cold bath as usual and
then ate a big breakfast. He came back to his cabin and ridiculed
the cabin mate who was with great difficulty trying to shave. The'
boat rolled and pitched and screwed. After a moment the boasting
young man looked at his room mate with a helpless, hopeless expres-
sion, and putting his hands in the form of a cup before his mouth, he
said "Quick, when-e'll I put this" Needless to say he "put it" with-
out being told.
,Afew yearsuago. a man was trying' to smuggle opium into
Chengtu. I-le was also a butcher. He drove his cows in'through
the city gate every evening and butchered them at night. At iirst he
had no trouble. Finally suspicion rested upon him and the soldiers
took the cows and slaughtered them. In the cows' stomachs were
found little round tins of opium which the cows had been forced to
swallow. At that time, when-the Dowager prohibited, it was final.
The man lost his head the next day. fWe do not advocate quite
nch drastic measures but we wish there was some power in China to
see that the laws are enforced.
WHNT ARI-1 'l'Hli WILD WAVES SA YINC 'IOS
WHAT ARE THIS XNILD YVAVES SAYING.
l . -
Play rommillvr' and PItlj'K?I'.Y of my Lmyyimgp S,-11001,
The Language School Play has become an annual event -looked
forward to by the Community. This year the plot was quite original
and unique and the performance was of high order, and well praised.
The Play Committee was composed ol:
Besse Milner. Chairman
Mrs. Ruth Brcde
C. S. lic-en
XVHAT ARE THE XVILD NVAVES SAYING?
An original play written and produced hy the students ofthe
Language School for the pleasure of the patrons of the Nanlcing'
Association. on the evening of April 27th, at the Young Mcn's
.. X X-. ,A 4
l04 "'l'HI'I LINGUIST'
Mission Board Secretaries all of New 'York City ti Suburb of Philaj
' Jeremiah G. Spearmint .... jesse B. Yaukey
Ignatius M. South . . . Stanley liirn
tialusha D. Flintheart . Oswald Goulter
Lettitia B. Feathertuss . Irene Gehrling
Adeniram j. Skinnem . . Albert Steward
Amy 'lil'E2:ltCll1WCll Qwidowj Helen Skilling
lchahod Youngtnan . . ,lustin Follette
lidith 'l'ravers .... liertha Smith
'Cornelius johnson . . . L. E. Blackman
Mr. Gia tl-lead Chinese Tcacherj Wang Yao-ting
Dean . . Baron Toppe
Language School Students
. George Stevens .... . William Ankeney
Other Students, Supernumeraries, etc. etc.
Matrimony having become so prominent, a part of Language
School life, the Board Secretaries are forced to ,adopt measures to
save young, unmarried women to the work. Protests on the part of
the Secretaries have proved of no avail, and even the dean, upon his
return from furlough, has been unable to stem the matrimonial tide.
The mischief still goes on.
In desperation the Secretaries call a conference in New 'York to
discuss ways and means of coping with the situation. VVith seriousness
.and dignity the wltole situation is canvassed. Varying and divergent
opinions are expressed and not a little warmth generated, but no
way out of the difficulty appears until the last speaker, a young
bachelor, one-time student in the Language School, now on sick leave
and serving his Board as Candidate Secretary, suggests that the good
of the Language School can be conserved and the young women saved
fto t-he work if the language were taught hy radio broadcasting. The
idea is received with enthusiasm, and adopted.
The experiment is tried out under the direction of its originator,
'but with results differing greatly from those anticipated. The students
are quick to see in radio possibilities quite beyond the limits of mere
Language study, and thru its use out of hours many engagements are
consummated. Taking advantage oi differing wave-lengths, George
Stevens of Chinkiang succeeds in diverting to his cousin julia, june
Stevens in Nanking, his roommate's Cjack Daltonj proposal of mar-
riage intended for his cousin's roommate, julia Hawkins. George then
'radios ,Iack's identical message to Julia Hawkins, who mistaking its
St?l1ClC1'fO1'JZ1Cl'f, accepts, contirming her acceptance by letter. june
Stevens, following instructions by mail, also sends confirmatory letter.
.-XS THIS GUEST OF .XX Ol"FlCI.'Xl. 105
After a montl1's trial, representatives ot the Language School
meet in classroom, Nanking, and listen in while Dr. Youngman, Board
Representative in charge of the experiment. radios his findings. lack
Dalton takes exception to one item of.,the report which-announces the
engagement of julia Hawkins to George Stevens, and is silenced with
didiculty with the promise that the matter can be rectified later if
The Secretaries upon hearing the report, reply that the plan has
succeeded too well,-far' beyond their expectations. and they advise the
return at once to the former methods, stating that it is better to let
nature take its course. Thereupon jack questions George and estab-
lishes his claimto 'lulia on the evidence he possesses in the form of
the letters of connrmation from both julia and ,I une, George not hav-
ing foreseen that both letters would be addressed to .lack Dalton. The
latter in a final burst of generosity turns over the eousin's letter to
George with the twofold suggestion that they marry and that they let
nature take her course.
General Feng Yu t-lsiang, the Oliver Cromwell ofiChinn, with his family.
l06 I -A "THE IJNGUIS F"
AS THE GUEST OF AN OFFICIAL.
Nine soldiers with fixed bayonets are really rather impressive.
Asked for my card, I was tempted to think that ldid not want to go
in after all. A few minutes later, I was escorted toward the guest
hall. We passed thru court after court, for in a Chinese home, the
most honored guests are received in the rooms farthest from the
Past the servants' quarters, brilliant with the gay colors of the
freshly washed quaint trousers and coats of the women of the house,
beyond the kitchens until we were niet by my host. His beautiful long
blue silk garments lined with whitest lambs' wool, his dignity and
bearing, marked him a Chinese gentlemang the respect of my soldier-
escort gave recognition of his position as the honored elder son of
.an high ohicial of the Republicg and his courtesy and charm, bespoke
in him much that is best and hopeful in New China. Continuing on
our way, he pointed out the entrance to the chamber where his father
even then sat in council with his cabinet, deciding the policies of the
nation. I thought of the significance to China and the world of some
of the things being decided even as we, unnoticed, passed-japan.
Russia, debts, loans, the 21 Demands, England, concessions. railroads,
all were there.
Thru still more elaborately carved moon doorways into several
more courts, and we had reached the guest hall, where I was im-
mediately presented to the Honorable Mother who awaited us there.
Comfortably plump she was, the sign to the Chinese of great hap-
-piness and my western mind found in the calm kindliness of her face
sanction of the sign. As I greeted her my eyes took in at a glance
the rare teakwood furnitureg the great, high window with the wide
seat beneath it. The floors were bare. but inia-corner was a tantali-
zing pile of rugs with only a glimpse of satisfying blues and golds
peeking out. I saw that one wall was almost covered to the ceiling,
scverai layers deep, with small boxes-rich lacquers and varnishes and
smooth surfaces-each with its striking black-lettered red tag pasted
-on the out-side. Later I was toldthat these boxes containedithe- gifts
that had been brought to the grandfather on his sixty-fifth birthday,
just passed-and I saw many of the gifts, rare old lacquers, ancient
brass of untold value, handsome new brass, wood carvings, until I
wished that I dared play thief.
But before I had had time to be curious about the boxes, a second
very attractive woman came in and I found myself being introduced
to my host's "Second Mother." "Second Mothern seemed a bit
strange to me but I thought it perhaps but his extremely polite or
affectionate way of speaking of his mother-in-law. I was still turn'-
ing the matter over in my mind when a gay little bird of a body came
dancing in, her smooth black hair not less full of shining lights than
her gloriously blue and black, silk garments, her feet, scarlet slippered,
twinkling in and out as gaily as if they were not less long than 1ny
hand is wide. I think I must have gasped a bit when she was intro-
AS 'PHE GUEST OF .KN OlilflCl'Xl. 107
duced as "Honorable Third Mother," for my host, speaking for the
lirst time in English, said quite simply and with a frank smile, "My
father's third wife." Three NVives! I immediately became alert,
watching for any sign of jealousy or ill-feeling. But neither then
'nor during the hours that I was there, did 1 see the least sign of it.
Even when a fourth' wife came in, tho no one recognized her by for-
mally introducing her, she was received into the conversation with
very little if any distinction or difference. The Honorable Mother
herself did not enter much into the conversation. Even during the
feast which followed she, secure in her honored position, sat back
-calmly and quietly while the third Mother directed the servants and
-carried all responsibility. All in all. they seemed most like a group
of sixteen year old girls having a party while Mother was away.
Shortly after the Second Mother's entrance. my host a mere lad
himself, had brought in his wife. just a littlengirl she was,with aching
bound feet in spite of the beautiful jade ornaments in her banglcss
hair, in spite of the cunning fat ball of a baby in the arms of the
servant who 'followed her, in spite of the evident pride and affection
of her young husband. She had immediately busied herself carrying
'to each Mother the lacquered box of lunglish cigarettes, often putting
them to her own lips to light them and then passing them on to the
Iilother, They thought it very strange that I would not smoke-but
then they knew that foreigners were very queer and one just had to
make the best of their strange ways.
js- 1 V r
Five months in China had scarcely made my knowledge of the
ilanguage complete, but 'tis strange how much can be done with a very
few words and many smiles. As we drank fragrant in-ehid-tea, etc.
watcrmellon seeds and other dainties, they told me many things of the
history of their own families and of their husband's family. llearned
lthat 1 was only the second foreign woman with whom they had ever
-come in contact. According to the ancient customs 'for the conduct
of the women of a wealthy, honored ollieial family like theirs, no man
-outside of the family is ever allowed to come into the women's por-
'-tion of the house 5 the women seldom leavethe house and then only to go
IOS "'l'Hl:l l.lNGl.'lS'll"
in heavily curtained carriages or cars to the equally secluded women's
quarters of one of the friends of their husband. They marvelled at
the yellow of-my hair, like children, they wondered at and gloried in
the fact that their skin, was even whiter and pinker than mine, a
member of the white raceg they were astounded to find that I wore no
heavy padded garments like theirsg and, because she was greatly con-
cerned lest I be freezing to death, as she sat beside me the gay little-
Third Mother dared lift the hem of my skirt to see how many pet-
ticoats I had on. It was all just as it should have been, according to
the stories that I had read. I loved it.
After we had taken tea, we walked thru the garden-more accu-
rately called the Rockery! The path led into quaint tea houses, past
lovely ponds fiecked with gold fishes. over rocks into cool corners to
handsome marble benches under great trees such as I had seen only inf
temple courts, down into a dimly lighted cave-the shrine of an idol
worshipped by at least two former presidents of the Chinese Republic'
but now deeply covered with the dust of neglect and disbelief-until'
we came back to the guest hall to find it prepared for the feast, the.-
. There was the usual parleying over who would have to submit to
being so extremely impolite as to be the first to seat himself at the
table, but that having finally been accomplished, the feast began. Ac-
cording to Chinese custom, the desserts are served first. and so, in the
centre of the table was placed a dish of The Eight Precious Fruits
and dish after dish of sweets and delicacies were placed about it. lt is.
Chinese custom, too, that each should reach into these dishes with his
own chop sticks, unless the guest has the honor of having the hostess,
first serve her with her own chopsticks. So one Mother and then
another served me--each vying with others to see who would be first
to serve me from each dish., I do not know how many dishes we were
served. As quickly as each had had sufficient from one dish, it was
taken away and another, steaming hot, was set in its place in the circle.
From time to time, the chopsticks, the two small dishes of fragile blue
and whitest China, and the long brass spoon were exchanged for clean
ones by one of the two women servants and the one man servant who
attended each guest. A ,A
For four hours we sat at the table. and the family was as much in-
terested in each new dish as was I, for they, you see, had not provided
the feast. VVhen some outsider wants to gain favor or to pay for
a past favor, he expresses to the ofiicial his desire to provide a
feast for him and for his honorable family. And so, the official, de-
siring to give this feast, had merely notified the man at the head of
his long list-and the feast had been provided. At the end, the family
determined the name of the feast according to the combination of
meats and vegetables and fishes served CEverything from delicious
chicken to jelly fish and sea slugs !'y 1 stated the known cost of such a
feast, and expressed their opinions of the donor. I am glad that I
am not an ofhcialseeking favor or position.
SEEING PALESTINE IN CHINA 109
My host goes to America this summer with his wife and baby.
I wonder il he will linil in my America thc same charm and courtesy
that I found in his home. Asl lclt. lie said "My people like you very
much. They say you are not proud." Proud? who are we Americans
that we should be tooproudto be friendly? It's small wonder that we
win them so slowly to Christianity. RUTH L. MYERS.
i A good catch: Fishermen after a haul in a large pond in the interior of
China, Ponds are very numerous and serve the twofold purpose of water sup-
ply and meat supply.
SEEING PALESTINE IN CHINA.
A journey from "Jericho to jerusalem" in China today will bring
before us in reality the scenes and customs that we have long visua-
lized in our imaginations only.
In China, away from the railroads, we travel a "day's journey."
We start with the dawn, either on foot or on donkey in order to reach
our destination while it is yet day. Otherwise we shall arrive to
find that "there is no room in the inn" and shall have to accept such
shelter as can be found.
As we pass through the country immediately outside the city wall,
we see the swine herders tending their swine among the tombs
and graves. Soon we come to the fields "white unto harvest."
Here and there the men are at work on the threshing floor, while
some distance away the poor folk from the city are gleaning after the
farmers who are laboriously cutting the grain with sickles. Some
fields are already harvested and in these the oxen are plowing with the
same cumbersome wooden yoke and plow of two thousand years ago.
As we travel on in the early morning we are interested in the fisher-
men who are fishing with nets in the ponds and streams. As we
near a farm house, we notice how the people are crowding around it.
110 "THE LINGUTSTH
We remember the story of jesus going to raise the boy from the
deadg I-Iow the crowd was so great that llc could scarcely enter.
The Bible often speaks of the wailing for the dead. As we draw still
nearer we can hear the women weeping. Only those who have heard
the Oriental woman "wail" can quite understand these Biblical ex-
The day is now "far spent" and we are weary with the slow travel-
ling. We too, come to the "village well" where all the villagers come
at some time during the day. We sit on the stone curb, which today is
furrowed deep by the constant rubbing up and down of the ropes of
the water buckets as they supplied for centuries the water for which
"men thirst again." While we are refreshing ourselves, the village
folk come out to see us. How often they bring a sick child to us and
ask for help or medicine. If we are friendly and talk to them or are
able to help them with the medicines that we always carry with us.
they too will return unto the village and. tell them "all things that we
have said and done to them." So that soon the whole country side
knows about us and is eager for our return. .
ittartgfff ' 1 r --
. sa .ff...- .,,.-.-..v,,, .1 ,r ,.v .3
This iS nQt l'lalziarn.'bnt, the burrow might be his ass.
SEEING PALESTTNE IN CHINA 111
Who has ever travelled much in China and not seen over and
over again the crowds which gather so quickly at any unusual eventg
Or has not seen the doorways so crowded that if one were to enter, it
would have to be by way of the roof. VVe can easily understand why
laccheus had to climb a tree in order to see jesus. How eagerly do
the Chinese sit or stand for hours to hear some preacher speak with a
message. The Oriental has no thought of the time if he is eager to
hear or to see. No wonder jesus could not send the people away but
"fed the multitudes" where he was. We can more clearly understand
how, after Peter's powerful sermon, more than three thousand were
added to the church in one day. The Orient seems full to overflow-
ing with children, and always where jesus was, the children too, would
gather. How natural it was for jesus to cal-l a child to him and bless
It or use it in his parable.
The next day is a feast clay. For just as in Bible times there were
Special feasts days and various gods, so in China today. As we draw
nearer to the city the crowds increase. We notice some dusty weary
travellers, dressed in a different garb. Upon inquiry we find that
they are famine sufferers from the north, and like Ioseph's brerln-en
are coming south with their asses to take back food and grain for
their families. All along the crowded way are the beggars, the halt,
the lame, the maimed and blind, and here and there a demoniac, all
reaching out their hands for help. Of course Jesus' great svmpa-
thetic heart went out to them and He healed them before He preached
to them. How apt was Jesus' story of the good Samaritan. for here
travellers "pass by on the other side" and leave those who are in trou-
ble or need, to their own fate. H
" ra ,at I 1
A well which has furnished water for centuries
We are now within sight of the great wall of the city of our
destination. We enter by way of the water gate which is muddy and
slippery from the hundreds of buckets of water which the people
have carried into the city during the day. We pass by the great city
temple. Here in the Orient the temple and court is a noisy market
place. It must have been such a scene ashthis which aroused the
1122 "Tl-lli l,lNGUlS'l"'
wrath of jesus at the desecration ofthe sanctity of the holy te1nple
and made l'lim take a scourge and drive them out saying 'fllily l"ather'S
house is a house of Prayer."
As we pass down the crowded streets of thc city we see enacted
before us many times the story of the rich man revclling in his plenty
and the poor scabby beggar "Lazarus" pleading on the door step for
bread. XVe realize anew why jesus said "the poor ye have with you
Many customs too, are identical with those of Palestine, twenty
centuries ago. The servant is sent out to inform us that the feast is
now prepared and we are invited to come for 'fall is ready." Wine is
still an important part of the wedding feast. The Chinese man of
today has very much the same attitude toward woman as did the
apostle Paul. As of old, every oriental man feels he must have sons,
even though it means he must take unto himself several wives or
concubines. The Bible speaks of "hiding tl1e treasure." The oriental
has no other way except hiding or burying his treasure. We can see
the man wrapping his talents in a napkin, for here everything of
value is wrapped in a square cloth or napkin for carrying or safe
keeping. When jesus could no longer struggle under His cross,a
passing Workman was commandeered to carry it for Him. So in
China, when troops are moving or necessity arises, any available man
may be commandeered into service.
The most precious idea of Christ as our mediator is one most
natural to the Chinese. The Oriental idea is always that a middle
personality should act for one in all matters of importance, and that
Christ should intercede for us at the Father's throne is a realistic
idea for the Chinese. ,
With the Chinese naturally familiar with Bible times and customs,
is it not possible that this developing, thinking, living Church of China
today in this twentieth century, may give to the past interpretations of
the Bible new richness and life? I. M. L.
ATHLETICS AND Spoars. D
Athletics and outdoor sports are common forms of recreation for
foreigners in China. And the Language School students have been
glad to avail themselves of the excellent opportunities for such games
as tennis and for hunting. To most of us it was quite a surprise tg
find deer hunting within three miles of the center of the ancient: city of
Nanking,-much nearer than we were accustomed to in the Hoinelands,
A thirty minute ricksiiatli-ide or an hour's walk takes one from the
University center to pheasant, wild duck or geese shooting or deer
hunting country. And 'during the game season venison, pheasant, duck
and geese were very common articles of food on our tables, The
Chinese hunt very little and then only with the most primitive of guns.
5 I were coming to China again
'HQ And had my clothes to buy,
' lg. I wou1dn't have to chew m
,L I , Y,PeU,
'G And think, and think, and Slgllj
J J And then not know just what to choose
' Or what to leave behind-
No precious time 1'd have to lose
In making up my mindg
. For though I've been out just a year
And still have lots to learn,
I've found some things are very dear
While some the Chinese spurn.
And others, every store will sell-
The price is moderate too-
So all new comers might do well
To glance these pages thru.
First, let me say that when you sail
The world's not all behind.
'l'here'll be folks out here without fail,
And they'rc by no means blindg
They may have gazed on Chinese styles
And even tried them too,
But they're not living in the wilds,
So they'll relish something new.
Then bring along some new style clothes,
Some dresses, thick and thin,
And don't forget to put in hose,
A dozen pairs, drop in.
A word, about these self-same hose,
They will not always wear,
Almost before the owner knows
'l'hey'll spring a leak or tearg
So why not bring along with you
If you would have the best,
Some bulls of darning cotton, new.
The amahs willldo the rest.
Now, other things you'll find quite high
Toothpaste, tooth brushes, soaps,
Pins, buttons, thread--one needs must b
You'll put these in, I hope.
Another thing that you should mark,
Though you may think it strange, '
A pair of glasses, colored dark,
They'll helpkeyou get your range. 1
Now shoes the Chinese try tofniake, i
And often they succeed, '
But bring a lotg it's,no mistake,
You'l! find for them a need.
And hair pins, bring them out with you,
For they cost money here,
But buying hairnets, a very few,
You can get them,-never fear!
If,you're inclined to have some play
Bring tennis racket, shoes,
For sometime in your busy day
These things you'd like to use.
Books, magazines and things to read
Are always in demand-
'Twill truly be a kindly deed
To have such things on hand-
In short, bring everything you own
And all your friends donateg
What you can't use, you'll surely loan
No matter what their state.
But after all is said and done,
I tell you this true-
There's really nothing' neath the sun,
That will count as much as YOU.
N. C. M.
WHAT SHALL l TAKIQ 115
WHAT SHALL I TAKE?
Who can describe that "lost" feeling which comes over one as he
attempts to list the articles of clothing and equipment which he
prepares to take to China? We have not forgotten how we debated
with ourselves whether we should spend a small fortune laying in a
supply of ivory soap, whether it really was necessary to buy the heavy
wool clothing, and whether or not it was foolish for us to take up
space in our already over-filled trunks by putting in our tennis
racquets. So, as we are now, able to sec for ourselves just what is
difficult or easy to get here in China, we should like to have you, who
are coming out, profit by our mistakes.
In the first place there is one important .thing to be considered,
namely the location of your station. lf you are to be in one of the
larger cities such as Shanghai or Peking you will find that it is posg-
ible to buy foreign-made goods. If however you are to be in a small
inland city which has little use for imported articles, you will have to
bring a supply of such things as soap, toothpaste etc. with you or, as
is frequently done, you may by mail-order, obtain these things from
the nearest large city.
The advertisements in this book, and we urge you to look them
over, will give you a fairly good idea of what may be purchased in the
large cities or ordered by mail.
Briefly stated, bring every thing that you have on hand and would
use at homey But be sure to include the following classes of
FOR YOUR HOUSE:
Matresses, bed springs and pillows tBed steads may be had in
China advantageously. This applies to furniture as well.l
Table linen tLuncheon sets are best secured herej
Mirrors: Frames are satisfactorily made here
Piano and Phonograph and a big supply of good records.
China ware and cooking utensils.
All personal things such as books and pictures. flirames are
advantageously secured in China.j
Unbreakable thermos bottle.
First aid kit.
Small hammer and penknife. .
Mosquito netting for beds.
Typewriter, if you expect to use one, but the standard typewrirel-5
may be purchased in Shanghai.
Personal musical instruments.
FOR WOMEN 3
Heavy woolen clothing, summer clothes may be had quite inex-
pensively here but variety of materials is limited.
116 "TI-IE LTNGUISTH
Rain coats, rubbers and overshoesg These are hard to get here. But
the Chinese umbrellas are cheap and serviceable.
Hats: QShanghai and Pekin are about the only places where they
may be purchased- and they are expensivej
Shoes: Un most places shoes can be copied and made at a small
cost but if you have trouble with your arches it is best to bring a
good supply of well fitting shoes.j
Stockings, woolen- tSilk stockings can be secured herej.
Tennis racquet and shoes: Both thesearticles and good balls may be
Subscription to your favorite style book.
Notions: thread, needles, pins, buttons, elastic and ribbons, snaps,
Heavy woolen clothing, underwear and overclothing. But suits
may be made in China at lower cost than in America. If,
however, you are fastidious about a fit bring a few suits along.
Summer duck suits may be secured advantageously here.
Field or hiking clothes, including your favorite hobnailed shoes.
Raincoats, rubbers and overshoes: These are hard to get in China.
Shoesg See the list for women.
Wading boots for duck shooting.
A good supply of woolen socks.
Shotgun: Good duck, geese and Chinese deer shooting may be had
in most parts of China along rivers and in the mountains.
Rifle: Wild boar shooting may be had in many parts of China. If
you have a rifle bring itg but it will be necessary to secure a
permit from the Chinese authorities through your consul to
import it. Some delay will be caused unless you writc ahead to
the Consul of Shanghai, China, for a permit so as to take it
with you. It takes time to get this permit CFrom one who knowsj.
Army camp cot. '
Bed roll for out door use, with tarpaulin etc.
Tennis equipment, but good racquets may be purchased in Shanghai.
Excellent.opportunities for tennis are found in most foreign
Neckties, collar buttons, collars.
Camera if you have one. Films and developing service are to bc
A Chinese Feast is a Royal Gorge as long as the Colorado.
ln China. when one asks- the number ol children in the family,
llle reply only includesboys, for girls are not considered worthy of
mention. ' '
RICKSHA SKETCHTCS 117
The policeman wins.
, ' ' ' roua of four of us, who went out
One day lm ile2.i1eigci1ai12itigt ainong the ricksha men. There
together, near y agitiu and it seemed that the one who had been
Wei? Hvelmfinnwest dzigdrft get a passenger,-at least that was the
waiting tie .3 gaake out of it, -and so he started an argument
best We Coin 'iiwuming beside them. They had to put down the
with thebot-leiiiorder to reply to his accusations, for the Chinese
flckslm alrbnljt effective without the use ofhands. 'llhere we sat at
langu?ge If of the main streets with autos wluzzing past and
the side of one Waxing eloquent and more eloquent in argument.
Our!r1diSh'?lmenlicl11't come to blowsg they didn't even touch each
Oh' no' Iii,-ctl the accepted theory of argumentation in China
Qther' for evl cn KGS the biggest noise and emits the largest number
IS: the wrnnelrbglgaexplosioirs in the shortest time. A crowd very
ot- monosy a 1 'mst as it does in America whena fight is in progress,
quickly gatherecfiiilference. The people in the crowd said not a wordg
-but with one tched and listened. Finally the crowd became so
they Simply Wa t gl a traffic block and then a policeman appeared
large that It ci-ig edispersed the crowd layer by layer until he came to
on the scenc.f the disturbance. Then by the simple procedure of
the .center 0 noise and exploding faster than the disturbers he
tiiegeand we went peacefully on our Way.
, 1- W
, 2 at
I A guardian of thc
,f peace: a type of po-
at all street intersec-
tions in Nanking. He
also exercises judicial
powers by settling
., disputes and quarrels
s of the neighborhood.
113 "'l'l-IE I,lNGU'IS'.l"'
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Satisfnction of having attained the correct tone.
"TI-IE LINGUIST " 119
I rf .
Mother and Son at Breakfast.
The problem of the child on the street: Without play-grounds, it is forced
to run the gauntlet of infections from- untold diseases on the filthy streets. A
child is. not counted in the census until it attains the age of eight so heavy is
infant and child mortality, To inHuence the childhood of to-day is to in-
fluence the manhood of to-morrow.
. 4 v
4 -Qian., ,' X A, A U Q ,
-. A HA ,, V vm A . ,
, iff' 4. ,,,4gm ' pp mu ffl' !!!l'!!. Mm! ' K li nn
lang, ., -I V 475 ' -f161r-'Wt 'Q'u"'1 it 319.191-pm-,Lg - -J,-. illill E
1, .1--,1-.... .. ,- - -., M,-A.,...,
71312 . -, , f 13: gif, 1..2 ttf: V713-'M " fx?-3,5-QSM"
Some University of Nanking Buildings
LINGUIST A D'VER"IlISIffR
PHCSPHCR IS TC THE BRAIN
WHAT ELECTRIC LIGHT IS T0
VVITHOUT PHOSI-'I-IOR YOU ARE IN
TI-IE DARK. However it must be the right
kind of Phosphor, because Phosphor as such is
a strong poison. In thc right kind of chemical
combination it is harmless.
Such a preparation is
They are assimilable, they are harmless-that is
non-poisonous. An occasional overdose will
do no harm.
One of the principal constituents is a Calcium
Salt of Glycerophosphate. The Calcium
Component helps to build up the bones. The
Phosphor is available for the formation and
improvement of nerve and brain substance.
Phosphor is important because in any kind of
brain work a small amount of Phosphor is used up.
THIS IS A SCIENTIFICALLY ESTAB-
LISHED FACT. Unless this is replaced, the
final result may be a nervous breakdown.
are sweet as sugar and may be taken with tea,
coffee, milk or water.
53.00 A LARGE BOTTLE
AMERICAN DRUG COMPANY
40-42 NANKING ROAD ---- SHANGHAI.
"OUR JOB, me DISTRIBUTION or cnmsrmn LITERATURE, YOUR JOB, T09
I , f CHCRH SLJQEI
Jil To Jwvcp
A CRYING NEED FOR GOOD BOOKS!
THE I,'LlI'.f1II'l.N'U HOUSE FUR
CHINESE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE
LANGUAGE STUDY aooxcs
MEDICAL Booxs IN CHINESE
.ALSO BOOKS LN' ENGLISH
General, Religious, Educational, Historical,
Literary. Sociological, Scientific, Etc.
Our Household Department
Ia Fm Becoming the MI,.Immae.' SERVICE OF SUPPLIES
Wlivre-cmff' you gn, wc' endcaffor fo supply your awry need.
THE MISSION BOOK CO.
13 North Szechuen Road
,J l i ' l u
2 l,lNCUlS'l' .fXDVl2R'lllSER
SENG CHUN 84 OO.
CA1295 BROADWAY. SHANGHAI?
Extelzd lo you a Cardin! H"eIc0me.' Lei our
Swatow 9Drawn 'Z17orR,'
Isaequer and Silver wares .'
loinens, Silks, Ernbroideries,
We are manufacturers.
Wholesale and Retail Dealers
to you the worth of the Chinese artistic taste.
In Visiting Nanliihg
THE BRIDGE HOUSE
Warm in Winter
Cool in Summer
Hot and Cold Water and latest Sanitary Arrang
A Clean, Comfortable and Good Tzible
Y 0 ' yn
lf Ilrdfl' I9 orezgn Manage
STUDENT DIRECTORY 123
THE UNIVERSITY OF NANKING
DEPARTMENT OF MISSTONARY TRAINING
ST UDENT R OST ERS
RESIDENT STUDENTS-SCHOOL YEAR 1922-1923. -
SE I HU
FFF! Bl' R
I. CLASS ENTERING OCTOBER 1921-
Julia F. Allen ................... . . ., .............. Danville. Kentucky.
Mt. Holyoke, B. A. College of Missions.
Educational work, Nanking. Christian Mission.
, n ...................................... . ' '
cl-T:dg:golTegc.oTXcT B. College of Missions, HUM" Ohm'
Evangelistic and educational work, Chuchow, Anwhei. Christian Mission.
Eleanor Blackstone ............................,..... Nanking, China,
Hillcrest High School. Methodist Episcopal
James Blackstone ..... ......................... .... N a nking, China.
Hillcrest High School, Methodist Episcopal.
Elvira M. Braden .......................... .... L owell, Mass,
Columbia: Y.W.C.A. Training School.
Y. W. C. A. Nanking.
Edith Johnson. .................,...... .... I ,atham, Kansas,
Kansas Sanitariuni, R. N.
Nurse, Shanghai. Seventh Day Adventist.
'Virginia Kirk, .......................,,...... .... D es Moines, Iowa.
Drake University, A. B.
Educational work, South Gate. Nanking. Christian.
.James H. McCallum, ............................. 1. . .Engenc. Oregon.
University of Oregon, Yale, College of Missions, B, A. B, D.
Evangelistic work. South Gate. Nanking. Christian. '
Earl Otto, ...................................... Covington, Kentucky.
University of Cincinnati, A. B., M. A.
Educational Work. Nantungchow, Ku. Christian,
Howard L. Shull, ............................ Burlington, New jersey
Washington Missionary College, B. A.
Educational, Nanking. Seventh Day Adventist.
Helen Skilling, ........,............................. Los Angeles, Cul,
University of Southern California. Business College,
Secretarial, Nanking. Presbyterian. South.
Ralph W. Spreng, .................................
Valparaiso University, Western Reserve University, M. D.
Physician, Yuhsien, Hunan, United Evangelical.
II. CLASS ENTERING JANUARY,1922-
john William Decker.. .. ..... ........................ N ew York Citry
.Richmond College, M. A., Th. D. S. Baptist T. S.
General and educational, East China. Baptist North,
-..........-." Save your eyes-"............-..-
C ' VISION pf
2 Q 'C
. .. . I I
X T o ' 'I
' 2, I,
H :Li-:fig 1914
N one's study of Chinese language, both written and
! speaking, his eyes are required to spend most of the
gyfifjj time in getting acquainted with the Chinese charac-
' ters which are brand new to the new comer in his life.
You are greatly handicapped in the class room with those
who have fully equipped eyes, if your eyes are at faultg
or even your vision seems to be good but you are feeling
the sensation of strain. The eye is a living, changing,
highly adaptable organ that can be driven to function long
after the margin of safety has been passed. But when
this is done the penalty must inevitably be paid, even
though nature apparently defer collection of her debt.
The frequent examination of your eyes at Chinese Optical
Company will tell whether they need aid of glasses or not.
It will involve you in no obligation to visit us. Optome-
trist in charge of refraction is American educated in his
special work and you can rest assured to have quality
services required in Modern Optometry. Missionaries
are allowed an extra discount of regular selling price.
til Q ee HE le eil '11
CHINESE OPTICAL COMPANY
Corner of Nanking 8: Lloyd Roads
Branches in all leading cities 8: Hongkong
STUDENT DIRECTORY 125
I BFE -13: Mrs. Margaret Laws Decker, .... N Y -
Richmond co11ogo,B. A. ew Drk Cay'
Ba t' t, N.
E E75 152 Mrs. Nina Culver ....... ....... , ..... .... ....... Q u i nge: Kaiigin
Evangelistic Work, Nanking. Stewart Foundation.
iii H S Elsie B. Heidenreich, ............ ...................... W oodbine Ill
West Side Hospital, R.. N. '
Nurse, Hunan. United Evangelical.
W Ei? B2 Mrs. Lee S. Huizenga, .............. ..... ,,,, l .
U. B. A. Hospital. Englewood' N' J
' Nurse, Rukoa, Ku. Christian Reformed.
W'1'lllli!..E'. Louise C. May, .................................... New York Citv
Massachusetts Leuccal Hospital, Boston. '
Nurse, General Hospital, Wuhu. Methodist, North,
5 Eli BJ: Mrs. Eva Anderson McCallum., ........................ Riverside. Cal
Whittier, College of Missions, B. A.
South Glate, Nanking. Christian.
532 :js 1111 Alice M. McBee, .................................... Zanesville, Ohio.
Ohio Wesleyan, B. A.
Educational work, Hitt Training School, Nanking. Methodist, North,
FE ya AE Ben H. Schmidt, ................................ Yakima., Washington
Northwestern University, and Univ. of Oregon.
Y. M. C. A.
M W BI Mrs. Mary G. Schmidt, ....... ........ S outh Pasadena, Cal.
Occidental, A. B.
Y. M. C. A. ,
National Y. W. C. A. Training' SCIIOOI.
Q ii E Lydie M. Shields, .......................... ...... P hiladelphia, Pa
Penna. Hospital Training School- R. N.
Nurse, Hunan. United Evangelical.
5 QE B3 Locke White ,.... ................,.................... B lackburg, V'a
Davidson College, N. C., A. B.
Evangelistic., Hsuchowfu, Southern Presbyterian,
5 B75 H12 Mrs. Emma Edmunds White .................. , ........ Blackburg, Va,
Randolph-Mac'on,, B. A., M. A.
Hsuchowf.u,, Ku. Southern Presbyterian. I
ll fb 181 .Iva M. Williamson, .................................. Zanesville, Ohio.
Ohio Wesleyan, B. A.
Evangelistic, Hitt Training School., Nanking Methodist Episcopal.
III. CLASS ENTER-ING OCTOBER, 1922-
BZ U F5 Mr. Roger M, Altman, .............. Takoma Park, Washington, D, C
Editorial -work, Shanghai. Seventh Day Adventist.
9E15fEBililB: Mrs. Ethel Lee Anderson,. . --.---..-...--.---... .-... E lgin, Illinois.
North Western University, B. S., M. A.
Educational, Yuhsien, Hunan. United Evangelical. i
QE E Q! Dr. Wm.. M. Ankeney. ,......... .......... . ............. . ..Zenia,, Ohio
Heidelberg University, Western Reserve Medical., A. B., M. D.
Medical, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Reformed C11'u'rch of U. S, A,
lf IINLLLXIXIII R
CHI CHRNG COMPRNV
Swatow Drawn-Work and
Color Cross Stitch Work
Bead Necklaces '
Free Jnspecfion Jnviiea
at 1297 Broadway,
sTUDaN'r Dnuzcfroay 127
E TE W George I. Appcli, ...................... .. ....... ..... I Jortla d O -
wana VValla Colle-ge,B. A. H ' 'emu
Evangelistic, East China. Seventh Day Adventist,
HE W H3 Banton, Harold li .....,... . ..... ............. f ..... B '1 M '
Dartmouth, A. B. ngori A ame
General. Nanking. American Advent.
3115 BFE ill: Mrs. Harold E. Banton, ........ . ....... ....... B angor Maine
General., Nanking. American Advent. i
lil!! Q ,lil Dorothy E. Buscom, ............................ Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo, B. A. A
liducational, Shaowu, Fukicn. American Board,
FFF! Q C L. E. Blackman, ....................... .............. P rinceton, N C
VVake Forest, B. A. S. Ban. Theo. Seminary Louisville Ky. '.l'h. M. i
livangelistic, Yangchow. Ku. Baptist. South.
H1 lilli EJ: Mrs. Gladys Yates Blackman, ..................... ....Sanford N C
George Peabody., B.S. Missionary Training School Louisville Ky. an I V
livangelistic, Yangchow. Ku. Baptist, South. i "
'EL Ei B21 limeline Bowne, .... . ...--..-..-..--...................... Utica N Y
Massachusetts General Hospital.. R-. N. ' '
Nursing, educational., Anking Anhwei. American C11-urch Mission
HI zi: Q Stephanie Bradford, ..................... - ............ Boyce, yzirgium
N. Y. Training School for. Deaconesses.
' Educational, Nanking. Ku. American Church.
Z :FE QE Alexander Brede,, ................. ................ D etroit, Michigan
University of Michigan, A. B. ' '
lfducationalh University of Nanking. University of Nanking,
22 llrll HJ: Mrs. Ruth Powell Brede. .......................... Berkley., California
Univ, of California, A. B. Radcliffe, M. A.
University of Nanking. Christian.
Q .Lu Susan Willard Brown, ........................... . . .Midville, Georgia
Univ. of Missouri, Rush Medical, A. B., M. D.
Medical, Shanghai. fMargaret Williamson Hospitall Methodist S,
ill! E HSE Christine Brunemeier, ............ . ................... Hubbard, Iowa
North Western College., B. S. in H. E. '
Indiustrial, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Evangelical.
W All H Louis C. Bysted, ........... ........................... J anesville, Wig
Reformed Mission House, A. B., M. H. Theological Seminary,
Evangelistic., Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A,
'FEI BW H32 Mrs. Lydia A. Bysted, ................................ Plymouth, Wig
Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A. K'
ii za M Cameron A. Carter, .................. -. .... ........ Vg Iashingtou' D- C
Washington Missionary College., A. B. '
Educational, Nanking. Seventh Day Adventist
lil RFE BJ: Mrs. Mabel Bowen Carter-, ........... . .......... ..Takomn Pai-if D C
Washington Missionary College. ' ' '
Educational. Seventh Day Adventist
El as IN Charlotte A. Dunlap., .............. . ......... .... Vt 'innsboro S C
Nursing, East China. Presbyterian, South.
BROWNHE PHOTO C0
16 KU 1 LAN
H. L. Yao No. 780
Flash-lights Photo Supplies
Work Prompt Prices Moderate
Special attention given to
Mail Orders Receive Prompt Attention.
STUDENT DIRECTORY 129
Erna Flatter, ................................... . . .. -
Milwaukee State Normal School. 'Wausau' Wm
Educational, Hunan. Reformed Church U. S. A,
Justin P. Follette, ..... I .................... ......... I amul, California
University of California, Drew Theological-, A. B., B. D,
Evangelistic, Nanking. Methodist Episcopal.
Mrs. Clarice W. Follettei, ..................... Santa Maria, California
University of California, A. B.
Evangelistic, Naulcing. Methodist Episcopal.
Rachel G. Franklin, .......................... ..... P liiladelpliia Pa
Vassar, A. B. '
Educational, Changsha, Hunan. Presbyterian.
Irene A. Gehrling, .................................. Cincinnati, Ohio
Grace Hospital, Virginia. I
Medical, Anking, Anhwei. Amerlcan Church Mission.
Ella Mary Gernhardt, ............................ Woodburn, Iridigma
Wheaton College, A. B.
Educational. Hengchow, Hunan. Presbyterian.
Elizabeth Gotwalt, ...... . ......,.............. ,,,, , ,
Frankford Hospital Training School, Ri. N.
Married February, 1923, Mrs. John Alston, Puchen, Ku,
Oswald Goulter, ............................... . ....
Phillips Unive-rsity, Yale, M. A., B. D.
Evangelistic Luchowfu, Anghwei. Christian.
Mrs. Irene Goulter-, ................ . . ......... . . ..
College of Missions,
Evangelistic, Luchowfu, Anghwei- Christian.
Justine E. Granner, ........................ ' ...... ... .Hubbard, Iowa,
North Western College, B. A.,
Nursing. Ill. Training School R. N-. Tungjen, Kweichow, Izvangelicalu
Sumner Guelrry, .................................... Charleston, S, C,
University of the South, B. A. Va. Episcopal Seminary
Evangelistic, Kiangsu. America'n Ch-urch Mission
Joseph A, Guild, .................................. Washington, D, C.
VVashington Missionary College,
Evangelistic, Kiangsu. Seventh Day Adventist
Frances Willard King, .................... . ....... St. Lawrence, S, D
Huiron College, University of Minnesota, B. S., M, S,, M, D. '
Medical, Margaret Williamson, Shanghai. Women's Union,
Mrs. Harry L. Kingman, ....................... Claremont, California.
College of the Pacific, A. B.
Y. M. C. A. Shanghai. Y. M. C. A.
Stanley Paul Kirn, ......... .. ............... . .... Coleman, Michigan
North WVestern College, A. B., B. D. '
Evangelistic, Shencliowfu, Hunan. Evangelical Association.
Mrs. Esther Weihing Kirn,. . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . .Naperville, Illinois.
North Western College, A. B.
Evangelistic, Shenchowfu, Hunan. Evangelical Association.
-Spring Grove, Pa.
ESTABLISHED 1 886
C. ISM ER 85 O.
44 Nanking Road, Shanghai
Suppfy Zhe Kes! in
a Z' fowesf ggrices
Do you want a reliable firm Qwho have upto
date dark rooms and apparatus under FOREIGN
Supervisionj to do your developing and printing?
If so, send to us. We guarantee to take the
greatest possible care with all orders.
We have also a large selection of pictures and
picture post cards of Chinese native industries
Mactavish 81 Co., Ltd.
Opposite the Garden Bridge
STUDENT DIRECTORY 131
W. C. Lowdermilk, ................................. Willcox, Arizona
University of Arizona, Oxford, B. A., CB. S.,J M. A.
Forest Research and Educational. University of Nanking.
Mrs. Inez Marks Lowdermilk .................... Pasadena, California
University of Southern California, B. A.
Educational and Evangelistict Nanking. University of Nanking.
Besse B. Milner, ....................................... Farley, Iowa
Cornell, A. B.
Educational, Nanchang. Methodist Episcopal.
Natalie Crawford Moffett, ............................ Pensacola, Fla
Florida State College, B. A.
Educational, I-Iangchow, Che. Preshytefitlll, South.
Ruth L. Myers, .................................. Greencastle. 'Indiana
DePauw, Northwestern University, B. A.
Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal.
Orene McElwaine,.... .......... . .... ..................Chester. S. C.
Winthrop College, A. B.
Educational, Hsuchowfu, Ku. Presbyterian, South,
Bertha Iirauces Park, . .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..Palmyra, Illinois.
Eureka College, A. B.
Robert Alexander Peterson, ........ . ....... .... Sioux City. Iowa.
State University of Iowa, B. S.. M. S., M. D.
Medical, Wuhu, Anhwei. Methodist, Episcopal.
Grace Madeline Pike, .................................. Pasadena, Cal.
Los Angeles Bible Institute.
Bible Teaching, Changsha, Hunan. Hunan Bible Institute.
Dss. Caroline Churchill Pitcher, .......... . ....... Lakeland, Louisiana.
New York Training School for Deaconesses.
Evangelistic, Nanchang, Ki. American Church Mission.
Carl Robart, ........... .. .- ........ ' ............... Copley, Oluo.
Baldwin-WVallace, A. B. E
Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal.
Mrs. Grace Robart ,.........' .................... .... G r eenich, ,Ohio.
Educational, Kiukiaug, Ki. Methodist Episcopal.
Hesser C. Ruhl,-- .................................. Philadelphia, Pa.
Park College, Hartford Theological Seminary, A. B.
Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U'.S.A.
Mrs. Hessen' C. Ruhl ,...... ........................ P hiladelphia. Pa.
Bryn Mawr, A. B. '
General, Yochow, Hunan. I. Reformed Church, U.S.A.
William E. Schubert, ................................ San Diego, Cal.
Univ. of Southern California, Drew Theological Seminary, A.B., B.lJ.
Evangelistic, Kiangsi. Methodist Episcopal.
Emily Mary Schultz, .............................. White Plains, N.Y.
Mt. Sinai Training School for Nurses, N.Y.C.
Nurse, East China. Baptist, North.
S A M J O E Q C O.
W'e always keep goods of only the best quality.
We guarantee the quality of all the goods
supplied by us and in case of any
articles not being approved of
We replace or refund.
Special Prices for Large Quantities
PHUNESQOFFIGE - - T - - NORTH 1095
BUSINESS DEPI. - - WEST 405
A 1114 Broadway SHANGHAI
'I' EQ EE is
E 1HfBzaeiaiisrerrvf1rswfr1flf1e Z
QQ zsl: VAN SHANG EH
Head Ofiice in SHANGHAI ,J
H Boot, Shoe and Arms H,
FH Weapons Maker p fi
H -- +
15 HUA-PAI-LOW-NANKING if
53 Jlt 63' J: 35'
' STUDENT DIRECTORY
H1 El M Albert N. Steward, .............................. Missoula, Montana
'Oregon Agricultural College, B.S.
Educational, University, of Nanking Methodist. Episcopal
Myrtle Stone,............... ......
Boston University, School of Religious Education,
Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal
Mollie E. Townsend, ................... ......
N.C. College for Women, Bellevue Hospital, R.N.
Medical, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist Episcopal
Mrs. Ruth B. Trimmer, ................... . . . . . .
New Jersey State Normal, Methodist Episcopal.
Charles H. Voss, ............................. ..
- . .Baton R .
Da. State University, Tulane Medical School, A.B., Ouge, La'
Medical, Sutsien, K,u. Presbyterian, Sofuth.
Rose E. Waldron, .................... .. . .......
Pomona College, A.B.
Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodsit, Episcopal.
Mrs. Charles W. Worth, ...........
Winthrop, Cornell University,
Evangelistic, Kiangyin, Ku. Presbyterian, South.
Jeanie W. NVoodbridge, ..................... - . .
Jesse Baer Ygukey, .............................
Ursinus, Central Theological, A.B., B.D.
Evangelistic, Hunan. Reformed Church U.S,A,
Charles W. Worth, ........................... . .
Davidson College, A.B., B.D.
Evangelistic, Kiangyin, Ku. Presbyterian, South.
- - - --Luzerne, N,Y
.Valle Crucis, N,C,
. . . . . . Rutledge, Pa
--Los Angeles, Cal,
- f -Wilmington, NLC
- - - Waynesboro, Po,
. . .VVilmington, N.C.
IV. CLASS ENTERING JANUARY 1923-
Gertrude Beckwith, ..... ................. .... H a ydenville, Mass
Nursing, ChaoHsien, K-u. American Advent.
Rhoda Burdeshaw, ......... . ................... . . .Dotham, Alabama
Asbury College, A.B.
Educational, Szechuen. Methodist Episcopal.
William S. Cutchins, ..... ....... . - .............. Richmond, Virginia,
Princeton University Va. Mil. Inst.
Lydia Dahl, ............. . .... . .. . . . .Minneapolis, Minn.
Secretarial, Stewart Foundation.
Eula Erno,, . ............ .. .... ................... D es Moines, Iowa,
Drake University, Womcn's Medical College oi Pla. A.B., M.D.
Medical, Chinkiang, Ku. Methodist Episcopal.
MrS. Carr N. Eubank, ............................. . Oakhill, Nanking
Missouri State University, A.B.
- Shanghai, China.
134 LINGUIST ADVERTISER
" BLACKSTON E "
FOR REFINED, CRUDE, OR RESIDUAL OILS.
SIMPLE, RELIABLE, ECONOMICAL, EASY
TO MANAGE, C-LEAN IN WORKING
"Blackstone " engines representing many thousands
of horse-power now running in China giving
utmost satisfaction to users.
Ph togrnph of 50 B.H.P. "Bla k t Crude Oil Engine
Installed I the Shanghai College I r Driving the Eleclric
H Lighting Plant
THE "BLACKSTONE" OIL ENGINE
REPRESENTS THE HIGHEST GRADE
OF BRITISH MANUFACTURE
STOCKS FROM 3 TO 75 B.H.P. KEPT IN SHANGHAI
ROSE, DOWNS 81 THOMPSON fFarEast,, Ltd
Engineers 8: Machinery Merchants
Q9 06672115072 Road, Sfmilgiunzi
STUDENT DIRECTORY 135
E Q MS Patrick C. Gilmore,..A .................. ..... B ristol, England
Cains College, Cambridge University.
5 QE ,El Mary L. Griffiths, ......................... . ...... Norwich, England.
Durham University, M'.B., B.S., D.T.M. and H,
Medical, Kweilin, Kwangsi. Church Missionary Society,
NR RR I Wilhelmina Kalsbeek, ...................... Grand Rapids Michigan,
Union Missionary Training Institute, Kennedy School of Mission
Evangelistic, Rukao, Ku. Christian Reformed.
XE ,Ei H Ida Mae Keister, .......................... Vermillion, South Dakota,
University of South Dakota, A. B.
Educational, Szechuen. Methodist Episcopal.
E EFF BJ: Mrs. Moore, .................................. Stewart Fo.undati0n
2? EFF El: Mrs. Martha Smith Schubert, ................. ..... S an Diego, Cal,
Evangelistic, Kiangsi. Methodist Episcopal.
IW aa H Bertha C. Smith. .............................. ..... M ethuen, Mags,
Simmons College, S.B.
Secretarial, Nanking. University of Nanking.
H E Bla Ellen E. Smith, ...................... . ........... Denver, Colorado,
Coe Collge, B. A.
Educational, Kiukiang, Ki. Methodist, Episcopal.
li E H Mabel Taylor, .................... . ............... Cascade, Montana.
Northwestern University, B.A. Mont. State Normal College
Educational, Chinkiang, Ku. Methodist, Episcopal.
E QE ZH Notto Ngrmgm Thelle, ................ ...... . .K1'lStiZll1Sal1O, Norway,
Christian Mission to Buddhists, Nanking.
Secretarial and Evangelistic. Norwegian Missionary Society,
H 152 I Florence A. NVebster, .......................... Fargo, .North Dakota
Fargo College Conservatory, of Music
' Musical and stenographic, Hangchow, Che. Baptist, North.
r .... ................ . .Champaign Illinois
BH H iii E. Pauline Wisegarve , .. .. . , ,
University of Illinois. A. B.
Educational, Nanking. Methodist, Episcopal.
.Slvtnghai 4 China
Q .Ei DEE! Caspar L. Woodbridge, ............................. .1 , ,
Princeton University, John Hopkins Medical B. A., M. D.
Medical Haichow. Ku. Presbyterian, South.
55 Eli? 'Er Mrs. C. Woodbridge, ............................... Baltimore, Md,
Haichow, Ku. Presbyterian, South.
136 LINGUIST ADVERTISER
Ebr. JY. wander 1956, gierne
g THE BEST TUNIC FOOD
Ovomaltine is composed of' Diastasic Malt-Extract, full
cream Swiss-Milk, fresh Eggs, and flavoured with Cocoa.
Ovomaltine is a super nourishment, thus the best restorative.
Ovomaltine is indispensable to the Convalescent, the
expectant and nursing Mother, to rapidly growing children.
If you are overworked, if you are "out of sorts," if you
can't sleep, Ovomaltine is the thing for you.
The ever increasing demand for Ovomaltine, and the fact
that many oi the world's leading Physicians not only prescribe
it with great success to their patients, but have made Ovomaltine
theirs, and their families' daily beverage, is a striking testimony
to the established merits of this very popular Tonic Food
give it a trial
Sold at all the leading CHEM1s'rs he STORES
Sole Agents for China
Siber lyegner Q Co.,
Gbe Band, Sbangljai.
Y. M. C. A. ........... .
STUDENT DIRECTORY 137
1 Arthur, Rev. J. H. .... .
2 Arthur, Mrs. J. H. .... .
3 Bailey, Rev. W. E.. .
4 Bailey, Mrs. W. E. .... .
5 Boone, Mr. W. D. --.---
6 Boone, Mrs. W. D. ..
7 Broadhead,Miss AlmaG.
8 Chaney, Miss Florence J.
Clayton, Mr. E. H. ---- -
Clayton, Mrs. E. H.
Conner, Miss Lottie ....
Mrs. Dr. Irwin. - . - . -
Derry, Miss Evelyn T...
Frank, Miss Marion F
Herschleb, Mr. Chas. A.
Herschleb, Mrs. C. A...
16 Hyde, Miss Flora A. .- - -
17 Mrs. F.W. Dietrich. .
18 Hynds, Miss lva ........
19 Jacob, Miss W. E., ..... .
20 Kesler, Miss Mary ------
21 Lee, Miss Mabel L .-----
22 Lee, Miss Mary E. ..... .
23 Lewis, Mr. John A.
24 Lillegaard, Mr. G. 0. --
25 Loomis, Miss Jean ......
26 Mayo, Miss Mary ..-- -- -
Mrs. Fred Brown .
28 Mills, Mr. W. P ....
29 Mills, Mrs. W. P. ..
30 Nasmith, Rev. A. J- -
31 Osborne, Miss Olive ....
32 Pittman, Miss Alma L- --
33 Rahe, Miss Cora.. .
34 Roberts, Mr. R. C.
35 Roberts, Mrs. R. C.
36 Sloan, Dr. T. D-- -
or, Rev. W. R
or, Mrs. W. R
39 Van Evers, Mr. K ..... Q -
40 Van Evers, Mrs. K
41 Van Wageneu, Miss K
Mrs. Steve Bugs. .
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
.Baptist, North ....
Baptist, North ........
Presbyterian, North. .
Presbyterian, North ....
Baptist, North ........
Methodist, North ......
if. 'nf fI'.'. .' ff I f
Methodist, North ......
Y. M. C. A. . .... ..... . .
Methodist, North ......
Pentecostal Miss ....
Y. W. C. A. ........., ..
Methodist, North ......
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Melliodist. North ......
Norwegian Luth, Miss. .
Methodist, North ......
Pentecostal Mission ....
Methodist, North ......
Y. M. C. A. ........... .
M. C. A.
. . .Baptist, North .. . .
S. D. A ....... ..........
Baptist. North ........
Methodist, North ......
Presbyterian, North ..--
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Baptist, North ........
Baptist, North ........
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
Memorial Hos. N'lcing
42 Vautrin, Miss Minnie . .F. C.. M. S. .......... . .
43 Westbrook, Rev. C. H. .Bapt1st, North ....... .
44 Westbrook, Mrs. C. H. .Baptist North --...... Shanghai, Ku,
138 LINGUIST ADVER'l'lS1ill
Andersen, Meyer E? Co., Ltd.
SH .11 .NUH .Xl I
H Juzizclzcs Through 0 ut C11 ina
Textile Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Equipment and Supplies
Railway Equipment and Supplies
HENG KONG COMPANY
For many years we have been supplying clothing for
Come and fry us and you will know why
I-IENG KONG COMPANY
Phone N. 1225 M Y9 9 Nghizzczlgen Road
White, Rev. S. G. ..... .
White, Mrs. S. G. ..... .
Wood, Mr. K. H ........
Youtsey, Miss Edith.. .
Andersen, Mr. R. A. .
Andersen, Mrs. R. A- -
Chapman, Mr. B. B. . . . .
Christiansen, Miss Olive
Clemons, Mr. Harry --.-
S. D. A.....
S. D.A ..... ......
S. D. A ........... ..
Methodist, North . .
Lutheran Synod ........
Lutheran Synod ....
Lutheran Synod ....
Davitt. Dr. G. G ........ Baptist. North ....
Davitt. Mrs. G. G ..... ..Baptrst, North
Dennig, Mr, Herbert E.Y. A. .... . . . .
Gaunt, Dr. F.
Mrs. B. B. Chapman. . .
. P. H .... Presbyterian, North
P. H .... Presbyterian, North
P ........ Methodist., North ..
Methodist, North ..
Gaunt. Mrs. F. P ........
P sb terian, North
Cowen, Mr. Vincent H. YC y
Hayes, Mr, Egbert M. . M. A. ..... . ..
Hayes, Mrs. E. M ...... Y. ln. C. A. ....... .
Highberger, Mr. W. W.Presbyterian, North
Highberger, Mrs. W. W.Presbyterian, North
Hiltner, Dr. W. G .....-
Hiltner, Mrs. W. G ....
Hixson, Miss Martha B.Methoclist, South,..
Hoy, Miss Gertrude B..Reformed Church..
Kidder, Miss Anna E..Presbyterian, North
Knecht, Mr. T. S.
Knecht, Mrs. T. S ....
Larsen, Mr. N. A ....
Larsen, Mrs. N. A
. . . . . . United Evangelical
. . .United Evangelical
. . Lutheran Synod.. .
. Lutheran Synod. - .
Leach, Dr. C. D..
Leach, Mrs. C. D
Lee. Mr. Alan W. S .... Episcopal .... ..........
M' H ttieR Presbyterian North.
Maccurdy. iss a . 1
M. C. A. ........... .
McCIoy, Mr. C. H ...... Y.
McCloy, Mrs. C. H ...... Y. M. C. A. -------- -
Mead, Mr. Laurence M.Y. M. C. A- .------.... .
Niles, Rev. Frank R .... Presbyterian, North ....
Nipps, Mr. J. W ........ Y. M. C. A. -.--------- -
Nipps, Mrs. J. W.. .... Y. M. C. A -..-......-.
Perkins, Dr. E. C ...... Methodist, North ......
Peterson, Miss Ellen J. .Baptist, North ....... .
Powell, Dr. C. A.. ...... Advent Chrlstian Miss--
rs. C. A. . .... Advent Christian Miss. .
iiiii.Baptist, North ........
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
Yochow City, Hun,
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
H waiyuan, An,
140 LINGUIST ADV1'lRpTISIfI R
GEE SHING FHUIT SHOP
ALL FRUITS IN SEASON
We are glad to ship in
quantities to the interior.
You can rely on us to do
-- the right thing ---
GIVE US. A TRIALI
N. Szechuen Road Ext.
THE CHINA PRESS
THE CHINAIPRESS ij Mg H ff- -Q gg Z jg
is the only American Daily in me 531 ig 75 915 ,fy jg 3 IE
Sh h ', dth I d' f - ,,,
eigirgewigpgser of tif? Ext 15 'E' 'I' T4 'E' W H W is
in iiiiiuegilceland circulagoni d 55 Z 52 5 B, B IP B B
tu 1165111 resc oo an -
studegt rsiews con scientific, ii if gg a Z IE 5 ia 'h
Edscqtional, dSpgJrts,l Igollitical. Bu IQ iii: H 75 EE, JE 32 if
e ous, a 'oc'a .u 'e ts . .
tharigainy othgr dailyliuChi2aF HIE Q 15 if if 55' in If
Special rates to Students. I IR ii IW! if 5 71 lil --
WATCH ITS COMIC FEATURES
III ii W Wi' Z PII iii 55
Sample copies and rates on application.
ST UDENT D I R ECTO R Y
Mrs. G. T. Tootell ......
Robinson, Mr. A. G ....
Sparey, Miss Edna R ....
Stone, Miss Mabel C ....
Tenwich, Miss Anna M.
Tomlinson, Miss Sada C.
Wear, Mr. Robert B ..--
Wilcox, Rev. F. C ....,. Baptist, North ...... .
Wilcox, Mrs. F. C ...-.-
Adams. Mrs. A. G. . . . .
Ammerman, Helen B. .
Banta, Frances Irene . .
v. iff c. Aff ....
Baptist, North .
Baptist, North .
M ethorlist, North ......
Y. M. C. A. .....
Baptist, North .
Baptist, North .
Adams, Archibald G ...-
.Baptist, North .
Reform Church of U. S.
Barlow Dr. C. HermanBaptist, N0rth ........
i .... Baptist, North ........
Barlow, Mrs. C. H..
Beck, Karl H ......
Dane, Laura E ......
Darst, Margaret M..
Davenport, Dorothy. .
De Jong, Nettie R..
Mrs. H. E. Voss ....
Gish: Ellis Preston..
Hagman, Dr. G- L..
Hagman, Mrs. G. L ....
Haist, Virginia E ......
Hamilton, Clarence H--
Hanson, Victor ........
Hanson, Mrs. V ........
Herriott, Grace ........
Hoy, Mabel Ruth ......
Hunt, Faith A ..........
Kennington., T. W .... ..
Kennington, Mrs. T. W.
Reform Church of U. S,
C. M. S. ........... .
Presbyterian. North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Dunkelberger, Sadie ....
F. C. M. 5. ....... .
F. C. M. S
F. C. 181.5
lf. C. M. S. ....
Baptist, North ....
Baptist, North ....
Presbyterian. North ....
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
Reform Church of U. S.Yochow, Hunan
Methodist., North ...... Nanchang, Ki,
Advent Christian Miss. . Chaohsien, Anh.
Advent Christian Miss. .Chaohsien, Anh.
L c Carleton . ....... Methodist, North ...... Shanghai. Ku.
Lankester,'RonaldFarrm-Church Missionary Soc.Yunnanfu, Yunnan
' ' ' ' b t ian, North .... Nanking. Kiangsu
Miller, Elizabeth J . ..
Myers, Mary E .... .....
Niebel, Dr. B. E ........
Reisner John H ......
Reisner, Mrs. J. H ......
Schaefer, Roland T .-.-
Schaefer, Mrs. R. T. . .
Smith, Harriet Newell.
Search, Blanche T ......
Sayles Florence ......
Preston, Miss Mary ....
Mead, Miss Frederica R.Pres y er
Reform Church of U. S.Shenchowfu, Hun.
Reform Church of U. S.Yochow, Hun.
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
iBapti5t,, North ....
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Presbyterian, North.. . .
142 IQINGUIST ADVERTISER
. A ni-..
RECISTERED TRADE MARK
The Natural W The Only
Milk Food Substitute
Simply , for
Add Boiled ' Nlother's
SOLD BY EVERY DISPENSARY
AND STOREKEEPER ,
ll , lil,
Builds Bones h ff' 7
Add M T' Complete Food
Water and After
Boil for . 'MILK weaning
Nestlci 8a Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Go.
SHANGHAI AND TIENTSIN
Johannaber, Mrs. C. F...
Short, Samuel McC- - .
Smith Clara Belle .....
.United Evangelical ...
.Methodist, North .....
Towne Edith .......... Presbyterian, North..
Woods, Velma E ........ Protestant Episcopal
Walker, Elizabeth ......
warner, Florence M. . .
Univer. Hospital . . . . .
.University of Nanking.
Bai-cus, Mr. O. F ............ ................ .... ' I' LlI'lHCi1OVV, Kiangsn,
Bliss. Dr. Theodore .... Protestant lipiscopal
Bliss, Mrs. T. .......... Protestant Episcopal
Blunden, Mr. H. M. .... S,
Brittain, Miss R. M. .. .
Collins. Miss L. B -.....
Craighill, Mr. L. R ...... Protestant Episcopal
Davenport. Mr. D. E. . . . ,
Day. Mr. C. B .........
. Chinkiang, Kiangsu
. .U. S. A.
D, A. .............. Peking, Chi,
.Methodist, South ...... Nanking, Kiangsu
Davis. Mr. C. H ........
. P reshyterian, iNorth. ..
D. .-X. .............
Brown, Mr. R. J ........ S.
F. C. M, S, ............ Luchowfn, Anhwei
Q. D. A, .......... ...... Y encheng. Ho.
S. D. A ................ Changsha, Hun.
Dieterieh, Mr. T. W ..... Methodist, North ....... Nanking, Kiangsu
French, Miss H. M .....
Methodist, North. ...... Kiukiang, Kiangsi
Fay, Mr. H. V. V .......
Freclericks, Miss Edith. .
Gardner, Miss M. W ....
Mrs. L.. R. Craiglwilln-
Garrett, Mrs. F. ...... ..
.Protestant Episcopal. ..
Glascock, Mr. C. F ......
Hale, Mr. L. L ..... .....
Hale,Mrs. L. L.. .......
Hill. Miss V. C .........
Hoose, Mr. E. A .......
I-loose, Mrs. E. A..
James, Mr. E. H ......
James. Mrs. E. H .......
Johannaber, Mr. C. F..
Lehman, Mr. A. E .....
Lehman, Mrs. A. E-- .
McCallum, Miss E. B. . .
Mclntosh, Miss E. W..
McMullen Miss N. J.. . . .
Moss, Mr. L. B .........
Moss. Mrs. L. B .... ....
Newman, Dr. H. W .....
Price, Dr. R. B .........
Price, Mrs. R. B .......
Saboe, Miss. Minnie. ..
Sassen, Dr. Augusta A.
Shoemaker, Miss. El G.
. Methodist, North
.Methodist, North ....,.
P.C.M.S ............. .
. . Methodist,
. . . . . . . . Ningpo, Chekiang
. . . .Nanking, Ku.
.. . . . . .Kinkiang, Kiangsi
North ....... Kiukiang, Kiangsi
.United Evangelical. . .. .
.United Evangelical .....
.F. C. M. S .............. Nanking, Kiangsu
.Canadian Church Miss
Presbyterian, South ....
.University of Nanking.
.U. S. A.
.University Nanking .... U. S. A.
.Baptist, North ........... Hopo, Tung.
. Presbyterian, South . . .
.Presbyteriam South . . .
.Lutheran. ........ .... .
.Yale in China ......
.Baptist, North ........
Sloan, Mrs. T. D ........ P. U. M. C .....
1-I4 I.INGl,'IS'lI .'XDYIfIR'I'ISI'IR
THE BEST FOREIGN HOTEL IN NANKING
5 MINUTES FROM RIVER STEAMERS
AND RAILWAY STATION
A Picturesque Building Standing in a Large Garden
30 Guest Rooms, each with Private Bath and Verandah
Spacious and Luxurious Dining and Sitting Rooms
Porter Meets all Trains and Boats
Terms very Moderate
Mir. 6: Mrs. Wm. Brydon.
is the hallmark of highest optical
and mechanical perfection.
The name-ZEISS-on an instrument
ZEISS-Fieldglasses for racing, hunting N travelling purposes
ZIEISS-Photo-lenses, 'Yellow screens, etc.
ZEISS-Microscopes X accessories
Oblainable all ozfcl' Clzinn from thc' jirsl class Opticians in your lawn.
flgenis for Chinn:
CARLOWITZ sr co., 18 'igfggmlfosd'
Hankow, Tientsin, Peking, Mukden, Tsinanfu, Canton, Hongkong.
Dl'1N'l' D lRli1C'l'OR.Y
Small, Mrs. A.
Stewart, Mrs. W. R ....
Thompson, Miss M. B..
Van Hook, Miss L. M..
Wells. Miss L. P ........
Wheeler, Mr. W. R ....
Wheeler, Mrs. W. R ....
Wilkinson, Miss W. . .
Wiltsie, Dr. J. W ......
Wiltsie, Mrs. J. W ......
Andrews Miss Hazel... .
Booth, Miss Alma ......
Brown, Miss Ruth G- --
Carr, Miss Jo ............
University of Nanking..
Y. M. C. A ........... .
Methodist. North ..... ..
Baptist, North ..........
, North.. ..
lf. C. M. S .............
l'reshyterian, North ....
.Nzinhsnchow, .X nh wei
Baptist, South ..........
Protestant EpiscopaliunAnking, .-Xnhwei
Baptist, North ...... ....
Brittingham. Miss H ....
.Methodist, North... .. .
Carter, Miss Gertrude P.Yzile in China. .... ....
Davies, Miss Dorothy
Dodd, Rev. Duncan F...
Dodd, Mrs. D. F ........
D'Olive, Rev. W. C ....
D'Olive, Mrs. W. C .....
Fillmore, Miss Anne L. .
Mrs. Charles E. Shedd..
Firor, Miss Marion P ....
Gill, Mrs. J.M. B ........
Gary, Miss Cammie.. . .
Gregg, Miss Alice H ....
Heald. Miss Jeanie V...
Hewey, Miss Clarissa A
Hewitt, Miss Alden .....
Hutchinson, Rev. Paul..
Hutchinson, Mrs. P.. .. . .
lllick, Mr. J. Theron ....
lllick, Mrs. J. T ...... ..
Kauffman. Rev. D. R ....
Kauffman. Mrs. D. R.
Kramer, Mr. William J- -
Kramer, Mrs. W. J ......
Krespach, Miss Olive...
Mrs. Evans. .........-- --
Kulp. Mrs. D. H...
Lancaster. Rev. L. H.
Libby, Dr. Walter E . . .
McClure, Rev. Robert W.
Mc Clure. Mrs. R. W ....
. Methodist. North .
Mrs. H. Milton Wagner.Y. M. C. A ........... .
Methodist, North .......
Iilethodist, North. ...... .
Methodist, North ........
Presbyterian, North ....
X. M. C. A. ..... ..... .
Reform Church of U.
Presbyterian. South ....
Protestant Episcopal. . ..
F. C. M. S ....... . ..
Protestant Episcopal .. .
Methodist, North .
Methodist, North .
Methodist, North .
Baptist, North .....
Presbyterian. South ....
.U. S. A.
U. S. A.
U S X
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
146 .I'.INGUIS'l' ADVERTISER
WHEN YOU NEED
BANKING TRAVEL SHIPPING
Iutrust your business to an experienced and reliable
concern with an efficient organization and
recognized financial standing.
MERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY
Head Ollicc: Nlaw Yuma
.S Kllflcmxrz Rcmlm, SIIANGILAI
Culcciuxc Axim SAVINGS AccoUN'rs
Dxmvrs Ami llilumsxf CJRDERS
TuAx'Er,l-:Rs CHIQQUI-:S-I,121"i'r:1:s Olf CIil'1I7l'l'
RAlr,wAY 'I'1CzqWl2'1's ANU TOURS-S'1'mAls1111' Bucmlxcs
1gI0'l'EL R12sm:x'A'1'mNs, llmzlzlxczlz INSURANCE
Gowns SIIIPPIED 'ru ALT, Polx'rs
S'1'rmAl,:i: 1: lxsuimxcia
Otllur Ofiiccs in the Orient
YUKQIIAMA Pmiquxu 'l'nf:xTsix
CALCUTTA Bommw Iioxmmxo
Me Intosh, Miss Maud.. .Church Missionary Soc.Chukihsien, Chekiang
Mc Intosh, Miss Ruby.. .Church Missionary Soc.
Megness, Miss Bertha E.United Evangelical
Montgomery, Miss L G.
Morton. Mrs. E. M ..............................
Perkins, Mrs. ,E. C ...... Methodist. North. .... ..
Reeder, Rev. Charles V.Presbyterian, North ....
Reimer, Miss Minnie F. .Reformed Church U.S.A.Yochow, 1-lun
Renninger,MZss Anna M.Evangelical AssociationTungjen, Kwei.
Rhoda, Miss Ethel G ............................
Riechers Miss Bertha L.Methodist. North
Riggs, Mr. Charles H .... Congregational .........
Riggs. Mrs. C. H ........ Congregational .........
Ritter, Rev. H. C... . .Methodist, South . ..
Ritter, Mrs. H. C ........ Methodist, South
Rivenburg,Miss NarolaE.Baptist. North ..........
Rogers, Rev. Jesse M.. . Baptist, South ......... .
Ruland, Rev. Floyd S .... Presbyterian North ....
Schuermsn, Miss Clara E.Evangelical. Assn ......
Shryock, Rev. John K. ..Protestant Episcopal. . ..
Smith Mr. Harold V .... Yale in China ..........
Smith, Mrs. H. V ........ Yale in China. ..-... Q ....
Strother, Rev. Edgar E..Christian En. Soc ...... .
Strother, Mrs. E. E. ,..... Christian lin. Soc. .... .
Terman, Rev. E. L ...... Methodist, North ......
Terman, Mrs. E. L ...... Methodist, North ......
Trethaway, Miss Lucile
Mrs. W. E. Libby ...... ..Methodist, North ..... .
Wahl, Rev. Carl B ...... Evangelical Association.Tungjen. Kwei
Walmsley,MissEvelynM.Presbyterian. North ....
Marguerite D ...... Yale in China ..........
Williams, Mr. James W.Yale in China ..........
Williams, Mrs. J. W..
Wolf, Miss Martha K..
Bachman Mr. George ..
Beath, Mr. S. S ........
Beegle. Miss C. D .....
Boone, Miss M. M ......
Bowen, Miss Alice ......
Brunemeier, Dr. E. H.. .
Brunemeier, Mrs. E. H..
Bryars, Mr. J. H ........
Crook, Miss W. M ......
Day, Miss Isabella ....
Donaldsen, Miss L. F..
Durfee, Miss M. E. ......
Yale in China ..........
United Evangelical ....
Reform Church of U. S.
Beath, Mr. S. S ........ Baptist ................
Presbyterian, North ....
Methodist, North ......
Presbyterian, North ....
Methodist, North . . . . ..
Presbyterian, North... .
Presbyterian, North. . . .
Y. W. C. A .........
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
U. S. A.
148 LINGUIST ADVl'IR'l'ISER
XVe beg to notify the public that we have temporarily removed
during the construction of our own building in Broadway, to
No. 1, Boone Road. As we have always supplied lirst class
fresh goods at the cheapest priccs possible, all our
customers have shown us their preference. For the
extention of our business, we have recently
established a metal and hardware depart-
ment. Orders placed with us will receive
our prompt and careful attention.
VVine and Spirit Merchants, etc.
THE BROADWAY STORE
General Store-keepers, Ship Chandles and
Hardware and Iron Merchants
No. 1, Boone Road, Shanghai.
THE NANKING DISPENSAHY
Chemists and Druggists
Dealers in Photographic Materials, Perfumeries,
Soaps, and Toilet Requisites, Surgical Instruments,
and Dressings, Dental Goods, English, French
and American Patent Medicines, Hospital and
Druggistsl Sundries, Books and Stationeries,
Manufacturers of Triturated Tablets, Medicated
Lozenges, Etc., Etc.
DENT DIR IQCTORY
Gammon, Rev. G. U ----
Gates, Miss M. J --------
Ginuque, Mr. C. D ......
Haskell, Mr. W. W ----
Haskell, Mrs. W. W .---
Hokanson, Miss Esther.
Hopkins, Rev. M. A ----
Johnson, Miss M. E .....
Keckman, Miss Anna--
Mrs. W. H. Weigle .....
Konsterlie, Mr. P. T ....
Konsterlie, Mrs. P- T--
Korhonen, Rev. Nulo..
Lacy, Mr. W. I ..........
Lacy, Mrs. W. l ....-- .-
Lanphear, Mr. B. W ----
Louclcs, Miss B. H.. . ..
Lowry, Miss Genevieve.
Mack, Miss Margaret..
Major, Miss L. L ........
March, Miss C. E. ..... .
Montgomery, Mr. J. N. .
Montgomery. Mrs. J. N.
Myers. Miss H. H ......
Nash, Miss E. D ........
Neville, Miss E. A ---.--
Mrs. L. H. Lancaster . -
Perry, Mr. E. W .------.
Robinson, Miss F. H ....
Russell, Miss Maud ...-
Sample, Mr. J..LaV -- --
Schreiber, Mrs. E. P ...-
Seeck, Miss Margaret..
Sellemeyer. Miss E l ....
Shoub, Miss H. M -------
Baptist, North ...
i5.'dff'ifi1 sf 'ff . "
F. C. M. S, ..... .....
San Anselm, California
Baptist. North ........ Huchow, Chekiang
Presbyterian, South ....
Protestant Episcopal ..
Lutheran Evangelical ..
Lutheran Evangelical ..
Finnish Mission ....
Methodist. North ..
Methodist, North ..
Protestant Episcopal ....
M ethoclist, N orth ..
Y. XV. C A. ....... .
Y. VV. C. A . .
F. C. M. S. ....... .
Y. VV. C. A. .....
Presbyterian. South ....
Y. W. C. A .........
Baptist North ......
Presbyterian, North ....
Methodist, North ......
Y. W, C. A ............ .
Univ. of Nanlciuir ......
Changsha, Hun. i
U. S. A.
Evangelical Association.U. S. A.
Methodist, North ......
Reform Church oi U. S.
Methodist. North ......
Silsby, Miss Helen ...... Presbyterian, North .... U. A.
Smith, Mr. C. S ........ Presbyterian. North .... Nanking, Kiangsu
Smith, Mrs. C. S ........ Presbyterian. North .... Nanking, Kiangsu
Spencer, Miss Elizabeth
Smith, Miss E. W- ----- -
Steinheimer, Mr. H. C- .
Steinheimer, Mrs. H. C.
Stevenson, Dr. P. H ....
Stevi-naon, Mrs. P. H..
Strihling, Miss Frances. .
Thomson, Mr. J. C ......
Thomson, Mrs- J. C ...-
Weigel, Mr. W. H ......
Weil, Miss M. S ........
Wharton, Miss A. L....
P. U. M. C. ........... .
P. u. M. C. ........... .
Presbyterian, South ....
Pres-hyteriau. North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Protestant Episcopal ....
Reform Church of U.
LING U IST ADV ERT I S ER
THE WEE-WEE COMPANY
ls a Modern Chinese Department Store, organized
by Chinese Christians and closed on Sunday. It does
not sell Wfines and Cigarettes. IL is the only Chinese
Store in Shanghai which is run by Chinese men and
women. Every article in the store is plainly marked:
therefore it has only one price. It handles the following
categories of merchandise:
TOYS, SOAP, BOOKS, CANDY, DOLLS, GAMES.
LACES, CLOCKS. BRUSHES. GROCERIES, JEW-
ELRY, NOTIONS. POTTERY, RIBBONS. TINWARE.
CHINAWARE, WATCHES, CROCKERY, HARD-
WARE, PERFUMES, PICTURES, LACQUERWARE.
DRY GOODS, GLASSWARE, MAGAZINES.
NOVELTIES. UNDERWEAR, ENAMELWARE.
POSTCARDS, STATIONERY, WIREGOODS,
WOODENWARE, DRESS GOODS. EMBROIDER-
IES, LEATHER GOODS. PHOTO FRAMES,
FRAMED PICTU RES, TOILET ARTICLES, SPORT-
ING GOODS. ALUMINUMWARE. REBUILT
TYPEWRITERS, HOUSE FURNISI-IING GOODS.
THE WEE-WEE COMPANY
B9-72 Ndfili Slachlwn Road, Shakmhal, Chllla
Mrs. John B. Hipps ....
ST UDENT D IRIQCTORY
62 Wright, Miss Mildred..
Young, Miss Lois ......
Abbott, Miss Lillie F ....
Argelanclerg Frank A..
Beare Thos, J ..... .... . ,
Beare, Mrs ..... .........
Boone, Miss Muriel M..
Bovell, Miss Mabel E ....
Brodbeclc, Miss Emma L
Brown, Miss Lydia E --.-
Brown, Miss Marjorie B.
Mrs. Ross Asselstrene..
Brown. Dr. Robert E ....
Brown, Mrs. R. E ......
Chace, Miss Cora .......
Clemons, Mrs. Harry... .
Danuser, Miss M. E .....
Davis, Rev. Ward ......
Davis. Mrs. Ward .....
Day Isabella ............
Dieter, Miss Margaret..
Dubs, Rev. Homer H ....
Dubs, Mrs. H. H ........
Du Pee Miss, Nina ......
Duff, Miss Helen ........
Amer. Advent Miss
Methodist, North ..
Free Methodist ....
Free Methodist ....
Baptist, North ..... .
Baptist, North ......
Baptist. North ....
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
F. C. M. S.
X. W. C. A. ..
United Evangelical .
P. C. M. S...
Durfee, Miss M. Elizal::ehY. NV. C. A..
Froom. Rev. Leroy E ....
Graham, Harold L ......
Gaaham, Mrs. H. L..
Gundlach, Miss Ida
Hill, Miss Ella A ....
Holroyd, Rev. Ben .....
Irving. Miss Emma S
Jacobson, Gerland A . . . .
Jacobson, Mrs CHA.
Lawrence, Miss Jane
Legge, Miss Della G ....
Lewis, Mrs Mary L..
Leyda, Miss Maude L ...,
Loucks, Miss Blanche . .
Maiden, Miss Daisy V..
Marx, Mr. Edwin . .
Marx, Mrs. E ............
Nash, Miss Elizabete D. .
S. D.A ....
S. D. A ......
S. D. A ......
Ginling College ....
Y. W. C. A
F. C. M. S..
Baptist, North ......
Independent. .... .
Baptist, North ......
F. C. M. S. ........ .
Presbyterian, North ....
Church of God ......
..F. C. M. S ...... .
F. C. M. S ....... .
Baptist, North ......
Pearson, Miss G. W. . .'.Baptist, North.. ...
U. S. A. I
U. A. .
U. S. A.
. . . . Ningpo, Che.
. . . .Nanking, Ku.
Nanking, Ku. .
52 LINGIITST ADVliR'l'ISliR
The Oriental Press
Printers, Lithographers, Publishers. Advertizing'
Agents. Our Specialty Mission and Olfliee Printing.
VVe are printers and publishers of the National
Christian Conference Report, which is now ready for
.-Xu Octavia volume of nearly SOO pages bound in
strong cloth covers. Price Mex, 4.00 net. Postage in
Chinn 10 cts. Foreign. 4: cts.
On Sale at the Mission Book Store or will be sent
postpaid in Clnnzt for Mex S5-LIO.
ADDRESS ORIENTAL PRESS, SHANGHAI.
TSEI HWA :Sz CO.
trnl-: urn' com-lmnmu:
NEXT TU 'HUQ POST OFFICIC, lllill MEN CllI.XO. NANKING
GROCERIES .. .. .. PROVISIONS
STATIONERY .. .. FRESH FRUITS
Fresh smoked rolled boneless llillll and bacon at reasonable
prices, Best quality zruaranteerl.
PRICE LISTS SUPPLIED ON REQUEST
Tel. No. City 414
PAN CHUAN CHONG 52
afunfmws muon and seminar oummn :Ei
Ei Extensive Stock of Materials of
ml the newest styles lor all Season.
Ei High-cleee Tailoring for Gentlemen, if
'QA Military Officers and Students. !-.ri
Q4 .-It Sill Chia Siang of Drum Tower, Q
Mrs. Darling ........
Ritter, Mrs. H. C ....
Robinson, Miss Faye H..
Russell, Miss Maud..
Sargent, Dr. Clara ......
Mrs. G. Sheppard ......
Scharffenberg. W. A --.-
,, fMrsl W. A ....
Smawley, Miss Eva L
Smith, Rev. C. Stanley..
Smith, Joy ......... .....
Therolf. Miss Frances..
Toothaker, Rev. Frank..
Toothaker, Mrs. F ......
Treman, Robert C .....
Vai-ley,Miss Elizabeth M.
Walker, Miss Jennie ....
Weigel W. H. Jr ........
Weigel Mrs. .......... ..
Wilds, Miss Mamie C ....
Anderson, Mr. E. J .....
Anderson, Mr. H. C .....
Bacon, Mr. Wallace R..
Bacon, Mrs. W. R. .... . .
Barnes. Dr. William J.. -
Barnes, Mrs. W. J. .... ..
iilcthoclist, North .......
Y. XV. C. A.. .... . ..
S. D. A ............ .
S. D. A. .......... ..
P reshyteriau. North ....
Methodist, North ....
Y. N, C, A ........
Stewart. W. R ....... . . .
.13-uptist, North ......
Methodist, North ..
Methodist. North ..
Methodist, North ..
Church M issionn ry Soc.
Baptist, North ....
F, C. M. S. .... ..
F. C. M. S. .,..... .
Bauer, Miss Grace Louise University Hospital.
Benjamin. Mr. N. R. S.. .
Birkel, Mr. A. H ........
Birkel, Mrs. A. H .......
Bjelke, Mr. J. L ........
Bjelke, Mrs. J. L ........
Bro, Mr. Albin Carl . . . . .
Baptist, North ......
.Baptist, North .... ,
Baptist. North ....
li. C. M.S.
Bro, Mrs. Albin Carl .... F. C M. S. ....... .
Cartwright, Miss Hesterblethoclist, North
Mrs R. M. Vanderburgh .....................
Chaplin. Mr. Maxwell..Presbyterian, North
Cohbs, Mr. William C. Jr.
Crane, Miss Marietta A.
Currie, Miss Mabel C ....
Damarest, Miss Mary C.
Daniels, Dr. J. Horton. .
Daniels, Mrs. J. H..
Davis, Miss Helen ..
Ely, Miss Lois Anna ....
Fine, Miss Mary D ......
Mrs. P. Twinem ....
Methodist, North.. ..
Southern Baptist ..
Presbyterian, North ....
Presbyterian, North ....
Y. NV. C. A ........ .
.C.M.S. ....... .
Presbyterian, North ....
L. b. A.
iVuhn A nh.
lf. S. A.
154 LINGUIST AD VER'l',ISl3R
,buf Tw X '
.lf X N
5 CQADMIFIAL onlENTAL LINELGJ
l THE SHORT ROUTE
Manila, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, Yokohama
Victoria and Seattle I
Passenger and Freight
T The New Fast American Steamers
President jefferson. President Grunt, President jackson,
President Mcliinley, President Madison
10 days Yokohzuna to Seattle
Wonderful Nleals-Excellent Service
Special Rates to Europe
Tickets issued to all points in America
For i11f01'11mlif111 nlfifllul' fo:
ADMIRAL ORIENTAL LINE
' QAgents U.S. Shipping Boardj
Yokvlmnm, Kobe, Slzunglmi, llmzgkmlg, Mizilfla,
Ilvadqfrurlvrx for Orirnl. ,S'l1u11gl1u1'.
GI-10. J. Mc'C.xu'.r11x',
rlxxl. Cirazvrul l'ussvngzr1' .-Iycnf.
Foster, Dr. J. H .....
Frank, Mr. H. S.. . . .
Frank, Mrs. H. S ....
Gailey, Miss Helen
Giedt, Mr. E. H ....
Giedt, Mrs. E. H ....
Grier, Miss Isabel . .
Griffiths, Miss Helen
Hacker, Dr. F. L ....
Harmon, Mr. A ....
Jordan, Dr. Carl F. .
Keller, Miss Lydia H
McCollock, Miss G. .
Yale Mission ......
Presbyterian, North ....
Baptist. North .,..
Baptist, North ....
Methodist, North ..
Baptist, South ......
Methodist, North ..
Baptist, North ....
Niekles, Miss Florence. .Presbyterituu South
Pittman, Miss Annie M..Methoclist, North ..
Rietvelcl Miss Harriet. .Y. XV. C. :X ..-.-.-
Robbins, Dr. Emma ElizaMeth0dlst, North . .
Sargent, Miss Lola L .... Presbyterian, North
Schmalzried, Dr. E. W.Evangelical Assn ..
Schmslzried, Mrs. W.EvangelicaI. Assn ..
Shaak, Miss T. M .....
Snyder, Mrs. G. R ......
Geo. R ....
.R. C. U. S. ...... .
R. C. U. S.
R. C. U. S.
Speers, Mr. James M.,Jr.Preshyterian, North
Stroll, Miss Harriet ....
Thomas, Dr. Harold ....
Thomas, Mrs. H .... ....
Townsend, Miss. G ....
liaptist. North ....
Baptist, North ....
Methodist, North ..
Twinem, Mr. Paul De W.University ........
Van Dyck, Mr. David ..Presbyterian, North
Van Dyck, Mrs. D ...... Presbyterian, North
Walker, Miss Jennie C..Methotlist, North ..
Watson, Miss B ........ Church of God ....
Whilener, Mr. Sterlingli. C. U. S. .... .
Whitenor, Mrs. S ...... R. C. U. S. --.. .
Williford. Miss Bessie. .Baptist North.. ..
Wilmot, Dr. Frank A. .F. C. M. S. . . . . .
Wilmot, .Mrs. F. A. ..... F. C. N. S. --.. -
Anderson. Mrs. E.. J .... Baptist, North ........
Argelancler, Mrs. FrankMethodist, North .....
Baclchouse, is Ms F. E..
U. S. A.
Mrs. John Magee ...... Protestant Episcopal ..Nanking, Ku.
Cox, Mr. Carson W .... Friends ................
Cox, Mrs. Carson W .... Friends ................ Luho, Ku,
Douglas, Rev. R. ClydePresbytei-ian. South
Douglas, Mrs. R. ClydePresbyterian, South
. . . . Kuling, Ki.
l5fm l,lNGL'lS'l' fXlJYl'2R'l'lSl'IR
A complete line
-" ' of equipment
for T E N N IS
and all other
Send for Price Lis!
lily SQUIBES BINGHAM Co.
"Every thing used In the world ol
A' Sport and recreatlon"
THE WI G ON C0., Ltd.
Nanking Road. Shanghai
THE IJIRGESY' DEPARTAIENTAL
STORE IN CHINA
Direct Importers of piece goods of all kinds of mercliandise
Come to us and you will get the satisfaction which you desire
It is our purpose to please all the people all the lime.
We carry iirst class mcrcliaiidise of every description.
Mail orders will be given prompi attention.
Froom. Mr. E .......... S. D. A ..... .... . .
Gustafson, Rev. David. .Baptist ........... .
Meeker, Miss Bessie L..Methorlist, North ..
Moore, Miss Emily RuthFriends ............
Naylor, Miss Ethel .....
Wilson, Miss Julia ....--
Aclcley, M. C. ......... .
Ackley, Mrs. M. C ......
Bahrenburg. Miss L. H..
Bates, M. Searle ........
Beach, Joseph P ........
Blume, William W .....
Blume, Mrs. W. W ......
Blydenburgh, Dr. G. T..
Blydenburgh, Mrs. G. T.
Bogar, Harold G ........
Boss, Miss Marion H ....
Bradley, Miss Lina E ....
Bridgman, Harold T ....
Bridgman, Mrs. H. T ....
Butcher, James Irvine. ..
Butler, Miss A. L ......
Carter, Miss Alice ......
Chaplin, Mrs. M --------
Clark, Miss Anna R ....
Dean, Miss Florence E. .
Droz, Miss Lelia B ......
Evans, Mrs. Edward ....
Fleming, Miss Marjorie.
Gish, Mrs. E. P. ....... .
Gray, Frank A ..........
Haahti, Miss lnkeri ....
Mrs. T. Kaskikallio ....
Hall. Miss Mabel S ....
James, Herbert C. .... ..
James, Mrs. H. C. .....
Jeffer, Miss Alice ......
Judson, Dr. Herbert A. .
Kennard, Ralph B ......
Klatt, Miss Maude L ....
Lee. Charles Oren ......
Love, Miss Esther J....
Maddock, Miss Lois ...,
Mather, Miss Ruth ....
Meebold, Miss Louise
Meeker, Miss Bessie L. .
Millican, Miss Mary ....
Mills, Mrs. S. J ....... ,
Methodist, North ..
b. lJ.:X .........
S. D. .-X. .......... ..
S. D.A. .........
.Method1st, South ..
Methodist, South ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
S. D. A. ,....... ..
S. D. A ..........
Ginling College ....
Methodist, North ..
F. C. M. S. ....... .
Episcopal .... .
Finnish, ........... .
Presbyterian, North.. ..
S. D. A. ......... .
S. D. A ......... .
Baptist ........,. ..
Y. W. C. A. ....... .
Methodist. North ..
Mctlloclist, Morth ..
U. S. A.
U. S. .-X.
148 l,lNGUlS'l' .-XDX'I'QR'I'lSl'IlQ
andard 0iI Company of New York
Broadway New York
A TIN' Jlfrfrlrf of Q1mell'fff
Illuminating Oils Lubricating Oils
Gasoline and Motor Spirits
Lamps, Stoves and Heaters
Road Oils and Material for Road Building
Paraffine Wax and Candles
Hfllllffl Ofiivex in fha l'r1'nr1'pul t'1'f1'v.v uf
.lapan Philippine Islands Turkey
China Straits Settlements Syria
Indo-China Netherlands India Bulgaria
Siam South Africa Greece
India Australasia 'Iugoslavia
STUDENT DIRECTORY 159
43 Moffat, Miss Anna E .... Presbyterian, North .... Nanking, Kiangsu
44 Monteiro, Miss M. K .... Episcopal ...... , ....... Anking, Anhwei
Morgan, Orvin O ......
Morrison. Miss E. K ....
.Y. VV. C. A .. ..
Mullinnex. M. E ........
Mullinnex, Mrs. M. E..
Nagler. Miss Etha M ....
Norclyke, Miss Lela L..
Moyer, Miss Celia L. . .
Oleen, C. N .......,....
Oleen, Mrs. C. N..
0Iive. L. B ............
Olive, L. B ............
Parker, Miss Blanche A.F. C. M.
57 Pettit, Miss Arcola I ....
5SIPierce. Dr. Ethel M ....
59 Pittman, Miss A. M ....
Ritchey, Geo. E ..... . . .
Ritchey. Mrs. G. E,.....
Robbins, Miss Lilliath..
S. D. A ........ .
. W. C. A ....
S. D. A.. ....
S. D. A. . ....
Methodist, North ...
Baptist, South. ..
University of Nanking..
University of Nanking..
Ginling College, .....
Sehoch, Miss lgnatin K.United Evangelical.
Scribner, Miss E. C ....
Shinn, Leroy I ..,......
Shinn, Mrs. L. I .....,..
Sloan. Miss E. M -.......
Smith, Miss Alice ......
Snyder Miss Ruth F ....
Speiden, Miss Evelyn..
Spreng, Ralph W. E ....
Spreng Mrs. R. W. E..
Stampx,D. F ............
Stamps. Mrs. D. F ......
Stroh, Miss Margaret F.
Sullivan. Mliss Eva .....
Tatum. Miss Alice Joy..
Teagarden, Miss LyrelG.li. .
Thiele, Edwin R ........ '
Thiele Mrs. E. R .... ..
Vierling. Frank .......
Vierling. Mrs. F .......
Williams Miss Ethel J..
Wright. Ruth P ........
Zwick, W. Walter .....
Zwick, Mrs. W. W ......
Akerstrom, C. E ........
Appel, George J ........
Amis, Miss Minna Reid..
Y. W. C. A. ........ .
.S. D. A ............
S. D. A ....... . ......
Methodist ........ ' ......
. . . . . . .Yangchow.
... . . . . Hankow. Hupeh
. . . Yenping, Fukieu
..... Luchowfu, Anhwei
.. . Suchowfu, Ku
R. C. U. S ...... ........ Y ochow, Hunan
United Evangelical .....
United Iivangelical.. . ..
Baptist, South ..........
Baptist, South ..........
Y. W. C. A..
Baptist, South .......,
Baptist. South ..........
C Nl S
D. A. ...... .
IF. C. M. S. .... ..
I'. C. Rl. S. ...... ..
Methodist. N orth ' ......
X. W. C. A ..........
Presbyterian, North ....
R. C. U. S. ...... ..
Zierdt, A. Katharine ....
University of Nanking..
S. D. A. ............. .
Presbyterian. South. .
160 LINGUIST ADVERTISER
HIGH GRADE UNIFORM QUALITY
Cylindef, Engine, and Machine Oils
M O T O R O I L S
Gear and Cup Greases
WIRE ROPE LUBRICANTS
A S P H A L T S
Roarl Oils Asphalt Cement
R O O F I N G
Roofing Felt Roofing Pitch
TH E TEXAS CONI PANY
GI I1 atallPz1n 1 alPo1t C ll I eo
Tl co Br lc vs " of 's of. ffm 1'
01111.-'lgvllrfm all 0T'l'I' Cllilzn and Korra.
92 Coolcson, Miss L. L.. . . . .
,Methodism North ..
9-1 Farr, Miss Grace ..... . . .
95 Harrison, Mr. S. J ......
96 Harrison, Mrs. S. J ......
93 Eide, Miss Mary L .....
97 Hollingshead, A. W .....
Hollingshead,Mrs. A. W.
Holt, Mrs. H. D .........
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
.-Xm. Church Mission ....
Kennard, Mrs. Ralph B.Baptist. ..... ..... . .
Lavely, Horace T .....,
Lavely, Mrs. H. T. .... . .
Lawney Dr. Josephine C.
Lentz, Miss Grace Z ....
McCown, Miss Mary ....
Mount, Miss Bessie.. . ..
Prohasco, Miss Abbie. . .
Redmond, Miss Sarah A.
Sanders, William L ------
Shreve, Oliver R ...... . .
Sloan, Miss Mary Lee..
Spaulding, L. M. ..... .
.Mcthodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Baptist . .......... . .
S. D, .-X.
Methodist, South ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
Methodist, North ..
S. D. A. ....... .
..A. A. M.
Spaulding, Mrs. L. M.. . A. A. M. .. . . . .
Walborn,Miss1vy Graceli. C. U. S.
Mrs. G. R. Snyder ....................
Wencke, Misa Doris R.. Methodist ...... .
Woods, Miss Margaret.:C. M. S. ....... .
Holroyd, Mrs. A. W ..... Y. M. C, .-X. ...... ..
Graham, J. R ...... ..... P resbyterizm. South
Ruland, Lloyd S ..... .... P resbyterian
Steinheimer, Mrs. Ella J.Metl10diSt N.
Allen, Miss Julia .... ..Christian ...
Arnold, Miss Gladys C.Christiau
Blackstone, Miss EleanorM6tll0diSt --..
Blackstone, Mr. James..Mcll10dist.. .
Blankenbiller, Miss H.Christian ,...
Braden, Miss Elvira M . . Y. W. C. .-X. .
Brown, Mr. Chauncey F.
Brown, Mrs C. F. .... ..
Caldwell, Mr. Leonard H.University of Nzmking,
Caldwell, Mrs Marjorie,University of Nanlcing.
Carr, Mr. L. A. ---..- --
Carr, Mrs L. A .........
Charles, Miss Hope, ....
Cory, Miss May Louise..
Deahl, Miss Catherine. .
Decker, Dr. H. W. .... .-
Decker, Mrs. H.
Episcopal . ..
U. S. .L
U. S. A.
BANKING BY MAIL
HAS BECOME SO EF-
THAT WE HAVE AT
TO ONE THOUSAND
WE CORDIALLY INVITE
YOU TO DO YOUR BANK-
162 LINGUIST ADVERTISER
- . N
The American'-Oriental Banking Corp.
15 NANKING ROAD. SHANGHAI
,...?..1.i...-- , ....... ,.-,....-..-....-.. ..,, ,.... ,,.....-...
DeKorne, Mr. John C...Christian
DeKorne, Mrs. Nettie G.Christian
Dykstra Mr. Harry A...Christian
Dykstra, Mrs. Florence,Christian
Feeker, Miss Rose L ..... Evangelical Assn... . . ..
Ferris, Miss Helen, ...... Methodist ..... .
Fillmore, Mr.Herbert W.Christian
Fillmore, Mrs. Hazel Hill,Christian
Fowler, Mr. J. Earl. .... Episcopal
Fowler,Mrs. Dorothea L.Episc0pal
Fry, Miss Nancy A ...... Christian
Fueller, Miss Elizabeth. .Episcopal .... .
Gibbs, Dr. Charles, S .... Baptist ..
Gray, Mr. FrankA ...... Episcopal
Haggard, Miss Esther..Christan
Hanawalt, Miss Ella M.. Methodist South ....... .
Harris, Miss Vnne Ruthliaptist .......... ......
Hayes, Mr. Paul G ....... Methodist ......
Hayes, Mrs. Paul G ..... Methodist .... .
Hayes. Miss Grace C .... Presbyterian .... .....
Holroyd, Mr. A. WalclieY. lil. C. A.
Huffaker, Miss Martha E.Methodist .....
Hughes, Miss Frieclda .Presbyterian
Jackson, Miss Vera ............ . . . . ...
Jacobson,MissJosephinePresbytCrian . .... .
Johnson, Miss Edith. .... Nurse ..,......
Kellogg, Mis Nora ...... Methodist .....
Kingman Mr. Harry....Y. M. C. A ..... .... .
Kirk, Miss Virgina ...... Christian .....
Larner, Miss Charlotte.. . Baptist ...... .
Luccock, Mr. Emory W.Presbyteriau
Magill, Mr. Robert A .... Episcopal ......
Matthes, Miss Hazel .... Southern Presbyterian,
McCallum. Mr. James H.Christian ............
McCallum, Mrs Eva A.Christian ,.... .....
McKee, Miss Elizabeth..Presbyterian .. .
Mizell, Miss MargueritePresbyterian
Owens, Mr. Arthur C..Presbyterian
Owens, Mrs. A. C ...... Presbyterian
Parker,Miss Hilda Agnes Church of England ....
Rolland, Mr. William A.lVlethodist ....
Rolland, Mrs. A .... Methodist ....
Ruland. Mrs. MargaretPresbyterian
Rutledge, Mr. Chester. .Bible Institute. .....
Rutledge, Mrs. Helen F.Bible Institute
Tanders, Mr. William L.Meth0dist ....
Sanders, Mrs. Alice H.MethodiSt ....
Scheufler, Mr. Karl W.Meth0dist....
Scheufler, Mrs. Ada ..., Methodist. ....
Reformed,. . ..
Reformed,. . ..
... ... .
U. S. A.
164 S'l1UDliN'l'S llIRl'1C'I'ORY
,.,, 7,, vim-- ,-1, ,,,,,,,,-,.,,,- WM- . .. ... iivk-----N-----W -'----7-
Schroedter, Miss Marthalivu. Assn. .. . ....
Schultz, Miss Emily, .... I-iaptist ...... .....
Scofield, Carl Edward. . Y. M. C. XX. . . . ... ..
Scofield, Mrs. C E ...... Y. M. C. A. . . . .
Seeger, Mr. Warren A..1:Ipiscopn1 ... ... ..
Shaw, Mr. Theodor A..
Shull, Mr. Howard L ....
Sinkey, MissFernMyrtle,Metl1oclist ..... .....
Six, Mr. Ray L .......... Christian ..
Six, Mrs. Gladys AnclresaC'hristiz1n ..... .....
Skilling, Miss Helen, . . Presbyterian ... .....
Smith, Mr. Herbert R..Metho:list ...... .... .
Smith. Mr.. Ethel N .... Ivleflwdisf ..... .....
Stafford, Miss MargestV.Mcthoc1ist --..... .....
Steveen. Mr. Walter T.1iib1e Institute. ........ .
Steward. Mrs. Celia B.. .Metllodist ....... . ...
Thompson, Min K. L..Presbyterian
Thompson, Miss Ethel T.111ethodist ..... .....
Tremnine, Miss Stella . .Christian ..... .... .
Weed, Miss KatherineH.l'resbyterian ... .....
Wiley, Mr. J. H ........ Baptist ....... .....
Wiley, Mrs. J. H ........ Baptist ..... ..... ....
Tlilllall fu Shansi
'Vianan fu, Shansi
U. S. A. -
Wilson, Mr. Robert .... Methodist ..............
Winter, Mr. T. Edmond.ReformedChurchofU.S.Yochow, Hun.
Wood, Miss Muriel, .... W. U. M. S. ......... . . .
Decker, Mr. John W .... Baptist . . . . . . . .
Decker. Mrs. MargaretL.Baptist ................
Duff. Mr. Alfred H ....
Heidenreich. Miss. E. B.United Evangelistic ....
107 Huizenga, Mr. Lee'S ....
Huizenga, Mn. Lee S..
Levy. Miss Rubie
MHY. Miss Louise C ....
Mc Bee, Misa Alice M..
Schmidt, Mr. Ben H ....
Schmidt, Mrs. Mary G..
Shields. Miss Lydie M..
White, Mr. Locke ......
White, Mrs. Emma E.
Williamson. Miss Iva M.
Christian Reformed ....
Christian Reformed ....
Methodist ..... .....
Methodist ..... .....
Y. M. C. A. ...... .
Y. M. C. A. ........... .
United Evangelical ..
Methodist. ........... .
U. S. A. -
LINGUIST ADVl'IR'lllSliR 165
.Help for Every EDay
flNf0Hd0VdTUOTA'f0V nvgi flflt 1 ff.f and UdTOH?CdSlHd?HfXfSP-
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Universally Connnendecl 9525.00
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will be specially valuable
XfVI'ltlCIl in easy English Interesting -5 Cuversllicg'rm1ml...C,5 gl
A hook lo sand to frieud.v at home:
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