University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA)

 - Class of 1895

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University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1895 Edition, Cover

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Text from Pages 1 - 257 of the 1895 volume:

Wholesale and Manufacturing Exclusively. Special Attention 0 von to Orders. W. F. MAIN CO., JE EL Y Factory, Corner Friendship and Eddy Sts., , PROVIDENCE, R. I. Eastern Salesrooms, 67 Friendship Street, Western Office and Salesrooms, ) IOWA CITY, IOWA. Cor. College and Dubuque Sts., `Waterbury, Ingraham, ( CLOCKS Seth Thomas DI welch IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS IN t_ATIIGHES, nOVELITITIFS e ffiATI1EIIALS. 13ogers Bros. ' and litn. 130gerS ' spoons, Forks, Etc. THE LDEN EAGLE ONE - PRICE GLOTHING MOUSE. FOUR REASONS WHY IT PA YS TO TRADE WITH US! FIRST -- We Carry by far the Largest Assortment. SECOND Having a Buyer in the Market Enables us to Show all the Newest Novelties First. THIRD—Buying in Immense Quantities for our many Stores, Enables us to quote by far the Lowest Prices. FOURTH We have the only Strictly One-Price Clothing Estab- lishment in Iowa City. Everybody treated alike. cheerfully refunded if goods are not as Represented. THE GOLDEN EAGLE. One-Price Clothing House. LEADING CLOTHIERS OF IOWA. II tfii -64 ct,„ce., uft-t-?-e to- Slco-w- tka-t - 47t,giL,t744_,cz.14_, LYMAN PARSONS, PRESIDENT. LOVELL SWISHER, CASHIER PETER A. DEY, VICE-PRESIDENT. JOHN LASHECK, ASST. CASHIER 3ationall gan IOWA_ CITY, IOWA. CAPITAL, $100,000. 00 SURPLUS, $30,000.00 DIRECTORS. LYMAN PARSONS, PETER A. REY, J. ' 1 ' . TURNER, GEO. W. BALL, AMOS N. CURRIER, E. BRADWAY, C. S. WELCH. A. N. GREER OPTICIAN PIANOS AND ORGANS. _Tine Watcfi and Cngraving a Specialty. EYES EXAMINED FREE OF CHARGE. 106 Clinton St., IOWA CITY, IOWA. III ALL. fiaff- IN THIS BOOK R E FR OM TI-IF WORK OF COO V ER CO. iNtNrapiNts, 22 ClitItoh Street, IOWA CITY, IOWA. Iv BLOOM MAYER ARE HEADGUARTERS FOR Fine Tailor Made Clothing Largest stock in ocoa to Select grom. 0 U R Merchant Aing Departatept IS REPLETE WITH ALL THE NOVELTIES From the Best Looms in the World. ALL THE LATEST STYLES Qap$ Farni$hing Goods Received as Fast as Fashion Dictates. ONE LOW PRICE TO ALL AND THAT MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES. STUDENTS WILL FIND OUR UNIFORMS SUPERIOR to any, they being of our own manufacture and are Perfect in Fit and Guaranteed never to Fade. BLOOM 6c MAYER. w ' 1 M V (r1-1 ? ' lamMiNglar or Line) and Oysters ALSO SERVES SUPPER FOR , PARTIES.0 OAST EASLEY The American elothiers a Specialty of !Ile liig and Finishing Qods, ANY LADY Who has Used Our + + + BLACK DRESS GOODS Knows the Satisfaction of Having the BEST. PRATT STRUB AGENTS FOR PRIESTLIE ' S BLACK DRESS GOODS, DRY-GOODS, CARPETS, AND CLOAKS. BATT 400i 11%. THE CELEBRATED WE ARE SOLE AGENTS. VI The Friend of the Student. C. n STEAM LAUNDRY Corner Linn St. and Iowa Ave. Agency at Fink ' s Bazaar, First Door South of Post-Office. KENYON HAM, Proprietors. Johnson County Savings Bank, IOWA CITY, IOWA. Capital Stock, $i25,000.00. Surplus, - - 2,000.00. - Pays Interest on Deposits. Has the only burglar proof Safe Deposit Boxes in the city. Deposits Solicited. T. C. CARSON, PRES. W. A. FRY, CASHIER. G. L. FALK, ASST. DIRECTORS. T. C. CARSON, S. F. LEFEVER, SAM ' L SHARPLESS, HENRY STROHM, J. C. COCHRAN, C. F. LOVELACE, L. 13. PATTERSON, EDWAR D TUDOR. IOWA CITY---wozgatio. Passengers and Baggage Transferred to and from all Trains. HACKS FURNISHED AT ALL HOURS, DAY OR NIGHT, FOR CITY CALLS. TELEPHONE Nos. 4 AND 86. C. M. BYERS. JOE CORSO DEALER ICI FANCY FRUITS CIGARS TOBACCO 107 Washington. Street, IOWA CITY, VII re(piovsl Peed deliver Messenger SetVice. Parcels or Valises Delivered to any part of City at the following Rates: Within I2 Blocks of the Postoffice, To cts., beyond this limit, 15 cts. Messenger Service Furnished on Application. Call at or Telephone WESTERN UI ION TELEGRAPH OFFICE,Ix J. A. CHAMPION, MANAGER. A. E. SWISHER, President. G. W. LEWIS, Vice-President. G. W. KOONTZ, Treasurer. Capital and Surplus, $42,000.00. Litizens ' avings and rust Lompany. Four per cent Interest Paid on Deposits. Accounts Received Subject to Check. LOANS MADE ON REAL ESTATE. DIRECTORS:—C. A. SCHAEFFER, A. E. SWISHER, G. W. LEWIS, H. A. STRUB, G. W. KOONTZ. 1 117 DUBUQUE STREET. IOWA STATE PRESS OFFICE. IOWA CITY, IOWA. to., + + ARTISTIC PRINTERS 6HE DIUGGISTII FOR AND SILL 601LEM AND SANG? GOODS. M VIII THE VOL. IV. THE CLASS OF ' 95 STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA IOWA CITY, IOWA 1894 -- ' r. ' .i tfusToN pepHIDE, Vibe bas Pinself fb be 1Dle eacber, RrieDci, et9e1 crsisf6D1 Wo4er f6r iouVa ' s Eetif6rs aaclicaid " Let us be strong hi the doing, For that is ours alone. " HEN the task of publishing the JUNIOR ANNEAL devolved upon the Class of Ninety-Five, they debated much as to what should be the character of their publication. It was decided that the HAWKEYE ought to be of itself a valuable book, and not prized merely because of its associations; that it should not be a fancy catalogue of the various ments and societies of the University, but should represent the institution in a better and a truer light. Accordingly, we have made a departure from the policy of our predecessors and, so far as our observation goes, from the plan of college annuals in general. The histories and lists of members Of the various classes have not ' been included in this volume; instead of the usual emblematic cuts, we have inserted photographs of the principal societies. Other changes have been made. We have endeavored to bring together representative literary work of the students, and to incorporate in this book the rich indications of the progress and welfare of our beloved Alma Mater,—to make this a memorial of a year ' s advancement. Doubtless we have clone those things we ought not to have clone, and have left undone those things we ought to have done. But whether we have labored in vain or not, you hold in your hands the results of our work; and we submit to the final criterion. " Success in every realm of art Proclaims herself the crucial test. " +1 OFFICERS a F AINTIVUU CHARLES ASHMEAD President. AMOS NOYES CURRIER, Dean of the Collegiate Faculty. JOHN CLINTON Dean of the Medical Faculty. WILMOT HORTON Dean of the Homeopathic Medical Faculty. EMLIN Chancellor of the Law Department. ALFRED ONIA.S HUNT, Dean of the Dental Faculty. EMIL LOUIS Dean of the Pharmaceutical Faculty. WILLIAM J. Secretary of the Board of Regents. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS. DAVID N. RICHARDSON. HOWARD A. ALBERT W. SWALM. Aak—■•••—•■• ' 1-1J, WONT IflJ .4 :AN OniV t • A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. LITTLE more than a generation ago S I. was born. Her right was a landed estate, the gift of her maternal father, U. S., to be held in trust by the mother for the daughter ' s sole use and benefit. The " hawk ' s eye " which the mother is credited with possessing must be the product of evolution, for far-sight is not apparent in the hasty conversion of land into money at a time when the least possible benefit could result from the sales. The mother ignorant of the needs of a growing child first gave her shelter under a borrowed roof and compelled her to subsist upon the slender income of her wasted patrimony. A few years pass during which many of immature age seek the guidance of the little maid ' s servants through the rudiments of an education. At the same time a few gather crumbs of wisdom which they carry to the hungry children of the regions round about. Soon the mother removes to another city and places her child now ten years of age in the old house which she cannot carry with her. Leaving she says, I will send you regularly the income from your patrimony, so that you may pay your servants for attention to those who may seek your counsel. " " Each corner must contribute a little wherewith to eke out the slender stipend your servants will receive. " The servants proved more willing to make sacrifices, than was the mother to contribute anything out of her abundance. After a strenuous effort the mother opened her purse to such an extent as to provide a boarding hall for the use of men and women (an effort to exclude young women having met with a righteous rebuke) who were drawn to the fountain of knowledge over which the attractive little maid presided. To the hall now well filled comes suddenly a cry of distress from the godfather whose life is threatened. The call needs no repeating. Thoughts are turned from brain-forming to bullet-firing and to bandage-making. 7 For four years our little maid has abundant room at her disp osal. But she rejoices in the loyalty of her absent admirers. The fierce cyclone passes. The life of the godfather is saved. Many who have learned by a bitter rience their need of a higher education now crowd the vacant halls. The mother whose " hawkeye " is opened by the lessons of the war makes provision for a slight equipment for scientific purposes, yielding to an appeal to religious sentiment for the erection.of a chapel and giving a lower story to science. The boys returning from the war find the mistress they had left a child now in blooming young womanhood. With increased room and a still meagre cash account, she welcomes back a body of admirers the like of whom_ will probably never again appear. Her servants have suffered a change, but the same spirit of sacrifice prevails. The godfather in gratitude for the service rendered him in his terrible trial makes another donation of land to the mother. An opportunity_is now sented for righting her early wrong. But the opportunity is lost. " hawkeye " is closed. Another daughter, I. A. C., claims the bequest, The mother in her unwisdom separates the sisters, provides distinct homes, divides what she can herself bestow and duplicates servants. Her twin sister W., who at the first imitated her example, now displays the greater wisdom. The result is apparent in the rapid growth of the cousin W. U. Here it may be said in passing that an older sister M. showed her wisdom in retaining her first trust until such time as a reasonable price could be secured for her land and M. U. now leads all her cousins. But S. U. I. neither frets nor sulks. She girds herself afresh and says to her faithful servants, " Stand by me and we will yet gain the victory over this second disaster. " Law and Medicine are welcomed to the best the houses can afford and accept the corners of chambers, vacated kitchens and bed-rooms and damp cellars. To Homeopathic Medicine is given a small annex outside the campus, as large; however, as the liberality (?) of the mother would permit. At thirty years of age the mature woman pleads with her mother for an addition to her regular income. It is granted upon CO11(141°11 that she will dismiss from her home all who cannot enter a collegiate class. . The mistress at once complies, finds her friends increased by the act, and is able to increase slightly the number and the pay of her servants. The mistress takes pleasure in leading through a malodorous basement pied by the medical students a committee sent by her mother to look into the. house-keeping of her daughter. The report is so strong in regard to the sanitary condition of the house that the mother doles out barely enough to provide for correcting the defects noted 8 and furnishing a building to the upper story of which the dissecting tables are removed. Rooms are vacated. Dentistry watchful for cavities fills them. The ment renovated is again occupied. Patient servants in science see the mother abounding in wealth and ing a magnificent home of her own. Surely now will the call of the daughter be heeded and her needs supplied. The first really generous response to her appeal for building and equipment is made. But just as her servants are rejoicing in her prosperity the mistress is attacked by disease, the first symptoms of which appeared ten years before with the suddenness of a meteor ' s flash. The mother in her anxiety sends down a body of consulting physicians. After a thorough examination they find no cause for alarm, and the disease is stayed with no other result than the change of servants, and the introduction of a new regimen better suited to the age of the convalescent. As an act of gratitude the mother consents to the erection of another ing and to an increase in the pay of her daughter ' s servants. Pharmacy has watched for an opening and finds it in the new building . The matronly mistress has been cheered by the loyalty of her friends who have made provisions for a student ' s home, where physical, social, and spiritual wants are met. She rejoices too in the efforts to secure erect bodily carriage and proper muscular development, which are, under proper control, such erful aids to manly deportment, to mental vigor, and to moral character. S. U. I. now appeals for such recognition of her services, as in point of buildings and equipments, and well paid servants, will allow her to stand erect in the presence of her cousins. She feels it beneath her dignity to crouch at her mother ' s feet begging for an annual pittance. She feels that she has earned t he right to be trusted with the management of an estate which shall yield a permanent income equal to her needs. To this end she must know what her income is to be that she may make a wise and economical distribution of it. Her cousins are all so trusted. Why should she longer stand the sole tion to an income derived from a permanent tax? @ntefeectticif eOttccition, now, to fie, tft,.. to incfw, ,ivv ita conipciy efetiienta to it in one of tfie, epocri of titenteif enez-iij trio @iv tfiia moat vue ctito, it)e, rinbw fiow to 1.0..e, otiz, ivt.rvezitozo of trio car tfie, zicfleot 3tz,ovi9 in trio poluez, of t ale ctcJea, pfa.cea ovv tri., ii,intinit of wftic`it trvizt centurtica fictue, teen ivv ttitINA,19. WHEW E LL. " no 1, .017-0., . lvt K 7,Na 6 ' I ' i.i.. IrV( ' • Jks z re e .0144 -, X y4 5 . , al ,, ,6 sy 1, v, 41, i , N. K i , 867 6,--RkSa...c.4 i -- ;•-----?,--,- ----„-- j ., •., ,-,_,-, --;•-•••• ---, p aeLo.; _ ;07 ?:. ...... i., vvi 1 fA C0 .ren, C ' IS414 6---. --it,— ,_ (, •177 ---,-,y,-- `- -- - p),RE yocninm 1-1.: ' ' ' ' 9 v ' ,f4,,,,, qz !firth A ' a,ne .17.11,17.15 8 Krrroira a :,9r,„ ahAmaixperiilion arnerol .Siolopf t9j, _SCIENTIFIC EXP LORATIONS-- UNDER -THE • or ' THE STATE • UNIVE RSITY OF • IOWA, C. C. NUTTING. ThE gmbaroa EZpEditioft. HF idea, of a Biological Expedition to the Bahamas, by which the students of the University might have an opportunity to study and admire in the living state the various forms of life which had proved so fascinating to them, even in the imperfect condition in which they are preserved in the museum, was originated by Professor C. C. Nutting, some five years ago. At that time he was spending the summer in the Bahamas for the purpose of working out some problems in marine zoology; and the thought occurred to him that such an expedition would be a novel and at the same time a very valuable feature of the University work. So, with the assistance of the captain of the vessel he began to compute the probable cost of such an undertaking. Captain Flowers, whose practical knowledge as a dredger and sailor was valuable, could give fairly accurate estimates concerning the tering of vessel, the wages of the crew, and the cost of apparatus. On his return, Professor Nutting mentioned the project to various parties, but it was not until the fall of ' 91 that matters took a definite shape. Then it was settled that the expedition would start for the Bahamas in the spring of ' 93. When this became known several applications for membership were received; and among the first to apply were two young women. This fact occasioned no little surprise, for such a contingency had not been thought of ; but since the University was a co-educational institution, it was decided that the women should be admitted to the expedition. More applications followed, until any fears that may have existed, lest the undertaking would not meet with hearty support, were banished. The next summer Professor Nutting went east and with the assistance of Captain Flowers secured a suitable vessel, the " Emily E. Johnson, a masted fruiting schooner of 115 tons burden, 95 feet long, 26 wide, and 7 deep. In the latter part of April this vessel was turned over to them, and they began to fit it up. There was a cabin aft containing four state rooms, a saloon, and toilet room; this afforded suitable accommodations for the women. Forward, the hold was roomy and dry, and bunks were erected along the sides for the 13 rtiitirruittttinu accommodation of the men of the party. Here also the dining and laboratory tables were placed, and shelves along the bulk heads gave room for a good library and laboratory equipment. The two hatches were provided with glass skylights. Captain Flowers was secured as sailing master, and a better choice could not have been made, He is a man of the strictest integrity, dignified, and of large experience in the West Indian seas. In regard to equipment, the Executive Committee, Professors Nutting, Calvin, and Weld, communicated with Mr. Benedict of the U. S. Fish Commission and Prof. Alexander Agassiz, Professor Agassiz has had a great deal of practical experience in dredging, as has also Mr. Benedict who was the naturalist in charge of the Albatross, " the finest dredger ever built. With valuable suggestions from these men, Professor Weld devised a piece of apparatus which was a model of simplicity and efficiency. This was placed on deck, just forward of the main mast. Before the winter of ' 92 the party was complete, with fourteen men and seven women accepted as members. These were as follows: Misses Edith Prouty, Bertha Wilson, Minnie Howe, Leora Johnson, Maggie Williams, Mrs. Wickham, Mrs. Drew, Professor C. C. Nutting and Instructors H. F. Wickham and G. L. Houser of S. U. I., Professor M. F. Arey of the State Normal 14 School, Professor S. W. Stookey of Coe College, and Messrs. A. E. Barrett, Wm. Larrabee, E. G. Decker, W. P. Powell, H. E. C. Ditzen, A. M. Rogers, W. Ballard, Gilman Drew, and Edwin Sabin, special correspondent. Several meetings were held at Iowa City in the spring and committees were appointed to look after provisions, equipment, etc. Wm. Larrabee was elected treasurer. Early in April, Professor Nutting and Mr. Powell went east to superintend the equipment of the vessel and to get everything in readiness for the party on its arrival. On Tuesday night, May 2nd, the expedition left Iowa City on the late train for Chicago, where it arrived the next day, and transferred immediately to the B. 0. road. Baltimore was reached on the day following, and that evening the party took up its quarters on the Emily E. Johnson, which was lying at the wharf ready to start. She was towed out of harbor on the evening of the 5th, and sail was spread for the south. The sea was smooth and beautiful down Chesapeake; but when the capes were pas sed, it became very different to the landsmen aboard. Here a strong easterly breeze had raised quite a sea, and although the ship scudded along merrily enough most of the passengers were seriously affected with seasickness. This decidedly uncomfortable condition of affairs rapidly became worse and during the seven days ' passage to Egg Island only three or four of the whole twenty-one swered the summons of the dinner bell. On Wednesday a came up and the party experienced their first and only really rough weather. After the storm passed by and the sea became smooth, some of the seasick ones mustered enough energy to catch up in dip-nets some of the seaweed which is so common in the gulf stream. In this weed live great numbers of pelagic crustaceans, fishes, and hydroids. This was the first collecting done and it proved very profitable. Egg Island was sighted Friday about noon and the pilot brought the schooner into harbor a few hours before nightfall. The party was pretty well sented at supper that evening, and the stillness of the water seemed to banish the disagreeable feelings of the last few days. Early next morning the several collecting parties went ashore and fairly revelled in the beauties of the varied forms of life with which they met. The shallow water particularly abounded in forms that were attractive and novel. For the first time these inland dents looked down through the clear water and saw the living sea fans, purple and yellow, waving about with every current; sea urchins in large numbers were obtained and this .first introduction to marine life made altogether a pleasant day. One party went ashore to Egg Island proper and made the 15 acquaintance of the light keeper and his son, who are the only inhabitants of the island. They lead a lonely life, indeed, and their only knowledge of the outside world comes from the few vessels which put in there for fruit or anchorage. We found them very hospitable and ready to place anything which they had at our disposal; and it was in their cocoa grove that we first had an opportunity to eat cocoa-nuts fresh from the trees. The next day, Sunday, the pilot brought the schooner out of the harbor, and after trying to sell some shell work, straw hats, and other wares left us; we set sail across the great Bahama banks for Havana. Here in the shallow water of the Banks, we determined to try the dredging apparatus and, accordingly, the tangle bar was lowered into the sea. When it was hauled up the variety of excellent specimens obtained showed that it was worth while to dredge here in earnest, and the tain advised the use of his favorite apparatus, the big oyster dredge. This proved to be all that the captain claimed. It scraped up everything in its path and the monster fish that it brought to the surface made some of the party fairly dance with excitement. Three days were spent in dredging here, in water from five to twenty-four fathoms deep. Then, after a two days ' calm, Water Cay was sighted. Lured by the name a party went ashore with barrels to replenish the supply of fresh water, which was running low.7No trace of good water, however, could be found; but the ornithologists had plenty of work to do among the rookeries of bridled and noddy terns, which are very abundant on all the small islands of the south. Cuba was sighted the next morning, the great Peak of Matanzas rising high above the level shore line. We coasted along toward the west all day, till at four o ' clock in the afternoon the city of Havana appeared in the distance. The harbor was entered in a driving rain storm; the health officer came aboard, and we were directed where to anchor. Hardly had we cast our anchor before a per- feet swarm of bungalows came out to take us ashore. Two, three, and four dollars were the 16 modest sums for which they offered to transport a passenger to the dock; but since we did not care to ride in such high priced conveyances, the ship ' s boats were lowered and we went ashore in them. Our first care was to get the mail which had accumulated here for us, and a great task it was. The Havana post office is a dark little establishment where letters are piled up on a table and left until called for; and, as a matter of fact, many are lost or delayed. No stamps were sold in the post office but an official very kindly directed us to a little dingy tailor shop near by, where they could be obtained. Parts of the city, especially those along the water front, are crowded and dirty in the extreme; the streets are narrow and filled with filth; the sidewalks of such little width that two persons cannot pass each other on them, and the whole vicinity has a peculiarly repulsive appearance. The newer portion of the city is vastly different, however, the streets being well paved and cared for, the residences farther apart, and as a rule imposing in architecture, and there are parks full of beautiful foliage and blooming plants. Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday were enjoyably passed in visiting the various points of interest in this old-fashioned Spanish town; the cathedral where Columbus lies buried is here, but the tomb itself was closed at the time and the party could not enter. Wednesday ing a tug towed us out of the harbor. On leaving Havana we sailed a few miles from Morro Castle, and here made our first cast for Crinoids in water from one hundred to three hundred fathoms deep. Since this was really the first of the deep sea dredging, it may here be appropriate to give some tion of the apparatus, by means of which we were able to bring from the sea-bottom samples of almost every form of life found there. The tangle consisted of a bar of steel about one inch in diameter and some five feet long, bent at the middle so as to form a very obtuse angle, and five strong chains depending rately from the bar at regular vals. Into the alternate links of each of these chains were tied strands of Italian hemp rope some six feet long, with their ends frayed out. It is difficult to give the reader an quate idea of the bushy, horse-tail appearance which one of these gles, thus constructed, presents, when ready to be cast into the water 17 for the first time, and far more difficult is it to give a proper conception of the faculty this mass of hemp fibres possesses for gathering up and holding fast whatever comes in its path along the sea-bottom. The windlass, by which the tangle was lowered and hoisted, consisted of an iron drum fifteen inches in diameter and thirty inches long, hung horizontally across the mid-deck of the schooner, in an iron frame firmly bolted to the deck. Large iron cranks were attached at each end of the windlass, and by applying themselves vigorously to these cranks, from one to four persons were enabled to hoist the tangle up from the sea-bottom onto the deck. This was our dredging outfit, and although we (lid occasionally attach the oyster dredge or one of the smaller " Blake " dredges to the cable, we always returned to our tangle for the best results. As we sailed away from Castle Morro that beautiful morning, we all hoped that before we left the " crinoid fields " we should secure a few specimens of the beautiful pentacrinus ; but in the very first cast of the tangle we obtained more of these than we had hoped to get by weeks of hard labor. The ing lead cast overboard had had the customary bit of soap on its lower end, and when it was hauled in from a depth of one hundred and twenty fathoms a pentacrinus plate was found embedded in the soap. Captain Flowers had taken the bearings of the vessel when the lead touched bottom and so was able to return to that exact spot for the first cast of the tangle. The five specimens (many of them superb ones) which clung to the tangle as it emerged from the water was proof sufficient of the presence there, in ance, of the very forms we sought. For the balance of that week we remained above the crinoid fields and worked our apparatus as rapidly as our strength would permit, with varying success. It required about ten minutes for the cable to run out after dropping the tangle overboard, and we usually dragged the bottom for thirty or forty-five minutes. The time required for hoisting varied, according to whether or not the tangle caught on the rocky bottom over which we sometimes passed. Whenever the dredge did hang firmly to some projecting rock the vessel would surge and tug at the cable until it would seem that the fastenings must certainly give way. Then, with all the power we could exert upon the cranks, we would manage slowly to pull the schooner up to a position immediately over the dredge and by applying our force directly from above we were always able to break the tangle loose, though generally not until it was so bent and twisted that it had to be ally made over before it could be used. Under such circumstances as these the hoisting sometimes required several hours; but, as a rule, each hoist was made in about forty-five minutes, so that by rising early in the morning and making one haul before breakfast we usually accomplished from four to six hauls each day. Sometimes several dozen fine specimens would result from a single haul and at other times, again, there would be nothing save a few common sea-weeds. In one instance after winding long and hard for nearly 18 1 thirty minutes we saw the cable slacken, as the vessel rolled, and fail to become taut again. The mousing for the hook by which the tangle was attached to the cable had worn off, and the bar, becoming detached, had dropped hack to the bottom of the sea, where, no doubt, it still reposes. Saturday afternoon, we sailed into Havana to spend Sunday. As we came into port with everything " ship-shape " and all hands on deck to enjoy the scene of the approaching city, the harbor seemed to be alive with vessels of every sort and nationality, strange native crafts and merchantmen of the sea. A strong breeze blew straight down the bay and under mainsail and jib we heat our way in among the other shipping and soon were quietly riding at anchor. It was really a beautiful sight to look upon the city and its charming harbor as it glittered and shone in that tropical sunset, and to view it all from so many different directions, as we glided about the bay. We remained in Havana until the following Tuesday, spending the time in sight-seeing and in studying the people and their customs; then we set sail for Bahia Honda, a small harbor some forty miles farther west on the Cuban coast. On the following morning we lay off the mouth of this little harbor and by noon had hailed a small Spanish trading vessel just leaving with a cargo of sugar for Barcelona, and had induced her captain to pilot us into port. It was quite amusing to see this little Spaniard giving commands to our sailors. He-knew not a word of English and they not a word of Spanish and the look of utter disgust with which each regarded the other, was something ludicrous in the extreme. After a few miles sailing in narrow channels between great sub-marine rocks on either side, we reached the inmost limit of the harbor and here cast anchor for a stay of four or five days. The most striking thing about this harbor is the marvelous beauty of its mountain scenery. The summit of the range is, in reality, almost twenty miles from the shore, though apparently, it is only three or four. The foot-hills and valleys that occupy the intervening space, as well as the mountain slopes themselves, are covered with most luxuriant tropical vegetation, and at the time we saw them, presented a rare variety of coloration. Just after we had cast anchor and while Professor Nutting and the captain were on their way to the town of Bahia Honda some three miles inland, where resides his Cuban highness, the c aptain of the port, the clouds began to gather and to pile up great heaps of blackness between us and the mountains and to roll along the slopes and leys to the music of the tropical thunder; and in the course of an hour the rain came clown in truly tropical style. The water fell in perfect sheets and although in a short time the clouds cleared away and everything was bright again, " the last state of that man was worse than the first, " for the quitoes came and truly their name was " Legion.:: If we were to say that their size, energy and activity manifested during our entire stay, were things positively beyond all power of description, at least twenty witnesses could be found to attest the truthfulness of the statement. 19 The captain of the port and his advisors seemed to regard us with siderable suspicion, and although after some delay they gave permission to go ashore and make collections, they insisted that none should wander inland more than thirty yards from the shore-line. Our three large boats were all lowered next day and we separated in various directions to pursue the several branches of work. One party with rifles and a native guide proceeded tiously up one of the small streams, that pour into the harbor, in search of alligators and turtles which the guide assured them could be found there; but the search was fruitless. In the shallow water near the mangrove swamps were found in great abundance one of the larger species of the sea-urchin, and considerable time was given to collecting and preserving this. Crabs and mullusks of almost numberless varieties inhabit the rocky shores and the low boggy lands just back of them. One of the characteristic features of this harbor—a feature of great interest to us all—was the mangrove swamp along the shore-line. The mangrove is a tree peculiar to these tropical shoals. The young plant is a fusiform stem very much resembling a cigar, and floats about on the surface of the water until at low tide it becomes stranded in the mud where it quickly takes root. The new stem, as it rises, sends out roots to the mud below, thus forming a cone-shaped mass of branching straggling rootlets, from the apex of which the branches of the mangrove tree spread in every direction. Aerial root-stocks are sent out from the trunk, and these, sending down roots to the soil below and thus forming new plants, render the thicket impenetrable. Bivalves and crabs abound in these swamps, and tudes of birds find lodgement in the branches. The few days spent in this harbor were best improved by our entomologists and by those having charge of the botanical collecting since the abundant vegetation and the opportunity to go ashore at will made these two kinds of collecting yield the best returns. . The nights were not cool like those at sea and the mosquitoes seemed far more active than in the clay-time, so that bly no member of the party got a good night ' s rest during the whole stay. After three days of very delightful work, we weighed anchor and with the little Spaniard still at her helm started to leave the harbor. Near its mouth we had to stop and wait for the captain of the port to come and formally give us permission to leave. While waiting some of the men went ashore and secured two large turtles weighing about two hundred pounds each, and brought them on board to be skinned and preserved. At last we were cleared and we put out to sea, this time with our prow headed for Key West and the waters of the United States. The sea was rough and some of the party were again troubled with sea-sickness, others were only " sympathetic, " but some who had been greatly afflicted on the ward voyage from Baltimore were not affected at all. Reaching Key West harbor on the following Monday afternoon, we were met by the health officer 20 and told that we must either go into quarantine there in the harbor for three weeks, or be sent to Fort Jefferson at the Dry Tortugas and submit to a ough fumigation of our vessel and its contents. In the latter case we might return after about five days, so we chose the fumigation, and as soon as our mail was brought out to us, we headed for the west, and early next morning were awakened by the rattle of the chains as we cast anchor in the midst of the group of islands which forms the western terminus of the Florida Keys. We had intended to work some in this region and so were not at all sorry to spend the season of our quarantine in so very rich a field. It was hardly an hour after our arrival before a party of ten had set out with guns and crabnets, tubs, buckets, and kodaks, to see what the nearest island had in store for us. It was Bird Key, one of the smaller isles of the group, and it lay about a mile and a half to the south of our anchorage. It was only a few acres in extent, and the white coral sand was covered with large cacti.j,and some other forms of low vegetation.- From these islands, as we approached, there arose such clouds of birds, man-o ' -war birds, noddy, least. and bridled terns, that we were not long in deciding why the Key was so named. On the bleached beaches large white crabs burrow in the sand, sisting chiefly upon the carcasses of dead fowls; and they scurried away to their burrows as we approached. The water about this Key for forty or sixty rods on every sid e is only from two to six feet deep, and the bottom was found to be literally alive with the very finest biological material of almost less variety. The large strombus conch was found alive in great abundance; and the great, black, long-spined sea-urchins (Diadema setosum) occupied a belt of the surrounding sea-bottom sonic fifteen rods from the shore. Crabs, sponges, smaller mollusks and serpent-stars were found and collected. Corals, too, of many varieties were taken here alive, with polyps fully expanded. While the younger men of the party were engaged in this first visit to Bird Key, Professor Nutting and Captain Flowers, with two sailors at the oars, went to Fort Jefferson to see when the fumigation would begin and to visit the representatives of the government, at this place, They were cordially comed and shown about the fortifications, receiving an invitation for the entire party to partake of the hospitality of the fort during their stay in the region. Upon departing for the schooner, they saw Milt wAi apparently a school of large fish a fewthundred yards to the northwest, and drew near to investigate. From a small sandy key rising above the water at this point, the sea-bottom slopes away so gradually that over quite an extent the water is no more than three feet deep and even much less. Here in this extended shallow, the tlemen found one of the largest schools of sharks ever seen, or at least, reliably reported. In water too shallow to float a ship ' s boat, were more than a hundred sharks frolicking and playing, fairly dragging their huge bodies over the sandy bottom, with their backs in many cases a foot above the surface of 21 the water. Every few minutes a monster would leap out of the water and almost stand erect, with half his great length sticking straight up from the surface. Captain Flowers had spent more than twenty-five years on the sea, -and much of the time in southern waters; Professor Nutting had visited this region at least twice before; and both had seen sharks in what they had been pleased to call large numbers; but never had -they seen or heard of anything that would begin to compare with what they saw that morning. The fish paid no more attention to the boat than if it had been- one great shark among the rest; and they rubbed against its sides and slapped it with their great tails in a manner that verfnaturally occupants some feelings of uneasiness. The oars, used as clubs on the heads and backs of these brutes, when they rose out of the water, seemed to affect them not in the least. On the return of the boat to the schooner, an expedition was organized of the available men and, armed with a harpoons-spear and two heavy rifles, they went back to " ' bag a shark. " Captain Flowers stood in the prow of the boat with the spear in hand, and as the rowers brought reach of one of the great brutes he drove it hard at the creature ' s body. Several times this was done, but the hook did not hold; the hide was so tough as to resist all the force which the captain could put into the stroke. The rifles were used, but the balls only scratched the backs of creatures and then glanced off into the water, while- the school paid not the least attention either to the noise or to the lively splashing of its wounded members. At last a vulnerable point in the body of a male shark was found and the spear held fist. A bullet through ........ • the brain at short range soon quieted the brute, and with their game the party returned to the schooner. The animal measured as he lay stretched out on deck, eight feet and six inches in length, and his weight must have been at least seven hundred pounds. After carefully preserving the skin, brain, jaws, 22 and some of the viscera, the carcass was thrown overboard. A few clays later, in company with one of the young men and two sailors, the captain made another visit to this same region and returned after a short absence with a female of the same species and about the same size. Several other expeditions were likewise made, but owing to the want of a strong harpoon with weight enough to drive it through the skin all efforts to secure additional mens failed. • On these expeditions the men became very fearless. and in their excitement would often jump, into the water, chase a shark into a shoal where his back necessarily came above . the surface,. and then empty their guns at him. Some even got so bold as to wade up to a shark as he lay quiet in the water, and poke him in the ribs with their feet--an indignity which in most cases the creature scarcely deigned notice. On one of the visits to this little key and to another near by it, a brown pelican was shot, and although there were quite a number of these great birds here, they soon became so wary that not another specimen was taken. At Bird Key specimens of each species of bird found on the island were collected and their skins and, in a few cases,. their skeletons, carefully preserved. Eggs, -too, of almost all the species and photographs of their nests, besides copious field notes, were secured by our ornithologists at this place. A few days after our arrival at the Dry Tortugas a pilot came out and brought our schooner through the narrow and torturous channels to the : , _ - -,-,.:----- -,--- ---7: -,.._ NE473 FUNIGIFION " " ' " ' " ' F ' gation dock and the entrance of the fort. Once here, women of the party and a few of the men deserted the ship and occupied the delightful quarters provided by Uncle Sam. for those whom he holds in quarantine. Dr. Murray, the commandant, extended to us all the freedom of the fort and quarters, and 23 seemed constantly endeavoring to make our stay as pleasant as possible. His genuine, whole-souled hospitality and generosity endeared him to every mem- ber of the party. After a stay of nearly two weeks among these islands, we set sail again for Key West, this time to enter the port and make it our quarters for a season. As the turrets and guns of old Fort Jefferson sank below the horizon that clear June morning, there was not one among us all who did not feel something of sadness that we were leaving forever a spot where we had spent such happy days. Saturday morning, June 17th, we cast anchor at Key West and received our accumulated mail. In this mail came the first news of the State Field meet at Des Moi nes, and the docks and harbor of Key West fairly rang with shouts and S. U. I. yells when we read from the Vidette that THE Cur is OURS. " On the evening of Sunday, June 18th, we left the harbor and anchored a short distance out for the night. Early the next morning the tangle was ered into the sea, and work on the Pomtales Plateau began. This Pomtales Plateau is a broad flat elevation in the sea bottom of this region, which immense numbers of marine animals inhabit; and it is already famous as one of the richest fields known to science, for dredging and collecting. All day we worked, bringing up tangle after tangle filled with countless numbers of small crustaceans and echinoderms. In the afternoon it was thought advisable to try once more our big oyster dredge, and accordingly we lowered it away; but suddenly, while all the party were at work sorting over the last haul of the tangle, the vessel gave an ominous lurch, the guys holding the gaff gave way, and immediately the gaff itself broke in the middle leaving the outer end swinging about in a dangerous fashion. At once we knew that the dredge was hung, and made all haste to break it loose. The sails were lowered, and the schooner came to anchor, held by the cable. For over two hours we worked with all our strength, and at last when the dredge appeared above the surface, bringing with it four or five hundred pounds of coral reef, we found it so much damaged that it could not have been used again even had we desired. The broken gaff prevented any further work that day, so it was decided to return to Key West and purchase a new one. But when on inquiry we found that one could not be obtained for less than fifteen dollars, rather than pay such an exorbitant price, we repaired our old one, and were soon cruising over the Plateau again. No more accidents occurred, and the ing went on steadily and profitably, an immense variety of forms being brought to the surface. Dolphin fishing offered a pleasant diversion to the work at the tangle, and we had a chance to indulge in it several times while in these seas; the fish themselves were a very acceptable addition to our larder. Schools of this beautiful fish would follow the schooner for hours and when the fishing tackle was brought out a busy and exciting time would follow. All of the party had 24 heard more or less of the colors of the dying dolphin, but nevertheless the sight was an astonishment to them. The peculiar structure of the dolphin ' s scales causes an iridescence when the fish is out of water, that is beautiful indeed. The largest fish captured measured a little over four feet in length; the skin was preserved and will some clay find a place in the University museum; but however well cared for, it can only have a mockery of its former beauty. One evening when we were enjoying the moonlight after a hard day ' s work at the dredge, one of the sailors came aft and reported that a big shark was swimming about the bow. A stock of tackle for shark fishing had been procured in Key West, and it was not long before a line was rigged and cast overboard. But the shark was shy and our patience was almost exhausted before he began to play with the bait. Indeed, not till after midnight, when all were asleep except the captain and one patient fisherman, did a shark get firmly hooked. He was hauled on board by means of a noose cast around his tail, and such a scattering as there was of the sleepers on deck! It was ludicrous in the extreme. The fish was given all the after deck to himself as long as he chose to flounce around, but when he quieted down a little a blow on the head with a heavy ax finished him. Another small specimen of the same kind was caught that night, after which all hands turned in. It seemed as though we had struck a large ' school of sharks, for the next clay four more were taken, one being nearly twelve feet long. The skins and jaws were preserved as well as portions of the viscera, which were kept for comparative histological work. Friday, June 30th, was our last day on the Pomtales Plateau, and we sailed into Key West harbor that evening. Saturday was spent in getting clearance papers, replenishing our water supply, etc., and early Sunday morning we dropped out to Sand Key light. On a little key near the light we had placed a number of fine madreporic corals to bleach; but a storm had occurred during the week and when we arrived at the key, we found most of our corals buried in the gravel of the beach. Still we had the good fortune to find all of the very best ones, nicely bleached and but little injured by the waves. The Fourth of July found us sailing toward the Bahamas. We were not permitted, out there on the sea, to spend this patriot ' s day amidst the rattle of fire-crackers and the flash of pin-wheels, but we had our celebration just the same. When we came to breakfast that morning, we found the steward decked out in glorious red, white, and blue; after the meal we were invited aft by the women and each member of the party was presented with a souvenir card appropriately painted in water colors and bearing a verse. Then the national songs were sung and three salutes were fired to the flag. The Fourth seemed to mean more to us out there on the water than it ever had before at home. A fair breeze prevailed all day and we sailed along toward the east at a good rate. The slight roll of the sea did not trouble any one in the least for two 25 months on the water had made good sailors of us all. The evening was spent with songs and jollity. At about ten o ' clock every one had retired to rest, when suddenly the wind went clown and the ship was left in the heavy rolling sea without a breath of air to steady her. Back and forth the schooner rolled, now port now starboard, and with each roll the great main, boom slatted over with an ominous crash that made the company fear that the whole ship was being jerked to pieces. A number of jars containing specimens were thrown from their shelves and broken, but no very serious damage was done. The next two days passed without incident. On Friday Egg Island was sighted and toward evening a pilot took us into the harbor of Harbor Island. He was somewhat nervous, however, and ran us hard aground just after we had passed through the narrow inlet, and there we were obliged to stay until noon of the next day. As usual, however, the time was not wasted, for early in the morning collecting parties were organized and put ashore as soon as possible. Along the rocky shore and in the shallow water there was a great deal of interesting work to be done. Mollusks abounded, of all sizes, from the tiny " sea-shells " sold in all cities, to the large and beautiful tritons. Here too the omnipresent crustacean was found; and there were secured some fine examples of protective mimicry among these creatures. The bulk of the material obtained was made up of gorgonians, however. With high tide our vessel floated off the bar about two o ' clock in the noon, and we proceeded at once to the town of Harbor Island, a little English settlement of about one thousand inhabitants. While Professor Nutting and Captain Flowers were getting clearance papers for Baltimore, some of the expedition went ashore to collect birds and insects, but the afternoon was so hot that real active work was impossible. Down on the farther beach the party found a number of wells, each consisting of a couple of barrels sunk in the sand a hundred yards or so from the surf line and at the foot of a rather high sand hill. These wells were all carefully padlocked and marked with the names of the owners, for fresh water is very valuable on the island. This water would hardly have suited our taste on ordinary occasions, for it was quite brackish; but since it was that or nothing we could not be very particular, and accordingly drank heartily when some native women gave us some of the water in a gourd. Our kodak fiends were busy in the town during this time, and had many funny incidents to relate when they returned. All the natives, more especially the negroes, were very anxious to have their photographs taken, and as soon as the shutter snapped would come crowding up to see the picture. Early in the morning of the ninth a native pilot came aboard from the village of Harbor Island and at once sail was made for Spanish a settlement on St. George ' s Island some six miles to the west, and on the opposite side of Eleuthera. We took what is called the inside passage instead of going out 26 around the rocky coral reef, which extends along the entire northern coast of Eleuthera and is separated from the island by an extremely narrow and ous channel. The pilot knew this channel perfectly, and it was well that he did, for in many parts of our course a deviation of twenty feet either to the right or to the left would have brought swift and certain destruction to the ship. So we sped away up the before a brisk wind, now shooting to one side and now to the other as the helm was handled in obedience to the mands of the pilot, " Let ' er luff " --. " Steady " — " Keep ' er off. " Just as the breakfast bell rang, we swung round, head to the wind, directly in front of the Spanish Wells harbor, and since it did not seem best to attempt to cross the bar at the harbor ' s mouth until high tide, we cast anchor. Our coming had been heralded in the little settlement by parties who saw us at Egg Island on our southern passage, and everybody was looking for us. Hardly was the ship at rest before a sail boat came alongside and the pant, who was no other than the sage of the settlement, Joe Pindar, came aboard. He was a perfect type of the native whites of these islands, brown as a nut in face and features, rather below the medium height, and bearing in every line of his countenance unmistakable evidences of the want of proper nourishment. It is unquestionably true that the diet upon which these natives ordinarily subsist does not contain enough nutriment to keep their bodies strong and hearty; and as a consequence the half-starved, ill-fed appearance of our friend Pindar is characteristic of ' ' Conchs " in general: He had come to bid us welcome and at the same time to look out for a square meal or two. Captain Flowers had known him for years as had also the mate, and while Pindar stayed to talk, the mate and some of the men took his boat and went off for a sail. Just around the bend of the coast a beautiful white beach was found, and here they spent the morning in bathing and swimming. while some of the others were landed on the Eleutheran coast and with camera and bug-net and shotgun and machete began to climb over the jagged rocks and to cut their way through the thickets. About noon the tide was high and trailing the anchor we stood into the harbor and came to rest near the center where we were to remain for several days. It was Sunday and the good people of the village were holding an out-door meeting at which their new preacher, a college boy fresh from England, was that day to begin his ministerial career. So after dinner most of the party went over to the meeting. After it was over we strolled about the island and sampled some of the cocoa-nuts fresh picked from the trees. The town of Spanish Wells is quite typical of the settlements of British West Indies. It has no streets and the little square frame houses, which for the sake of coolness are raised some two feet from the ground, are set about in the most irregular way. The spaces between the houses are overgrown with grass, with the exception of the foot-paths which answer the purpose of 27 -3.-2:•=fM5-St oughfares. There is not a horse or cart on the island, and indeed there arp very few on any of the Bahamas, so regular streets and roads are unnecessary. The inhabitants, about six hundred in all, are a simple, unpretentious people, without ambition to do more than just to catch enough fish for an occasional hearty meal and to raise a few pineapples for market. The women of the settlement manufacture large hats plaited from the stripped leaves of a very tough variety of grass. They cut this grass, wash it on the beach, cure it, tear each leaf into narrow strips, and then braiding these strips, they stitch the braids into the form of a hat. The finished product brings fro m six to twelve cents. To the north of St. George ' s Island, some two miles, there rises from a marine coral reef two huge rocks, each as large as an ordinary business block ; it was about these that a great part of our gorgonians and corals was collected, Farther to the east of the same reef, a region was found where the branching coral was abundant, and here it was that our collection of madre- pora prolifera was taken. As the tide went out of the harbor large areas of the bottom were left tically dry for a few hours each day and on these tracts many very excellent specimens of mollusks, sponges, echinoderms and fishes were found deposited by the tide. The harbor contained no vessel of any size during our though once or twice a small schooner plying between Harbor Island and Nassau, the capitol of the West Indies and a city of some twenty thousand souls, passed through without stopping. Some sort of epidemic seemed to be developing among the of Spanish Wells and here it was that Dr. Johnson had the first and opportunity afforded her through the entire trip to practice her art; and during the last two days of our stay, she spent much time among the afflicted Almost the entire male population of the settlement gave themselves up entertaining and assisting us, perhaps not entirely without selfish motives, nevertheless with a good deal of zeal. Many of them owned sail-boats Could easily carry a collecting party of a dozen, with all their these boats, with their owners services for the day, were placed at our for three and six pence, " or a trifle over forty cents of our money. Some the best divers in the settlement were employed at a small sum to accompany us and assist in gathering specimens from water several fathoms deep. The 28 days spent here were pleasant and the nights were comfortably cool. toes gave us little trouble so long as we slept on deck and allowed them undis- puted possession of the hold, which they had occupied pretty thoroughly ever since our visit to Bahia Honda. Several rare specimens of fish were caught while we were in this harbor; one was a ‘, baraconta " caught by the mate while he was angling for a shark over the stern of the schooner. It was a monster fish and measured four feet, four and a half inches in length as it lay on the deck. A few hours later Captain Flowers hauled in " a Jew fish of about the same length, but heavier. Both fishes were found to be very good eating. Just before leaving the harbor we received two other curiosities from natives, who had been fishing close by. One of these was a shark of moderate size but of an entirely new species to us; the other was a very large and fine specimen of the " Porcupine " fish which are occasionally found in these waters. Both were preserved and will eventually be put on exhibition in the University museum. There are, on the island of Eleuthera, several caves of considerable size; these were visited by most of the party a day or two before our departure. The people of Spanish Wells are all great singers and they sing whenever occasion is presented. Some of them have good clear voices and make very creditable music. In their public schools which are maintained entirely at the expense of the English government, singing is taught and much attention is given to it. The school master and his friends conceived the idea that an exhibition of the vocal powers of his school would be enjoyed by the pants of the schooner, and accordingly they sent word that on a certain ing they would be over to sing for us. They came, and most of the village came with them. Our deck was literally packed with the crowd, and many people could not get close enough to board us. The scholars sang, and for the most part sang well. save the Queen " was the alpha and omega of their program, and they put much spirit and patriotism into it. Several of their songs were peculiar to their own people, but we cannot help wishing that our readers could hear that motley company as they rendered in their lustiest tones, c, Somebody ' s llyin ' Everyday " or " ' Tis the Old Time Religion. " After completing our work in this locality and waiting several days for a breeze that would permit us to get out safely through the narrow rocky sage, we sailed away from Spanish Wells and did not touch land again until we reached Baltimore. It was now the 15th of the month, and but five days remained before the date on which we had expected to set sail for home. It was decided to spend these days in dredging on the narrow submarine isthmus which connects the island of Little San Salvador with the southern extremity of Eleuthera. This region was some seventy miles away to the south-east, and as the wind remained rather unfavorable we were almost four days in 29 • reaching our destination. The sea-bottom just east of Eleuthera is nearly two thousand fathoms in depth, and we did not come to sounding until within a very short distance of the southern-most point of the island. There we found one hundred fathoms; but the bottom sloped rapidly upward until, on the ridge of the connecting neck it was only nine or ten fathoms below the surface. A single day was spent in dredging back and forth in this strip of shallow water; and the results though they were nothing startling were quite enough to repay us for the effort made. We pulled in the tangles at 4 o ' clock on the afternoon -of July 19th; and Professor Nutting said, That ' s all, Captain Flowers, put us down in Baltimore as soon as you please now. " They were welcome words to us all, for in these last few days we had all been thinking rather more of home than of our work. The wind continued fair and quite strong all that night and the next day until noon, when it became very much lighter and remained so for several days. We began at once to pack the specimens and mark the boxes for shipment to Iowa City. The rolling of the vessel made this work quite difficult at times, but by choosing the afternoons when the motion was least, we dispossed of it all in clue time. On Saturday the weather was squally and we experienced several drenching rain storms, each lasting but a few minutes andl ollowed by a most remarkably sudden clearing of the sky. During one of these showers the mainsail was quickly lowered and we caught enough water in the belly of the sail- to fill several barrels. Sunday was much the same; and as we came up from dinner the sails were flapping about from side to side in the uncertain, shifting winds. Captain Flowers was very uneasy, as he knew better than any of us that these sudden and powerful jerks on our rigging were taxing it more than a hard steady gale would. Presently there came a sudden gust of wind which brought the main boom round with such force that the heavy staple, fastening the boom tackle on the starboard rail, was wrenched out, and the boom went, flying round to port throwing the staple past the captain ' s head in a way that was anything but pleasant. With a sailor ' s ingenuity, the mate soon ' vised another and stronger fastening for the tackle, and the unruly boom was again made fast. Late Sunday night we came into the stormy belt of water known among sailors as the gulf, " and next day began to sight vessels that were either, like our own, beating up the coast toward the bay, or, with full sail spread, were outward bound and making good headway. During the afternoon as we stood in on the port tack the tall tower of Hatteras•light came into full view from the mast-head, lifting its massive walls some one hundred and ninety feet above the sands. Later, as the mist cleared away, we caught the first glimpse of our native land. The barren looking coast and greyish-white sand-dunes of North Carolina are perhaps as desolate a portion 30 of Uncle Sam ' s dominion as the traveler often sees, but despite its bleakness it was indeed a welcome sight to us. We were now almost clue south of the celebrated " Hatteras Shoals " which stretch out many miles from the shore, eastward; and putting about we bore off into the gulf again in order that we might be clear of these shoals in the night. The wind swung round so that we could steer our course, and about three o ' clock in the morning it began to blow stronger, and increased until we had obtained a speed of nine or ten knots an hour. From this on to Cape Henry we were constantly within sight of land and so near that the telegraph line which connects the life-saving stations along this coast was easily seen from our deck as long as daylight lasted. Body Island light was on our beam at 7 P. 111. and we knew that just seventy miles now lay between us and Cape Henry. The speed with which this distance was covered, in the opinion.of Captain Flowers, was the best that the " Emily E. Johnson " had ever made; and at a little past two the next morning Cape Henry ' s light was on our beam, the seventy miles having been run in a trifle less than seven hours. As Captain Flowers took the wheel and, trimming the sail, steered us through the darkness into the narrow mouth of the Chesapeak, there were very few sleepers on board; and when the light on Cape Henry ceased to look red, we knew that the danger point was passed; we were safe in the bay. The brisk wind died away to a very gentle breeze by noon and we passed the mouths of the York, Rapahannock, and Potomac rivers very slowly. As evening came on we were hailed by several tugs whose captains were friends of Captain Flowers, and they gave us a few words of news, the first we had heard since leaving Key West, July 1st. During the night the captain stood at the wheel and by five o ' clock the next morning brought us to the mouth of the Patapsco River. In the teeth of a strong wind we beat up this river, which was so narrow that we were often unable to gain twenty rods on each tack, and swinging in around the bows of two large ocean steamers, which had arrived the night before, dropped anchor directly in front of the health station. By six o ' clock the doctor came off; and seeing us nearest, he supposed, as Captain Flowers intended he should, that we had come first. He us long enough to examine our health papers and receive his fee, and then we lifted anchor and beat up to the city. The schooner was brought alongside the B. 0. pier where her cargo was transferred to a freight car. On the same day the Bahama Party separated. Thus the expedition ended. The whole undertaking had been an experiment on a large scale, and its successful completion establishes a new field of activity in university work. The expense of the trip, —aside from the ratus, freightage, and equipment, which were provided for by the University,— was met by the members of the party. Manifestly, the scope of such work could be indefinitely increased at an expense to the University 31 ately small to the benefits accruing to the school. Our museum has received such valuable additions from the summer ' s work as will give it a high rank among other college museums, especially in the line of marine invertebrates. One curious fish was dredged on the Bahama banks, the mentioning of which may not be out of place in this connection. It is probably a new species allied to the so-called ' ' Fishing Frogs " of north waters. The specimen secured is jet black; the mouth is cleft vertically instead of horizontially ; the abdominal portion is capable of being greatly distended, so that the animal be- comes almost spherical in form. The fea- ture which interested the students most, however, was a fishing rod jointed to the top of the head of this creature, and fur- nished at its end with a flesh-colored bait. The rod could be thrown forward so that the bait dangled just over the open countenance of the animal. When the prey makes a dash at the bait, the rod is jerked back out of the way and the poor dupe suddenly finds itself a victim of misplaced confidence in the capa- cious maw of this strangely equipped fish. 32 FRANK RUSSELL. ThE 1i U Ell 681)(ditiork. ; HE expedition sent to British America in 1892 by the State University - of Iowa, is, perhaps, the most interesting one that has yet gone out from the institution, owing to the vastness of the country to be plored, the extent of time to be covered, and the fact that the territory is a comparatively new one to the collector, for it is a region which has been little visited except by trappers, and very few of these can be persuaded to go to the limit aimed at by Mr. Russell; for, although accustomed to hardship, they shrink from the unusual severity of the trip, and fear the Eskimos, who are not the gentle, simple-minded folk which explorers have found them to be in Greenland. The plan mapped out at the beginning of the expedition_ was as follows. Mr. Russell was to spend the winter of 1892 in the region of the Lower wan, in collecting birds and mammals, and studying the country and its inhabitants, their condition, habits, and legends, and in learning from them whatever presented itself in the way of wood- and water-craft. He was to perfect himself in the the art of managing dog teams and traps, and shoes, the two great means of conveyance in the north; and last but not least, to harden himself to the colder climate, that he might better endure the year of isolation in the Arctic regions. In the spring of 1893 he was to start north, collecting zoological and ethnological specimens on the way, and push on to the Barren Grounds, " and if practicabl e, to the Arctic Ocean, where he intends to spend the present winter in obtaining a series of Arctic animals, especially the muskox. In the spring of ' 94 lie will secure numerous mens of the Arctic birds that breed by the thousands on the coast, and then return; in the late summer, to the land of civilization. This is the plan as agreed on at the beginning; and, so far, it has been carried out in the main, with a few changes which Mr. Russell, when once upon the ground, found to be to the best interests of the expedition. Mr. Russell went first to Winnipeg and from there, after all necessary arrangements were made, to Grand Rapids, where he arrived the last of August. 33 The country around the station is made up of swamps (muskegs) and a higher ground7,with scarcely enough soil to cover its rocky framework. He first turned his attention to the birds of the region, which were not numerous, the Canada grouse being there in the greatest number; they were all in fine condi- tion, however, for the muskeg, in that season, is very hospitable towards its feathered guests, and feasts them with the ' cranberries, sand-cherries and red raspberries that grow in abundance from its damp soil; the higher ground con- tributes chokecherries and strawberries,--the otaminos, or heart berry, of the Indian. This generosity makes the birds unusually plump and beautiful in plumage. Mr. Russell did not confine himself exclusively to the collecting of birds; other things of interest drew his attention. One day an Indian told him that, beside a certain trail, there was the grave of an old Cree chief who, dying, had expressed the wish that every passerby would place a branch upon his grave. That was years ago, but to the present day the passing Indian breaks a twig from a neighboring tree and casts it upon this wayside mound. The tradition was interesting, and Mr. Russell determined to investigate its truth; so, with ax and shovel, he marched up the trail, prepared to dig up the deceased Cree. Several feet of brush served as a monument above this ancient brave. Having cleared the heap away, he began digging; first he came to a few flat stones lying on rotten poles; then, three feet of sandy loam; below, was a mass of what had once b een birch bark ; and underneath this lay the well preserved skeleton of a small or medium sized man. The legs were drawn up, but not past the horizontal. The skull was well formed, the facial angle small, and the jaws full of splendid teeth, not a mite touched by the decay that had gone on around them. About the head of the dead chief a number of articles had been placed for use on the trail to the Happy Hunting Grounds. Having found that this tradition was true, the grave digger carefully covered the bones, replaced the brush, and added more than one twig, by way of penance. A short time after this, he heard of a pre-Cree burying ground, from which he procured some fine skeletons of this people who lived and died long before the Cree nation settled among the muskegs and lakes of Canada. September passed, and October came, bringing with it the moose season. About the middle of this month Nepasis, the Moose Hunter, " killed three moose near the station; which occasion the Indians celebrated by going to the lucky hunter ' s abode and eating all his moose-meat. Mr. Russell, thinking that the Indian ' s pride would not allow him to return empty-handed after so great a success, engaged him for a few days ' hunt at a point twenty-five miles distant. After a day ' s battling with a furious gale, they reached the chosen spot, and on the second day began the tramp for moose. They plodded through swamps in which they sank to their waists, and clambered over fallen trees, finding plenty of old tracks but no fresh ones; until, after their midday 34 meal, old Nepasis struck a fresh trail and followed it rapidly, never losing it among the maze of older ones. After following the trail for two hours or more, they suddenly came upon their game not over one hundred yards away. Nepasis fired at the exposed flank of one animal, breaking its leg. Frightened by the report, the mate made off, and Mr. Russell, probably supposing that it would run forever, began employing his Winchester after the flying moose. “Aramutchr (not) cried Nepasis, and beckoning for his comrade to follow, off he went after the retreating game. Hatless and breathless, they flew, over brush heaps and through bogs until, having run half a mile, they saw the moose about seventy- five yards ahead. The S. U. I. hunter was unsteady from running, and made but a slight wound with the first ball, but his second went through the heart of the animal. The letters sent from the north give no account of Mr. Russell ' s own enthusiasm, beyond a very large exclamation point after My first moose! " but Nepasis is recorded as giving the young hunter a hearty slap on the back, and then going off to hug himself with delight. But this was a lucky day, and hunting depends not a little on luck. Not always did they get their game so easily. A week later Mr. Russell again went out for a hunt, taking with him a young French half-breed from the post. They saw four moose, one out of range. They fired at the next two, wounding both but killing neither. The last of the quar- tette was a fine fellow with immense shin- ing horns, free from velvet. After wading an ice cold stream, and slipping through three hundred yards of thicket, Mr. Russell proceeded to use up all his ammunition on the game, not failing once to wound; but the old brute stood still until he had liar- vested every bullet and then limped away on three legs. This was very exasperating to the hunter, as may be supposed; but an old trapper afterwards told him that the Indians sometimes shot as many as twelve balls before bringing down their moose. Besides a few such great disappointments there were lesser ones of more frequent occurrence. One day he would tramp for miles, facing a bitter cold wind. and come back to his cabin with nothing but a titmouse; at another time he would journey through the snow to visit the snares he had set, only to find one rabbit caught, and all the baits eaten. All this time the year was journeying on, through autumn and into winter, and the change in temperature brought other animals and birds from the north. Among these late arrivals , the most interesting were the ptarmigan which are numerous through the winter months. These birds, with their pure white 35 plumage, match the prevailing shade of their surroundings. There is no spot of color on them, with the exception of a black tail which, when the bird is at rest, is completely hidden by the white tail-coverts. This dash of color exists, probably, as a help in keeping the flock together while flying. The ptarmigan differs from the other members of the grouse family in that it is continually running about. A hunter may follow one for half a mile without overtaking it. In flight, it skims along so near the snow that it is soon lost to view behind even slight unevenesses of the surface. It is extremely difficult to get a perfect skin, because the bird bleeds so freely from the slightest wound, dyeing the plumage so deep a red that the most careful cleaning can hardly restore its perfect whiteness. The winter of 1892-93 was an unusually severe one, and the heavy falls prevented the Indians from going out after game. The mercury sunk lower and lower until finally it nestled in the bulb from which it could look through tinted glass upon the cold and dazzling white without. While thus weather bound, Mr. Russell spent his days in dressing the skins and cleaning the bones of the specimens he had collected. When this work was ' done, since still the snow kept him ' in, he filmed to a more careful study of the Indians. He sat with them around their fires, and listened to their marvelous tales, noted their habits, gleaned here and there a fact or two from their past history, and picked up bits of information that would be invaluable to him on his northern journey. These Indians, the Crees, or Knisteneaux, are a division of the Algonquins, the largest of all Indian tribes. Once they owned all of the Lower ewan region but, by a treaty with the Canadian Government in 1875, they gave up their right to the land, and now live upon small reserves. These reserves are seven in number, separated by unbroken stretches of forest, lake and swamp. The people of the United States are charged with ill-treatment of their Indians; Canada, especially, scorns our methods and points with pride to her own. But should she examine for a moment the idiosyncrasies of her own history, she will find that her treatment of the red man is quite on a par with her neighbor ' s. In 1875 the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, Alexander Morris, with his interpreter, James McKay, went among the Santeaux, and the Swampy and Wood Crees of Lake Winnipeg, proposing a treaty whereby the country was to be opened to white settlement, and the Indians placed upon reserves, as wards of the government. Morris promised to give them all the animals used by the white man, sheep, horses, cattle, hogs, and poultry, and to nish them, if they desired it, with a farmer, a blacksmith, and a carpenter, that they might learn the useful trades these men represented. A ter would dwell among them, instructing their children in the same branches taught to their white cousins, A doctor would come to them frequently, to 36 prescribe and care for the sick. Besides all these advantages, they were to be presented with machinery with which to till the soil, tools to use in ing, scythes with which to cut the grass, and twine to make their nets. They were to receive rations from the government, and each year a gift of money. All were to be treated alike. When the Lieutenant-Governor had done, and had called upon heaven to witness the sincerity of his words, he invited the red man, whom he loved as a brother, to sign the treaty. Seeing that, by this arrangement, they and their children were provided for forever, the Indians signed readily. One of them, wiser than his fellows, but not shrewd enough to make his demands before lie signed, asked that a copy of the treaty be made at once and left with them. " Not now, " answered the Governor, " for we have a borrowed boat, and must go back at once. " In due time the Indians received a copy of a treaty, but one very unlike the agreement they had signed. Instead of " all the animals used by the white man, " they were to have a few cattle, seven head for thirty families. It further declared that the government would provide a schoolteacher, would furnish once for all, plows, hoes, and other tools. Five hundred dollars a year would be expended in purchasing ammu nition and netting twine for some fifty Indian reserves,—an amount insufficient to provide one net for each family. No mention was made of farmer, carpenter, or blacksmith. In the first treaty they were promised that their reserve should not include the land. Their land to-day is a swampy forest with only a dry strip along the river. The doctor, who was to visit them periodically, has been there four times in eighteen years. Many have died for want of proper attention; the present chief is blinded by cateract, and another of their number has lain on his bed since his youth, suffering from spinal trouble that might have been cured in its earlier stages. The Indian Department, however, furnishes icine, which is kept at the post and dispensed when necessary. The ment issued rations to the amount of eighteen pounds of flour, a little bacon, tea, and tobacco for each man, until the year of 1892, when it declined to fulfill this article of the treaty. The Indians remember that they were to be treated as well as those on other government reserves, and they grumble when they see their neighbors on the Upper Saskatchewan receiving rations weekly and semi-weekly, living in better houses, and better cared for. The Crees are a peace-loving, lazy people, who adapt themselves to the ways of civilization with remarkable readiness. They live in settled abodes, and in its main points affect the dress of the whites. We find among them a strange generosity and hospitality. They will share their last bite with you, and expect you to do the same when occasion arises. Each family ordinarily dries from eight hundred to one thousand fish in the autumn; and although they are well aware that this amount cannot last them until game returns again in the spring, nothing can induce them to preserve more. Some dry not 37 more than four or five hundred fish, and when these are gone, they live with the neighbor having one thousand; no return is offered, nor is it even expected. In each village there are usually a few who excell in some particular line of manufacture; these, when they have gained a reputation, make the most of the articles, receiving moose-meat and fish as pay from their less skillful brothers. With no other tools than an ax, an awl, a gimlet, and a crooked knife, the Cree carpenter can turn out canoes, sleds, snowshoes, and all the manufactured articles necessary to Indian life. Of these necessities the canoe is the most important. A long strip of birch forms the bottom and two strips on each side may complete the outer coat of the graceful little boat; but as a rule eight strips are used in its construction. The pieces are sewed together with wattapeya, threads made from the roots of pine trees; a lining made of strips of pine or cedar is added for strength, When the men have their canoes ready for sewing, they turn them over to the women, who usually make a " bee " of it. When a canoe springs a leak, it is drawn ashore, a fire kindled, and a burning brand is blown against the gum, softening it, so that it may be pressed down with the thumb. If the hole is large, a piece of bark is put over it and gummed. Sometimes a long search is necessary to find the leak, for it cannot be seen from the outside because of the lining, Then the Indian puts his lips to the seam, and hunts for a place through which the air can be drawn. Their next most useful article of manufacture, besides the clog-sleds described elswhere, are the snowshoes. This district has a reputation for making poorer snowshoes than those used in Lower Canada or among the pewyans in the north. They are narrow, elongated, kite-shaped, with fronts curved upwards. The smallest shoes are made for use on hard snow, and are thirty inches long and just wide enough for the foot; the largest ones, used in hunting, are sixteen inches in width and six or seven feet in length. With no other tools than a knife and the leg bones of the animal killed, and with no other chemical than its brain, an old wife can convert a fresh skin into good soft leather, in not more than five days. First, she trims the fresh skin, then stretches it on an oblong frame eight or ten inches across, which is made by lashing four poles together. She next proceeds to scrape, or rather, to gouge every particle of flesh from the inside of the skin, with an instrument made from a leg-bone cut off at one end and sharpened, then notched. When the skin is half dry, she scrapes the outer side to remove the hair. After this step, she lets it dry, if she wishes to make dog-harness; but if she wants to make leather, she sprinkles the skin with oil, smokes it slightly, and soaks it in water containing the brain of the animal from which the skin was taken. The only domestic animals of the Indians are dogs and cattle; but the 38 r ' fatter are of no great consequence, because they are so few .and so poorly provided for. With no scythes to cut the grass, with no certainty of a crop even if they had the proper implements for gathering it, and with no means of raising grain, the Indian looks indifferently upon his cattle, and the poor already half-starved, go on starving till they finally drop dead. The dogs are the horses of the country, and are in use six months in the year. They are well adapted to that roadless region, for their light weight enables them to run on the top of the snow, or upon the ice. They live on fish, the most abundant and cheapest food of the region. They can cut through forests and overcome drifts which would convince any sensible horse struggling through them, that he was out of his natural element. Four dogs make a team and are driven tandem. The leader or foregoer sets the pace, and if well trained, will turn to the right or the left at a word from the driver. The dog-harness used by the Hudson Bay Company is quite elaborate, consisting of traces, backpad with a strap under the breast, and a circular collar ing a rod of iron three-eighths of an inch thick. Then, too, there are bons, silk-worked blankets, and a string of bells for each dog. It is needless to say that these are the aristocratic dogs; plain everyday clogs wear clothes made after the style affected by their brother in bondage, the southern mule. Strips of old moose leather, parchment, or even ducking go to make up their harness. The sleds, or sledges, are usually seven feet long and sixteen inches wide. They have loops of ba biche, along the sides, through which the ropes pass. The load is secured in a loose cover and fastened on by diagonal cross lashings so that it cannot fall off in case of an upset . Four hundred pounds is a usual load on good roads. Since the dogs have to carry their own food, the traveler, if he has any baggage, must hire two teams, or else run all the way, for the fish and baggage make one sled-load. Forty miles is dogs can make ninety miles in a forced march. One would think that such useful animals would be kindly cared for, both during the summer, to get them in good working shape, and in the winter, when hard at work. But kindness to their beasts of burden is not istic of the Indian. The dogs that get two and a half fish a day are very nate, for often the half or even a whole one is reserved, for " fear of making them lazy. " When on a journey, if the driver is dissatisfied with the gait, he stops the team, thrusts a leg between the traces of the foregoer, beats him unmercifully, and goes on down.the line. Often a driver beats his dog until 39 considered a clay ' s journey, though the blood flows from the nose and from wounds on the head. If one is beaten so hard that it falls dead at its master ' s feet, it is thrown carelessly aside, and the team goes on. When the dogs reach home, covered with sweat from a hard run, they are often compelled to lie outside the door, getting chilled through by the cutting wind, until the driver chooses to unharness them. It is needless to say that they are short-lived. They run at large during the summer months, picking up a living wherever they can. Sometimes they are placed on an island, with nothing to- eat but the occasional fish east up by the storm. The sand all along the shore is covered with foot-prints of the poor brutes, who tramp faithfully, back and forth searching for some morsel of food to sustain life. When the working season begins, they are taken off, gaunt, savage, pitiful creatures, that watch their masters ' every movement with great wistful eyes, and greedily snap up every crumb he throws them. Some of the men among these Indians are handsome, just dark enough to have a healthy, tanned looking skin; others are ugly, being more black than red. Their eyes, usually dark, are sometimes obliquely set. The nose, as a rule, is regular and well formed, slightly arched and thin, but with large nostrils. The lips are thin, the cheekbones high. The hair is worn four inches long, and is evenly cut around the head. On top of this fringe of hair, sets a hat, with crown indented, and brim sloping down at an angle of twenty degrees; a feather or a gilded soap label is used in the way of tasty decoration. The women are often pretty and they never grow so repulsively ugly as do the " wives " of so many ' savage tribes. But the Cree woman ' s beauty is spoiled to some extent by her awkward walk, which is the result of sitting on the floor with the legs bent under. The little Indians are sturdy fellows, who can live through the bitter cold season, dressed in their parents ' cast-off rags and tatters. Some of the poorer ones are nearly naked. They are out of doors the year round, with the exception of the days when the temperature is so low that young and old alike are willing to sit around the fire. They spend the whole summer with bows and arrows chasing the tomtits and ows that are so plentiful in that region. In the winter they engage in all the outdoor sports common to the country. Mr. Russell once came upon three youngsters coasting down the river bank; the first went down upon an old handleless frying-pan, the second on a broad barrel stave, and the third slid half way down on a smooth cake of ice, and the other half on just boy. The aged of both sexes are scarcely tolerated. They are treated with so little kindness that they pray for death to relieve them. Bent nearly double, and unable to walk, often with almost sightless eyes, they are carried from one place to another in a blanket. Physically they are so tenacious of life, that it takes years of privation, ill-treatment, and suffering, for disease to 40 end their existence. The men as a rule wear the dress of the white man, always having, in addition, a sash wrapped twice around the hips and tied in front, leaving a length of fifteen inches to dangle. When an Indian puts og a new suit, he is never willing to go back to the old one again, and therefore his new clothing is fresh for only a few days. In winter they wear capotes, hooded overcoats made from blankets. The hood protects the neck and head from the wind and from snow falling from the branches as they go through the bush. The coat, which is short, does not impede progress in running or ing on snowshoes, as would the overcoat of the white man. The Indians of both sexes still cling to their moccasins, which are warmer and more able than shoes. In winter they make them large enough to contain a piece of duffel, or old blanket, in place of stockings. With this footwear one can walk all day without any inconvenience from cold feet; a hunter can run for hours with the temperature at forty below, and not feel the cold. The women are not so sensible as are the men regarding their clothing. They will live through the severest winter dressed in some light, thin fabric which is miserably cold. As is the case with all Indians, these wives are passionately fond of color, especially of red and pink. The houses are mere huts made of hewn logs, with roofs of spruce bark and earth. Chinks in the logs are plastered with mud and clay, which does very well in winter, but in the other seasons it softens with the rain and is soon washed out. The chimney, a big round mass of grass, stones, and clay, stands at one end;—so much for the outside. Lift the latch-string, which is always out, both literally and figuratively, step within. Then one sees a single room, with no ceiling, a rude fireplace at one end, sometimes an old stove with a few dishes, some bedding, and in addition, a very dirty floor, this last article can always be relied on. Some of the more thrifty have a table, a few chairs, and a bedstead. Civilization has done much for these Indians, but in a few particulars it has led them backward. In the olden times, in the days of barbarism, the Indian had a clean home once in a while. He could not help himself ; for whenever lie moved his tepee, in the course of .his wanderings, everything would be fresh and clean for a few days, at least. But now they wander no more, and their house stands in the same place all the year round, and so does any dirt that may fall upon the floor. If a less scrap falls to the ground on New Year ' s day, it will be found on the thirty-first day of the next December, provided anyone will take the trouble to dig for it. The only reserve that has any reputation for cleanliness is the one peopled by heathen Indians. Unclean though his home may be, the Cree loves it, and will seldom undertake any long journey that necessitates a longed absence. In religion, the Crees are Christians, belonging to the Episcopal Church; the French breeds are Roman Catholics. The former have a resident minister, 41 the latter content themselves with a yearly visit from the priest residing at Cumberland House. A church of England mission was established among these Indians, twenty years ago. The natives built the little church of hewn logs. This house of worship has very little furniture within, and no tion whatever. The bell hangs not upon the chapel, but upon a tower apart from it. The prayer and hymn books and Bibles, printed in Cree, are vided by the church missionary society of England, as is also the minister ' s princely salary of two hundred dollars a year. The Indians do not contribute at all toward the support of the pastor, nor will they do any work for the church, free of charge; for they think that they are doing enough for tianity if they are present at the two Sunday services. Early marriages are the rule among this people; the young man must have some one to do the harder work for him, to dress the skins and to make the casins, and the young woman is a burden which her parents are very willing to shift onto another ' s shoulders. If the girl ' s parents should forbid the union, the young man is not crushed, but, like truth, rises again, proposes to another maiden, and is married in a few weeks. This Grand Rapids reserve has had its first breach of promise case. A young Cree maid went before the Indian agent, complaining that the young man had taken to the bush, rather than marry her. The young brave ' s mother had urged him to marry the plaintiff, laying before him the many advantages to be derived from the union. The son refused. The older members of the families then met as a ways and means committee, discussing the case, and trying to plan how the young man could be brought to Ids senses. The old wife " pleaded again, and at last the youth consented. But when the ding day came, he disappeared, after flatly ref using to keep his promise. Each day he retired to the swamp,_ returning only at nightfall, until the bride was forced to display her grief in public and ask that the truant bridegroom be made to pay heavy damages. The defendant ' s only excuse was that he loved another. The magistrate imposed a fine of twenty-five dollars, and gave the deserter warning to leave the reserve. Soon after the trial the young man married a third girl. Mr. Russell was invited to a Cree wedding feast, while at Grand Rapids, and wishing to learn more of their customs he gladly availed himself of this opportunity. The day before the one set for the wedding, the bride had not yet decided whether she wished to marry or not. The wedding was postponed day after day, till finally she consented, and the feast was spread. Everyone came to the wedding, for it was known that the bride ' s father had a little credit at the store. In honor of the occasion, a beef had been killed and several pounds of bread baked into bunnocks. The table creaked under its load of fried, stewed, roasted, and boiled moose meat and beef, cranberry sauce, strawberry and raspberry preserves, plum puddings and rice puddings 42 which were. sixty per cent raisins and currants, and heaps of simple cakes. The guests made no secret of the fact that they came for the feast, and as soon as one table-full was temporarily satisfied, a second company would leave the crowd about the door and take their seats at the boards of plenty. As the hours flew on, the time came for the dance. Down in the warehouse by the steamboat landing, the big hall had been turned into a ballroom, where the guests might end the festal day to the sound of music. Music! There was no music audible as the company went down the street. No, but let the stranger go inside and, above the stamping of the " orchestra ' s " feet, listen for the occasional strain from the violin. This so-called orchestra consisted of but one man. His work was by no means light, for not only must the arms be moving constantly but the feet must keep up a ceaseless pounding as an accompaniment to the violin. So wearing was it that, in the course of an evening, nearly every man present had to take his punishment and become the orchestra for a given time; even the bridegroom was pressed into service. The ballroom was lighted by six candles, which shed but a feeble light on this gay scene. The floor was of rough, unhewn boards, not too securely fastened. " Red River jigs " and reels were the dances of the evening. Round dances are not in favor with the red man. Through the evening the men wore their hats, and oftentimes held their ' pipes in their mouths. In forming a set, they took their places, chatted and smoked awhile, until denly each, seeming to remember for the first time that this was a dance, chose his partner and crooked his finger at her whereupon she took her place beside him. If she hesitated she was dragged to the floor. The young women, though awkward in their walk, are all graceful dancers. They never go 11) a dance accompanied by the young men, but always in care of their mothers or elderly chaperons. During this ball, the bride managed to appear in three different dresses. The groom always presents his bride with the ding gown. She shows her gratitude by embroidering for him a pair of casins with silk. These wedding days are hailed by the Indian as special feast days, but besides these he is always sure of one great feast a year. New Year ' s is the day of days with them, for then the whole reserve can make " calls " and get all they can eat, without any fear of being sent away. On this day of feasting the boys call first, carrying with them sacks which must be filled with cakes. A discharge of musketry without, then announces th e coming of the braves. They, too, must have something with which to satisfy their inner cravings. After the men have gone, the women and girls call for whatever remains. An Indian has a very peculiar appetite. He eats anything and is never filled. He likes castor oil, really likes it; a little Indian will swallow it by the bottle- ful if it is left within his reach; but it is no wonder, for the oil is so much sweeter than the rancid grease to which he is accustomed. The are 43 very particular to enter the new year with no money owing them, but they worry very little over any sums they may owe others. Every cent owed to them is collected, and every bit of " debt, " as they call credit, is added to it, and the whole sum spent for flour, bacon, tea, raisins, rice, and sugar, on which the family feasts their bodies for one day, and their minds for the next six, when there is nothing left in the cupboard. After a hunt, unless it is one especially for the purpose of procuring meat to dry for winter use, they eat and eat till not a morsel remains. The Crees, as all Indians, are born hunters. They will go on a hunt in the coldest weather, carrying no tent and only one blanket. They cannot be suaded to regulate the number of blankets in accordance with the degree of cold. It has been the custom for ages to use but one blanket, therefore they will use no more. And they do not know how to use that one, for the head is always covered and the feet are always sticking out. On extremely cold nights they build a long camp-fire, which they let burn clown to a bed of coals. These they scrape away, build two other fires, one on each side, and then lie down on the warm strip on which the first fire had b urned. The ,T4ow +Hoe; Indian is noted for his perseverance and patience while in search of game. He will spend hours looking for a fresh track, and having found it, follow it for miles. Moose, deer, fish, and caribou furnish the greater part of the red man ' s food. When these favorite dishes are scarce he turns to the fur-bearing animals, and the ranks of musk-rat, mink, ermine, skunk, and fox are lessened. Crows, gulls, and even the snowy owls find their way to the roasting stick, and in an unusually hard winter, when all these fail, the Indian turns to his dogs, and by eating these, he tides himself through the close season. The whitefish, which are his commonest food, are caught in the fall, when they come to the shore to spawn. The Indian has not only to lay in a supply for his family, but also for his sledge dogs. The average catch at Grand Rapids is from twelve to sixteen thousand. After the fish are caught they are prepared for winter use by drying on poles. A stick one inch in diameter is thrust through the bone, two inches from the tail, and the fish are hung head downwards in bunches of ten. The Indian is as fond of telling stories of the hunt as is the pale face. His voice is always low, for experience has taught the value of quiet; now and again an unsuspecting moose is taken without the trouble of hunting for it, and waterfowl are shot while winging their way over the camp. When in animated conversation, the voice is agreeably modulated and the speech dered more eloquent by the graceful gestures and signs which are employed. By these signs, a stranger, who knows not a word of Cree, can follow the story readily, provided that he knows the subject. If a moose hunt is described, 44 the non-Cree scholar knows just where they struck the trail, at what point they came up with their game, how many shots were fired; lie knows it all, from the beginning to the firing of the fatal bullet,—grand climax, which the Indian represents by suddenly striking his breast, to show that the moose fell, pierced through the heart. Listening Indians follow the narrative with tion, giving utterance to appropiate interjections at the close of thrilling passages. The Cree legends are legion. They are so numerous that Benjamin son, who repeated many ' of them to Mr. Russell, said that he would have to talk a winter and a summer to tell them all. Some of them are said to be so coarse and so unfit for decent ears, that even the Indians are ashamed, and say apologetically before relating them, " But then I didn ' t make it, you know. " These legends are, ages old, and have been handed down through generation after generation by word of mouth, as were the lays of Homer. Every people has its own legend as to the creation of the world, and among the Crees this is not wanting. It is a curious combination of the creation and a Noah ' s flood. The god of the Swampy Crees, in their days of heathenism, was Wesagatchac, and it was he who brought the world into being. The story is as follows: " Once upon a time " —all their stories begin thus, and usually end, " as so it has been ever since that time " —Wesagatchac ' s brother, in the form of a wolf, was in need of something to eat, and coming upon the trail of a moose, he followed it until he came to the shore of a great lake. Now he had often been warned by the god never to venture into the water, for in it lived t he long-tailed wildcats (meseepesewulo which would kill him. But the wolf was hungry and so followed the tracks of the moose into the water, where lie was very soon killed by the cats. When the wolf did not return, Wesagatchac, thinking that ill fortune had overtaken his brother, began to search for him, tracking him to the water ' s edge, but nowhere did he see the one lie sought. As he wandered along the shore of the lake, feeling sure that his brother had met his death there, he came upon a kingfisher that sat on a dead branch overhanging the lake. The bird was crying, but still gazed out over the water. " Why are you crying? " asked the god. " I have. broken my spear " (bill), said the kingfisher. The god renewed the broken weapon, saying, " Now try it. " The bird dived into the water, coming up with a small fish. " What were you looking at out in the lake? " asked Wesagatchac. " I was looking at a wolf ' s ta il which pesewuk are playing with. " " What do they do in the middle of the day? " They come ashore on that fine sandy beach to sleep, " answered the kingfisher. The god then made a large spear and went to the sands, where he formed himself into a stump to await the coming of the cats. Some of the wisest cats, when they came, were alarmed, declaring that the stump had never been there before, but others were as positive that it had always been there. 45 Two of the strongest meseepesewuk attempted to dislodge it by locking their long tails together and pulling. But as Wesagatchac retained his hold, the cats decided unanimously that it was a stump, and proceeded to frolic about on the shore. When all were tired and had lain down to sleep, Wesagatchac resumed the form of a man, caught up his spear and killed them one by one, leaving his spear sticking in the last cat slain. He knew that the water would soon begin to rise, and therefore he built a raft, and placed a bit of earth in a tree. How he knew that the water would rise, and whether or not this had any connection with the killing of the cats, we are not told. At any rate, the water began to rise as he had expected, and he ran to his raft, in his haste forgetting the bit of mud in the tree. The water rose and rose until the whole earth was covered. While floating he heard something gnawing at the logs of the raft. " Who is eating the logs of my raft? " he cried, and a big beaver, thrusting his head above the surface, answered in person. " What are you doing? playing with your young there? " But the old beaver only laughed in reply, exposing his teeth. Wesagatchac, angered, knocked some of his teeth out with a sudden blow, hence the gap between the incisors and the molars in beavers ever since that day. Suddenly the raft began to sink, and its occupant saw that meseepesewuk were dragging it down. " You can ' t sink the raft that way, just put your tails on the side and overturn it, " cried the master of the raft. The unsuspecting cats tried to do so, but no sooner did their tails appear on the side than the god cut them off, thus making the wildcat tribe a tailless one forever. Wesagatchac was not the only one upon the raft, but was accompanied by all kinds of animals. His brother, the wolf, who had been restored in some miraculous manner, was among the number. The god was now anxious to make the earth; therefore he ordered the muskrat to dive clown and try to bring him a little mud from the submerged land. The rat obeyed his master, but was unable to reach the bottom, and drowned before he could rise to the raft again. Wesagatchac thereupon restored him to life, and promising to resuscitate him yet again, should he die, ordered him to try once more. This time the rat was more successful, for he caught a little mud in his mouth and one paw, but came back lifeless. Restoring the rat to life a second time, this master of all the living creatures laid the bit of mud in the sun to dry, and then blew upon it, till it began to grow larger and larger. At last he sent his brother out to see if the world was big enough. The wolf travelled on and on, not returning for many years, and all this time Wesagatchac sat with the animals on the raft. When the wolf returned, having encompassed the globe, the creator decided that his world was not large enough, therefore he blew upon it once more, and sent his brother out a second time, but the wolf never returned. Then Wesagatchac concluded that his world was large enough,. and there the story ends. 46 11; Where did Wesagatchac put his world when it was no longer a little dab of mud, but had been blown so large that a wolf, at full speed, had to travel years to encompass it? How did he get off from his raft? How did he get his animals off? All these questions come up in the thoughtful mind. No wonder that the Crees left heathenism and joined the ranks of Christendom, if for no other reason than this creation story, for our story is much more reason- able; our hero had a mountain on which to cast his anchor, and found a gang- plank in a mountain slope. This Cree account is very interesting, but com- pared with ours is not nearly so sustaining. The Cree language, like the other native languages of America, is synthetic, and composed largely of verbs. The whole vocabulary contains about fifteen thousand words. Whole sentences are united in one word, which can be writ- ten out in all the moods, tenses, and persons. Each verb has thousands of forms; sakehao (he loves him), for instance, has four thousand. There are no genders, but a substitute is made by grouping words into animate and inani- mate forms. While as a rule, animate objects are in the animate case, there are many exceptions; an animate mitten covers an inanimate hand, an animate snowshoe is fastened to an inanimate moccasin, the spoon is animate, the knife inanimate. But the Cree language is not the only one guilty of such lapses, French, German, and Latin contains similar inconsistances. • Possession is denoted by possessive pronouns, but there is no possessive case, no possessive sign; for instance, " the man ' s canoe, " in Cree is expressed as " the man his canoe. " Although the Indian can express much in one word, he sometimes has to resort to long and awkward compounds to denote some English word for which his own language can furnish no equivalent. The red man designates an archbishop as mawutchehekeeheayumehawekimaw— " the greatest of all pray- ing chiefs. " Owing to long association with the Indian, and their separation from their own race, the traders have taken up many of the Indian idioms, such as, " I think it, " for " I think so, " " catch you up, " for " catch up with you, " the verb " vex " for the adjective " angry, " and " for • direc- tion. " The Cree is one of the largest, as well as most northerly, branch of the Algonquin family. Their language is spoken from 75° to 115° west longitude, and from 49 ' to 60° north latitude. The Indians of one locality can converse readily with those living in the most remote part of the country, so little change has distance and environment and time wrought upon the language. In the early months of the present year, Mr. Russell, having collected a complete series of the birds and mammals of that region, began to plan for the future. He felt ready to leave his little house which was now growing dangerous because of the quantity of arsenic on the birds. He had already given up sleeping there and had made his bed under the dining-room table in a more comfortable dwelling, for the open floor let in too many cold draughts which, with their temperature of sixty degrees below, brought aches 47 and rheumatic pains in their wake. The cold was so intense that a pan of water placed on a hot stove at half past ten, sometimes had a coat of ice an inch and a half thick when the fire was kindled in the morning. The year at Grand Rapids had been a successful one, as the specimens, which have arrived at the university, show. In all, Mr. Russell had collected two hundred teen birds, one hundred six mammals, eighteen fossils, plants, and insects, and seventy specimens of interest to the student of ethnology, making a total of four hundred thirteen specimens. By the middle of February the weather grew a little milder, and this sojourner in a cheerless, land was able to pack his goods and set out on his return journey to Winnipeg. Mr. Russell decided that he was in good tion for the journey toward the Barren Lands, for he made the trip from Grand Rapids in ten days, traveling thirty miles a day. He suffered a little from snow-blindness, but reached his destination in better condition than the Indians accompanying him, for they were troubled not only with their eyes, but with pains and swellings in the ankles and heels, caused by running long distances on snow shoes. Mr. Russell ran and walked until the last day, when more open roads allowed him to ride. Snow-blindness is a common complaint in the north, causing much suffering, and often resulting in permanent injury to the eyes. He had stood the cold of that unusally hard wintet better than had many of the natives, and he had accustomed himself to the mode of life he would have to endure for the next year or year and a half. In a word, he was perfectly acclimated, and anxious to be on his way, regardless of the dangers ahead. In one of his March letters, he said: " The hunter of the expedition is becoming more of an Indian every day, and I have great hopes of him in the field of mammology. The ornithologist is also enthusiastic and devoted to his science. The ethnologist attached to the expedition is indefatigable, and has " already listened to more Indian legends and lies than would all a good sized volume. The entomologist of the expedition will devote as much time as possible to his department. The geologist is somewhat concerned as to how to get the specimens out of the country without paying a vast deal more for them than they are worth. The botanist will devote as much time as possible to Ids department, fifteen hours a day would perhaps, be about the right amount to devote to this branch. The meteorological instruments sent are very able, but the observer of the. expedition wishes the American Republic would refund the five dollar bill which the instruments cost, because the expedition has little enough money as it is. The observer will of course devote quite a little time to this work, daily. The paleontologist will make frequent sions and accumulate as much material as possible. The secretary of the expedition finds that heavy drafts are made upon his time in writing up the notes. The cook of the expedition will find something to do, while the man that skins the birds ' will have the most irksome duties of all. These eleven 48 departments of the expedition all being under my control, I feel a correspond. ing responsibility, and I try to keep them all busy. " After a rest at Winnipeg, waiting for instructions and the needed supplies from the University, Mr. Russell began the long journey to the Great Lone Land, going first to Fort McLeod, Alberta, where he was to stay until May 1st. The journey was begun by rail on the 25th of March, with the temperature at thirty degrees below zero. The road, the Canadian Pacific; ran through the celebrated Manitoba plains, winch are so level that, in winter, a stranger might think he was traversing a snow-covered lake, were it not for the occasional chimney sticking out from the drifts. In the middle of the next clay they came to more rolling country and were soon stopped by the cheerful intelligence that three trains were snowed in ahead of them, two of the engines being ditched. The express, on which our traveller had come, transferred its human freight to the passenger of the day before and returned to Winnipeg. They were snow-bound for thirty-six hours, during which time the railroad company issued but one meal, consisting of one slice of corned beef, one soda cracker, and a cup of tea. Finally the engine plowed its way through, and they were soon upon the prairie again, seeing no more farm houses, but occasionally passing a ranch, on which they saw the horses wandering about, pawing up the snow to reach the short grass beneath. On the 25th of March Mr. Russell reached Fort McLeod, in the hood of which he was to spend the next six weeks. The outlook was not encouraging to an enthusiastic collector; therefore, after a few clays, the dition wisely left the post and moved thirty miles westward to the little village of Pincher Creek, fifteen miles from the foot hills. The first trip planned was a hunt for sheep among the hills. Mr. Russell rode a broncho, and Peter, the Indian that he had hired, came after, riding an old bay nag with white eyes. Behind these two walked a third horse, with only his four legs visible under the load of blankets, provisions, and a tepee. Peter wore short trousers, a beribboned capote made from a white blanket, a pair of old overshoes, and a ten inch butcher knife in his belt. His hat was tied on with a piece of mosquito netting, which protected his ears on cold clays and his eyes on bright ones. This little band made its way through the foot hills for a couple of clays, going toward Chief Mountain which stands on the international boundary. The wind blew unceasingly from the west, bringing with it frequent snow squalls from the mountains. Their tepee was old and full of holes that let in as much cold wind as there was room for. While on the hunt, they were at times compelled to climb over great ice crusted drifts, by cutting foot holds; again, they would come to snow in which they sank to their knees. The whole week ' s work counted for nothing, however, for they had obtained not a single sheep to carry back to the stati on. They saw six, altogether, and Mr. Russell wounded two, but after a long chase the game 49 escaped. But for the next six days his work was more successful, for in that time he made up forty bird skins, and secured the mummy of a Piegan Indian, the skull of nine mountain sheep, and mountable heads of sheep, mountain goats, and mule deer. The most striking characteristic of this region is the Chinook " wind which blows steadily at this season of the year. The wind is the cause of everything, good or evil, that befalls the region. The snow is licked up in a few minutes by the wind, so that the herds may reach the dead grass; the cattle die by thousands when a driving snow-storm comes, brought by the wind; tin cans, wagons, and house-roofs are carried off toward the east, by the wind; roofs are filled with dirt and stones, by the wind; gophers have short tails on account of the wind; and the S. U. I. hunter adds that he would not accept a ten thousand acre ranch as a gift, on account of the wind. The inhabitants of this country are poor, everything they have is mortgaged. A ten thousand acre ranch sells for a trifle; anyone will gladly part with it for less than his improvements cost him. There is a coal field in the region, but it lies useless on account of the poor mining laws. Coal and gold hide in the hills, but no one can take them, for as soon as in paying condition some friend or relative of the governor or counsellors of the territory will step in with a " prior claim. " On the 19th of April Mr. Russell turned his face toward Athabasca Landing, to the northwest of Ft. McLeod. From this place he was to go down the basca River to Ft. Chippewyan, one of the Hudson Bay Company ' s largest posts in the northwest. After waiting four days for the river to clear of ice, the little company of, eight started on Their long journey; there were Mr. Russell, two captains of river steamers, a steamer cook, and the crew, posed of two Red River breeds and two Sac La Biche men. The craft, a twenty-six foot York boat, was loaded with three hundred pounds of miscella- neous merchandise for the Hudson Bay Company ' s store in the north. The river flows for two hundred and fifty miles through a narrow valley, its banks in many places, rising in perpendicular walls to a height of three hundred feet; in other places, they are broken into terraces, three in number, which extend for miles with marked regularity. The coniferous forests skirting the river, now and then give way to extensive wooded regions containing birch and poplar. On landing at evening of the third day they killed two moose, on which the Indians feasted until late at night, one of them declaring it to be " bacon breakfast " (breakfast bacon), which seemed to him to be very mentary to the moose meat. The next morning their course became more dangerous, the channel winding about among huge boulders, now just below the surface of the water. They started for the island, across which the portage was to be made, but had gone a short distance only when the bowsman lost his head at a critical moment, 50 and gave the wrong signal to the steersman, who sent the boat crashing against a rock. The swing and lurch that followed almost capsized their craft; but, luckily for them, the current swept them off and soon brought them to the landing, from which they looked back and marveled that they had come safely through so dangerous a channel. The rest of that day and half the next was spent in porting the boat and cargo across the island. Wishing to see " how it went " to be a carrier, Mr. Russell shouldered a hundred pound bag of BB shot and started across the portage. He made the upward sweep from the river bravely, but soon came to rougher and more slippery ground. The BB shot seemed to change to buckshot, then they became rifle balls; next cannon balls, and just as he was beginning to feel the weight of a Krupp gun and a whole case of ammunition he gained the other side; his first portage was over. With half a cargo they attempted to run the rapids, and were nearly through when the boat stuck hard and fast upon a rock. All hands were out in a trice and carried the greater part of the load ashore. They dragged their nearly empty boat from the rock; and no sooner were they well clear of it, than the mountain of ice that had overshadowed them as they worked, fell with a crash into the water where they had been a moment before. The touch of sadness entirely leaves " it might have been " in such an instance as this, After the eighth day the widened channel, quite free from obstructions and rapids, allowed them to float both day and night; and the tenth day brought them to the lake, across which they made their way to Ft. Chippewyan.. Mr. Russell expected to d evote his month at the fort to ornithology; but finding only the common land birds, he procured a skiff and camp equipage, and made his headquarters on one of the islands ten miles from the shore. Lake Athabasca is long and narrow—two hundred by twenty miles. At its western end, the waters of the Peace River flow into it; on its southern side, the contents of the Athabasca find their way to its broader waters. Both of these rivers are fed by mountain snows, and carry down so much silt that they have lengthened their deltas several ' miles. The lake is freckled over with many islands, most of which have naked rocks reaching well in from the shore, and a crown of conifierous trees in the center; some are nearly barren, too poor to support more than a few thickets of cottonwood and birch. Among these islands Mr. Russell lived for five weeks, collecting and studying the birds that congregate there. Chippewyan is a feeding, rather than a breeding, ground. In the migratory season it is noted for the Big and Little Waveys (Great and Lesser Snow Geese) that stop there to feed. Thousands are killed yearly, materially adding to the food supply of the people. The Little Waveys breed in Alaska, the Big Waveys in the " Great Unkown. " pipers were found in droves on the margins of the little lakes, but they were merely travelers resting by the wayside, for at every flight, they looked to the northland. Whileamong these islands, Mr. Russell prepared. one hundred six 51. skins of birds in prime breeding plumage, and added thirty-four miscellaneous specimens to his collection. All of the specimens from Chippewyan have arrived at the museum, and are the finest yet received from the north. The total amount collected up to the time of leaving Ft. Chippewyan is six hundred sixteen specimens, chiefly mammals and birds. But specimens are not the only things of interest and value sent by Mr. Russell. His carefully written and voluminous notes and ' journals have arrived safely in Iowa City, and will make a large sized volume of most valuable information. After Mr. Russell ' s departure from Chippewyan, we have little to record. We know from his letters that he started from that post on the twenty-first of June for Ft. Smith, one hundred two miles away. Leaving that station July 4th, he boarded " The Wrigley " and began the last stage of the journey before beginning the canoe trip to the Barren Grounds. O n board this little craft he traveled eight hundred thirty-three miles in company with three tains, three bishops and forty-eight other passengers. The Wrigley should have landed him at Ft. Simpson, a post on the Mackenzie, at about 65° north latitude. From there he was to have traveled by canoe to Ft. Confidence, near the northeastern shore of Great Bear Lake, and near that place he was to take up winter quarters. He is, then, above the Arctic Circle, and on the border of t he Barren Lands. This waste stretch of country extends from the east shore of Great Bear Lake to the waters of Hudson Bay; andMr. Russell will make explorations in these regions, never before visited by a white man. In the spring of ' 94 he will travel to the mouth of the Coppermine River, where he will work until approaching winter, when he will leave for Ft. Resolution and home. Mr. Russell was well aware of the dangers before him and the possible come of his journey . At the last station before entering the Barren Lands he was to leave sealed letters containing instructions for the transportation of his effects and collections in case of any accident to himself. He will be in constant danger from exposure to the rigors of the Arctic winter, and before his return may suffer for want of proper food, though at present he has large provisions of bacon and tea. He was not able to hire an Indian servant from the region in which he had dwelt, and no doubt has been compelled to engage some scoundrel of a breed from a northern post. The Eskimos, too, so greatly feared by the Indians, add their unwelcome presence to the dangers that will beset him. With a treacherous companion, surrounded by barbarous and less foes, dwelling in a region cruelly desolate, his small hut pierced by the icy gale, Mr. Russell is writing his name high in the list of brave scientists and explorers who have dared and done so much for the advancement of human knowledge. 52 I Bohumil Shimek. C. L. Smith. The Aiwrogüa GaZ PS R. ICARAGUA offers a fine field for work to the botanist and collector of tropical plants, both because of its situation and climate, and for the reason that a portion of the country has never been explored with a view to ascertaining its flora,—this being especially true of the western part, where the forests still stand in their primeval glory. Accordingly, the versity of Iowa selected this as the objective territory of the botanical dition sent out in December of 1892. The success of this expedition was due in a large measure to the president of the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company, Hon. Warner Miller, of New York, who extended every possible aid by placing the facilities of the company at the disposal of the party. At the several places visited the company ' s officers treated the gentlemen with courtesy, and in many ways aided them in their work. Hon. John F. combe, of Ft. Dodge, Iowa, and Assistant President John Dunn, of the Illinois Central Railroad, also showed great kindness and aided the party in transportation. The expedition consisted of Mr. Bohumil Shimek, instructor of botany in the University, and Mr. Charles L. Smith, S. U. I., ' 91. They left Iowa City December 16, 1892, reaching New Orleans December 20. Thence they went by way of the Southern Pacific.Steamship Line to Bluefields, Nicaragua, where they arrived December 25. Nine days later they reached Greytown, which is on the San Juan River and is the eastern terminus of the Nicaragua Canal. The San Juan River is the outlet of Lake Nicaragua, and forms a part of the boundary between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. From San Carlos, at the foot of the lake, to the Los Sabalos River, a distance of twenty miles. the river valley is broad and low, and the stream comparatively sluggish. On the right side of the river about twelve miles below San Carlos, the water, flowing due east at this place, has cut away a shell-bearing portion of the stratum and formed a vertical bank several feet in height, which is packed for a hundred yards with shells of two small species of Unio, and this deposit extends south- ward for several yards. It is probable that at one time the lake covered all 53 this portion of the river valley, and that its waters were several feet higher than they now are. Below the Los Sabalos River, the San Juan flows much more rapidly than above; and there are a number of rapids which interfere with navigation in the dry season. From here to Castillo, the valley is quite narrow; low hills approach almost the river itself. Farther clown, the stream is broader, and, twenty-five miles below, flows between hills that alternately approach its nel on either side, the higher ridge rising on the Costa Rica bank. Still 1 • • • farther down, islands appear in the stream and the valley becomes broader, flatter, and sometimes marshy. At Colorado Junction the larger volume of water leaves the San Juan channel and flows into the Colorado branch some twenty miles from the sea, which both streams reach through a maze of swamps. This San Juan valley forms a depression that cuts the back-bone of North America, " and separates the mountains afar from each other, for in no place do they overlook its stream. Since the dry season begins earlier in the interior than on the eastern coast, the party decided to go immediately to the island of Ometepe in Lake agua. Here, the dry season usually begins in the early part of December and continues about six months, being moderated by occasional light showers. During this time the wind is almost constantly from the northeast, and the temperature ranges from to 90° Fahr. The vegetation on the island is luxuriant at the close of the rainy season, but changes through the months of January and February, when, instead of flowers, the fruits appear, and the leaves of many trees begin to fade and fall. The trip was made by steamer up the San Juan River from Greytown to San Carlos, where a stop of five days was necessary for repairing the vessel. This time was utilized in making observations on the topography of the vicinity and the customs of the people and in collecting. From here, the party went on the lake steamer " Victoria " to Ometepe. The island resembles the figure eight in shape, and each loop consists of a volcano surrounded by a plain of varying width, A part of the uortheru coast is swampy. Headquarters were established at the village of Moyogalpa on the northwestern shore,—a location peculiarly favorable to collecting, since swamp, and mountain, and forest are all within easy distance. The volcano in this part of the island is covered at its base and on the eastern and eastern slopes, with lofty forests; while trunks and stumps scattered over the mountain indicate that before its last eruption in 1883, it was entirely covered with mighty woods. The forests of the island are scarcely so dense as those along the lower San Juan, a fact evidently due to the dry season, which is longer and more clearly defined in the interior. In these forests, there is a marked scarcity of the silvan debris so common to our own timbered districts, —sticks and logs, the favorite habitat of slime-moulds and fungi; quently there is a corresponding scarcity of the forms of life requiring this environment. One explanation of the fact may be that white ants (termites) are exceedingly abundant and soon destroy all the fallen softer woods, which are most favorable to the growth of the plant forms. Five weeks were spent at this place; no division of work was made, but each man studied and collected all the plant forms coming to his observation. The collecting trips were made either on foot, horse-back, or by boat, and were usually short, being confined to a radius of one mile from the town. The result of the collections made here is as follows: Phanerogamia, three hundred species, represented by about two thousand specimens. The dried seeds and fruits were secured of more than two hundred of these species. Fitiffs, eighteen species, represented by numerous specimens. Musci, only a few specimens and species. Polyporece, about twenty-five species and numerous specimens. Pyrenontycetes, about twenty species. ilircomycetes, numerous specimens belonging to fifteen species. About one hundred species of Coleop- tera, and thirty species of Mollusca were obtained for the museum. The ber of Leguminosece is large; and the genus Cassia is especially well sented. Morning glories in great numbers grow on the island to a remarkable size; some of them measure six inches across the corolla. Numerous illalvacece were also noticed. Grasses, mosses, and lichens are ' scarce; but a few species of ferns are abundantly represented,—prominent among these the silver fern. Several shrubby compositce, also, are found here. The natives at first were very suspicious of the party and refused them a comfortable hut in which to carry on their work, preferring to leave the real estate unoccupied rather than rent to such strangely scientific people. One probable reason for this lack of confidence was the fact that it was necessary for the collectors to work late into the night in order to care for their mens; whereas the natives ' work day lasts only from 6 A. 31. to 12 m. ; fore these wizards from the north were crowding two days into one and demoralizing the industrial system of the country. 55 The people live in villages or on large plantations. They are languid in their movements, have few wants, and make no exertion to satisfy these. The houses are very simple in construction, are one story high, and have no floors; their walls scarcely keep out the rain; no windows are provided for. The houses of the better class have tile roofs. The occupants of these houses live in the pleasant companionship of numerous domestic animals. For furniture there is almost nothing, a few iron pots and cooking utensils. The natives are very curious, and wondered if Mr. Shimek was a medicine man, since many of the herbs collected had medicinal properties, or whether he was collecting patterns for calicoes; and one old woman had such a high opinion of his ability, that she requested him to repair an accordion for her. These dusky sages pronounced it folly to pluck the tiny herbs along the way, when plants of larger growth were at hand in such abundance. They hold in great value our paper money, preferring it to gold, among other reasons, because they can send it through the mail to this country with which they have considerable trade. The traveler should provide himself with this kind of money, for it is easy to carry, and drafts are hard to obtain except when one is at Granada. Another necessary travelling companion is the mosquito net, since the insect tha t gives this net its name, is exceedingly numerous and sociable; along the river, especially, is this the case, and at night, much more especially. In Nicaragua the traveller must carry his bed-clothing with him, for this ant article is not in that country considered a part of a night ' s lodging. There has been a great deal said about the unhealthfulness of eastern Mexico and Central America, and perhaps a great deal of this is true, but as concerning the region visited by the expedition, one can have just as good health there as in a cooler climate if he only takes reasonable precautions. It is true that much sickness is found among the natives; but this is clue to lack of cleanliness, to carelessness, and ignorance of hygienic laws. Work in the hot sun and excessive exercise should be avoided; the damp night air should be shunned and warm blankets had always at hand, for the nights are often quite cool. The principal fruits of the country are the papaya,—resembling an unripe egg-plant; the inside a pulpy or slimy mass, containing numerous oranges, lemons, cocoanuts, plantains, bananas, custard apples, and little brown beans called ‘‘ Frijoles, " which are the national food. There is the sapote, and other fruits with names that bear no meaning to us. Most of the fruits are insipid, lacking the.acid that gives to our northern fruits their agree- able flavor. A northerner in this region longs for an apple, and although surrounded by the famed tropical fruits, cannot find its equal. The people pay little attention to cultivating the soil, yet sometimes they raise a little corn, head-plant, and mango for their own use. On the 10th of February the party left the island for San Carlos, a village 56 and fort, which is located on an elevated ridge between the left bank of the San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua. This ridge slopes irregularly away to the swamps on either side. Toward the mainland the forests once covered the entire ridge, but these have been cleared away for quite a distance to aid in the defense of the place in time of war. The San Carlos region is an excellent field 6 ' m.- -= for work among the swamp species; it is not so good for deep forest collecting. The IMPINM•flimi, A Rio Frio, having its source in the moun- tains of Costa Rica, empties into the lake from the southeast; and from San Carlos the collector is able by boat to make expe- ditions into Costa Rica, to coast along the east shore of the lake, or reach the rich fields directly across. In ' all, three visits were made to San Carlos, but owing to the short duration of each only thirty-five species of phanerogamia were collected, and a number of species of fungi, slime-moulds, mollusks, beetles, orthoptera, etc. From here the party went to Castillo Viejo, further down the San Juan River. This is the first Nicaraguan port of entry on the southeast or Grey- town side, Grey-town being a free port. It had been thought that there would be trouble in passing some of the supplies, both in the first trip up the river, and on the return, but each time the supplies were brought through free of duty, for which kindness the party is indebted to Mr. E. W. Harris, an agent of the Company at Castillo. This town, consisting of but a single street, is on the right bank of the river, at the foot of a rounded hill on which stands the old Spanish fort. The immediate vicinity is cleared of all coarser vegetation, but farther away the country is densely wooded, and along the streams are exceedingly dense jun- gles of trees, shrubs, and vines. The forests are almost impenetrable, having no roads, and traversed only by the paths of the hunters and India-rubber poachers. The trees are covered with masses of parasites and epiphytes, and through them the sun never shines, so that the soil is moist and soft and water constantly dripping. The stillness of these forests is oppressive, very few birds are seen, those of the brilliant plumage keeping nearer to the habitat of man. Parrots and monkeys are common, but often one travels for days without seeing either, and hears no sound except that of his own foot-falls. Creeping insects are very abundant; mosquitoes and lizards are numerous; ants and snakes are comparatively few in number. Palms are found along the river; and, indeed, the Silico palm is found on all low lands. This resembles the cocoanut palm but has a sh orter trunk. In the dry season, it must be very resinous, for the natives set fire to it then, and it makes a great blaze. Beautiful tree ferns are often seen; but there is a 57 comparative scarcity of showy flowers, considering the mass of vegetation on every hand. Individuals of any one species do not mass together to the sion of other species, with sometimes an exception along the water-courses. The dry season begins later here than at Ometepe, and is not so sharply defined. It is usually ushered in about the end of January, but this year it was not fairly begun until a month later. Of the forty-one days spent here, fr om February 12th to March 23rd, twenty-one days were more or less rainy, four were cloudy, and sixteen clear. The temperature was about the same as at Ometepe. The northeast tradewind blew daily, beginning about 10 A. 31. and continuing until evening; the nights and mornings were calm. At Castillo, a division of work was made; Mr. Smith gave his attention to fungi; Mr. Shimek made ferns, mosses, slime-moulds and flowering plants his study. There are no roads about the town, so that travelling by horse or cart is impossible, and one is compelled to make his way on foot or by boat. eral trips were made up the tributaries of the river. There was great variety and abundance of local flora here, in fact, so much material was collected, that, for this reason and because a the attacks of the insects, it became impossible to care for all properly. By reason of the moist atmosphere, mould was found everywhere, and nothing was free from it. Within a few hours after the specimens were put into press, they became so covered with hyph and tiny sporangia, that it was necessary to wash them in alcohol and dry them in the sun; and even then for a time there were fears that they would be lost. The collection from Castillo and vicinity consists of the following material. Phanerogamia, one hundred and sixty-five additional species, which with seventy-five of the species collected at Ometepe, are represented by about six hundred specimens. The seeds and fruits of many of these were collected. R ' i ' tes, sixty species, represented by about six hundred specimens. Musci, about two hundred species, each represented by several specimens. Polyporece, numerous specimens, belonging to about one hundred species. 119.arianece, about fifty species. Mr. Smith obtained and preserved the spores of a erable number of these and other .1Iy ' menomycates. Pyrenomycetes, about five species and numerous specimens. Myxomycetes, sixteen species, ten of which were not found on Ometepe. A number of species of Discomycetes and lichens were secured. March 22nd the expedition left Castillo for Greytown. No steamer would leave the latter place for Bluefields, within several days, and the party was again shown the kind hospitality of the Canal Company, and entertained at its camp, two miles from Greytown. Greytown is located• at the month of the San Juan River. Its immediate vicinity is sandy, and the town is hedged in by a great jungle-covered swamp. The dry season begins here in January, lasting until May, but rains are frequent during this period. 58 Through the kindness of Mr. Prank P. Davis, chief-engineer of the Canal Construction Company, the party was enabled to visit the " Divide, " a ridge sixteen miles from Greytown, through which the deepest cut along the route of the proposed canal is to be made. The trip was made by hand-car along the railroad, as far as Camp Seven, a distance of twelve miles, then by canoe, on the Deseado River, to Camp Menocal, a distance of about four miles. One night was spent here, and the journey continued in the morning along the river by paths through dense jungles, for about five miles to the divide. Out from Camp Seven the countiy becomes more and more rolling, until as the divide is approached, the surface is quite rough. Near the divide, the river, which is very small here, dashes over the ledges of rock and forms two tiful waterfalls, the Saltos Louisa and the Saltos Laura. Below these, the water flows through a deep ravine. This valley is to form a portion of the proposed canal. The party returned to Camp Menocal in the afternoon of the same day, through a heavy rain. The night wars spent at the camp, and the next clay Greytown was reached. The trip was very profitable, notwithstanding the rains; about twenty species of phanerogamia and thirty species of ferns were collected. As there was no time for preserving the materials, comparatively little was done with the fungi and flowering plants. These specimens were afterwards dried on board the steamer while returning home. In this region there is a greater variety of ferns and palms than in the interior, and if it was properly explored much valuable material could be found. On April 6th, the party started for New Orleans on the steamer " Gussie, " and reached their destination in five clays. They brought with them some ten thousand botanical specimens, as the result of their labor. 59 ' 0044 f 4,00i AO; MAI 14 • V , " " i4r,M000 44 41fAle$A, .14(.,44,60 400001e e 10 Ag 00 10100 Oh 01 $ A0 04101 00,„0,,,,,, eroviry ..„,.....0 ego1010 moratoriO. ,Airoonto .rototoo. or PI O. H. L. MASON. " The cScii) me Peed Ten tb. " HAKESPEARE ' S King Lear is perhaps the greatest tragedy ever ten. Lear was ruler of Britain and lived as only a great can live, faring sumptuously every day. He never felt the need a warm coat when the chilling winds blew, for around his blazing fagots full table, cold and hunger were unknown. While little children were ing in the by-ways of London or huddling in the garrets of York, ,Lear quietly resting in his great palace which was resonant with the melody music. If, surrounded by these sweet influences of culture and the king and his lords sometimes discussed the question of the poor their condition, they were not the only men who, in the seclusion of rooms, have attempted to solve the problem of poverty by the laws of trade; " But oh, that men might sometime see, How piteous false the poor decree. That trade no more than trade must be. " But life is as shifting as the scenes of a drama. King Lear could not the inevitable. Over his royal life came a wonderful change. He gave his crown and property to his daughters, who drove their father from his own door; drove him out to wander in his own dominions--a kingly tramp. One stormy night this broken-hearted man was lost on a lonely heath. In the tance he descries a glimmering taper guiding him to the cabin of poor Tom, a man wild and starving. But Tom had not lost his warm heart, so he fully shared, with the destitute monarch, his pallet of straw. As the sane king gazed into the emaciated face and upon the form before him, for the first time in all his life he was touched with a real sympathy for the poor. pray, " said he, “and then I ' ll sleep. " And thus he prayed: " Poor naked wretches, whereso ' er you are, That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm, How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, 61 Your loop ' d and window ' d raggedness, defend you From seasons such as these? 0, I have ta ' en Too little care of this! Take physic, pomp; Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel, That thou mayst shake the superilux to them,. And show the Heavens more just. " That is a grand prayer for the Submerged Tenth; the outburst of a broken heart which had once enjoyed a luxurious home, and now experiences the miseries of a hovel. The distance between the king ' s palace and poor Tom ' s cabin measures the gulf separating rich and poor. The conditions of the poor which gave inspiration and pathos to the lips of Lear have obtained in every age and are still prevalent in our times. Let us examine, then, the drift of our civilization; the causes which operate to duce class distinction, and the remedies proposed by which the extremes of society are to be drawn into a closer harmony. We are living in times nant with magnificent results—scientific and material. Scientific achievement has enlarged the scope of man ' s possibilities and opened worlds of thought and wealth unknown to former generations. With restless research it fathoms the deepest mysteries of nature and, all unabashed, searches, as with microscope and scalpel, for the hiding place of the soul. Along all lines of progress this ceaseless energy marks the movements of our day. In the great centers of trade it is impossible to remain quiet. In spite of an effort we find ourselves rushing madly with the crowd. Unconsciously we are keeping pace with the spirit of the age which bears onward with resistless tide. These symptoms of unrest, appearing in the centers, are reproduced in every hamlet and village of our country. This enormous expenditure of energy has not been without results. Within the last three decades our material wealth has increased at the rate of one hundred dollars to every heart-beat, and within the same period centralization has gone on so rapidly that thirty thousand men possess one-half the wealth of sixty millions of people. As a result of this tremendous ulation and centralization of property there has grown up an antagonism tween capital and labor which, at times, threatens the perpetuity of our institutions. We have largely outlived the misconceptions of our forefathers, who never dreamed of a time when there should be heard in America the cry of want and misery. From the sacred shrines of the Pilgrims to the Golden Gate of the Pacific, poverty exists in the midst of abundant harvests. Five per cent of our population are paupers and the floods of ignorance and vice rise more rapidly than the dikes we build to keep them out. Side by side with a plutocracy we have developed a proletariat. Beneath the glittering surface of our civilization lies an understratum of wretchedness, breeding poverty, degradation and crime. So we are face to face with the same problem that King Lear, iv. 62 forced its attention on the mind of the old king: what shall we do with the Submerged Tenth? There is a temptation, constantly arising, to bring these social questions to a mathematical conclusion, so that a balance sheet may be struck. Plato ' s " Republic, " Moore ' s " Utopia " and Bellamy ' s " Looking Backward " are a few of the efforts at final settlement. But there is, in fact, no final word to be spoken. Every age grapples with these problems; stamps upon them its est thought, and passes them to the next for solution. The questions raised by Cicero in the Roman Senate, in a modified form, have been passed upon by Gladstone, Bismarck and Blaine. The difficulties between capital and labor, therefore, are by no means indigenous to American soil, or to modern civilization. In Greece, the men of the mountains contested their rights with the men of the plains and these, in turn, formed a coalition against the Eupatrids--their masters. In Rome, the Plebeians and the Patricians each struggled for supremacy. In early England, the peasants and landlords opened a warfare which was the precursor of the present contest between her two dominant parties. Yes, history repeats itself. " The poor you have with you always, " said the world ' s Philosopher, and history has verified the statement. Still, the Submerged Tenth would have been represented by a much larger fraction had General Booth ' s famous book been written in any previous age. And even on his own map of forsaken London there is more light than darkness, a fact which ought to inspire every English philanthropist. Much brighter still would be the showing of a similar map of the American metropolis. But, cherishing this highest degree of optimism, we may not close our eyes to danger. While the reverberations echo from Homestead, and while in every city there are organizations promul- gating un-American doctrines, the question of reaching the lower classes may involve the greater question of preserving American institutions. It is proposed to remedy these evils through the channels of legislation. Let the government own the land, control the railroads and conduct the tories. These are the propositions of a radical socialism looking to the absolute supremacy of the state over the people, and to the ultimate tion of all individual rights. But it is to be remembered that material inequalities, like social and intellectual inequalities, result from a common cause—the differing capacities of men. One has a faculty of accumulating substance, sometimes at the expense of his soul; another a disposition to develop his soul, frequently at the expense of his substance. Why should government interfere? It is no more the province of the state to.divide results than to equalize causes. The latter it cannot do; to do the former would be to destroy at a single stroke what the world has striven for eighteen hunched years to accomplish—the individualism of society. 63 Besides, there is little to be feared from the centralization of property. Wealthy families have in themselves the germs of their own destruction. There is a law of the universe, stronger than the enactments of men, tending to return everything to the common treasury from which it came. The millions which made Gould rich will in all probability make his posterity poor. A very few generations of luxury will suffice to bring back into the general fund the largest fortune of our age. There are, doubtless, lines along which the state may exercise healthful legislation, but never by taking posseseion of individual property. The vast uncultivated tracts of land held by speculators might be taxed out of their possession into the hands of actual citizens who are clamoring for homes. The influx of a non-citizen class from the pauper lists of Europe, might be diately prohibited until we assimilate the millions already here. But, ing the present condition of the poor, legislation is not available and would be inadequate to the end in view. The crying need of the poor to-day is not more law, but a closer bond of love; not money, but manhood. Men have ever recognized the fatherhood of God. This is pre-eminently an age of the brotherhood of man. The time was when the Church stood apart from the world and bewailed its wickedness; when original sin was a more important theme than present evils. A new light has entered, not only the field of Christianity, but that of science as well; for from the standpoint of the most extreme evolutionist, there must be added to the doctrine of the survival of the fittest, a recognition of the power of ment. This power of environment brings all human life into immediate relationship. Every man becomes a factor in the character of every other man. We are no longer asking the question, I my brother ' s keeper? " This has become a scientific axiom and gives a new energy to the moral forces of the world. Men are everywhere awakening to their personal responsibility; to the influence of character in lifting the lower life. Let the gulf between Lear and Tom be spanned by a strong reciprocal pathy, and the light from the palace dispel the darkness of the cabin. But the work cannot be accomplished through large organizations, or fine churches built on ' Broadway. Men need to come down from their homes of affluence and spend a lonely night among the hovels and dens teeming with the germs of vice. It is not a question of a division of property, and the dreams of Bellamy are the wildest vagaries; but it is a problem of life touching life, whose solution will be as slow as the evolution of character. Alas! must this earth, upon which we play like children, forever echo to the bitter cry of helpless poverty? Shall not knowledge and power one day be so guided by sympathy and compassion as to turn their energies to the reclaiming of society ' s waste places? Tell me not, there is no hope—that the travail of 64 the ages must issue in despair. Do you see that watchman on the shore? Through many waiting centuries has he stood there in sunlight, and starlight, and darkness, gazing with anxions eye on the expanse of waters. Often the mountain waves have obscured his vision; still, with faith unshaken, has he maintained his watch. Already the evening shades draw near and, with prophetic glance, we look once more at that lone figure. The sea is stilled. In the offing appears a ship. It draws nearer, guided by the firm hand of its Pilot. And now the declining sun flashes through western clouds a great wave of golden splendor to meet the dawning of a more blessed day, and Pilot and ship and watcher are transfigured, glorified in the dawning of that light which shineth more and more unto the perfect day. That watcher is the Genius of Human Destiny; that Pilot, the Son of Man. The spirit of the Pilot is become the spirit of the world. 0. FL L. MASON, [This oration was given highest rank in the Oratorical Contest, 1893.] 65 no t1-)E (oR(rete. FUNDAMENTAL power of the mind is to recognize likeness and ence. And the highest intellectual development is simply ' the most nearly perfect exercise of this faculty. It is common knowledge that the lowest savages as well as young children of all races make no pendent application of this discriminating power. Their distinctions are made reflexly, without effort. Their world is a world of the present, where each successive fact impresses itself upon their merely passive mind and, disappearing, leaves place for the next, which for their undeveloped intellect is sui generis. In infant races and infant individuals the idea of causal ence of fact upon fact is wanting. In the case of the savage the power of thought remains through life uncalled out; and as Herbert Spencer and others have shown beyond a doubt, the powers of sense, which are largely reflexive, arrive by reason of their puted monopoly of the mental energy at a very advanced stage of proficiency. As an illustration of this principle we have often marked the exceedingly acute hearing and seeing abilities of the North American Indian. Having no use for the higher faculties of the intellect, the savage ' s experience is concen- trated upon the lower ones: hence the extreme attainments in sense perception. But how is it with us who are born under the lucky star of civilization? You know how civilization began with active thought, and that the first effort of the enlightened mind was bringing together and comparing the apparently diverse objects of nature. Concrete things were bunched under the focus of the intellect and their likenesses and differences picked out, qualities were abstracted from things. The human had discovered his mind ' s mysterious unifying power, by which the manifold of the world could be reduced, as it were, to lower terms. Now once this faculty is awakened and the attention divided by it, the keen- ness of the special senses begins to dull; and the more the mind attends to the abstraction of causes and laws and universals, the more fascinated it becomes to do so, and in proportion the interest in particulars grows less. 66 Just as before it had synthesized reflexly the separate sensations produced by trees and grass and river and hills and sky into one picturesque landscape, now, striking out for itself, the mind soon yearns to disprove the diversities in substance that appear among extraneous objects. So that at length the reducing of apparent diffuseness to ultimate unity seems altogether to master the mind; and nothing will do but this particular blossom in the dale be likened to a second on the hill-top, and the two to a third on the prairie. Everything is classified and taken out of its individuality and sovereign ness to be made a part of something else. Every gem in the sea and in the earth must be held up to the light and judged by every other. Every delicate shell washed ashore by summer sea must be carried post-haste to the museum; and every human must be an American or an European or a barbarian or a democrat or an aristocrat or what not, so he remain not plainly and supremely a man. Then finally the sign of equality must be set down between the mind which perceives and the object which is perceived, and the one must turn out to be purely an idea of the other or to exist independently only in an utterly unknowable form. Thus does Science, led by Metaphysic, gather up the merable facts of the Universe and pack them carefully into the cabinet of System. Generalization after generalization, abstraction after abstraction, this is the course of the mind ' s work in politics and the arts no less than in the physical sciences. The greatest art must be idealistic and government makes for socialism. The present is always only a transient stage in the evolution of the future. Now I would not be understood to criticize Science, for in that I should pass judgment on the very constitution and necessary laws of the human mind. Science must ever mark off the brute from the man, and the idea of history—cause and effect—must carry the divine intellect forever higher and farther in unending achievement. If I find fault it is with the current tions of men for their too exclusive attentiveness to laws and their ness of things as things. What I protest against is desertion of the Particular after it has served the purpose of a stepping-stone to the General. Our historical, our scientific spirit has been enthusiastic over, say the law of tion, and the Concrete has suffered neglect. While we have been dealing with species and variations we have forgotten the specimen. Yet, after all, the world of reality, what is it but a world of the manifold, the concrete, a world of self-consistent unities, an infinite number of organic entities present and appearing. I plead for a simpler and more direct recognition of the ate life and beauty of this particular landscape, with its flat prairie outspread there to the eye, all vital in a quintillion of pulsing cells that absorb the elements from the ground and draw them up to meet the light and warmth of the sunshine, and breed a larger life that blossoms altogether that field of wondrously growing corn. I plead for this certain summer night, that you (37 surrender to its silent appeal, and know the unspeakable thrill of union with the Over-Soul. I know that it were folly to attempt so to change individual dispositions as to turn a practical scientist into a sentimentalist. That is not my wish or purpose. In this advanced stage of intellectual development I believe nearly all men have latent in their composition the warm spiritual sense necessary to the appreciations at which I am hinting. Yet it is a flat truism which asserts that in the lives of a great majority of Americans at least, outside of one or two centers of learning, this sense is rarely if ever awakened. In our era of mechanical and electrical invention, of mining much gold and coal and so forth, of felling forests and building great cities and great fortunes, we have given little attention to the education of such unpractical tastes as the sical, the poetic, the artistic. As a result of such neglected education we find throughout our cities a large class of well-to-do and wealthy people who have only a poor conception of the better powers of money or of what is the best that life affords. Music and pictures and books and travel of the true kind play no part in their lives, to say nothing of an interest in social problems or the progress of the world. So in our public schools, we have conceived our duty done when we have started our children in the broad way to the philistinism of American commercial life by an early introduction to the three R ' s and perhaps geography. We snatch the child away from its little world of the Concrete and set the brain at the hard labor of abstraction, before the natural bent of young life has carried the senses to anything like the development of which they are capable. We put the child to counting, counting, and then to reading and writing and learning rote lessons. Why, what else, pray, should we teach a child? Our public schools instruct the young mind how to shoot, and that is all the State can afford. To shoot, " yes, but within how narrow a range! As if the chief end of man lay in grammar and arithmetic, misunderstood history and much classification! How would it do if we should set out to broaden our American life at its source, by enlarging the curriculum in the schools so that it should include at the beginning a course of training in pure sense enjoyment, looking towards the development of a kind of lofty sensuousness, if you will? Along with this course in music and the harmonies of Nature should go gymnastic, perhaps in the shape of manual training. Do you not think we should thus become more hellenic? Should we not soon find ourselves advancing upon the social ideal? In this regnum of the positive sciences, and of material super-well-being, we are too afraid in this country of the name sentimentalist. A man is not of the greatest until it is possible for the critics to cry out after him: " Visionary, " " False prophet " , " Philosophist " , " Sentimentalist " . So a true man be not everywhere fast tied to the maternal apron-strings of what has been and 68 what is Rule, he need not fear what the querulous say. Rather than be all thought or all feeling, all one-sided, it were better that one went not so far in one ' s specialty. If Science confirm Religion, Religion need not thenceforth be mere Science. Sometimes I think it would be best if this system-mad age of ours might dose itself with a little of David Hume ' s Skepticism, which denies all cause and effect. Then with nothing left but distinct facts we might take time to feast our half-starved souls upon the coherent beauty of each complete cosmic thing, or combination of things, as it comes to the senses and is present here and now; that we might appreciate to the full the absoluteness of this moment, of that breathing animal ' s sufficient, present perfect life, or of this man ' s or this wom an ' s personal, existing self-consciousness. For not only in what guides their evolution and holds in check the myriad worlds and suns which revolve so majestically in an infinite Universe—not only in Law is the Divine. From the least and humblest thing,—even from the worm that crawls in the dust, to the grandest solar system that has part in the ceaseless migration in the heavens,—always of equal moment is the individual fact. Call it thing or idea, what you will, but Laws are only the ways of Things. Universalia in res. Because Law and Universals are the higher categories of the mind, do we think we may safely distance the specific fact in our intellectual chase after power and influence, fame, wealth, salvation and like abstractions? We need to keep in closer touch with nature if we would be fully developed men. A little time every day for the busiest to keep alive and foster the tastes for the finer enjoyments of life and rounded health. ' ' Virtue " said Marcus Aurelius, " is only a living and enthusiastic sympathy with nature. " And a great, but as yet not widely-read American poet who quotes the foregoing, proceeds to suggest that " perhaps the efforts of all true poets, founders, religions, literatures, all ages, have been and ever will be, our time and times to come, essentially the same—to bring people back from their persistent strayings and sickly abstractions to the costless, average, divine, original Concrete. " It is indeed very hard for any of us so to live that none shall charge him with narrowness. Perfection seems not given to the race save as an always receding ideal. But whoever is willing to place himself squarely against unbalanced development and one-sided life, and stands out strongly for high, unbiased feeling, as well as for great thought, will himself live a deeper and larger life and will be truly a factor in the evolution of mankind. GEORGE BEARDSLEY. 69 ii golProoli Ppize DEATH FROM THE STAND-POINT OF CICERO AND OF PAUL. heaped-up mound of earth tells us as much about the dead man it covers, as a huge monument of st one cut with inscriptions that are doubtful or wholly beyond the grasp of interpretation. Thus the poor plebeian of history, noticed only as one of a class and not as an individual, leaves us a trace of his character and life which is often almost as clear as that left by the great man who, like a Gulliver among Lilliputians, towered far above the common level and constituted the great center of attrac- tion for the eyes of those about him. It is true that there are a few men in history whose aims, deeds and beliefs stand out so bright and well-defined, that there remains for critics no substan- tial foundation for a difference of estimate concerning them. In such records there is no ambiguity, and distinct sets of hobby-riders coming to such a narrow pass, must dismount or seek some other course. On the contrary, the great multitude of men seem to have left the story of their career as vague and uncertain as Delphic oracles. We find one line of action diametrically opposed to another. We find one course planned, tially followed, retraced, and another commenced and then broken abruptly off. We find hieroglyphics which we cannot decipher and the determination of whose meaning we must turn over to the province of conjecture. We are in a predicament analogous to that of the hunter who finds himself at a loss to know which of the hundred and one trails before him he must follow in order to secure, or at least catch sight of, the coveted game. Hence, since the career of Cicero was one of which doubt and hesitation constituted the very essence, we should not be surprised to find that writers 70 E, .who, for some strange, unknown reason, withdraws from the critical world, to live alone in some rude, secluded cave or hut, who dies unattended, is not the only man who leaves for and critics an unsolved enigma. And so, it often happens that a losophers are somewhat puzzled to know what were the man ' s real convictions. He was, as has been pointed out by good authors, an advocate, a man of the forum and its scenes, and therefore accustomed to weigh carefully the substance of both sides of questions. It may in fact be said that the story of his whole life is the simple narrative of his struggles in deciding the merits and demerits of opposing causes in both the real, every-day sphere and in that of the retical.. It has been well stated that such a course could hardly save Cicero from the sway of doubt; he could not help seeing that wherever a question arises, both sides possess some argument. And so it is that we find dogmatism yielding to probability in Cicero ' s ment of his creed. And since the philosophical writings of Cicero are nearly all in the form of dialogues put into the mouths of his characters, in giving quotations, great care must be taken to see that they are really the author ' s opinions and not those of the particular side whose cause he happens to be pleading. • In looking at Cicero ' s views of that which all men must meet death—there is one cardinal point to be noted:—the clouds and fears of his mind did not obscure a conviction that death did not end man ' s existence, even though it did destroy the body. In this belief in immortality and in this yearning for from a state of eternal non-existence, he only shows himself human a brother to us all. For very few, if any, men absolutely believe that this universal, innate conviction of a life to come after death, is a sion, however much they may differ in their conception of it and the means and mariner of its achievement. Read the fierce onslaught of Ingersoll against the idea of God and the Bible and heaven, and then turn to some of his splendid funeral orations and see whether even this man does not betray a longing for immortality and a half-concealed, half-expressed belief in the never-dying principle of the soul. Did our conclusion rest on no other evidence than that given by Cicero in speaking of the Eleusinian mysteries, it would stand. The words are takeable. He said in regard to " the excellent and divine things " which Athens had produced, that there was nothing better among them than the Eleusinian mysteries; he further adds that " We have received from them not only good reason why we should live with joy, but also why we should die with a better hope. " He argues in the first book of the Tusculan tions against the fear of death which he says at the worst, can only be utter annihilation of all sensibility and hence of all pain and misery, and at the best is a pass-port to a happy immortality. The question is disposed of in a few words, when we state the fact that Cicero was the interpreter and exponent of Plato, at Rome where a great upheaval in matters of faith was attendant upon the political feuds and Legg. II, 14.—Quoted by Max Mueller—Anthropological Religions. 71 tests in the republic. Two quotations from the Tusculan Disputations will suffice to show this admiration of Cicero for Plato ' s philosophy. He causes the Auditor to say " I should rather err with Plato than perceive the truth with those (contemptible) fellows. " The Nagister is then made to say, " deed, I myself would willingly err with him (i. e. Plato). " When both the disputants are made to agree so happily, we may justly infer that the author has intimated his own position. But one who believes in a life beyond the grave, must necessarily have some conception of the exalted nature of that entity which refuses to die and lose itself when its temple crumbles. The ideas on the human soul, of Plato, and of Cicero as drawn from the teaching of Plato, are grand and noble. I can find no English terms capable of expressing so clearly and concisely the idea of how men should view this, as is hinted at in a short sentence taken from the Tusculan Disputations at a point where Cicero is considering the various theo- ries regarding the soul: " Magni autem est ingenii sevocare mentem a sensi- bus et cogitationem ab consuetudine. " The author seems to throw supreme stress upon the importance of being able to think without being handicapped by the senses or by the force of habit or by environment. The strong tive force of the particles se and ab shows this as plainly as can be. He says that men could see nothing in the spirit, and that they referred " to their eyes " the judgment as to what things were tang ible and real. This power of conceiving of the soul apart from the body, in its free and unencumbered. state, is a faculty that marks its possessor as a man of more than ordinary capacity a man who " can think a. " That Cicero could do this, is proof the depth and nobleness of his religious conceptions. Granting that Cicero believed in the immortality and supernatural essence of the soul, it remains to be shown what kind of an Elysium he anticipated and what he considered the aspect of Hades to be. What should we expect? The Indian who hunts and fishes on earth, expects after death, to take his dog with him for a perpetual trip through the forests and along the streams of the happy hunting-ground. The Valhalla of the Viking is simply a place in which his imagination seeks to realize an everlasting repetition of that which he likes best on earth—fighting and feasting. Whatever the creed or faith of to-day and no matter how intelligent the believer, it is modified in minor points to fit the mould into which his mind is cast by environment. A broker, if he thinks of the matter at all, thinks more of the streets of gold than of the praise and worship surrounding the throne in heaven. Intellectual men tell us that they look for mental pleasures as well as for spiritual, beyond the portals. And so, Cicero, burdened with the labors, sorrows and reverses of a busy public and private life, and imbued with the study of philosophy, inevitably looked forward to a land of freedom and rest where in the words of the Phwdo of Plato, " Those who have purified themselves by philosophy, live henceforth 72 altogether without the body, in mansions fairer far than these, which may not be described and of which the time would fail me to tell. " That Cicero really knew these words is demonstrated by his saying that he always wept when he read this pathetic story of Socrates. Where such sympathy existed, we may safely assume much unity of vision between the two men. But could the strong-minded Cicero give up every dream of oratory and philosophy, and intellectuallity of every sort, in the future kingdom he pictured to himself? No, his heaven is more of an intellectual than a spiritual at least it has no such preponderance of spirituality as that attributed to the Christian heaven viewed in the light of the present. He says, ' ' Can you estimate the advantage of being permitted to speak with Orpheus, Museus, Homer and Hesiod? " Of course, these words are, originally, those of rates, but Cicero thought them of enough value to be incorporated in the Tusculan Disputations, in the argument of the mayister. It is but natural to suppose that he contemplated with pleasure the prospect of meeting with these famous men. It can hardly be said that he believed in the terrible things that the popular belief held to exist in Hades. When a man becomes vindictive or sarcastic in his remarks, lie generally discloses his true position, and Cicero speaks of how timid little women, (mulieraculm) and boys, are the only persons affected in the theater, at the mention of Acheron, " the steep and arduous ways, " the caves of sharp overhanging rocks and the thick darkness. He causes the mayister to ask the auditor whether he is terrified by thoughts of the headed Cerberus, the murmurings of Cocytus, the crossing of Acheron, tured Tantalus, Siscyphus at work in his unavailing task, and of the inexorable judges, Minos and Rhadamanthus. The auditor replies, " Do you think me raving to such a degree as to believe these things? " The punishment of unholy souls, Cicero in following out the teaching of Plato, would have simply assumed to be separation from the Divine Spirit. To some, the fact that Cicero served as augur, might seem rather tory to the statement that he was not a devotee to the popular religion. The explanation lies in the fact that Cicero was a doughty conservative, and feared that the adoption by the people, of any new system of religion or ment, even though he himself could not accept what he wished them to cling to. Another explanation that may be offered is that he was very partial to public praise and hence any office that he could secure was acceptable —the closer it brought him to the public eye and the longer it held him there, the better. The augurship was a step that placed him nearer the consulship. To say that such were his motives in clinging more or less to the popular ogy and religion does not make it necessary to relinquish the statement already made that Cicero ' s conception of the soul and its future state was grand and sublime. Nor can we justly say that he was a simon-pure hypocrite any more 73 than we can characterize that man as two-faced and deceitful, whose weakness and indecision, lack of stamina and courage, make his high aims of life ever unrealized in his own career. We simply come face to face with an example of a noble soul seeking the promised land, but held back by its entanglement with a nature that insists upon worshipping the golden calf of earthly tion and vanity, even at the cost of death in the wilderness, Now let us turn from the busy, energetic, yet hesitating man of affairs, to him whose most evident characteristic is an unquenchable religious zeal. Even if we grant that Matthew Arnold ' s criticism is correct in saying that Paul ' s position cannot at this late day be made out with certainty and exactness, yet the fact cannot be disputed that the apostle himself saw his path as clear as day. A man, if a strong man, as all must confess Paul to have been, closes the depth of his devotion to a belief or principle, by the efforts he makes to secure converts and by the genuine fervor of the words he utters on the subject. A man who is only lukewarm in the advocacy of any cause, does not gladly lift up his voice in its behalf. In the analysis of Paul ' s meaning as clothed in his earnest words, it is quite probable that we shall not be able to put a finger on every passage and be sure that we have given it the correct construction. Too many of them are uncertain of interpretation. In selecting quotations and in drawing from them, conclusions which we wish to stand as infallible, great care must be exercised. His Satanic Majesty and Col. Ingersoll, in one respect at least, can be classed with the headlong exponents of rank orthodoxy in our churches—they are all adept cullers and expositors of scripture whenever the desired end can be thus attained. But the one lamentable and significant fact is that their versions seldom read alike. That old contrast between the relative pace of fools and angels on uncertain ground is a caution pertinent to him who would conclusively prove from a passage of the New Testament, a pre-conceived idea which somebody else stands ready to attack. Paul, then, when first mentioned in the New Testament, was, as we wards find him, a vigorous, strong-minded man,—a man whom it would have been no trouble at all to pick out in a crowd as an individual of power. At this time he was the zealous, glowing persecutor of those whose cause he, himself, was soon to support so fervently and so well. Setting out to cus, he had occasion to change the tenor of his way. When Paul asked in a penitent spirit, " Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? " he gave us the key to his heart and life. This one question is worth more than whole paragraphs of argument. After this he became a Christian and the great founder and organizer of the Church. Were it at all necessary, line after line could be quoted from his works to show that he had an implicit all-grasping faith in the resurrection and tality of the soul. He takes especial pains in saying, that " If in this life 74 only, we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. " The mary of his teaching as the Stoics and Epicureans put it, was that " he preached Jesus and the resurrection. " He lays the greatest stress on the thought that the essential reason why men should praise God, was that the resurrection of the Savior followed his crucifixion and was the glorious summation of the former, the lit hoc signo vhicemns " of the Christian. The view of the soul, which Paul held, must be admired by all who ciate noble conceptions, He says, referring to the spiritual life, " We walk by faith and not by sight, " and that " flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God. " He, above all, does not permit his mental picture of the soul to be crowded or cramped by the attendant bodily perceptions and nations. The critic who delights to draw parallels between the opinions of men, will find the lines of thought of Cicero and of Paul. running in this respect, almost side by side, but the line representing the sublimity of Paul ' s perception must be drawn by far the clearer and deeper of the two. Paul states plainly, " There is a natural body and there is a spiritual body. " He directs a well-aimed thrust at that class of individuals which seeks to measure the eye or by those modes of sickly, pigmy thought that never rise above the dead level of the mediocre and that are always enveloped in a dense fog of materialism. ' ' For the Jews require a sign and the Greeks seek after wisdom. " When Paul said this, lie probably had in mind that class which has its modern representatives among the men who insist that the sun do move, " and that the earth is flat and has four corners — men who ridicule the notion of such a substance as ether, because it is invisible, and who declare that there is no God, because has never met them in the way as He did the famous steed of Balaam. In attempting to say just exactly what sort of a place Paul pictured to himself as the eternal abode of the righteous soul, we are essaying a task that is by no means so easy as might be imagined by those who are wont to conceive of Christian heaven as a perfectly well-defined and located place. A recent writer in one of the monthly magazines, considered the subject of heaven in general, but left his readers with scarcely any tional light on the question. Only a general exposition of the case can be given. Paul says, " For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. " This triumphant declaration, while it does not ' vey much information to us, yet voices with no uncertain sound, the bracing fullness and depth of the apostle ' s faith in a better land. He says, further, in his consideration of the coming of the Lord, that " We which are alive and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall we ever be with the Lord. " He lieves that there is one " who shall change our vile body that it may be 75 fashioned like his glorious body. " Above all, Paul ' s heaven was a place where things spiritual were to predominate. No image of anything purely intellectual seems to have entered his mind in its effort to grasp the state of that existence beyond. " Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual but that which is natural; and afterword that which is spiritual. " Heaven meant, with him, association with God for lie tells us that he has " a desire to depart and to be with Christ, which is far better. " It was a land that man without the aid of the Spirit, could not wholly comprehend. With Cicero, salvation was to be achieved by virtue of the refining process which it was supposed that the diligent study of philosophy gave to the one who followed it. Paul, however, makes faith in the death and resurrection of Christ, the only justification of a soul before Maker. He expressly stated that strict dience to the law of Moses could not save one. It is quite true that the apostle was almost stoical in his praise of the strength of virtue, but he held that good conduct should properly be the fruit expected from a life that had been consecrated to the service of Christ. He would have admitted that there were non-Christians who were morally sound, but he would have said that this integrity availed them nothing without the acceptance of the Savior. " Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature. " As, Paul, apparently, had a clear vision of heaven and a knowledge of the means by which the entrance thereto was to be gained, so he was not slow in speaking of those who would be lost and by what fault of their own. But here, again, he does not tell us precisely what he evidently took as a matter of fact. He speaks of the destruction of those who reject the Christian scheme of salvation, but does not, so far as I have been able to see, state in a lucid manner just what that punishment was to be. Deprivation of an eternal existence with Christ in heaven, strikes one, often, in reading his writ- ings, as the curse that he most feared for the rejector of Jesus. To him, struggling day by day on the rugged, upward path, the direst calamity that he dared to picture, was failure to read the destination aimed at. He, no doubt, was perfectly familiar with the version of hell that represented that much-invoked and much-feared place as a vast basin of fire and brimstone; if he accepted that picture as strictly realistic, and not figurative and drawn, he does not indicate it by any prominence given to such a ,doctrine in the works that are credited to his pen. The theories of predestination and election that are ascribed to the teaching of Paul, we may leave for settlement to those who make a business of setting on their shoulders infinitesimal chips for other knock off at their peril. One of the things that Paul preached was that of a coming judgment-day when the who is no respecter of persons, was to decide the fate of the souls assembled before Him. Those who plead the atoning power 76 of Christ ' s sacrifice, were to be blessed for their faith by being granted admis- sion into the kingdon of God; those who did not stand covered by the mantle of Christ were to be cast out from the presence of the Lord. If the average Sunday-school literature of the present had any authority and were not so puerile, what a happy and facile Q. E. D. we could draw from the story of how our heroes died! Cicero was slain while in flight, and Paul probably met death, fearlessly, like the brave man he was, at the hands of the cruel demon, Nero. Now, of course, the thing one is expected to say is that Paul put his trust in God and Cicero did not. But, unfortunately, the saintly morals that end many of these didactic tales, lack the essential elements of truthfulness. Christians do not always leave the world, in an uncontrollable joy, nor unbelievers in paroxysms of agony and despair. The later life and works of Paul describe, as it were, a line that is straight and fairly clear by virtue of the forces of constancy, courage and whole-souled devotion to a clearly-seen duty; indecision and weakness make the graph of Cicero ' s path through life, a strange curve of many minute, interwoven parts. It is quite true that the words " 0 death, where is thy sting? 0 grave, where is thy victory? " are from the lips of Paul, but I believe that Cicero would gladly have re-echoed a sentiment so beautiful and of so much solace to modern Christians. E. S. WHITE. 77 c1A on PrizE 1M( MOTTO: " THE MIND IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS. " SUBJECT:— WHEN AND UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES MAY AN INSANE PERSON BE HELD UPON HIS CONTRACTS ? EAD men tell no tales. " It might be added that, dead men can not contract. In law death ends all and bars the jurisdiction of trial courts. One can not contract with a dead man because there must be two parties to every contract. You may say that there are two parties to the proposed tract, but that one of them is dead. Here, then, we come to a difficulty. Why can you not contract with a dead man? Certainly, not because he does not exist or cannot be identified, but because there is lacking this one important factor, the mind. If it were possible to imagine the existence of a mind in the abstract, this being the only vital element in the relations of man to man, there is no reason why that mind could not do anything not requiring physical strength. In other words, mind in the abstract could contract. On the other hand, as we have seen, the physical body of a dead man can not contract—there is no mind. Again, present a physical Hercules, make him a perfect type of ical man, breathe life, strength, and courage into his being; and yet he is but " sounding brass " if he has no mnd. Thus we may conclude that it is not physical but mental power that the law contemplates; that where there is mind there is capacity, where there is no mind there is no capacity. Victor Hugo in speaking of genius exclaims " Add anything if you can to a human mind. " Indeed if you would call the left hand of progress force, you must call the right hand mind. But the very perfection and divinity of an endowment so grand and powerful, suggests the awful and disastrous result of subtracting from it any of its activities. Deprive the mind of the reasoning power. If you have a dead man the case is easy—there is no mind; if you 78 have a physical giant with positively no mind he is, for the purposes of tracting, dead; if you have a perfect mind there is no question of capacity; but between these extremes there is a mind deficient in some of its activities, and here it is that the principles of psychology, medicine, and law overlap, conflict, and clash. Were it not for the primitive state of the science of medicine, and the absurd. uncertainty and conflict of its results, this difficulty might be removed and the legal profession would only need apply the law to the condition of the subject as found by the physician. Indeed some of the leading lights of that sion have for years complained bitterly of the usurpation, by courts and juries, of the authority to decide whether or not a man be sane. There is little foundation to the plea, however, and the present state of affairs seems to argue that the medical profession is absolutely incompetent to settle the tion, and that it is from necessity rather than from choice that courts and juries undertake the task. The very e ssence of a contract is the meeting of the minds of the contracting parties. In theory, then, one absolutely insane, having no mind, can not contract because of the impossibility of the meeting of the minds. Thus we may lay down the general proposition, that the contracts of insane persons are not binding on them. The first apparent exception to this rule is, that an insane person is liable for necessaries furnished to him. 1 This, however, is only an apparent tion, for the contract on which an insane person is held in this case, is not his own contract but a contract created by law, and assent is not a necessary element in such a contract. 2 The theory is that insane persons might often be allowed to suffer for necessaries if the law did not give them this protection. Necessaries are those things which are proper to one ' s station in life. 3 If an insane person has lucid intervals and during a lucid interval makes a contract it is binding, 4 for there is in that event a meeting of the minds. Again, if an insane person make a contract and ratify it during a lucid val or after permanently recovering sanity it is binding upon him. 5 We have gone far enough now to venture the statement, that insanity in law is regarded either as a mental unsoundness or a total lack of mental capacity. Cases of the latter class rarely arise. According to the theory we have adopted, the contracts of those void of mental capacity are absolutely void. Most of the cases, hold, however, that they can be avoided only by the insane person and that the other party will not be allowed to plead the insanity ill Baxter v. Portsmouth, 5 B. C., 170; LaRue v. Gilkyson, 4 Pa. St., 375. 2 Bish. Units., art. 200. 3 Baxter v. Portsmouth, 5 B. C., 170. 4 King v. Robinson, 33 Me., 114 ; Lee v. Lee, 17 Am. Dec., 722, Howe v. Howe, 99 Mass., 98. 79 order to avoid his contract. I It is not, however, because the contract is valid, but because the other party is deemed to be guilty of fraud and is estopped from setting up his own fraudulent act as a defence. Partial insanity will not vitiate a contract unless it be an insanity upon the particular subject of the contract and unless the contract is really the result of the insanity. The contract of a man absolutely insane on one subject, may be perfectly good if it is not on the particular subject on which he is insane. 2 These propositions all seem reasonable and simple, but there is a practical difficulty arising from the fact that it is often impossible to detect mental unsoundness. In fact, it is argued by many eminent authorities that all men are more or less insane. The poet when he sings, " Great men to madness sure are near allied, And thin partitions do their bounds divide, " seems to intimate that insanity is in some sense akin to genius. It is not to be presumed that ordinary business men are experts on insanity. In these days of commercial war, when the nervous tension is at the highest and sane men are driving mad bargains, it must be confessed that it is a harsh law that would hold the business world to know whether a man be sane or insane. Supposing, now, that the man drives a good bargain and acts rationally, is the commercial world bound to know that he is insane, while at the same time men acknowledged to be sane, are making hazardous, if not insane, bargains? This doctrine would plainly be disastrous to all the commercial world and the courts by mingling common-sense with legal theory have warded off the evil results that must otherwise have followed. On this phase of the subject the courts, first in England and later in America, have laid down this sweeping doctrine—If a person in good faith enters into a contract with one apparently sane, and whose actions would in no way tend to put a reasonably prudent man on his guard, and a valuable consideration has been paid, there being no undue advantage taken and no unfairness in the bargain, and the consideration can not be restored by the insane person so as to place the other party in statu quo, then, whether the party be sane or insane the contract will be good. 3 It will be observed from the above that the contract is good or bad, tioned on the absence of fraud and undue influence. The courts contend that it is no more than justice to the commercial world and that it is protection enough to the insane person to allow the contract to stand or fall under the test of fairness, good faith, and absence of fraud. But let us examine into the theory of this doctrine as propounded. Putting ' Allen v. Berryhill, 27 Ia., 534. 2 Searle v. Galbraith, 73 Ill., 269 ; Hovey v. Hobson, 55 Me., 256. 3 Molton v. Camroux, 2 Ex., 501: Beal v. See, 10 Pa. St., 56 ; Lancaster Bank v. Moore, 78 Pa. St., 414 ; Dane v. Kirkwall, 8 C. P., 679; Behrens v. McKenzie, 23 Ia., 333. 80 11 aside the question of good faith, observe that the courts are careful to state that the contract must be executed and that it must be impossible to put the other contracting party in state quo. There is no authority to the effect that an executory contract will be held binding, nor an executed contract where the party can be placed in state quo. We may conclude, though it is a negative conclusion, that contracts of this class are not binding. An eminent law fessor, 1 recently observed that there is no such a thing as an executed contract; that it is as absurd to speak of an executed contract as to speak of a filled up " post-hole. If, then, an executed contract is in reality no contract at all, it certainly follows that it is a poor test of the validity of a contract. Again, assuming good faith, fairness, and absence of fraud, the courts still hold that if the person contracting with the insane party can be placed in state quo, the contract will not stand. What does this mean? If a contract is valid, what does the accidental fact that a party can be placed in state quo, have to do with it? If I buy a horse and the bargain is fair, the mere fact that I can return the horse does not give me the right to do so and rescind the sale. It would seem that there is something wrong with this executed contract, or the fact that one party can place the other in state quo would not in any way alter its binding effect. The contract is not valid. It is not, then, because the executed contract is valid or binding, that it will not be set aside, but because an innocent party without fault or negligence will be prejudiced thereby. As between these two innocent parties the law will not interpose to effect a wrong on either, but will suffer the misfortune to stand where Nature put it. It is true, the courts have not always made this distinction but have reached the same result on the inaccurate theory of the validity of executed contracts. Assuming that this is what the courts mean when they speak of the validity of executed contracts, let us examine the conditions under which the plea of insanity may arise. The law presumes that every man is sane, 2 and he who pleads insanity must prove it. When it is once proved, unless intermittent or mere hallucination, it is presumed to continue until the contrary is proved. 3 In many of the states there are statutes providing for the appointment of a guardian over the property of one found to be insane. The liability of an insane person under such circumstances, though largely dependent upon the construction of the state statutes, is a matter of considerable doubt and tainty. The question is this, is a person bound to know that a party is insane from the fact that a commission or a probate court, in a proceeding to appoint a guardian, ' has found the party to be insane? The records of these ings, being inter yes alios acta, and between different parties, would generally 1 Eugene Wa,mbaugh, LL.D., Harvard Law School. 2 Brown v. Brown, 39 Mich., 792. 3 Hix v. Whittemore, 4 Met., 545. 81 be inadmissible. It is held, however, that this class of cases is similar to actions in rem and that the records may be introduced. In England the record is presumptive evidence of insanity but may be rebutted by testimony. In United States there are two lines of cases, one holding that the record is presumptive evidence of insanity, 1 and the other maintaining that it is sive. 2 The distinction seems to be this, that where the finding is by an judicial commission the record is presumptive evidence, but where it is a matter passed upon by the probate court the record is conclusive. 3 In any case it must depend largely on the state statute. When the statute declares that all contracts, made by an insane person under guardianship, shall be void, the courts hold that the record of the appointment of such guardian is sive evidence of insanity. Theoretically this would seem to be an absurd ruling, but it is probable that what the courts mean, is that the record is conclusive as to the appointment and, by the statute, if there be a guardian it is immaterial, so far as the ity of the contract is concerned, whether the ward be sane or insane. 4 The v Etlidity of the contract, in such a case does not depend upon the sanity of the party but upon the existence or non-existence of a guardian. It is generally conceded that the law of insanity is in a very uncertain and unsettled state. This uncertainty, however, is not so much an uncertainty of theoretical law as of practical application. It arises from the fact that our law attempts to produce practical results and not to vindicate theories of right. A.RCHIBALD K. GARDNER. 1 Hart v. Deamer, 6 Wend., 497 ; VanDusen v. Sweet, 51 N. Y., 381. 2 Wait v. Maxwell, 5 Pick., 217. 8 Leonard v. Leonard, 14 Pick., 280. 4 .11annells v. Garner, 80 Mo., 477. Aplunxx. 82 " OniVErMtlf for fioWm. " STATE which ranks first in the general education of its people, a State within whose borders dwells a people rich and generous, a State on which nature has smiled, abounding in resources of all kinds, should have somewhere within its borders a University equal to, if not greater than any of its kind in neighboring states. A University from which the youth of the State would be proud to graduate; a University which would attract great men; a University to which all the colleges of the State would send their graduates for advanced degrees. But is such the case with us? No, we are falling behind the institutions of our sister states every year, and we will, so long as our energy is divided between three State educational institutions. As long as the State has three separate educational institutions the State University can never cope fully with neighboring states for higher education. The State University is sadly in need of a Collegiate building; a building for the Law Department; a hospital for the Medical Department; a hospital for the Homeopathic Department; a building for the Dental Department; a fire-proof library building, and a shop for engineering and electrical engineering. These are some the urgent needs of the University, needs which must soon be fulfilled if we expect to have an increase in our attendance, because the accommodations in most of the departments are already insufficient for the present number. In certain departments, the University is, every year, obliged to refuse some students the instruction for which they seek, for lack of room or want of sufficient equipment. These things are only some of the immediate wants of the University and will increase as time goes on and civilization advances. No doubt the State Normal School and the State Agricultural College can each present a list of needs very nearly as great as that of the University. What does this mean? It means either that the State has not acted fairly in supporting its educational institutions, or that their management has been poor, or that the State has made a mistake in separating its higher educational institutions. True, the State has not acted quite as liberally- toward its higher educational 83 institutions as neighboring states have toward theirs yet on the whole it has dealt quite fairly by them. The total amount donated by the State from year to year to its three Colleges compares quite favorably with the amount given by neighboring states, which have all three colleges in one. But when this sum which the State gives to its three colleges is divided among them the amount for each becomes meagre and uncertain, and places each in an rassing position. Yet, in spite of all, the State University, the State Normal School, and the State Agricultural College are each doing noble work; and the results of their work compare favorably with the achievements of other tutions under similar conditions. That it was a mistake for the State to divide its energy upon its great cational institutions all will now admit, a mistake which becomes more ent every day. We are therefore not confronted with the problem whether the State made a mistake in separating its great institutions of learning, but with a condition, a condition which we must meet. The question is: what is the best method of modifying this condition so as to be able to take our place in line with the higher educational institutions of the land. For the following reasons the best plan would be that of consolidating the State University, the State Normal School, and the State Agricultural College, or at any rate the State University and the State Agricultural College. First. The history of State,Education in the older states, and in some of the younger states, especially Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Nebraska, proves most conclusively that the best results have always been obtained through the solidation of the state educational institutions. The best results in any line of education cannot be reached without the association of all others. Experience shows that normal schools or tural colleges do not prosper when isolated from the central springs of science and higher education. The training of the engineer will be the more valuable from his association with the classical student; the literary man may gain much and will lose nothing from his acquaintance with the practical work of the engineer. Instead of having several feeble institutions, to which it is very difficult to attract really first class men, by combining we would have an institution to which men of high standing would be proud to come as Professors, and from which the young men of our State would be proud to graduate and would not go outside the state. Second. Consolidation would encourage a college spirit and State pride among the students and alumni, which divided institutions can never develope; and would give us men of greater breadth and scholarship. Third. Every principle of the economical expenditure of capital is in favor of union, 84 As it is now, each institution has a President, a Board of Trustees or Regents, a Professor of English, a Professor of Chemistry, two or more fessors of Natural Sciences, a Professor of Geology, a Professor of Mathemat- ics, a Professor of Physics, a Professor of Botany, a Professor of Zoology, two or more Professors of Languages, a Professor of Engineering, a Professor of Elocution, etc., etc. Each institution has a library and a number of laboratories and ries, and these in our day are costly establishments. It is evident that with the three schools being separated there is much dupli- cation of executive and clerical work with corresponding expenses; but what is more important, there is much duplication of apparatus, books and the mon appointments necessary to each institution. There is also more or less duplication of instruction in the branches common to each of the three tutions. There are small classes in some of the same branches of study in the several institutions that might be combined into one class in one tion if the three were united, and save two-thirds of the expense. It is simply a reckless waste of resources to duplicate ' these chairs of tion and these appliances and to maintain them to the end of time. By combining the three State institutions and receiving as much aid for the one as we now do for the three, we would have one thoroughly equipped University, in which all the departments could be thoroughly well provided for. The measure of efficiency of a modern institution depends very largely upon the completeness of its equipment and the -adequacy and degree of specializa- tion of its faculty. No institution will be highly successful or take high rank among the institutions of the country that is not well equipped with apparatus and libraries, and that is not able to subdivide the subjects of its courses so that each shall be in the hands of a master, who is such and can be such only because he devotes his time and energy to a comparatively small field. The clay when general scholars can be effective in an institution of higher learning is past. Only experts and specialists in their departments can give to an institution high rank and efficiency; and this can only be secured in a state like ours by a concentration of all energies at command in the ment, equipment and maintenance of one strong institution; and even then we will need to add all the resources that we can draw to it by the liberality of private citizens in addition to the generosity of the state and general ment. A single well founded institution in a good locality would attract generous gifts from men of wealth and public spirit. It would create a dignified atmosphere around it which would command the respect and good feeling of all the citizens of the State; while a feeble i nstitution is looked upon with contempt. The fact is, that public spirited men, as well as legislators, like to 85 aid institutions that are strong and sure of success, and not ,restitutions that are perpetually in a moribund condition. The case of Cornell University, New York, proves this most conclusively. It has received from individuals more than the twenty-two small colleges of its State have received. At the time this University was founded there was considerable discussion as to whether or not the state should separate its educational institutions. But thanks to the labors and influence of Hon. Andrew D. White the state concentrated all its resources upon one institution, and the result is that Cornell University to-day stands in the front rank of the educational institutions of this country. If the legislature should take action on this question immediately, and bring the three colleges together at one place, the State would for the time being lose money, but in the end it would prove a profitable investment both financially and educationally. The State has appropriated for the three institutions for buildings and repairs since their beginning, $753,597.64. This sum to-clay would more than replace the existing buildings, and could not any city in this State that could get these three institutions well afford to, and would it not, donate to the insti tution an equal or greater sum than that expended by the State for buildings and repairs? So that the saving consequent upon one Board of Regents, one President, etc., etc., instead of three would be a clear gain. If the State will lose nothing financially and so much is to be gained in an educational way by combining the schools, what is to prevent the present legis- lature from taking action on this question before more money is expended on costly buildings in three separate localities? At no other time would it be more advantageous to the State to take action on the question. All three schools are at present in need of buildings. Buildings which must come soon or else these institutions of learning will become mere preparatory schools for Universities without the State. I am sure no well-informed legislator in this State who has the interest of the people of the State at heart would hesitate a moment in placing the three institutions at one place, and in carefully selecting for that purpose the town which is best fitted for the growth of a great University—that is, the one most pleasant in its location and the one which is likely to contain the most cultivated people. OSCAR C. ANDERSON. 86 The and the OUR. WAY off in the west, where the snow flies all winter and where the the great black armed oaks wear their glittering snow robes longer and more often than they do their rustling summery green; and where the icicle, in all its lovely lustre, grows more abundant than the brown and bitter acorn;—there in that far west were two colleges, both new, both ambitious and, of course, rivals. They struggled in debate, they valiantly waved their arms and orated, the one against the other, and they fought hotly contested foot-ball matches. No one was allowed to live a life of quiet peace, undisturbed by ambition ' s lusty voice all were bidden to the fray, the cry was " down with Jehore " from the one, and " down with Sterritt " from the other, and, as I have said, there were so many fields open for this prospective " downing " that pretty much all the students were active fighters, either physical or intellectual. It might be argued that this would inevitably develop a combative disposition, among the young people of these institutions, that would prejudice their future happiness; but one acquainted with the facts would readily see that it seemed to, rather, develop a sympathy and loving kindness for the people fighting in the same cause; it was more a feeling of love for his own school than hatred of his enemy, that influenced a man to make a brilliant speech or play. Accordingly one morning in late December the Jehore eleven came down to Sterritt to play the last game of the season. It was in fact the day before Christmas, and the sun was shining with a mid-summer brilliancy that only served to light up the crystals of ice in the air, and to make the deep blue of the sky to tremble with the glory of the golden rays—rays as powerless as moonlight to melt the hard black ice that pushed its treacherous shoulder through the feathery snow at every crunch of the heel of a passer by. Down behind the great court house the two teams were lined up on a field of rusty tan-bark, while all around them the bare pine walls of their sheltering 87 house were made gorgeous by the white colors of Sterritt and brilliant blue of Jehore, lit up as they were by the sparkling sunlight dancing through the lighted roof. Everywhere were girls in white hats and veils or blue hats and dresses, all madly waving their banners, while the men yelled themselves hoarse and in lieu of banners waved canes with yards of streaming ribbons, all of which was supposed to have some magical effect on the struggling mass of heroes out in the field, who, if they felt any effect thereof, were careful to conceal it, and never once, in the intervals of the game, deigned to look toward the side lines, except furtively, when no one was looking. All the afternoon they -struggled, back and forth they swayed. Both lines held together, no one made a run, and thus they finished as the blue of the sky was Willing to black, and the stars came out to laugh at the sun who sank sullenly down behind the black oaks. Neither had scored, no one could exult, neither Sterritt nor Jehore was downed, and so, as they had to yell and be merry, the two parties took to yelling for each other as generous enemies should, and so it happened that the Sterritt ' s captain went down to the station with Jehore ' s captain, arm in arm, and then came back alone. It was a long walk back to his room and it led between two rows of hedge part of the way. He.was very tired and his aches were many. Being a ball man, and popularly supposed to have less sense of pain than other men, he had refused to limp, but now, no one was looking, and he selected a fortable bank of snow and sat down to rub some of his many wounds. He had scarcely commenced operations, when there popped in front of him, from out of the shadow, the very funniest little man. He was only about three inches in height, and had a most enormous head, while the rest of his body seemed to be principally arms and legs. He wore a most wonderful little peaked cap, and a funny little white coat, laced up in front, while his very diminutive knee breeches had big puffs in the knees, and his feet were covered with heavy shoes. It took Captain Sill some time to recognize the fact that this very small gentleman was attired in proper foot-ball clothes. Then he laughed a nervous laugh and said, That punch I got in my head must have made me crazy ;—guess I ' ll talk to him and see whether I ' m out of my head or not. " " Hi, there, little fellow, don ' t you know that caps are out of style, now; you ought to let your hair grow long. " The small person laughed gleefully, and as Ile turned a somersault remarked, When a fellow hasn ' t any hair, he can ' t let it grow; caps are lots better than bare heads I can tell you, style or no style. But, I say, how would you like to come down to my home and see us play, we are going to have a fine time to-night, foot-ball and athletics, both, " and he performed a series of hand-springs along the top rail of a fence that made Sterritt ' s captain (Wellington Sill was his name) open his eyes in astonishment. Well ington felt sure he was dreaming, and in order to find out 88 he stood up very quickly, when the pains that assailed him in all parts of his body assured him he was decidedly awake. The small foot-ball player came back along the top rail doing cartwheels as a mode of locomotion, and coming up suddenly before Sill said calmly, " Come along. My! how the rest of those sprites will stare to see me bringing a real, live foot-ball captain down to oar halls. Ho-ho-ho-ho! " Wellington regarded him curiously and said, " See here, little fellow, I didn ' t say I would go. I ' d like to know how to get there first, you know, and how long it takes; they will be waiting for me at home. " " Te-he, " said the sprite, " yes, they will be waiting, and your sprains hurt, too. I know. I ' ve been there, you see I am a half back myself. Well, you won ' t have to go far, all you have to do is to sit down just where you were, and I will stand on your shoulder and say some things in my own language, and there you are. See? " " Well, no, I can ' t say I do, but I don ' t mind trying it anyway. There now, make those remarks you spoke of. " The sprite jumped nimbly onto his shoulder and taking hold of a stray lock of his hair (if he had not been a ball captain it might have been called a curl) that happened to be within reach, lie sententiously said, " Bally-hooley-Jorum-Porum-mumblety peg, " whereat Wellington Sill experienced a sensation somewhat akin to that caused by an elevator in a city business block when it starts at the top floor and simultaneously lands one on the ground floor with a congestive chill and a general benumbing of all one ' s faculties, especially that of thought. When he recovered his senses, Wellington found himself in an irregularly shaped room hung with stalactites, and permeated with a soft, mellow light, that sifted in from all sides and lit up every nook and cranny. Then he saw that each little projection of the walls and ceiling held a sprite, like his little half-back friend, each one of whom was holding a tiny Christmas candle. He was as much astonished as were his hosts, and stood equally speechless. At last the original half-back sprite pulled his hair to attract Ms attention and said, " They are just going to decorate the gym (that ' s this room) and I think they are a little afraid of you, so you might step into the next room until they have finished. " Very obediently Captain Sill went, marvelling much that such very small people should live in such very large rooms, and he rather wished that they would have furniture to suit the size of the rooms, rather than the size of the people, for he wanted to sit down. Presently he heard a faint humming sound and looking around him saw, coming in at the opposite door, a typical foot-ball procession. There was a band of music, the small sprites carrying instruments made of walnut shells and goose quills, and after the band came the two teams, marching along in a blase fashion, quite like their larger neighbors. Sill at once fell in at the rear of the procession and followed them into the gym, which had been ally hung with holly and ivy in the interval. 89 One of the sprites jumped off of a stalactite near by onto his shoulder and said, " I hate dreadfully to ask it, but would you mind holding a few of our people? You see we are not allowed to stand in the side lines, ' and these infernal Christmas decorations take up so much room that some of our people can ' t see the game if you don ' t. " (‘ Certainly, " replied Sill, " I ' ll hold a ment or two. " The sprite forthwith vanished and in a short time Sill found himself cplaying " grand stand " for innumerable small men. He was a little curious about the institutions in this country and so taking up an intelligent looking gentleman who wore an Oxford cap he asked, " Don ' t your women ever come to see the games? " " Bless Bless me, " replied the little man, " you don ' t suppose they would ate with us, do you? A great many centuries ago, I believe, we used to ciate on an equality; but so long ago, that there is scarcely an account of it to be found. They discovered that they were a superior order of beings to us, and while they kindly permitted us to go on living, they refuse to allow us to compete with them. Here, the merit of work performed lies in whether it is done by a woman or not, and very inferior woman ' s work will always outrank the best of men ' s work. If you are interested in women, you will have to go over to the other side of the state, but I ' ll warn you, they probably won ' t let you in, for they consider men as dreadful bores. " " Pardon me, " said Sill, " but you look like a professor: may I inquire, do you have co-educational institutions here? " The little man sighed deeply and replied, " No, not yet, though we hope to before long. You see the ladies of the legislature can ' t be brought to see that a man needs education. They argue that if he earns enough money to keep the family, that is all that should be required of him; that he really has no time for education, and that probably it would in time spoil the business instincts with which nature has endowed him. In fact they think that man ' s sole place in the universe is as a wage-earner, and that all outside of that should be kept away from him as tending to make him unmanly. Still there are a few of us working to secure co-education, and trying to prove the equality of the sexes. We play the best game of foot-ball, I know, because once I peeked in at them and saw them play. They are great on the offensive but no good on the defensive—ah, there they go, the men with green caps are from my college, a pretty husky set of fellows, don ' t you think? " Sill snickered as he looked at the manikins, and said, " Oh yes, very husky. Gee! what a run. Just look at that, the other fellows can ' t hold your line, " and down he plumped on his knees to get a better view, while sprites were shaken off of him in every direction; only the little professor remained and he climbed up and sat on top of Sill ' s ear. It was a wonderful game, and no mistake; at the close every man walked with a limp. Sill said to the little professor, " All the men seem to be in 90 pretty bad shape, you won ' t be able to play another game very soon, will you? " Oh yes, " said the professor, " sprains and bruises only last a few hours in this atmosphere, if you just stop to think of it, I think you will find that you are not as lame as you But, wouldn ' t you like to see the athletics? You see the ladies have their club and other things to attend to, so we have to take care of the children evenings, and we sort of combine things on Christmas. " Sill signified his desire to see their athletics and followed the crowd down to the far end of the room, where behind a great screen he saw a tiny Christmas tree, loaded with lights and candy and toys of all descriptions It seemed as if they had been waiting for him, for as soon as he appeared twenty of the tiny sprites sprang into the branches of the tree, and in the intervals of the the distribution of the presents, they gave exhibitions of tumbling that made Sill green with envy. One little fellow stood on the topmost bough of the tree and turned a series of cartwheels into the air, alighting on another branch, far below, from which hung a hoop on which he performed most wonderful feats. All the while their tiny band was playing and the children were gleefully hopping around with their prizes. Suddenly there was a lull, and then a very old sprite, whose bald head shone in the light, stood out on a projecting limb and spoke: " It is now ten o ' clock, on Christmas eve, and we will have to leave on o ur annual trip. The rulers of the land kindly allow the men of the country to have one real holiday, that is to-day, but on the night of our holiday we are expected to go up to earth and help old Kris Kringle to trim Christmas trees, and supply presents for the children. This year it will be necessary for us to take our own children, as they cannot be left alone, and the ladies are all at a mass meeting for the purpose of deciding on some feasible plan for protecting women from the encroachmeuts of man into their lines of duty. So, what I want to say is, that the children will all be gagged and their hands and feet tied together before we start, as that is the most effectual means of keeping them out of mischief, and then we can tie them on to our backs, safely. Let me remind you that each man is entitled to be three times his normal size for to-night, and let me ask you to hurry in getting your. larger legs and arms on. " At once there was a tremendous scurrying, sprites took off their arms and put on the larger ones that were handed them by the attendants, checked the old ones, and then did the same with their legs. Solemnly, at the conclusion of this ceremony, each man went out and turned a handspring to see that his new members fit. In an incredibly short space of time it was done, and then they began gagging the children amid the most terrible yelling on the part of the victims. At last all the arrangements were complete, and snatching down the ivy and 91 holly off the walls, the procession started. The little half-back suddenly appeared on Sill ' s shoulder again and bade him sit down, and close his eyes; when he opened them again he was sitting in the same snow-bank from which he had started, and was still rubbing his injured ankle, from which, strange to relate, all traces of soreness had vanished. R, 92 t v t T WAS the holiday vacation, and you know what always happens; the weather was abominable, even way down in the blue-grass region of Iowa where Margaret Morris lived. Freshmen in particular are given to thinking that there is no place in the world quite so good as their home town, nor any quite so altogether bad as Iowa City. Margaret was no exception and she had talked so much of Endow, where perpetual summer reigns with good skating all winter, that her room-mate, Dorothy, who was a lonely chick, belonging to no one in particular and quite as much at home in one place as another, had accepted a cordial invitation to go home with Margaret for the holidays and see this paradise of weather. And to-day they are having the weather. Last night, the sunset was glori- ous but under cover of darkness the scene was shifted, and when the curtain rolled up in the morning, there was just a gray sky hanging over a Tray land- scape with now and then a snowflake flying about in the bitter cold wind. By noon, the air was thick and the old colored man who tends the furnace said, " We ' s gwine ter a blizzard, shuh. " So the girls gave up the frolic they had planned with the Doctor, father, who had promised to take them with him on a visit to his father ' s old farm, a genuine old-fashioned Quaker home with great fire-places and a wonderful old garret. The girls watched him drive out alone rather ruefully and then turned about to face a whole afternoon with nothing to do. " What bliss this would have been a week ago, " said Margaret thinking of the rush of examination time. They made candy and when the last plateful was pulled, wandered into the sitting room where Mrs. Morris was sewing. She suggested that the girls might write that story they were planning for the Junior Annual but you know why they didn ' t. That did not need to be handed in for two whole weeks yet. " I ' ll tell you, " cried Margaret, her face lighting up, " suppose we explore our own garret. I used to play up there but I haven ' t peeped into it since I carried up my doll and laid her tenderly away the day I entered the high- school. " Dorothy was willing, in fact she was always willing and that was why she 93 had such hosts of friends. She was a little blue-eyed girl with an opinion of her own, but with the blessed faculty of being able to keep it to herself times. As she and Margaret left the sitting room, the eyes of Mother Morris followed them with a satisfied loving expression, such as only mother ' s eyes can have, for Margaret was all in all to her and she could see nothing wanting in this tall dark girl of hers. She sewed away glancing out now and then into the whirling chaos of snow and thinking she might take her sewing into the garret and listen to the chatter, when she heard the laughter and the voices coming down. What in the world are they doing? " she thought, for a funny bumping sound reached her now and then; but the mystery was cleared when the girls came dragging into the room a little old trunk, with the leather torn off here and there, and no suspicion of a lock. It will be stacks of fun to see what mamma has been saving all these years, " said Margaret as the girls sat down on the floor before the fire, " and nobody will be in on such a day as this, " What queer things the girls brought to light! a little china cup, a package of old letters, a yellow curl pinned up in tissue paper, some old-fashioned valentines written on blue paper with many flourishes and curlyques in the writing and the first letters of the lines spelling Mrs. Morris ' name. " What ' s this? " asked Dorothy, as she pulled out a square blue pasteboard box, tied up and labelled " Iowa City. " " Some little things I kept to remember the ye ars I spent there, " answered Mrs. Morris, and in answer to the question in Dorothy ' s eyes, " I was in school there in ' 59 and again in ' 61. " She left her work and came over to look at these, too.. " That, Margaret, was a flower that grew in the window down in the basement where Mrs. McConegal taught the model school. I worked six weeks with her and she gave me that flower to wear to a party one night at the minister ' s. It was a great social event then, but it would not remind you much of one of your Guild parties, I fancy. " " Who were these, Mrs. Morris? " asked Dorothy as she held up an old type, nearly faded, but one could yet see two forms clad in military uniform. " Let me look at it, Dorothy. I have not seen that for a long time but that ' s just the way Frank and Archibal looked. " " Well, Mamma, who were Frank and Archibald? " " These two boys were great chums in school and they lived together out on College Hill, where I boarded, so I saw a good deal of them. Before I could get to the end of the walk, which ran to the corners of the campus then, one or the other of the boys was sure to be on hand to carry my books, and I was glad, too, for in the short winter days it would grow dusk before I could get home. The two were almost inseparable and as far as their scholarship was concerned were very well matched. I don ' t believe Professor Wells ever 94 praised one without mentioning the other. There was as much difference in their looks as their is between you girls. I think I liked Archibald the better then but afterwards he did something, I never could understand. He was the light one and was not so impetuous as Frank. " " What did he do, Mamma? " said Margaret, " And what became of them? " added Dorothy, as Mrs. Morris paused. " Well, you know, when the war broke out the boys both enlisted and when they got their uniforms, I begged them to have their picture taken before they went away and they told me they would. A few days after that, one bright morning, my Father came walking into the Assembly Room. I was frightened for I thought something must have happened. We lived away up in the northern part of the state then; there were no railroads and I did not often get a letter. The teacher called me up and Father told me that he was going away and mother wanted me to come home. I said good-bye to Professor Wells and walked down those central steps, too excited at the thought of going home to think of being sorry at leaving. I didn ' t stop to speak to very many people but I did want to see Archibald and Frank. My father had come for me in a wagon and we were to go to Davenport for trading before we went home. Father was in a hurry to get to Davenport that night so there was little time for leave-taking. Now-a-days there is a crowd of students to see you come away, generally, all wishing you a good time and shouting after you as parting I wouldn ' t come back till Wednesday, anyway, if I were you! ' Then there was no jolly crowd to sing Ninety-nine blue bottles, ' and yell themselves hoarse a.t the stations. I just packed that same little leather trunk which Father put in behind and then as I was climbing in, here came Archibald all out of breath. I had left a note-book and he had begged leave to bring it to me. I wanted to say good-bye, ' he panted, and Frank wanted to come but he couldn ' t. It was he that found your note-book bat it was time for him to recite, so I brought it, ' And that was all. Father drove away and a great lump came up in my throat as I looked back to remind Archibald of that picture and saw him standing there bareheaded in the shine. When we got to the top of the hill I had my last glimpse of the old State House and just began to realize that I was really going away. " But I never had time to get homesick for school for Father was going to the war and my mind was filled with graver things. When he went I charged him with messages to Frank and Archibald for I thought of the boys, and I did not know that Father would be transferred to the Army of the Potomac while they were sent against the Indians on the plains. " Archibald sent me the picture and I had a letter or two from him but never a word from Frank, though the two were together That seemed a little strange, but those were terrible times and with a father and a brother in the war, I did not think of much else save their peril. 95 • ' One day a letter came to me, a s oiled envelope, roughly sealed. I was all alone when our neighbor boy brought it and I held it a long time. I knew there was something unusual and when Mother came in she found me sitting there with the letter unopened. She did not hesitate. I shall never forget that terrible look of suspense as she hastily tore it open, for she thought it brought news from father. " But the lines in her face softened from sharp agony to sympathetic sorrow— ' It is from Frank and Archibald is killed, ' she said. Do you wonder, Margaret, I did not want to stay for the Friday dress-parade? I cannot see any beauty in those long straight lines of blue-coated figures, marching about in the heaps of autumn leaves or in the shade and sunshine of a spring noon, with the background of familiar buildings, and all the splendor of shiny sabres and dress-parade gloves. I can only think of those terrible days of suspense and sorrow. " But, to go back to my story, Frank ' s letter was a brief one and puzzled me for he said he would not have troubled me by writing but that he thought there was no one else to tell me of Archibald. I could not understand that and it was a long time before I did. We left our farm and moved to port. I had not thought of the boys for a long time when one day Father met Frank down town and brought him home to dinner. We had a long talk and he told me all about Archibald ' s death, and then I thought of that letter which had so puzzled me. When I asked him about it, he flushed and looked at me oddly. Why, don ' t you know? ' he asked, " No, ' said I, I never could understand. ' " ' Don ' t you remember I said in my note that day, that if you didn ' t swer I wouldn ' t trouble you further? ' " What note? ' I asked, still more puzzled. " Did you never get that note I sent you by Archibald, the day you left Iowa City? ' " I never did get any, ' I answered confusedly. " Then he told me of a note in which he said good-bye and asked me to write to him if I cared for his friendship. This he had given to Archibald to deliver with the note-book. That, I say, is what I never could understand. What do you suppose Archibald did with that note? If he were not dead, I should blame him for keeping it, but I have not the heart to accuse him. " That is the very note-book you have in your hand. Dorothy. " Dorothy turned the yellow pages curiously, looking rather absently at the d rawings and thinking of the story she had heard. " What ' s this? " she said as she took from between the leaves a folded sheet, " Why, Mrs. Morris, I believe . " But Mrs. Morris had the sheet unfolded and only said " It is. " The girls understood. There the little note had been hidden for many years. (‘ You see, " said Mrs 96 Morris, " it is perfectly plain. Archie put the note in the book when Frank handed it to him and in the hurry of parting, he forgot to mention it. As for me, I put the note-book away in that very box soon after I got home and never thought of looking through it. And I have been blaming Archibald What became of Frank? " asked Dorothy " I hear him just driving in now, and I must go and see if tea is ready, " answered Mrs. Morris. 97 ThF of 6zra aratz. ZRA SWARTZ in his large arm chair lazily tilted awry From his wide, old porch was watching the ram and the clouds go driving by, The summ er was full in its glory, ruddy and strong and warm; The fields of grain with a proud disdain were nodding anon at the storm. Ezra Swartz, from his wide old porch, puffing his pipe at his ease With his old slouched hat cast down at his feet, and his hands crossed over his knees, Was viewing askance the goodly show of his acres fertile and broad, Building castles russet and green, with copice of sheaves and walls of sod, Casting an eye above his head, where barrels of sorghum and apples dried With smoke-browned hams in clusters tied lay on the rafters side by side. Softly the rain on the slant roof fell drumming the tales that raindrops tell; The drowsy hum of the lulling storm in the quaint old farm-house seemed to dwell. Ezra Swartz in his old arm chair nodded his head at the nodding grain, Till meadow and orchard together ran, filing past in a motley train. His shaggy beard on his broad breast lay, — his long-stemmed pipe in his lap gone out; Through his open lips a long drawn breath sought now and then a twanging route. All was peace in the old farm house, with wide old porch and quaint arm chair, And the birds from the rose-bushes blooming hard by, peeped at the farmer sitting there. The moist air from the summer rain, warmed from the kiss of the sun as it fell Was teasing the dry old boards at will, making them groan as they warp and swell. The barrels round on the rafters brown strained at their hoops like an ox in yoke, Till one jus t over the sleeper ' s head its lower hoops with a crackle broke, And down on his head from the smoky beam The sorghum dropped in a slender stream, Thick and yellow and shiny and cold 98 Down on the crown of his head it rolled This way and that like a lava stream Touched with gold from a stray sun-beam; Down through his eye-brows into his beard Right and left on his breast it veered, In icicles yellow it hung from his ears, on his cheek in amber tears. Ezra Sw artz in his old arm chair lazily tilted awry Building in slumber his castle of sheaves under a summer sky Suddenly saw his castle yard into a quagmire sink, Himself like a fly with its feetawry, struggling still on the brink. Then down he sinks in the somber swamp wildly struggling his fall to check, But he slowly sinks till the black quagmire closes about his neck. He shouts aloud in his mad despair, like a man with a mortal wound; But the quagmire lifts in a sullen wave and the cry in his throat is drowned. He struggles wildly with arm and limb his eyes just showing above the flood, When his castle falls with its turrets brown and the farm house stands where the castle stood. Ezra Swartz from his dream awoke; gone were castle and copice and park, But still at his feet the quagmire lay, Cold and shiny and sticky and dark. TABARDER. " 99 61 Si. IS morning, And the grass is covered thick with poets ' diamonds. Down on the river brink upon a shattered oak Which for two centuries has watched The ed dies in the stream, A flock of black-birds chant their early mass; Worshipful is their song, for it is glad and joyous. The pilfering bees hum round the honey-suckle And the restless ant begins to ,build his rampart. The morning breeze touches the glassy water Which breaks in tiny glittering waves Upon the sand. And soon the lazy plashing of the fisher ' s oar is heard, The mingled sounds of life grow more and more, And the day ' s work is begun. The sun is at his height And now the shadows, grown less and less, Fall straight upon the sward. The fisher has forsaken his post below the dam And pushed his boat into the willow thicket. The landscape quivers in the heat of noon; All nature seems to rest, save for the ant and bee That still pursue untiringly- their tasks, Regardless of the hour, And the stream that still flows on and on As it has flowed along since time was time. Stillness around, Save for the rushing of the water-fall And the whirring of some tardy swallow, Scudding low across the darkening sky, Or the croaking of some bass-voiced frog Tuning his choir that trills in treble key, To greet the glimmering crescent, Slowly floating upward on the horizon. Another day has brought its smiles and tears Unto a million men, and by a clay The world is older. JOHN A. HORNBY. 100 the La Ahope. ANCING waves to their feet allure me, Tossing boughs to the woodland beckon, Singing birds to the meadows call me, But I lie and dream and dream. Bright flash the:lights and the hills beyond me, Restless the, clouds. in the sky above me, Soft blow the. breezes ' round about me. But I lie and dream and dream. Low bend the boughs in the woodland near me, Sweet sing the birds in the meadow to me, Soft wash the ' waves on the white sand for me, And I lie and dream and dream. FRANCES CHURCH. S SOMETIMES on a lowering day, The threatening clouds are parted and we see The deep, clear sky, and through it look away Far past them to eternity; So, struggling with the much we long to know, For one brief instant, there may seem to be A sudden revelation vast, to show Through all, a great and peaceful harmony. ERIC DOOLITTLE. 101 The ho of OA e. THE dim dawning of me, did the silence speak The thought that gave me birth? Or did strong life push back the dark deep And launch me upon the earth? Or did truth reach out and catch somewhat of chaos And mould with magic touch the semblance of a soul? A voiceful soul, sent crying aloud among the ways of life. A voice lost in the wilderness of men and minds, Picking out the lifeful chords tha t sound with it in harmony, And twanging the strings that vibrate not in unison with its own, Till the meeting sound waves clash and are silenced, Like the wind-worn crests of the out-flowing river Which meet the incoming tides of the sea and are still. But me — the voice of one in the wilderness Let the waves of me waken the mighty harmony That follows the striking of adjusted chords, Attuned to meet the march of men and minds Till they shall break at last in echoes, Like the quiet waves on the lake, Only on the farthermost shores of humanity. (Polygon.) GEORGE CUTLER FRACKER 102 " IP 6Vo1ütion.. HELL I tell yo ob de reason Why de toad he am so small, An ' his body am so stalky, An ' he hab no tail at all? Oncet de toad wuz long an ' Wid his tail so sof ' an ' spink; An ' wuz gracefuller dun de An ' he beat fur looks de mink, But he wa ' n ' t so ' mensely beefy, An ' one day when runnin ' roun ' , Fo ' t ' fin ' de yarbs an ' berries Pat wuz growin ' frum de groun ' , He jes chance ' ter spy an oxen What wuz grazin ' by de An ' wuz jealous when he seed ' im, How ter what a size he ' d growed. An ' de toad doan tink oh nuffin, But jes set down on de groun ' , An ' jes pine an ' envy caz he Couldn ' weigh a tousan ' poun ' . An ' he stan ' up on his haunches, An ' he bulge out boaf his eyes, An ' he puff an ' swell his belly, Jes t ' grow an ' ' crease his size, Tell de skin wuz stretch ' so An ' it cum so monst ' ous tight, Dat de blame toad jes growed car ' cler, An ' his tail wuz squashed frum sight. So de toad, jes caz ob envy, He growed fat an ' green an ' short; An ' de folks, dey dasn ' t tech ' im, Caz he ' ll pizen ' m wid de wart. 103 TIDE top Oik• HEN in spring the water ' s laughin ' ' N the air is full life, ' N the violets is noddin ' ' N the world ' s with music rife ' N from out their downy buds The leaves is lookin ' down to see What ' s goin ' on around them, That ' s the time ' nd place for me. When the robins are a singin ' Way up in the apple trees N ' the sun is just a laughin ' Down on everything he sees N ' the fields is warm and hazy ' S in June you often see, Then I want to be o ut in it, That ' s the time ' nd place for me. Then in autumn when the woods is All a gettin ' red and brown ' N the chipmunks is a hustlin ' ' N the nuts is fallin ' down ' N the squirrels is a runnin ' Up and down the old oak tree; Ye can ' t find nothin ' like it nowhere, That ' s the time ' nd place for me. ' N in winter, clear and sparklin ' , When the snow is gleamin ' white ' N the chimney corner ' s cozy ' N the wood-fire ' s burnin ' bright, ' N the sleigh bells is a jinglin ' ' N just bubblin ' o ' er with glee ' N the hosses feet is dancin ' , That ' s the time ' nd place for me. L. B. H. 104 tticlEnt Orgmnization6. ODERN university life includes more than the mastery of the course of study. One who would secure the most from his college career must become a part of the life of the institution. He may win a very high place in his line of work and yet have failed in securing the highest and most important result of university training. He must mingle with his fellows, interchange ideas and opinions with his classmates, and meet in friendly, yet sharp and earnest rivalry his equals and superiors in order to develop a stability of character, an independence of thought, a self reliance, and a keen knowledge of men and things, which will enable him to carry on well his chosen work. The most useful man in the future will combine the qualities of a scholar with superior moral principles and high social culture. He will be well rounded out by contact with master minds and masterpieces of art and literature. Such a man ' s horizon is extended, he sees issues with all their attendant circumstances and is thereby the better fitted for the duties of life, Accordingly the relations of the students one to another, their societies and enterprises, are as important to the health of a university as are sors, laboratories, and courses of study. In presenting to our readers a list of the student organizations of the State University of Iowa, we feel that it is rich in proofs of a healthy student life and activity, such as has been indicated; and we know that impressions received from these pages would be deepened and confirmed by a more intimate ance with the school. The literary societies are strong and prosperous. The social fraternities, representing the best national organizations in the land, are full of vigor. Religion, politics, athletics, dramatics, these all command appropriate interest. The press is not forgotten in building up the scholar and the school, as the list of publications sent out from the University indicate. Though the mere names of the associations are presented, the thinking reader can see in them a deep significance that attaches to S. U. I. a health and perity- appropriate to the time and conditions. 105 LfITBl AIRY SOGIETBIES. IRVING INSTITUTE, Z ETAGATHIAN, - HESPERIAN, ERODELPHIAN, LAW LITERARY, HAHNEMANNIAN LITERARY, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, E. S. White. J. W. Seaman. H. G. Plum. H. P. Williams. Miss Inez Kelso. Miss Nannie Carroll. Miss Grace Burge. Miss Maud Butler. W. E. Hoops. W. J. Collins. George A. Vint. F. L. Vanderveer. • FNATEINITBIES. BETA THETA Pi, - - - PHI KAPPA PSI, - - - DELTA TAU DELTA, - PHI DELTA THETA, - - KAPPA KAPPA GAMMA, - PI BETA PHI, DELTA GAMMA, XI PSI PHI, THETA NU EPSILON, - - PHI DELTA PHI, - - - President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, Curtis Dey. J. M. Tuttle. J. Lynn Crawford. J. S. D. Chambers. W. L. Mason. J. E. Hamilton, A. T, Rutledge. S. D. Riniker. Miss Stella Price. Miss Mae Lomas. Miss Jessie Johnston. Miss Florence Zerwekh. Miss Anna Larrabee. Miss Mary C. Holt. A. A. Harris. W. W. Orebaugh. R. E. Leach. A. B. Lovejoy. President, - L. G. Weld. BACONIAN, Secretary, - W, L. Barlow. 106 I Grand Mogul, President, - Secretary, - R. B. McAllaster. J. L. Kinmonth. H. P. Williams. Grace V. Burge. C. S. Riniker. P. L. Kaye. John A. Hornby. L. B. Robinson. E. S. White. Mattie Emry, - A. S. Hamilton. Harry Keefe. P. L. Kaye. LECTURE BUREAU, ORATORICAL ASSOCIATION, DEBATING LEAGUE, TABARD, POLYGON, CONVERSATION CIRCLE, DRAMATIC CLUB, ALEMBIC, ENGINEERING SOCIETY, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, - Officers change weekly. 5 President. - Secretary, - J. Lynn Crawford. " President, Frank Carroll. Secretary, RIDGWAY, S. L. I. MINSTREL AND CONCERT Co., DEMOCRATIC CLUB, REPUBLICAN CLUB, 3 5 President, Secretary, President, Secretary, Frank Martin. A. B. Clark. W. R. Patterson. Business Manager, - W. T. Chantland. Published by the Historical Department. Published by the Engineering Department. Published by the Scientific Department. Published by the Law Department. Published by the Homeopathic Department. Editor in chief. - E. S. Business Manager, - G. W. Lawrence. Editor in chief, - J. L. Kinmonth. Business Manager, - M. Davis. Editor in chief, - J. H. Allen. Business Manager, W. L. Mason. HISTORICAL MONOGRAPH, TRANSIT, NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN, LAW BULLETIN, - HOMEOPATHIC BULLETIN S. U. I. QUILL, VIDETTE REPORTER, THE HAWKEYE, 107 GHNISTIAN r General Secretary, President, 1 Secretary, I Physical Director, President, - Miss Secretary, - Miss - Harry Blunt. Arthur S. Hamilton. C. S. Aldrich. H. F. Kallenberg. Frances Mills. Rose Henderson. Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION, FOOT BALL TEAM, BASE BALL, TRACK TEAM, ADVISORY BOARD, BOAT HOUSE ASSOCIATION, H LIE IGS. I I 3 I E. S. White. C. A. Snook. W. H. Bremner. - P. E. Sawyer. - M. C. Gilmore. - Vincent Zmunt. 0. W. Anthony. W. T. Chantland. Isaac A. Loos. L. Converse. Chas. A. Schaeffer. L. W. Andrews. President, Secretary, Manager, Captain, Manager, Captain, Manager, Captain, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, GLASS 01-GANIZATIIIONS. DEPAIVIVIENTII. Marshall E. Lumbar. Miss Eva Kleckner. Miss Gertrude Howell. W. M. Davis. F. Will Beckman. Miss Helen Currier. Fred Larrabee. Thurlow Pope. SENIOR CLASS, JUNIOR CLASS, SOPHOMORE CLASS, FRESHMAN CLASS, SENIOR CLASS, JUNIOR CLASS, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, President, Secretary, LAW DEPAUMENRI. President, Secretary, C President, Secretary, 108 Chas. Dolan, THIRD YEAR. SECOND YEAR, FIRST YEAR, CQEDIGALL DEPAR IIMENIII. 5 President, Harry Dale. y ecretar Miss Carrie Price. Secretar C. C. Phillips. Secretary, J. G. Mueller. President, C. W. McLaughlin. Secretary, Miss Myrta Nolles. OMEOPARIHIG MEDIGAL SENIOR CLASS, JUNIOR CLASS, FRESHMAN CLASS, President, R. W. Hanna. Secretary, F. L. Vandeveer. President, R. L, Newbold. Secretary, Alice Humphrey. President, - E. E. Best. Secretary, - A. E. Myrick. DENRIAL DEPARIBMENT. President, T. F. Miller. Secretary, Miss Mollie Bowman, President, H. S. Ganson. ) Secretary, J. C. Alexander. 5 President, W, E. Sauls. Secretary, Miss E. M. Swan. DEPARIPMEN111 OF 1-1AR1VIAGY. President, - J. N. Bernhardt. Secretary, - Miss Georgiana Knapp. President, - E. M. Johnson. Secretary, - E. F. Smith. SENIOR CLASS, JUNIOR CLASS, THIRD YEAR, SECOND YEAR, FIRST YEAR, 109 Martin Wright Sampson, Nathaniel Wright Stephenson, Katherine Brainerd Barber, Frances Louise Rogers, Ward Lucius Bannister, George Cram Cook, Stella Helen Price, • Mary Chastina Holt, George Beardsley, Rush Clark Butler, Bertha Gilchrist Ridgway, Robert Calfe Morse, Lloyd Leroy Elliott, Peter Dirk Van Oosterhout, Bessie Grace Parker, Redelia Gilchrist, Wright Coolidge Sampson, John A. Horuby, Jessamine Linn Jones, Elizabeth Ashmead Schaeffer, Henry Clark Baker, J. Arnold Habegger, Julia Main Crawford, Leonard Browning Robinson, Theresa Peet, Hermon Porter Williams, William Thomas Chantland, Frank E. Woolston, Hari Myers, Robert Ephraim Leach, Mae Ella Lomas, Anna Larrabee, Eric Doolittle, Charles Switzer Aldrich, Rose Blanchard, Annabel Collins. HONORARY MEMBERS. Charles Ashmead Schaeffer, Frances U. R. Gardner Sampson, Laura Clark. 110 VA. LA. When TabdYd Lighs Fife Oa Tabard lights are out, And back by the darkened tower all alone, Up the still street that echoes from its stone My thoughtful tread, returning, " all are gone ! And Tabard lights are out ; " hen Tabard lights are out, V The great bell hushed, that called our travellers ' round The merry table where the glasses ' sound Till late was mingled, when i t was not drowned, In noisy tales whose ghosts my nerves confound, When Tabard lights are out ; Tabard lights are out And clear the midnight quarters from the clock Ring for the night, and me, and many a block Away the river, roaring o ' er the rock, Sounds faintly,—distant owls each other mock, And Tabard lights are out. h ! Tabard lights are out How sad to come when years have passed us by, And shattered every after college tie, Soul-sick at length of brutes that laugh and Ah ! God, so sad, and hear them sigh, " ' I:he Tabard lights are out. " ga(onian (top. L. G. WELD, President. W. E. BARLOW, Secretary. N THE fall of 1885, a number of Professors and assistants engaged in scientific work met for the purpose of forming a scientific club, and effected a permanent organization with Prof. Leonard as President, and L. W. Andrews, Secretary. Of the charter members, five remain: S. Calvin, T. H. McBride, J. G. Gilchrist, L. W. Andrews, A. A. Veblen. The object of the Club is the mutual interchange of thought by those actively engaged in scientific research. The associate membership is quite large, being almost wholly composed of students of the scientific courses. The programme for an evening consists of a paper prepared by a member, to whom has been previously assigned a subject in which lie is most interested, and after a general discussion, voluntary reports are given by the members. The Presidents up to 1894 have been: N. K LEONARD, S. CALVIN, L. W. ANDREWS, A. A. VEBLEN, T. H. MCBRIDE, J. G. GILCHRIST, L. G. WELD. 111 C.Ati T bE MEMBERS. William Cornelius Dewel, Harry Keefe, Frances Louise Davis, Ethel Charlton, George Cutler Fracker, Frances Church, Inez Fanny Kelso, Max Koehler, Fred Will Beckman, Edward Spear White, Mattie Elva Emry. GRADUATE MEMBER Louis HONORARY MEMBERS. Edward Everett Hale, Jr., Ph.D. Albert E. Egge, Ph. D, 112 _j r, ' Voüng t IV (bri6tian 6166oCiation. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS. HARRY BLUNT, General Secretary. H. F. KALLENBERG, Physical Director. BOARD OF TRUSTEES. HON. PETER A. DEY, President. PROF. THOS. MCBRIDE, Secretary. LEVI ROBINSON, ESQ., Treasurer. DR. CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, DR. J. L. PICKARD, LYMAN PARSONS, PROL ' . A. N CURRIER. OFFICERS OF THE YOUNG MEN ' S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. ' A S. HAMILTON, President. H. BLUNT, Vice-President. C. S. ALDRICH, Recording Secretary. L. J. ROWELL, Treasurer. CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES. Devotional—F. W. LOVELL. Missionary—HARRY BLUNT. Social—A. T. RUTLEDGE. Lecture—S. K. STEVENSON. Gymnasium—C. H. BAILEY. Membership—J. H. ALLEN. Invitation—F. W. BECKMAN. Hand-Book G. C. FRACKER. Finance—L. J. ROWELL. Bible Study—H. P. WILLIAMS, Reading-Room—C. D. WALROD. Music—H. F. KALLENBERG, Any student may become a member of the association upon the payment of the Membership fee, 12 months, Membership fee, 6 months, - $6.00 - 4.00 The association offers to all, the privileges of the reading-room and to its members, a well-equipped gymnasium, bath-rooms and entertainment rooms. 113 Yong AA)otnEn ' 6 (1-wi6tiotA 0660061 ' 00R. OFFICERS. FRANCES MILLS, - President. MINNIE J. BOHSTEDT, - Vice President. ANNA ROBINSON, - Recording Secretary. NANNIE CARROLL, Treasurer. CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES. Membership, THERESA PEET. Gymnasium, Mrs. B. G. RIDGWAY. Reception, FANNIE DAVIS. Devotional, LEONA CALL. Bible Study, EVA HOUSER. Fall Campaign, ANNA ROBINSON. Missionary, MAE LOMAS. Music, GRACE BURGE. Finances, NANNIE CARROLL. Invitation, PEARL COLLIVER, LI, the privileges of the Building, Gymnasium, Baths, etc., are offered • to the young women of the University upon payment of $5.00 for one year, or $3.00 for six months. Gospel Meetings are held every Sunday at four o ' clock in the reception room; and every Tuesday at noon the Students ' Prayer Meeting for both young women and young men is held in the same room. 114 Davis Ring Williams Ditzen Aldrich Hagerty Lovell Kinmouth Stevenson Hewitt Cunningham Moon Souther Bender Clark Barton Dorcas Carpenter Burge Blunt Dunlap Thomas Sharp Crone Patterson Treimer Brockway Hagerman Fracker Beckman. Patterson Resser Emry Brock Miller Hearst Keefe Plum Kaye Farwell Watts Seaton Inderson Hahn Popham Rowell Walrod ZErgemtbian VITA SINE LITTERIS MORS ES7 ' . OFFICERS FOR WINTER TERM. President, H. G. PLUM. Corresponding Secretary, H. L. WATTS. Vice President, R. P. MILLER. Treasurer, F. E. FARWELL. - Recording ' SYc? ' et(Ttr y; -IL P. ' WiLLIAMS. Sergeants-at-Arms, R. G. POPHAM and H. KEEFE. MEMBERS. 0. C. Anderson, A. Bailey, D. H. Barton, F. W. Beckman, H. Blunt, V. Brock, A. J. Burge, E. B. Brockway, W. E. Carpenter, W. H. Clark, R. B. Crone, E. P. Cunningham, W. M. Davis, H. E. C. Ditzen, H. C. Dorcas, R. L. Dunlap, H. D. Eagerty, R. L. Emry, F. E. Farwell, G. C. Fracker, F. P. Hagerman, S. 0. Hahn, H. W. Hanson, W. L. Hearst, C. E. Hewitt, E. P. Hopkins, P. L. Kaye, H. Keefe, J, L. Kinmonth, F. MT. R. P. Miller, E. G. Moon. C. A. Patterson, W. R. Patterson, H. G. Plum, R. G. Popham, H. 0. Pratt, B. C. Resser, H. C. Ring, L. J. Rowell, E. R. Seaton, J. L. Sharpe, H. A. Souther, S. K. Stevenson, C. W. Thomas, Carl Treim ' er, C. D. Walrod, H. L. Watts, H. P. Williams. 115 E r odS1 hie Li te 1011. MOTTO- WE GATHER LIGHT TO SCATTER. ' COLORS-PINK AND APFLE GREEN. ORGANIZED OCTOBER 6TH, 1862. MEMBERS. Louise Alford. Nora Alibi, Gertrude Blakely, Abby Boa ' s, Helen Bruce, Grace Burge, Mary Barrett, Maud Butler, Ethel Charlton, Eva Crane, Elinor Dubai, Grace Finch, May Freeman, Rose Henderson, Lulu Holson, Zue. Kostomlatsky, Mary McGuire, Clementine Otto, Mary Otto, Adelaide Lashek, Hattie Riggs, Mrs. Tirril, Florence Zerwekh, Ida Wallace. 11 Stemple Smith Dakin Crum White Mason Virtue Tompkins Wood Reynolds Blakely Coldren Hendricks Noble Lomas Rogers Amlie Dewel Riniker Seaman Palmeter Whiting Graves Lumbar Shepard Petersberger Koehler Noble Tantlinger Gibbs Bowman Seaman Page Hutchison Mutchier ■ te. OFFICERS FOR WINTER TERM. President—E. S. WHITE. Vice- Pres ident--T . R. AMLIE. .Secretary—J. SEAMAN. (corresponding Secretary—I. PETERSBERGER. Treasurer—S. D. WHITING. CLASS ' 94 Amlie, T. R. Crum, J. V. Hendricks, B. N. Lomas, W. A. Lumbar, M. E. Mutchler, E. F. Noble, G. S. Noble, R. E. Reynolds, J. W. Riniker, S. D. Tantlinger, W. W. White, E. S. Woolson, F. CLASS ' 95 Bowman, C. H. Mason, W. L. Blakely, W. H. Rogers, A. M. Graves, W. A. Seaman, J. W. Hutchinson, Z. H. Virtue, J. C. Koehler, M. Wood, C. H. CLASS ' 96 Dewel, W. C. Coldren, C. A. Dakin, C. E. Palmeter, R. A. Stemple, C. Shepard, H. H. Thompkins, E. D. Whiting, S. D. Seaman, E. W. CLASS ' 97. Gibbs, C. S. Page, A. D. Smith, W. H. Coldren, S. Petersbe rger, I. Johnson, G. M. 117 • gE6p(piark OFFICERS. FALL TERM President. Vice-President. Secretary. Treasurer. Critic. Corresponding Secretary._ JESSIE JOHNSTON, FANNY L. DAVIS, AMY ZIM MERMAN, HELEN STUART, INEZ KELSO, MARY RANKIN, WINTER TERM INEZ KELSO, President. ANNA ROBINSON, Vice-President. NANNIE CARROLL, Secretary. HELEN STUART, Treasurer. MARY C. HOLT, - Critic. MARY RANKIN, Corresponding (Secretary. MEMBERS. Dawn Bauserman, Jessie Johnston, Bernice Barlow, Elizabeth D. Jones, Nannie Carroll, Ella Jones, Frances Church, Inez Kelso, Pearl Colliver, Mae Lomas, Annabel Collins, Mae Montgomery. Jessie Corlett, Theresa Peet, Marion Davies, Mary Rankin, Fanny L. Davis, Anna Robinson, Cora Dorcas, Clara A. Slotterbec, Martha Emry, Helen Stuart, Lucy Gardner, May Taylor, Maud Grey, Margaret VanMeter, Mary C. Holt, Grace Whittaker, Gertrude Howell, Gertrude Wood, Jennie Hoyt, Amy Zimmerman. 0 118 — " " " - an,. 11•11111■13■,..1. . 6,1torical 616oCiation. COMPOSED OF THE ZETAGATHIAN, ERODELPHIAN, HESPERIAN, IRVING SOCIETIES, ,and all other students of the University who pay an annual membership fee .of one dollar. OFFICERS: HERMON P. WILLIAMS, President. GRACE BURGE, Secretary. MARY C. HOLT, Corresponding Secretary. WILLIAM C. DRIVEL, Treasurer. HIS Association sends a representative to the annual contest of the Northern Oratorical League composed of the State Universities of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, Northwestern University, and lin College. 119 .` . IP ' 01Pba gsto ot Tboo ESTABLISHED, 1866 FRATRES IN URBE. . Marvin H. Dey, Preston C. Coast, Charles S. Grant, Harvey Morrow, Jr., Bert M. Reno, Milton Remley. MATES IN FACULTATE. Emlin McCla in, Alpha Beta, Chancellor of Law Department. Charles Bundy Wilson, Beta Delta, Professor of Modern Languages. James A. Rohbach, Beta, Professor of Law. Joseph W. Rich, Alpha Beta, Librarian, S. U. I. FRATRES IN UNIVERSITATE. John Van Fleet Crum. Curtis Thompson Dey, Merrill Charles Gilmore, William Paten Powell, Frederic Mortimer Irish, Thomas Rigg Kimball, John Moulton Tuttle, Lester Ronaldo Budrow, William Noble Smith. Spencer Howard Carr, Robert Ephriam Leach, William Ryland Rohbach, Arthur John Cox, George William Evans, Mark Harrison Smith, Craig Tuttle Wright, Oliver Will Kulp. 121 CM11■111111. Theta vi. INCORPORATED, 1839, COLORS-PINK AND LIGHT BLUE. ROLL OF ACTIVE CHAPTERS. DISTRICT I. Harvard (Eta), Brown (Kappa), Boston (Upsilon), Maine State (Beta Eta), Amherst (Beta Iota), Dartmouth (Alpha Omega), Wesleyan (Mu Epsilon), Yale (Phi Chi). DISTRICT II. Rutgers (Beta Gainma), Cornell (Beta Delta), Stevens (Sigma), St. Lawrence (Beta Zeta), Colgate (Beta Theta), Union (Nu), Columbia (Alpha Alpha), Syracuse (Beta Epsilon). DISTRICT III. Dickinson (Alpha Sigma), Johns Hopkins (Alpha Chi), Pa. State Coll. (Alpha Upsilon), Lehigh (Beta Chi). DISTRICT IV. Hampden-Sidney (Zeta), North Carolina (Eta Beta), Virginia (Omicron), Davidson (Phi Alpha), Richmond (Alpha Kappa). DISTRICT V. Centre (Epsilon), Cumberland (Mu), Mississippi (Beta Beta), Vanderbilt (Beta Lambda), Texas (Beta Omicron). DISTRICT VI. Miami (Alpha), Univ. of Cincinnati (Beta Nu), Ohio (Beta Kappa), Western Reserve (Beta), Washington-Jefferson (Gamma), Ohio Wesleyan (Theta), Bethany (Psi), Wittenberg (Alpha Gamma), Denison (Alpha Eta), Wooster (Alpha Lambda), Kenyon (Beta Alpha), Ohio State (Theta Delta). DISTRICT VII. De Pauw (Delta), Indiana (Pi), Michigan (Lambda), Wabash (Tau), Hanover (Iota). DISTRICT VIII. Knox (Alpha Xi), Beloit (Chi), University of Iowa (Alpha Beta), Iowa Wesleyan (Alpha Epsilon), Wisconsin (Alpha Pi), Northwestern (Rho), Minnesota (Beta Pi), Chicago (Zeta Alpha). DISTRICT IX. Westminister (Alpha Delta), Kansas (Alpha Nu), California (Omega), Denver (Alpha Zeta), Nebraska (Alpha Tau), Missouri (Zeta Phi). 122 . _.......a Phi 1iopp6i PM. MEMBERSHIP ROLL. FRATRES IN UNIVERSITTITE. SENIOR. J. Lynn Crawford, L. B. Robinson. JUNIOR Edw. G. Decker, John A. Zel. H. Hutchinson. FRESHMAN. John S. D. Chambers, Fred Larrabee, Thurlow Pope, C. W. H. D. Page. SENIOR LAW. L. L. Elliott, Hari Myers. JUNIOR LAW, . J. Hess. FRTITRES IN URBE. Judge S. H. Hon. A. E. Lovell Swisher. 123 POW T616 pow. ESTABLISHED 1880 OMICRON CHAPTER. FRATRES IN URBE. Sam W. Fairall, H. Hayes Carson, Horace G. Clark, C. C. Coldren, Geo. P. Coldren, Frank C Carson, W. J. McChesney. FRATER IN FACULTATE, Thos. H. McBride. FRATRES IN UNIVERSITATE. COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT. Beaumont Apple, SENIOR. John A. Hornby. Max Koehler, JUNIOR. James E. Hamilton, Webster L. Mason. SOPHOMORE Louis M. Roberts. FRESHMAN. George Jack, George McClelland John Reynolds. LAW DEPARTMENT. Frank E. Smith, ' 94, Charles E. Burton, ' 95. Richard Schricker, ' 95. MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. Prince E. Sawyer, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY. E. F. Smith, ' 95. 124 .1, 1 r Phi pelt ' Theta. FOUNDED AT MAINE, 1848—(INCORPORATED.) CHAPTER ROLL. Boston, Mass. Philadelphia, Pa. Richmond, Va. Nashville, Tenn. Cincinnati. 0. Louisville, Ky. Chicago, Ill. Minneapolis and St. Paul. San Francisco, Cal. ALUMNI CHAPTERS. Annita A timni Day, March, New York, N. Y. Baltimore, Md. Columbus, Ga. Montgomery, Ala. Akron, 0. Franklin. Ind. Galesburg, Ill. Denver, Col. Los Angeles, Cal. 5th. Pittsburg, Pa. Washington, D. C. Atlanta, Ga, Selma, Ala. Cleveland, 0. Indianapolis, Ind. Kansas City, Mo. Salt Lake City, Utah. Spokane, Wash. COLLEGIATE CHAPTERS. ALP6A PGOVICKE. Colby Dartmouth College. Williams College. Amherst College. ' Cornell University. Union University. Syracuse University. Lafayette College. Washington and Jefferson Col. Allegheny College. University of Vermont. Brown University. Columbia College. Gettysburg College. Dickinson College. University of Pennsylvania. Lehigh University. BETA PKVICKE. Roanoke College. University of Virginia. Randolph-Macon College. Washington and Lee Univ. University of North Carolina. Center College. Central University. Richmond College. GAMMA PROVIINE. University of Georgia. Emory College. Mercer University. Vanderbilt University. University of the South. University of Alabama. Alabama Polytechnic Inst. Southern University. DELTA PROVITKE. University of Miss. Tulane University of La. University of Tex. S. W. University. EP$1LO n pRovinqe. Miami University. Ohio Wesleyan University. Ohio University. University of Wooster. Butchel College. Ohio State University, Indiana University. Wabash College. Butler University. Franklin College. Hanover College. De Pauw University. Purdue University. University of Michigan. State College of Michigan. Hillsdale College. Northwestern University. Lombard University. Westminster College. :State University of Iowa. of Nebraska. ZETA pRovintie. Knox College. University of Wisconsin. Washington University. University of Minnesota. University of California. Illinois Wesleyan University. University of Missouri. Iowa Wesleyan University. University of Kansas. Leland Stanford Jr. Univ. 125 IOWA BECA OR P151 DUCA IKEA. 1882. FRATRES IN FACULTATE. Laenes Gifford Weld, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, Iowa City, Charles Scott Magowan, C. E., Assistant Professor of Engineering, Iowa Iowa. Samuel Calvin, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of Geology and Structural Iowa City, William George Smith, Fellow in Mathematics, Iowa City, William Suits Hosford, D. D. S., Demonstrator in Dental Department. " 0- FRATRES IN URBE. Frank Arnold Hastings, C. E., George Milues Price, FRATRES IN UNIVERSITATE. COLLEGIATE SENIOR. Asher Ulysses Ely. Samuel Danubert Riniker, Arthur Stephen Hamilton, Willis Aloise Lomas, Frank Woolston, Albert Thompson Rutledge, Willard Lincoln Converse. JUNIOR. William Jackson Calvin, Joseph Holmes Allen, Graham Woodbridge Lawrence, FRESHMAN. Arthur James Barker, Charles Switzer Aldrich, Park W. Tourtelot, Harry Peck Toogood. Park Chamberlain. LAW DEPARTMENT. SENIOR, Henry McCaffrey. JUNIOR. William Hepburn Bremner, Robert A. Shular. MEDICAL SENIOR. Edward Ayres. (Ill. Z.) 126 r- ZETA qbAPTER. ESTABLISHED. 1881, SHORES IN UNIVERSITATE. SENIOR. Jessie R. Johnston. JUNIORS. ' Zulema Kostomlatsky, Eva Glass, Jessie Remley, Florence Zerwekh, L. Anna Robinson. FRESHMEN. Nora Allin, Mary Collson, Clyde Cobb, Lavinia C. Robinson. PHARMACEUTICAL DEPARTMENT. Nellie Chesebro, SORORES IN URBE. Mrs. Emma Haddock, LL.B., Mrs. Estella Ball, Mrs. Nell Custer Swisher, Miss Sarah F. Loughridge, Elizabeth Hess, M. D., Carrie McCrory, Mira Troth, Ella Hain, Annie Ham, Bertha Horak, Mabel Rundell, Bertha M. Wilson. 127 FOUNDED, 1867 COLORS-WINE AND BLUE FLOWER-RED CARNATION, q5APTER Ron. ALPHA PROVINCE. Columbian, Alpha, Columbian University, Washington. Pennsylvania, Alpha, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore. Ohio, Alpha, Ohio University, Carpenter. Indiana, Alpha, Franklin College, Franklin. Indiana, Beta, University of Indiana, Bloomington. Michigan, Alpha, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale. Michigan, Beta, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Louisiana, Alpha, Tulane University, BETA PROVINCE. New Orleans. Illinois, Beta, Lombard University, Galesburg. Illinois, Delta, Knox College, Galesburg. Iowa, Iowa, Alpha, Iota, Iowa Wesleyan University, GAMMA PROVINCE. Mt. Pleasant. Mt. Pleasant. Iowa, Beta, Simpson College, Indianola. Iowa, Gamma, Iowa Agricultural College, Ames. Iowa, Zeta, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Alpha, Lambda, Alpha, University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin, DELTA PROVINCE. Minneapolis. Des Moines. Madison. Colorado, Alpha, University of Colorado, Boulder. Colorado, Beta, Denver University, Denver. Kansas, Alpha, University of Kansas, Lawrence. California, Alpha, Leland Stanford Jr. University, Palo Alto. 128 �� 40Iva Gaming. FOUNDED AT MONMOUTH, ILL„ 1870. COLORS-LIGHT AND DARK BLUE. JEWEL-SAPPHIRE, FLOWER-FLEUR DE-LYS CALL, AI KOPA I AOIENII . BETA ZETA q5APTER OF KAPPA KAPPA GAMMA. FOUNDED, 1882, AT STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, SORORES IN URI3E. Kate Legler, Mrs. Frank Carson. Mary Payne, Sophia Moore, Carrie Mordoff, Alice Calvin. SORORES IN UNIVERSITATE. SENIORS. Stella Price, Mae Lomas, Theresa Peet, Mary Barrett, Annabel Collins. JUNIORS. SOPHOMORES. Bertha Traer. Eva Kleckner, Helen Stewart, Camille Mast. Helen Currier, FRESHMEN. Grace Seaman. Lyde Ady. Beulah MacFarland, Rita Stewart, Elena MacFarland, Bertha Morgan. SPECIAL, Elizabeth Sawyer, Gertrude Wood 129 PSIto Garorom. FOUNDED AT OXFORD, MISS ,,.1872 COLORS-PINK, BLUE, AND BRONZE. FLOWER-MAREOHAL NEIL ROSE OFFIOIAL ORGAN-ANOHORA, q6APTeRs. Eta, Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio. Omega, Wisconsin University, Madison, Wis. Alpha, Mount Union College, Mount Union, 0. Sigma, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Lambda, Minnesota University, Minneapolis, Minn. Zeta, Albion College, Albion, Mich. Chi, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Xi, Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Mich. Phi, Colorado University, Boulder, Col. Tau, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Ia. Delta, University of Lower California, Los Angeles Cal, Kappa, Nebraska University, Lincoln, Neb. Theta, Alumni Chapter, Cleveland, 0. 130 TiU (hapt(P of PON 6trorom. ESTABLISHED, 1887. CHARTER MEMBERS. Helen M. Cox, Margery Bacon, Annie Gillis, Nan E. Shepherd, Nellie Startsman (Mrs. Biggs). HONORARY MEMBERS. Mrs. Weld, Mrs. McConnell. SORORES IN URBE. Helen M. Cox, Cora A. Morrison, Emma Close (Mrs. Stewart), Clementine Ashley, Margaret Williams, Katherine Hess, Annie Gillis, Jennie Rice, Geneva Home, Eva Kettlewell. SORORES IN UNVERSITATE. Rose Blanchard, ' 94, F rances Davis, ' 95, Anna Larrabee, ' 95, Louise Alford, ' 96, Harriette Holt, ' 97, Virginia Swan, ' 94, Mae Montgomery, ' 95, Mary C. Holt, ' 95, Marion Davies, ' 96, Gertrude Fairchild, ' 96. 131 Chavt(r6 of Theta 44,6 Wesleyan University. Syracuse University. Union College. Cornell ,University. University of. Rochester. University of California. Madison University. Kenyon College. Adelbert College. Hamilton College, Rensselaer Polytechnic. Stevens Institute. Lafayette College. Amherst College. Alleghany College. State College of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania. University of City of New York. Wooster College. Vniversity of Michigan. Rutgers College. University of Minnesota. Dartmouth College. Northwestern University. State University of Iowa. 132 TbEta go 6pM1on. MATER IN FACULTATE. Prof. James A. Rohbach. FRATRES IN URBE. Chas. Schaffer Grant, Harry Morrow, Jr. Preston C. Coast, H. Hayes Carson. FRATRES IN UNIVERSITATE. Will R. Rohbach, J. Lynn Crawford, George W. Evans, B. Apple, Mark H. Smith, Curtis T: Dey, Merrill C. Gilmore, Harl Meyers, Spen. H. Carr, J. J. Hess, Will P. Powell, Bert. N. Kelly, Robert E. Leach, W. J. Calvin, Oliver W. Knlp, Henry S. McCaffrey, John A. Hull, R. L. Schricker, W. C. Tyrrell. FRATRES IN COLLEGIO. eriB07S5an4 0 217-Sgffax9Z5!n 3. 2 I 7 K S EvWB !4Xffellia79KOW. Ox2? () XXXKn207K LA4+90II+Kn7 ci,d-TNE 133 List of (hapto) of Phi PONS Phi Fi)gt(PRitY. Kent, University of Michigan, Booth, Union College of Law. Story, Columbia Law School. St. Louis Law School. Cooley, Pomeroy. University of California. Marshall, Washington Law Schools. Webster, Boston Law School. Hamilton, Cincinnati Law School. Gibson, University of Pennsylvania Waite, Yale. Choate, Harvard. Field, New York University. Conkling, Cornell. Tiedeman. University of Missouri. Minor, University of Virginia. Dillon, University of Minnesota. Daniels, Buffalo Law School. Chase, Oregon Law School. Harlan, Wisconsin Law School. McClain, State University of Iowa. 134 a I 01.((laiR (hiptEr, Phi POW Phi. Alva B. Lovejoy, Alfred M. Van Allen, Harold E. Judge, Frank H. Noble, Homer H. Fellows, Jesse Lee Bonar, Max. J. Long, William F. Kopp, Christopher D. Muxen, William Chesbro, Harl Meyers, Robert E. Leach, Lloyd L. Elliott, William T. Chantland, Charles F. Clark, Charles M. Dutcher, Peter D. VanOosterhout, George B. Miller,- Osage, Iowa. Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. Newell, Iowa. Casey, Iowa Iowa. Nevinville, Iowa. Creston, Iowa. Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. Odebolt, Iowa. Cherokee, Iowa. Rockford, Illinois. Independence, Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa. Orange City, Iowa. Waterloo, Iowa. HONORARY MEMBERS. Chancellor Enilin McClain, Judge George G. Wright, Professor Samuel Hayes, Judge L. G. Kinne, Professor M. J. Wade. Judge Gifford S. Robinson. Professor James A. Rohbach, 135 Pt 1 HE S. U. I. Athletic Association is governed by a written constitution, and has at its head three officers, who, at the present time are E. S. White, President, C. A. Snook, Secretary, and A. S. Hamilton, urer, These officers with the captains and the managers of the athletic teams constitute the Executive Committee. Above this committee is the Advisory Board, composed of three members of the faculty, three members of the Alumni, and one member from each of the three teams. Its officers are, Prof. Isaac A. Loos, Chairman, and W. L. Converse, Secretary. It has general vision of the whole association and all actions of the association must be ratified by the board before they become valid. It also has the power to veto all tions made by the various teams. Within the last two years the Association has made great improvement in organization. Money matters are kept under strict supervision. The managers of the different teams are compelled to give an itemized account of all receipts and expenditures. • The general treasurer is under bonds and from time to time renders an account to the Association of its financial condition. The account of each team is kept separate from the others, and consequently each manager endeavors to meet all the expenses incurred by his team, and, if possible, to bring some money into the general fund; but the track team only has been able to end the season with money In this we attempt to give only a brief resume of the work of our athletic teams ,during the.past year. We off er little criticism either favorable or unfavorable, feeling confident that each team will be justly represented by its own,record; where the record is good, the men have worked earnestly and faithfully to win excellence for themselves and a good fame for their sity; where the record is poor, an adequate cause may be found in the behavior of the men on the training field. The twelfth annual Home Field Meet was held at Iowa City, May 6th, 1893. The result of this contest we give. 137 Event. Winner. Second. Record. 50 yard Dash, . McClusky, Pole vault, . • Chantland, Shot put, Ure, 100 yard dash, McClusky, 2 mile bicycle, Lindsay, High jump, Dey, Hammer throw, Ure, 220 yard dash, Crum, Mile run, . • Robinson, 120 yard hurdle, Dawson, 440 yard run, • Snook, Mile walk, Radasch, 220 yard hurdle, • Gillette, Half mile run, Clark, Hop, step and jump, Dawson, Crum, 6+ sec. Bailey, 81 ft. VanOosterhout, 36 ft. 2 in. Crum, 111 sec. Kimball, 8 min 5 sec. 6 ft. 3 in. VanOosterhout, 82 ft. 3 in. Clements, 25 sec. White, 5 min.171 sec. Gillette, Evans. 57+ sec. Tracy, 9 min. 39 sec. Dawson, Bailey, 2 min, 22 sec. Virtue, 41 ft. 2 in. The result of the Home Field Meet decided who our representatives would be in the State Contest. The majority of these, realizing what depended upon their efforts, settled down to hard work, determined to improve the short time that was left them before they should start for Des Moines. On the evening of the 31st of May, the team, with a large delegation of students, left Iowa City for the scene of contest. The men were not over-confident, they expected a hard fight, but they were determined to bring back the cup if it was in their power to do so. The State Field Meet was held at Des Moines, June 2nd, 1893, and the result was a victory for S. U. I., by a score of 69 points. The winners of the different events and their records are as follows: Event. Institution. Record. 50 yard dash, McClusky, S. U. I. 5+ sec. 120 yard hurdle, Gillette, S. U. I. 174. sec. 100 yard dash, McClusky, S. U. I. 10+ sec. Half mile run, • Clyde, I. C. 2 min. 13+ sec. Pole vault, , Jones, I. C. 9 ft. 7 in. Mile walk, • Grass, I. C. 8 min. 11 sec. 16 lb. shot put, Ure, S. U. I. 36 ft. 4 in. 220 yard hurdle, . Gillette, S. U. I. 28+ sec. 220 yard dash, McClusky, S. U. I. 23 sec. 2 mile bicyle, . . Culver, I. C. 6 min. 16+ sec. a Hop, step, and jump, Wheeler, C. C. 44 ft. 9 in. 440 yard run, -. . Whiteley, I. C. 55 sec. 138 Event. Winner. Institution. Record. Mile run, Palmer. I. C. 5 min. 1 sec. 16 lb. hammer throw, Hall, D. U. 84 ft. High jump, . Hammond, S. U. I. 5 ft. 6 in. Broad jump, Tennis singles, Tennis doubles, . Wheeler, Zollinger, Zollinger, Neal, C. C. S. U. I. S. U. I. 20 ft. 6 in. .S. U. I. had won the coveted cup and her students were jubilant. When the successful team returned to Iowa City they were met by the S. U. I. band and a large delegation of students, who proudly conducted the members of the team from the depot up to the University, amid music, fire works and astic cheers. The procession halted before Central building, where speeches were made by Professors Hale, McConnell and Wade and by a number of the athletes. It was indeed a great day for S. U. I. and the demonstrations that filled the night, showed how thoroughly her students appreciated the proof of her prowess. The second annual Fall Field Meet was held at Iowa City, October 21st, 1893. The Fall Meet of the year before had not been very successful as there had been a lack of interest. Through the efforts of Mr. Chantland, a handsome cup was purchased and engraved as the Inter-Class Cup. This cup acted as magic and at once caused a feeling of rivalry between the different classes. The men trained hard and a great deal of interest was manifested as to which class would have the honor of winning the cup for the first time. The tion was settled beyond a doubt by the Law Class of ' 94 who won 48 points. It is worthy of note that 23 of these 48 points won by the class were due to one man, W. T. Chantland. The records made at this Meet were very fair. They were as follows: Event. Winner. Second. Record. 100 yard dash, Crum, Huston, 10 sec. Shot put, Rogers, Littig, 32 ft. 11 in. Half-mile bicycle, Smith, Coe, 1 min. 174 sec. Pole vault, Chantland, VanOosterhout, 9 ft. 440 yard dash, . Leach, Brockway, 56 sec. Pole vault for distance, Chantland, McCrary, 21 ft. 81 in. 120 yard hurdle, Dey, Chantland, 21k sec. 225 yard dash, Crum, Huston, 25 sec. High Dey, Chantland, 5 ft. 220 yard hurdle, Crum, Clark, 35 sec. Half-mile walk, Radasch, Graves, 4 min.114 sec. 139 Event. Winner. Second. Record. Hop, step, and jump, Virtue, Chantland, 41 ft. 5 in. Broad jump, , . Virtue, Snook, 9 ft. 5 in. Half-mile run, . Clark, Brown, 2 min. sec. Running broad jump, 2 mile bicycle, Chantland, Smith, Virtue, Coe, 18 ft. 101 in. 5 min, 58i- sec. If there is one thing more than another that takes the very heart out of athletics, it is the introduction of professionalism. The various athletic sports were introduced originally into the colleges to develop the student physically, and thus make him a better man and more fitted for the duties of life. Some colleges, however, seem to have forgotten this vital principle and substituted for what should be pure athletic sports, carried on by students only, sional games carried on by men who make a business of certain lines of athlet- ics. This corruption has taken deepest root among base ball teams and to-day there is hardly a college in the country, large or small, but what has the cipal part of its base ball team made up of men who take no interest in college matters, but are there simply because they are paid for their services. S. U. I. has always discouraged professionalism; and we have this to be proud of, whatever other criticism may be offered against our base ball team of 1893. • We give the results of the games: S. U. I. vs. Luther College, - at Iowa City, 0 — 12 S. U. I. vs. Luther College, at Iowa city, 3 — 8 S. U. I. vs. Iowa College, at Iowa City, - 2 — 9 S. U. I. vs. Chicago University-, at Chicago, - - 2 — 6 S. U. I. vs. Northwestern University, at Evanston, - 3 — 7 S. U. I. vs. University of Wisconsin, at Madison, - 5 — 7 S. U. I. vs. Coe College, - at Cedar Rapids, 14 -- 7 S. U. I. vs. Drake University, - at Des Moines, 10 — 9 S. U. I. vs. Agricultural College, at Ames, 5 — 4 S. U. I, vs. Wisconsin University, at Iowa City, 6 — 15 S. U. I. vs. Agricultural College, - at Iowa City, 2 — 10 S. U. I. vs. Drake University, - at Iowa City, 2 — 4 The captain elected for the base ball team, season of ' 94, is Vincent Zmunt, and the manager, Merrill C. Gilmore. The athletic game that has won for itself first place among college sports is foot-ball; and it is duly recognized by S. U. I. The greatest foot-ball league west of the Mississippi is the one foamed between the State Universities of Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa.. Last year Kansas won the pennant by defeating the other three members of the league. This year the championship is undecided. Kansas beat Iowa and Nebraska; Missouri beat Nebraska and 140 Kansas; Nebraska beat Iowa, and Iowa beat Missouri. The tie will not be played off, and consequently the pennant will not be awarded. Our toot-ball team, although not so successful as it has been in former years, showed great improvement in the science of the game. The first game was played at Iowa City with Coe College. The Coe team was very weak and S. U. I. won easily by a score of 56 -- 0. The next game was played October 15th, with the Denver Athletic Association, at Denver. This was S. U. I. ' s first ha rd game and resulted in an easy victory for Denver by a score of 58 — 0. S. U. I. played Luther College at Iowa City, next, and defeated them by a score of 32 — 0. The first league game was played with the University of Kansas at Kansas City, November 4th. The result was a score of 35 — 24 in favor of Kansas. The majority of the men were somewhat crippled in their game with Kansas and the next Saturday when the team lined up against Iowa College, at Grinnell, their weakness was plainly man ifest. Grinnell played a strong game and our men were unable to stop her line bucking. The score was 36 —14 in favor of Iowa College. November 18th, the second league game was played with Missouri at Iowa City. This was the only important game played at home, and in a victory of 34 — 12. The last game of the season was played on Thanksgiving day, at Omaha, with Nebraska University. It was a league game and S. U. I. " was anxious to win it, as it would give her a chance at the pennant. The fates decreed otherwise however. Thanksgiving day was cold and snowy. Nevertheless the opposing teams lined up and after a stubbornly contested game the score stood 18 — 20 in favor of Nebraska. Our team, although unsuccessful in all the games played away from home, has left a good name wherever it has gone. The captain for the season of ' 94 is Prince Sawyer, of the Medical ment, who has played on the team for two years. W. H. Bremner, of the Law Class of ' 95, has been elected manager. 141 tit HE recent discussion respecting the changes in the foot-ball rules have not abated one whit the interest of the students in the acquisition of a University Ball Park and General Athletic Field for out-of-door sports. While our hope is strong that the objectionable features of the fall game will be eliminated by the Board when they revise the rules for the American lege students, we are ardent in the belief that one of the good features of the new college education is the liberal support by faculties and students of ball, foot-ball, lawn tennis, rowing, and the manly games of the classic Olym- pia known modernly as " track athletics. " Of a park in some form we are practically assured. But we are not in sight yet of all we must have. The so-called Englert Park has been purchased and the trustees of the fund raised by subscription, hold the deed. Owing to the panic of last summer the tion of subscriptions and the prosecution of improvements on the park had to be abandoned for the time. to date about twenty-five hundred dollars has been subscribed, of which all but three hundred dollars is in the form of notes. payable to the order of the trustees of the fund. The park is to cost two thousand dollars which sum was made to include all arrears in rent due from the Athletic Association and involves also a generous subscription to the fund for the purchase and equipment of the Field, so that the net cost of the park will be eighteen hundred dollars. In addition to what is now the park the two lots immediately east of the north side have been purchased and title thereto is secured. These lots cost eight hundred and twenty-five dollars less one hundred and thirty-five realized on the sale of improvements that could not have been economically utilized by the Athletic Association. Only about one-fourth of the purchase money has been paid down. The balance is in the form of notes payable out of the funds subscribed. At present no provision is made for the equipment and improvement of the park and its necessary extension. Our Agricultural College has provided from its ample grounds a large field for the use of the students. The states about us have given their universities recreation grounds; and it is hoped that we shall not be unaided on the part of our state. The President of the University in his biennial report, calls attention to our wants in this particular; and an item of $5,000 finds its appropriate place in his budget of estimates. 142 " 1 ' o I 1 Hammon lire Anthony Gillette Dey Virtue Kimball Clark Van Oosterhout Neal McCluskey Chantland Zollinger Cram Snook White Radaseh Bailey Evans Troth Team of U. IL scAson OF 1893. OSCAR W. ANTHONY, HENRY MCCLUSKEY, Manager. Captain. Whit. H. Clark, Rensselaer H. Toll, Victor 0. Hammon, Peter D. VanOsterhout, John V. Crum, Samuel R. Ure, Fred. W. Neal, Cassius E. Snook, Charles H. Bailey, Morris A. Zollinger, Edward S. White, William T. Evans, William T. Chantland, Curtis T. Dey, Jesse C. Virtue, Henry E. Radasch, Thomas R. Kimball, Charles A. Gillette. 143 61(--14611.1 Miro of scAson OF 1893. HARL MYERS, Manager. FRED. B. BLAIR, Captain. DAVIS S. FAIRCHILD, . Umpire. Willard L. Converse, Bert. Reno, Joe S. Oppice, John M. Tuttle, Vincent Zmunt, Charles A. Gillette, George N. Pratt, Carl E. James W. Hurst, Frank P. Clarkson. 144 Hurst Dawson Fairchild Clarkson Gillette Blair Myers Oppice Pratt Reno Tuttle Zmunt Converse Van Oosterhout Herrig Collins Tyrrell Robinson Pritchard Hess Lomas Rogers Elliott Sawyer Allen Myers Carr Aldrich Littig Ingersoll White Foot-gall TE‘ort) of A. V. i. su son OF 1893. Wiims A. LOMAS, Manager. LLOYD L. ELLIOTT, • Captain, and f. h. Hari Meyers, 1. h. Charles S. Aldrich, 1. t. J. J. Hess, r. h. Joseph H. Allen, 1. g. Victor L. Littig, 1. e. A. R. Rogers, c. Edward S. White, 1. e Irving M. Pritchard, r. g. W. J. Collins, r. t. Peter D. VanOosterhout, r. Will C. Tyrrell, r. e. Prince K Sawyer, q: b. S. H. Carr, 1 C. J. Ingersoll, C. M. Herring, Subs. Leonard B. Robinson, j 145 6ith TeAro or the jEntor LaW (16166. WINNERS OF THE INTER-CLASS CUP AT THE FALL FIELD MEET OF 1393. William T. Chantland, Edwin S. McCrary, LeRoy E. Cox, Robert E. Leach, Peter D. VanOosterhout, George B. Miller, Ch arles A. Tracy, Howard J. Boyer, Joseph K. Huston. 146 147 148 Com PA IVY ATTENTION George.— " Ego ipse exegi monumentum. " Law Prof.— " Name some of the grounds for future action. " L. The new Athletic Park. " Freshman (at Vidette office).— " When does your paper come out? " Business Manager.— " To-morrow. " Freshman.—Then it won ' t come out for three weeks again; it ' s a tri-weekly, isn ' t it? " Lady visiting University .— " Have you entered the University, Mr. Monett? " Post No, I ' m a commercial cad. " Historical Seminary (meeting on English Seminary day): Professor Perkins.— " How many students has Dr. Hale lost by this postpone- ment? " Plum meekly raises his hand. Professor Perkins.— " Oh, well, then he hasn ' t lost much. " W. Davis (buying a basket).— " I want the largest bushel basket you have. " Rohbach (Dent.). He is a brother to the Prof. Elliott (at opening of the foot-ball season).— " Come, my coach! Good night, sweet ladies, good night. " Janieson.— " Love me—love my dog. " Professor in Political Science (explaining the character of his work).— " I ' m supposed to fill a chair, but.I ' m rather on a settee. " Houser.— " Now, class, circum means around and ora means mouth. Now, what does circlimoral mean? " 149 Bob says that he doesn ' t like the Phi Psis and is going to join the Betas or the Deits. Anderson (in speech).— " We must do all in our power to do as much as we can. " Visitor from Coe College. Well, our faculty has raised our college to uni- versity standing. " S U. I. Man.—. " What important changes have they made? " Visitor.— " For the main thing we have arithmetics without answers now. " Instructions to students for administering medicine:— Give— " Shrader.— " I give— " C hase.— " You may give— " Middleton Wise men give— " Van.—A manly soul full of strength, tenderness and solidity. Brasted said that when out west he was bumming among the bluffs, but while here he was bluffling among the burns. Instructor (in history).— ' ' Give me the resume of this time. " Freshman.— " I don ' t remember when he lived. " Student (at Library Is Lang, Leaf, and Myers ' Iliad in? " Mrs. Ridgway No, but Homer ' s is. " Oh Tuttletale! Tuttletale! Professor in Under these conditions would the contract be void or voidable? " It would be avoidable. " Freshman (in debate on the Behring Sea Sir, our government should have a keeper of the seal, the same as England has. " Professor in Im.•.— " What are the four great Domestic relations? " Junior.- Marriage, divorce, alimony, and infantry. " Ingersoll.—Why, I carried the ball over the line with seven men on my back. Confidant.—Impossible! Bravo! and they made a touch-down in spite of you. Down at Burke ' s, where the oysters stew, Walter came in for some oysters too, But plainly he didn ' t want oysters two And only had a quarter. 150 -15.vuv b ve,°■h5 11x-a. 54r t-t ro. IlY1 1(Tooy on. C-Le 151 C011_6Yer 5 1.11O 0 R) 1, " k7 V cAor .,. qpiia 152 QUEMIon Wiv(610. 1. Could the editor inform A Caswil Observer " why Prexie always wears squeaky shoes? " Casual Observer. " — " Prexie " has adopted this style of shoes, in order that his approach may be known to the common herd, who might otherwise think him one of them. 2. DEAR EDS.—Who is that man of the Girls. " One of the Girls " : If you see a man around shaking hands with that is Walrod. 3. " Grind " would like to ask the Question Bureau why Prof. McConnell speaks in such stentorian tones in the Library. " Grind " : To be heard, we presume. 4. " Molphology Victim " would like to respectfully interrogate the Bureau as to the fundamental cause of Ho u r ' s frequent observations through the window. " Morphology Victim " : Prof. Calvin does it. 5. KIND ED.—Your little friend would be so pleased if you could tell !dm what the music of the woods is. Yours truly, FRESHIE. " Freshie " : Logarithm. 6. ' ' Minto ' s Companion, " requests the Question Bureau to tell him as soon as possible why Dr. Egge never smiles. " Minto ' s Companion " : He taught at a Norwegian school in his youth. 7. " The Spy " would like to ask the Bureau where he could find the most productive source of information concerning secrets of all sorts—societies, fraternities, etc. " The Spy " : T. R. Kimball. 8. " Question, Point " wants to know who are some of the leading men of Iowa. " Question Point " : Jackson, Van Allen, and the right guide of company A. 9. " Original Investigator " asks when the Annual will be out. " Original Investigator " : We did expect it out some time in the past, but at present think it will appear in the future. Wanted. A few more boarders at the Barber House to aid in entertaining my thirteen Beta friends. Especial efforts required on Sunday. CAMILLE. Wanted.—A big dog to carry off my other rubber, which will necessitate some moore calls. BILLY BREININER, 153 154 155 5oPHOM ORES V:i ' C r. • oFiRiVRy (161. Hale says that thoughts of love are swift. ' Class : " They have a plentiful lack of wit. " 496: " Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice. " Amlie : " Mend your speech a little, Lest it may mar your fortunes. " Bloom : " You are well - favour ' d, and your looks foreshow you have a gentle heart. " Bohstedt : Man delights not me. " Mason : " Brevity is the soul of wit. " Brockway : What is this quintessence of dust? " Mast : " In form and moving how express and admirable. " Kallenterg : love ourself. " Gilchrist : ' ' The lady cloth protest too much, methinks. " Glass : " speak in a monstrous little ' voice. " Peet : " List, list, oh, list! " Koehler : " So sweet and voluble is his discourse. " Larrabee : For thy more sweet understanding, a woman. " Montgomery: " Thou hast affected the fine strains, to imitate the graces of the gods. " Slotterbee ' ‘ Let me not he wise in ignorance. " Rankin : " There ' s nothing ill can dwell in such a temple. " )Nheldahl : " The heavy accents of thy moving tongue. " Henderson : " How is ' t with you that you do feed your eye on vacancy? " Cook : " Frailty, thy name is woman, " Stewart : " Hysterica passio, down thou climbing sorrow, Thy element ' s below " 156 Blunt, Brock, Morgan,Purge, Curtis, Bruce, Crane, Davis, Dorcas, Howell, Hoyt, Jones, " Patterson, Price, Rowell, J. TV. Seaman Give , thy thoughts no tongue. Wickham, Stewart, Stoke, Wood : Back Row : We are such stuff As dreams are made of ; and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. " Dr. Hale says: We have done but greenly greenly — greenly —well; I guess, that is a word it is not necessary to explain to a student audience. " 157 AN EXTRACT FROM A DRAMA OF THE SAME NAME ARCINIAN, B LASTICUS, CHADORPEDES, DRAMATIS PERSONA]. Gentlemen of leisure, attending the University of Iowa. City. A Student ' s Room, containing one window frame—the view into the street unobstructed by window panes. A picture of Garfield tea on the wall to the right. On, the left wall, a book shelf B LASTICUS sitting in the window ; ARCINIAN on a broken wood-box, with his head bowe d in his hands. Flourish of whistles—enter CHADORPEDES in thirty-nine inch coat. Chadorpedes. How now? what news among the students? Blasticus. You know, none so well as you, of my room-mate ' s flight. Chadorpedes. That ' s certain. I for my part know the drayman that carried his trunk away. Arcinian. And your landlady, for her part, knows your room-mate was in debt; but then she says it is the complexion of us all to leave rather than pay.t Blasticus. He will pay all. Chadmpedes That ' s certain, if his landlady may be his judge. Blasticus. My own friend and room-mate to pull out! 2 Arcinian. Tell us if your landlady expects ever to get her rent money or no. 3 Blasticus. There, I have got my foot into again—a bankrupt or a gal ; 5 but she dares scarce show her head in my room—a wench that was used to come and batter at my door in the morning. Let her look for her rent. 6 [Rising and pulling hair.] She was wont to call me rascal let her look for her rent. She was wont to smile7 on other students for a landlady ' s let her look for her rent. Chadorpedes. Why, I am sure, as she has lost her debt yo u will not continue to break her furniture; what use is that? Blasticus. To •make kindling wood withal; it will feed the flames of my anger. 8 She bath disgraced me and hindered me full half my study time. 9 Laughed at my mocked at my scorned my fraternity — ..11111, 158 opened my mail—burned my my friends: and what ' s her reason? " I am a student. Had ' not a student rights? hath not a student troubles, common sense, room-mates, a conscience, ponies and playing-cards? fed with the same hash, sickened with the same hydrant water, cured with the same physic, subject to the same law, warmed with the same steam heat, cooled by the same hall door open, tripped up on the same pavements, 15 as a landlady is? If you disturb us, do we not swear? If you pun upon us, do we not groan? If you tre at us decently are we not surprised? And if you abuse us shall we not turn? If a student wrong a landlady, what is her response?—A general kick. If a landlady wrong a student, what should his sufferance be by her example?—Why, a general kick. The example she shows me I will follow, and it shall go hard with me but I better the instructions. DOTES. The author has frequently been accused of plagiarism, a similarity eing detected between this production and the first scene of the the third act of " Merchant of Venice, " beginning with Shylock ' s entrance. The imitation—if such it may be called—was an entirely scious one on the part of the author. 1 It is somewhere stated that, in this neighborhood, landladies—even at the present still hold this erroneous idea concerning the student race. 2 " Pull out " is a colloquialism. Cf. Shambaugh ' s " Rise and Development of the lish Language in Iowa City and Surrounding Country. " ° This seems a superfluous question now from our enlightened standpoint. 4 Cf. note 2, 5 Cf. Merchant of Venice, III, 1, 40. 6 This expression in time became a proverb. 7 There is no proof to be found of the authenticity of this statement. 8 This figure has frequently been used by other eminent authors : for reference in all figurative language see " McBride ' s Use and Abuse of Figurative Speech. ' " ° This has been carefully reckoned and found to be just 80 minutes and 25 seconds per day. 10 Cf. note 2. Carrying wood from the pile next door, etc. 12 Cf. note 11. 13 It has not yet been discovered. 14 A mixture of sundry victuals, a very common article of food at the time in which the plot is laid. 15 Prof. Jameson—city engineer—obtained at this time quite au enviable reputation for his good work. Many instances could be cited from the literature of the day but space vents our printing them here. Cf. his work on the " Slanting Sidewalk at Close Hall Corner. " 159 of fer i Spriq nior7Lt-inuals arestft;Clri,7, ek) ery vka. 0 ' 1 Oar class was called efher ). on , 1 7 71-nd after clisag reel n We agreed r, 411,2 ' Ke. Tei� we ralked o wha (vie ou fo And tee could afford, 11-nd fecfect we the l ' i 6et -NI- a Tuii0,-Aioualoard. We qill and (here decided A 7d held 1 `he last; r We ' d coOer e f-(jorrs the cias.5-es of the °a, : 77reriext irltere I; yve fivd rhe. 1-ecotei shows, xs Var i77 s As a o ro clos 0 114( ..27?_1. M6(rcA es a q who le Should Le rhea7 Near 177,tri ' dee i sled ors 74ar heifer carry Lo is rra fin 73,4f rheTrof. .7yel7r,d {4s a student of finds) s fed ()Agra. 0 he c ian 11 whi slued or ' 0 n fo fe, frt) as to k a rd y I S 160 7 14thsisters ' cross l, , a glorious v4e A --11 ID en ' and all: the t is ID kt)11-11 totiqefiliarl Sto,. s40,4. t i a15P( s. the 11171e riio_ the ex, ivev brow VOiere then " stood be ore day. o f spos What ,De really NeXT; colle5(iales` play a. pe of ball wirh the r) Loos,ao score: And 73aDe cictssess, before. 71, 411 do clecla;41. ex sAecia.I lot° ' ' rc17-( And Zets do scurie f4 c PIK 6-11:t itcrifor(ry)skrs, ettin a.te c el smoke their first ci ars. is MI 7day rcl les.s of a. ($ la y ed the ol base-ball ' 73 is Dery breaks the s e1 l ' he i r4e efte ' roctsrs arirme i. 5 t ' he a,eati, ci 1,c streets care clusrea(10 Wif4 a. rain dress iou7 and 161 Oater kher s d. Erod el , huts Je. a sqiel; De Ws -11--aDe a roost xte st r GI 411 day Ion( boys prepare, -ia`Deabativei A rid a fra On the Prof hime the o fry hies a. 0 vety, To Po tA) by ard eri T esi tiler? Who rel ' 407 The day. Camel] 14)e send Yhe ase. proJes rai tor clay c 1.4)e had qo Wafer 101161ter:11 So of coalc !play. 11 .73 a is corriirt5 oh! ' 4e h of Nay. Little birds to fu) 1 re t; r bank shah a (A) ay, of Icy brings hou hk. Alfstucleg is arc doubt And the Iarrd i 5 full of terror as l ' he rc h s irr- P tch elf; aq-eDer- ready Oil .. Gits the LieuI a feu) rrJilirary Te si? e t ra bort „ rhc 6 A; do ordie, -1,,r-- -1ortle_ Tie Ic has he giral7cfr5r Teter S,V.I, kti of I` l he tv ' V0 ' 1 tulliff co eye came ro picy AT ball. 771ey bea r us soot(; SO on the till Jery sore tried to rectify the score; Were ' 50 pod-as Lad y c-ks be fore. Rstio tis 162 Then had the has( ball bcp,r1 iv. ere rho season co led, Des`r;Yc all else he yd fairly tdot) A rtcord 1)a fed thy play R.)111) A riles Z e Is a lso a sc Pe Tc el s ay 4 fir ictek or broils. Bat r 1177 5 ' I 00ini calie ' caRse o Pha ( Inc -essays tojoirl a, The Toe Allen iron ha s bail carry fakes s fa, r Oaf ro 0 To eas fields a qc rartm Alas! r4ey o cro s tr thatsuell s 1( be the mis fori-,1( ' roc r Cr( , l000r c ' ero rays o set 1; r.. fired and des Jon de re s they Je. Oot-i 10a7dea, 1 1 19— ' 4 come. 11on1, pt)eek is frassi by gcrOe., blessed by di( Still hear Ourpolus fiectJeasiil frays a. ° 1115 C1055 d 14E5 7., t4)as Moriolay,.22-ttd; • e„ triorro0,23 ' = ' -4, 2 1 " ' " " 47.e. 5irls q ' i0e 1 ' 4e ra ral 1 o rio ( I e Jet- 1. , 1, v)e are nearlyci ea 4, is ex26ound iri5( Iii.svOcty of bread. Oh ilielexiciax Fit fo uo our slare; .13 at ' 175 Yhe t4, 1,de t.) e. real-_,De.bale 163 J 5 cu l01.4); Ald oar s a eacii buy a, -1:,--1 ' 4c77e ef-NeefotliiesrAr, lid load are 14( dernotisliAl ' ienis Al ' (4 t oy rye s 14✓19 t.De Welcome 77ess6(5- " e .surely Act, lo all °taxi- rey o ci L ntnaritr- IN, 14 ere_Sou 7616 i V°Crary 12i eel . lJe tA)ai I.Dery-i. our ' leas are arc!, Stra.iyli v)cy cj-lks tt Ior Yo ye aAoq P4e, Te CX i ' vJo clays are days of Soli 1S a , r ,,,,,,t).0,111 6,5 came q ' es rare- A- ' 41;i1FAt4:t cfu,d4-enienl " ectqc.. ' 74e y 1%e 5 s , Ad ' the PI day r4inks t kesi I-4c Fair f117e Fies h Net ric c, dec. ceri Oe ate all re trj tided ie scljool dap left are e 0 1)eri see redIe u), (➢o (0 a fr e 11,11. Glay comes II air arc a..1 tts- PoOtA; A 4a,A)5 e TeX day %rad act Pe W ,„ ( I Irt eif4tr q- o ix) sadde oal, Wiled cell el fa, Yes 1771,tsr Si Sia ctla07 abAea,r5 3reD " (, ' 42 164 1 ifq FRESH E- 4efe ' .7 EA 5 ETUR • EA—REST-C°NVEMENcF d s Seel day to • or. Gray, .Bur Clara ropos, they " 941 Aray Fort Sweer I ke r lihty day sac face does Gack f rp:s fa 4 no liera_5, c ' d Grid rq-c. e ac is h ros0 A , baby brat h p WEE bri.AI " I Ivry b ohapc , ear le 9 ogr so 16(fli lAr, e. ceedA y „ barb y el °Wit bort 00 his Aiario solo. Tr Vit ll. jg° ajs.L.5. And se del Is .some prca}:j, ro ill rna h - rhos by si 1 . ocroler s ,r5 rm5iti ,IN oor-ball f lig ' While prac OUT 0 rK )12 ' 1.) " 3 ' s ?lay ro Dery liver left .2 " ' s 165 t1061 Ar zir- le -DO n Ol ' 5 I 6e Act A, ' s Go ' 911 rile rher feol ' t, 71 ' 7 .-Bianc(e) karcl. ffis 14 eek-is am lin wee( AerIeree , freak, s7a es, a. nd e oe.s e lo rho 6011-oni class i6 , ous, ;; oes 4nd c of a. tA fic brass ask, :sill to 0.19i-12e-115A t; d rhe 0 --SA e Pal 10 AK kin vviVi c 0 A 14 lac k A-f A a E K cp ' 4r4r • belols fo 11elrs sQeor5 e did lyre I I--- -0 didic “. pipit f) " did rP5 rooms to ta ' s 0,11 so 7:a. a w ' w, brie ,i 0;1. f strid s c id e fe (1. Wovl o 7 rack Te sweetgess o 6e,- did learil, ! A ki E , 7 (tat " the is 5 rs are, clear, near, is left bu t ihe pa rk arid 1- ' 4e er lassie, Poo, arose Me same day a class a,rld o Iraq s 0 well the lax- ' wi ;fellow Kai- When Ire lei dear sr like a be6ti " --. ---=-Ar-os ' e.,ana ' cried ; lot) ow cla re, herhead cocks " Vie rnaideqwi e older? locks? " re a 1• " 0 to et w td fro, 716 ,,irecr‘, ho the rho ' so Their- al ba — thew 5C VCSOciec " 1 – VP_ is win cis M 14771 Phe Lathers roari, N sPI is cal a, c ro SAP 414.,,rra,4 f 166 VEY1DER.. Wee • Ag-reat rece riori Y.M.CA. e7 eve, apiageh±. • l ' hcq ou,r „Zo6 ay heel( e. ro re ∎-et I 1 out does 10e obleas To his loI,Oery ' role; 17e. opes e s — d or ,D • .336, rcsi he1 togs says ht.. • T„ loalaa. objects J0 he e01 y7u.chce hotly do es r u..n ki sau,lu,s evia.rola s 5 qd ersoq a r Hot ay c;, s. WEE N, E eci day 4as tonne cus ,you)-1VoJeiriber 4e0e. c asstd 01),- boys aqd those vOii ' boyhoodpast— T Cravyisik Trot hr 00) 74e Is a rlie. rsc sc oo, ' By —his afro ' s alo 0 cleti-Ru. e: ber yrir 7 c heart Tor " reo,t gold et. yearris, flqd " old. cold " Ilie 7 4c. ' 601,1 4 sl ' i ' o ' rPs; 4i6 oq Me leo eq does sadly oar As 5.11.1. is (her- o ' er flirovDri, It cis alotle WEEfrS. is v)eek camr, _ 5 me sradenrs A r ,e) e5 0 runs GL 0 °tie res. 5 le e d oar Prcx s e Ili U oti your rt4,1 Our oo ' r 4) 5 vi)( re All re dy 0 r e. , e then „la, a. s Iv) vv iikt ea 177 Aye] irea..sq d r 14) Was because vt)e., last le ,q. 7 7 • ,„„r oaf xi " v ed Vris, .7 hawier o 167 Neck col e-e. _Et? rih teaks cud ' bdd 13 ' WA directed hlovOs. Till hold Iter schiel° 6z. " 7 ed, a_ cane raised ,C. fierce e col“cl load e S sce.i lame, etc:trial-1 l ' ories:— 9 t caeV e of a.rid oieri f IvA.rc. e LA)ol so 14)e. ' ,a dor oat Gated brearll Jairy of.G_ri ri fj 5 a. Nday brig-41 ' o ' clock our oif A 4— too, Nis 2ruished Wheq to the a al d ki); 17autattyfre He ee daryce.. Abv.gel liesal oar dances a.• near W a ' add Jairdr did try her 101 -174,11) 0. s loast rhea hc w)cc.fters dd he Me too s 67 For Ilinj ca.rc4 as ,de71 5, sin, vJeqr ear lest aybolo5 o rov)c Collqe; qqd vJe ,epr Aor the two sclic,01 , _73 ccr cc Gio.nclalack onc sioicc1 3 ill A offer oar hero Se910_,C41 1 50Irly askbl, uoicet4arclid or e% a colare?: and cd .4)as s . I soeia. — Said, shaking- is head; " sJe ' d.E 7Ths v)eeki,)e. t, Tioc So Missouri ..)170,6 srr irk Lsefrh Cook and setc as 109 tius ' n ' t ■644■Ase eIrc riot " tecei OCci fr01,1 5radeqf body qot nprror ibrser Qood feeling by 168 EgEY,19z0 e A 73i5 vdee 4,001 broc0q, So °,ai-oz.o. 7erp 6 it( ti ierat4) Oilci ,5 V 5 q ' ; t) ti 71a y _7],.c1 lie bras a 1(oot4o1 A1 ay-.4. d g-o ro A:6 ‘s .2v, f0-4rek,bauttetattrala-rtilii ' I 0,c q-Ne cheers to —5.01 e y raised f s4oa a, ie a afy cry I Li t; a r stood a,A og 4,,y-4. e lo fig- to a 02.. Ta rc p ' s dress,,,fs11,rt- eorqc ; 0, 0`.) ready foIsdyle agd rryake 4Is , W k1 4 oar 01 ' a,1 fa r read Gp{e-S: - 77c v)ro at ariicle airless , i 0a s aiaea lier " Jet (rot c ia,t7ee„1 ,0,-.` re roar tra.terla also ,606,10 - rqs e to ta, 44 ' 3 — _Ty a 1 a,11 q St: fro4 ere ot..s o :soun Xia he, (e,.soa.. 7d Tabard 1-4e Fo 15 " orr f%it7 kioq " as riJa s e. (Auld does orT Saitcre Cr sAecica her-- )4i era Pu,h 1 2 e lac( c lc Yoe l ✓ icfj -4r, bia 75 .5 CC ' ;tile -2-joa set- s r2Ac for 1,4 o C.5 f o Lc5 e 1715 a q s --ru ore. reel( q atone. W s rru11.5 etl,ote e oor a e v.) gdovi) o door 4 A, ' ob es ' I-4 e core ' • pm. So i,er77 oqe ore., ,De are 7 bit ea ' cA (A. 70, bra, s sick —our ho or.: e 1)e — our bra iesivtg, 0 c a 4 ro c ,1o6 — s r el ea c 614 s4o2:c aters Ti) T4ti. 169 0 F tatE‘ ORIVEMity• T " AvOpec yap 71-62,1e, Kai oi) aiaSe avdpi.5v Kevai. Vogdes Sturm Smith Wickham Doolittle Veblen Shimek Magowan Houser Egge McConnell Artier Walker Walker Wilson Weld Hale Jameson Calvin Currier McBride Schaeffer Call Loughridge Partridge Andrews Nutting Patrick Perkins Loos • a (011E01611 ' i( FotoItY. CHARLES ASHMEAD SCHAEFFER, A. M., PH. D., LL. D., President. AMOS NOYES CURRIER, A. M., Professor of Latin Language and Literature, and Dean of the Collegiate Faculty. SAMUEL CALVIN, A. M.; PH. D., Professor of Geology and Structural Zoology. • THOMAS HUSTON McBRIDE, A. M., Professor of Botany, and Secretary of the Collegiate Faculty. LAUNCELOT WINCHESTER ANDREWS, A. M., PH. D., Professor of Chemistry. WILLIAM RUFUS PERKINS, A. M., Professor of History. GEORGE THOMAS WHITE PATRICK, A. M., PH. D., Professor of Philosophy. CHARLES DAVIS JAMESON, MEMBER AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, Professor of Civil Engineering. CHARLES BUNDY WILSON, A. M., Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures. ANDREW ANDERSON VEBLEN, A. 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B., Instructor in German. GILBERT L. HOUSER, B. S., Instructor in Histology and Physiology. PERCY H. WALKER, A. M., Instructor in Chemistry. HENRY P. WICKHAM, Assistant Curator of the Museum. MRS. BERTHA GILCHRIST RIDGWAY, Assistant in the General Library. WILLIAM T. CHANTLAND, PH. B., Fellow in History. ERIC DOOLITTLE, Instructor in Mathematics. 172 AW FACU I.TY. Wade Rol) bach. Hayes. Schaeffer. McClain. Low FoalIty. - CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, A. M., PH. D., LL. President, and Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence. EMLIN McCLAIN, A. M., LL. D., Chancellor, and Resident Professor of Law. SAMUEL HAYES, M. S., LL. Resident Professor of Law. MARTIN J. WADE, LL. Resident Professor of Law. JAMES A. ROHBACH, A. Secretary, and Assistant Professor of Law. GEORGE G. WRIGHT, Lb. L. G. KINNE, LL. WILLIAM G. HAMMOND, LL. D., GIFFORD S. ROBINSON, Lb. Lecturers. WILLIAM L. LUDOLPH, LL. Librarian. 173 oudi(el Fa(ültlf. CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, A. M., PH. D.. LL. D., President. P. J. FARNSWORTH, A. M., M. D., Emeritus Professor of Materia Medici " and Therapeutics. J. C. SHRADER, A. M., M. D., Dean of the Faculty, Professor of Obstetrics. Gynecology, Clinical Gynecology, Diseases of Children. W. D. MIDDLETON, A. M., M. D., Professor of Surgery and Clinical Surgery. LAWRENCE W. LITTIG, A. M., M. D., M. R. C. Professor of Theory and Practice of Me dicine and Clinical Medicine, and Assistant the Chair of Surgery. JAMES R. GUTHRIE, A. M., M. D., Professor of Physiology, and Assistant to the Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ELBERT W. ROCKWOOD, A. N., Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology. WOODS HUTCHINSON, A. M., M. D., Professor of Anatomy, and Lecturer on Dermatology, Sanitary Science, and Hygiene. CHARLES S. CHASE, B. S., M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. JAMES W. DALBY, A.-M., M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology. WALTER L. BIERRING, M. D., Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, and Curator of the Medical Museum. A. C. PETERS, N. D., • Professor of Laryngology and Rhinology, and Secretary of the Faculty. FRANK S. ABY, M. S., Professor of Normal Histology. EMLIN MeCLAIN, A. M., LL. D., Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence. GERSHOM H. HILL, A. M., M. D., Lecturer on Insanity. 174 MEDICAL FACULTY. Middleton Dean Carroll Dalby Peters Chase Itierring Hutchinson Littig Rockwood Guthrie Aby Shrader White ' s Kenney Barrett Itarrirnau Barlow :i EMIL _ LOUIS BOERNER, Psi. G., Instructor in Practical Pharmacy. JOHN W. HARRIMAN, M. D., . Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Acting Secretary of the Faculty. W. E. BARLOW, A. B., Demonstrator of Chemistry. W. II. WHITEIS, B. S., L. W. DEAN, Demonstrators of Pathology and Bacteriology. ALBERT M. BARRETT, B . A., Demonstrator of Histology. • J. W. KENNY, M. D., Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy. FRANK CARROLL, Assistant Demonstrator of Chemistry. C. C. PHILLIPS, F. L. AINSWORTH, Assistants to Chair of Anatomy. C. E. LEATHEAD, F. J. LANGENHORST, Assistants to Chair of Physiology. CARL E. CONN, Librarian. C. H. WRIGHT, Assistant Librarian. 175 pow ' Faco GOVERUIUG FTAWLTY. CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, A. M , PH. D., LL. D., President. A. 0. HUNT, D. D. S., Professor, and Dean of the Faculty. W. 0. KULP, D. D. S., Professor. FAMLTY OR 112STRUCT1012. A. 0. HUNT, D. D. Professor of Metallurgy, Dental Prothesis and Art. W. 0. KULP, D. D. S., Professor of Operative Dentistry and Therapeutics. F. T. BREENE, M. D., D. D. Professor of Clinical Dentistry and Special Therapeutics. WOODS HUTCHINSON, A. M., M. D., Professor of Anatomy. JAMES R. GUTHRIE, A. M., M. D., Professor of Physiology. FRANK S. ABY, B. S., Professor of Normal Histology. ELBERT W. ROCKWOOD, A. M., Professor of Chemistry. CHARLES S. CHASE, A. M., M. D., Professor of Materia Medica. W. L. BIERRING, M. D., Professor of Pathology. W. H. DEFORD, A. M,, M. D., D. D. S., Lecturer on Pathology and Hygiene. 176 JOHN J. R. PATRICK, M. D., D. D. S., Lecturer on Odontology and Teratology. A. C. PETERS, M. 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BERNHARDT, JR., Assistant to Chair of Pharmacy. 178 HOMOEOPATHIC DE P ' T. „„,_,; " 1 1 ,,,------- ■ __,----, . ..- ----- ..--- - Fa(ültY. CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, A. M., PH. D., LL. President. WILMOT H. DICKINSON, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice and Clinical Dean of the Faculty. JAMES G. GILCHRIST, A. M., M. D., Professor of Surgery and Surgical Registrar of the ,Faculty. CHARLES S. COGSWELL, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women. FRANK J. NEWBERRY, M. D., 0. ET A. CIIIR., Professor of Ophthalmology, Otology, and nedology. GEORGE ROYAL, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics.. ELBERT ROCKWOOD, A. M., Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology. FRANK S. ABY, S., Professor of Normal Histology. WALTER L. •BIERRING, M. D., Professor of Pathological Histology. D. W. DICKINSON, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of Theory and Practice. THEODORE L. HAZARD, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of Materia Meclica. FRANKLIN P. MILES, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of Surgery. 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University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1892 Edition, Page 1


University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1893 Edition, Page 1


University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1894 Edition, Page 1


University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1897 Edition, Page 1


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University of Iowa - Hawkeye Yearbook (Iowa City, IA) online yearbook collection, 1899 Edition, Page 1


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