University of Idaho School of Forestry - Forester Yearbook (Moscow, ID)
- Class of 1933
Page 1 of 65
Pages 6 - 7
Pages 10 - 11
Pages 14 - 15
Pages 8 - 9
Pages 12 - 13
Pages 16 - 17
Text from Pages 1 - 65 of the 1933 volume:
H . . . H
I love Idaho for 'Lts fa-1'-flung forests,
where one may go 'Ln solitude, cmd in the soughiwzg of the pines, hear the
whzspermg of ncLtm'e's music. . . . "
Published by the School of Forestry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
EDITOR! A. M. SOWDER ASSOCIATE EDITOR! W. D. MILLER
BUSINESS MANAGER! LITER E. SPENCE
VOLUME XV. 1933 ANNUAL EDITION
Dedication, Honorable H. C. Baldridge ,.,.,.I,,,4.,4,,.....,..I,,I,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.I., ,,,,.. 4
The Relation of F01'eStS to Irrigation, by Honorable H. C. Baldridge ....,..,..,,....,........ ,..... 5
The State House, Boise, Idaho ,,.,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,.4,,,,,,,,.,,,,,l,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,4,,,,,,,,,,v,,,4,.,,,,,,, .,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,4, ,,,,, 6
The Benefits and Services Rendered by the National Forests to the State of Idaho,
by M. H. Wolff .................,.....,,...........,,,,4.,,,,,,,,....,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,lll,,,,,,,,,,,A,,,,,,,,,,,,l,l,,4,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,, S
Range Management on Indian Lands, by J. P. Kinney ...... ..,. ................,,l.,,. . . . I.......... 11
Big Game Management, by Orange A. Olsen .,...,.....,,..,,..,.,..,........, ,.,.. 1 3
The New Public Domain, by M. H, Woln' ,l,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,A,,, ,,,,, 1 4
The Place of Chemical Research in Forestry, by Dr. E. C. Jahn ,,.,,,,, ,,i,, 1 5
Planning a Forest for the University of Idaho, by E. A. Sherman ..... .,... 1 7
Income from Recreation Sources to New England .,,,,,,,..,,,,.,..,.,,,..,,,.,, ,,,,,, 1 7
Gift of Experimental Forest, by Dean F. G. Miller .... ...,.. I 8
Branded a "Biler," by Stanley Foss Bartlett .....,......,..... ...... 1 9
Extension Forestry in Idaho, by Stanley C. Clarke ,.,.... ...... 2 0
Vice President Curtis Plants Spruce on Campus .,..... ..... 2 2
Learn From the Trees ,...............................,.................... ..,.., 2 2
The New State Forester ................. ................ ,.,,.. 2 3
Tractor Course Proves Popular ....................,............, ..... 2 3
Blasting Demonstration Practical ............................... ...... 2 3
Paul Bunyan's Big Top, by Dr. Ernest E. Hubert .,., ..,... 2 4
Class of 1933 ,...........,........................,................................. ...... 2 5
Graduate Students ..,..................,...........,.............. ...... 2 6
Fishin', by Stanley Foss Bartlett ...................,... ,.,,, 2 6
The Associated Foresters, by Corland James .............. ..... 2 7
Here and There lField Trip Picturesj .............................. .. 23
Banquet Better Than Ever, by William V. Cranston ..... ,..... 2 9
The 1932 Junior Field Trip, by J. P. Brown .................. ...,, I Sl
Junior Field Trip Pictures ...................................,............ ..... 3 2
A Forest Mystery Solved ....................................... ..... 3 3
Xi Sigma Pi, by G. Lloyd Hayes ........................... .. 34
Do You Remember? CMusings of the Alumsj ...... ..... 3 6
Idahds Record Trees, by Floyd L. Otter ................ ................... ......... ..... I 3 7
School Has Distinguished Visitors ...................................................................,................... ..... 3 9
A General Comparison of Aerial and Ground Surveys, by J. A. Chamberlin ....., ..... 4 0
Appreciation ,,,,,..,,..,.,,.......... .......,..................... ............. ...................................................... .,... - 1 4
An Address to the Associated Foresters, by George M. Fisher .. .... ..... 4 5
George Washington Memorial Dedicated ......... .. .......,.........,....,.,. .. ., 47
Idaho White Pine Saw Logs 1Picturel ........................ .........-. . .. ....... ............. .... . 4 S
,Iuniors Repeat Barbecue Win ......................... ............... ....-..A...............-.. -..-.....-..... ..... 4 9
Directory and News of Alumni and Former Students. by Wm. D. Miller ..,... .,.., 5 3
Index to Advertisers ,,,,,,,,,,........., ......................... ,........ ................ . ................................ ..... G 4
CAXTDN PRINTER CALDWELL -13156
I q ff I coqnifion of his service fo me cause of forfesfvq in H19
Ifnis eclifion of-H19 ldolwo Foresfev is cleclicufecl fo
Tlwe Honomlnle Bculclridqe
Former: Govevnov of lclculwo
THE RELATION OF TI-IE FOREST TO IRRIGATION
HONORABLE H. C. BALDRIDGE
Governor of Idaho 1927 to 1930
THE relation of the forest to irrigation is a
close one and without the coverage incident
to the growth of the forest our irrigation
would be materially reduced. That we may get
the value of this relationship I shall first dis-
cuss the irrigation development of our state.
I shall then endeavor to show what the forest
means and has meant to this vast irrigation
development of Idaho.
Idaho is blessed with the largest supply of
water of any irrigated state on account of hav-
ing within her boundary a very large percent-
age of the Snake River and its tributaries.
Idaho also has a large body of land which on
account of the character of the soil is well
adapted to irrigation. Having the water and
this fine areaof land, coupled with ideal cli-
matic conditions, a progressive and enterpris-
ing citizenship has placed Idaho in the front
rank among the irrigated states.
FARMING PRIOR T0 CIVIL WAR
Irrigation development began in Idaho about
the middle of the nineteenth century in the
southeast section of the state near the present
town of Franklin, the first project being de-
veloped in that section by a group of Mormon
pioneers. It is estimated that in 1860 the total
amount of irrigated land in the State was less
than 1,000 acres. Irrigation now extends en-
tirely across the southern portion of the State,
following generally the Snake River with sec-
tions here and there along the way still in
In the northern end of the State there are
some irrigated tracts also, among the largest
being the Rathdrum prairie and the Lewiston
tract. The Boise River Valley and the so-
called upper Snake River Valley began irriga-
tion development about the same time as those
in northern Idaho.
In southwest Idaho, some irrigated tracts
are found in the Bear River Valley while
others are in the Snake River Valley and its
TWIN FALLS PROJECTS IMPORTANT
The development since 1900 has included two
of the largest tracts in the State, the Twin
Falls and South Side, and the Boise projects.
The completion of the great American Falls
reservoir in 1927 was an outstanding event in
irrigation accomplishment both in the State
and in the Nation. It is the largest reservoir
in the State, having a capacity of 1,700,000
At the time of the dedication of the Ameri-
can Falls dam Dr. Work, then Secretary of the
Interior, made the statement that in its con-
struction xve had the most outstanding evi-
dence of co-operative efort between the Gov-
ernment and private interests that had ever
been undertaken by the Government up to that
The latest development in irrigation enter-
prises is the Gooding division of the Minidoka
project which was completed in 1931. This
project includes new lands, but the greatest
urge for its construction was to give a full
water supply to lands with a partial water
right and which were urgently in need of ad-
More than 2,500,000 acres of land are now
under irrigation in Idaho. It is estimated that
these 2,500,000 acres comprise some 30,000
farms, which should have, and will have under
normal conditions, a value of S375,000,000. In
normal times these irrigated acres will pro-
duce annually approximately S75,000,000 of
IDAHO HAS POTENTIALITIES
A large percentage of our population finds
employment in the cultivation of our irrigated
farms, without which our agriculture would
be of little consequence as a State. The major
portion of our people have employment for
which our irrigated farms are dir-ectly or in-
Idaho still has thousands upon thousands of
acres of land from the standpoint of soil, to-
pography and climate which are well suited to
irrigation. Great quantities of water running
away each year unused doing no one any good
save and except possibly developing electrical
energy of which We have a potential develop-
ment of at least 5,000,000 horse power. When
the time comes, as it will, when we need more
land in cultivation, Idaho can furnish the land
and the water which will continue to produce
food and give employment to other thousands
yet to come to our fair State.
PROTECTION OF VVATERSHEDS VITAL
We shall now give our attention to the dis-
cussion of our Watersheds which hold the source
of the water which annually comes down to
make our thirsty lands produce and which,
after all, is the thing which makes our deserts
"blossom as the rose."
These wat-ersheds, for the most part, are
covered with forests, brush, and other vegeta-
tion. Much of the watershed area lies within
or adjacent to national forests.
In times past much discussion has been pro-
voked because of the manner in which our
forest areas have been handled, with regard to
cutting of timber, grazing, fire protection, and
all factors which in turn have more or less
adected the plant cover. This plant coverage
The State House, Boise, Idaho
THE IDAHO FORESTER
in turn may and does innuence the water sup-
ply and its usability. Until recent years little
attention has been given to reforestation and
the protection of our watersheds without the
thought in mind of continuing and perpetuat-
ing the coverage which is needed to conserve
the water supply.
The conservation of the plant coverage such
as the forest tree and other vegetation is neces-
sary that the snow be retained to prevent early
"runoff" of which we have heard much com-
plaint in recent years from our irrigation
farmers. The Forest Service from its incep-
tion has recognized the need for protection
of these forest areas from the standpoint of
the water supply and its use.
GENERAL PUBLIC CONCERNED
The writer, in 1929, as a member of the
State Land Board, in company with represen-
tatives of the Forest Service, Southern Idaho
Timber Protective Association, and lumber
operators, made a survey of the Boise and
Payette Watersheds for the purpose of study-
ing plans for protection of the forests and
forest vegetation and the conservation of the
water supply for irrigation. The same year a
group of farmers and irrigators made similar
investigations. This all indicates the interest
of the public which is very great in the subject
of the relation of the forest to irrigation.
There is no doubt of the need for study of
the use and handling of the forest and forage
and other resources on the watershed in such
a way that the handling of the same may be
compatible with the welfare of irrigation
development. These resources supply the basis
for range livestock production and the lumber-
ing industry, both of which are not only essen-
tial to the State, but are also interrelated
with irrigation farming in the interchange of
commodities and all interested in the general
upbuilding of the State.
The U. S. Forest Service realizing the im-
portance of protecting our watersheds started
about 1929 an intensive and continued study
of erosion. This is being done because Forest
Service olificials recognize the menace of ero-
sion to reservoir and canals, as well as the
need for preservation of vegetation upon our
FUTURE GENERATIONS CONSIDERED
Methods of cutting timber on our water-
sheds, slash disposal and grazing are all being
studied that we may preserve and perpetuate
forest growth and all vegetation for the bene-
fit of ourselves and posterity.
Another factor in the relationship between
the forest and irrigation is the development of
electrical energy which is now being used by
the farmers almost all over the irrigated sec-
tion. Were it not for the conservation of
water upon these forest-covered watersheds
which results in stream flow in our rivers be-
ing maintained throughout the year, power
development could not have been promoted.
This utility has come to be a valuable asset to
our State and especially to our farmers. Elec-
tric power for use in pumping plants for irri-
gation and the use of electricity upon Idaho
farms has become more or less common. Per-
haps no single thing has done so much to re-
move drudgery from the farm as the use of
The annual flow of water from our forest-
covered watersheds, the development of power
upon our rivers, the use of water for our ir-
rigated lands, has made Idaho a leader among
the intermountain states. Our great diversity
of crops, and our large acreage production are
not excelled by any state and equalled by few
LUMBERING IDAHO'S SECOND INDUSTRY
Again our large and extensive forest areas
furnish summer range for vast herds of sheep
and cattle which in turn, in winter, find feed
upon our irrigated farms to the profit of both
the farmer and livestock man. Our forests
provide a large amount of lumbering which is
the second largest industry in the State, agri-
culture being the largest. The lumber industry
employs a large number of men in normal
times and thereby furnishes a market for no
small amount of the products of the farm.
Our irrigation farmers are interested, along
with all our people, in the large State holdings
of the largest stand of white pine to be found
in the United States. The timber owned by the
State was valued at 335,000,000 a few years
ago. Though it is not worth that amount now
the time will come when it will be worth even
The writer has endeavored to outline some
facts which show the relation existing between
our forests and irrigation. The loss of either
our forests or our irrigation would ruin our
State. It is therefore necessary that we pre-
serve both. So as a state we have sought in
recent years to protect our forest by legisla-
tion which we believe is proving beneficial to
the public and to those who are interested pri-
vately in the conservation of our forests for
the benefit of posterity.
Timber protective associations are func-
tioning throughout the State, which organiza-
tions co-operate with the Federal Government,
the State, and private interests to the end that
all may receive a maximum benefit in the pro-
tection of our forests.
The writer desires to express appreciation
to Dean Francis Garner Miller for the very
fine service he has rendered as Dean of the
School of Forestry of University of Idaho and
especially for services rendered during the
period the writer was Governor of Idaho.
The writer desires also to express his ap-
preciation to former Commissioner of Recla-
mation George N. Carter and Harry C. Shell-
worth, President of the Southern Idaho Timber
Protective Association for data furnished in
preparation of this article.
TI-IE BENEFITS AND SERVICES RENDERED BY TI-IE
NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE STATE OF IDAHO
M. H. WOLFF
Assistant Regional Fo-resteog Lands, Region One, U. S. Forest Servfice
PRIMARILY Idaho's welfare is founded on
its lands. Its small proportion of manu-
facturing activity is essentially involved in the
conversion processes of the raw materials from
its own forests and mines. The stateis wel-
fare depends primarily On the products of the
fields, the ranges, the mines, and the forests.
Land is the basis of all these-land and its
Of Idaho's gross area of 53,000,000 acres
about 23,000,000 are forest lands. The federal
government owns about '79 per cent of the tim-
bered area, practically all within the national
forests, the State of Idaho about 4 per cent,
and the private owners the remaining 17 per
cent. Just so much as the large forested pro-
portion of the state area is a material influ-
ence on the social and economic development
and welfare of the state, so correspondingly
have the national forests, composing virtually
three-fourths of the total area of forest lands,
a very considerable place in serving local social
and economic needs.
The helpful influences of the national forests
in Idaho on the state's welfare are many and
varied. They are the basis of direct financial
returns to the local government units and to
the people in the form of actual cash payments
or equivalents to the counties and the State,
and of a source of employment and a market
for local trade as the result of the national
INDIRECT BENEFITS VARIED
Very appreciable as are these direct finan-
cial returns, of far greater importance in the
immediate and long-time economics and social
welfare, locally, are results of the benefi-
cially planned utilization of the national forest
resources and their development and pro-
tection. These might be termed, for distinc-
tion from the direct financial contributions to
the state, as indirect benefits, The national
forests are a source of raw materials for the
timber-using industries, logging and milling
of lumber materials and the production of
other timber items, such as poles, posts, and
pulpvvood. They insure a certain degree of
stability in the production of these materials
and provide a feasible way for continuing in
timber production lands not now government
owned, which otherwise threaten in large part
to become waste and idle. The national for-
est ranges, under constructive management,
provide forage for livestock producers and also
furnish this pasturage in a manner which
promotes the stabilization of the livestock
business. The beneficial effect of the forests
on erosion and floods and other injurious vari-
ations in waterflows is reflected in nothing
but good for irrigation interests and water
power users. The forests provide an enormous
recreation ground for the inspiration, diver-
sion, and play, first, of the local population,
and secondly, for outside people and through
that an additional source of business revenue.
Most immediate of the direct financial bene-
fits to the state is the federal government's
payment to the counties for road and school
purposes of 25 per cent of the gross revenue
obtained from the payments and fees coming
from the use of the forests and their products.
This virtually amounts to a 25 per cent non-
assessable equity in these lands. The value of
any land is in direct relation to the net rentals
therefrom. Considering that the rental re-
turns cannot be obtained without at least some
expenditure, and that the payments to the
counties are based on gross, not net receipts,
the counties' interest might be considered as
even materially in excess of 25 per cent. It is
to be noted that these incomes are truly cur-
rent rentals and not the removal of principal
values, since a fundamental of national forest
utilization is use without depreciation. This
25 per cent when applied to timber is really
the equivalent of a 25 per cent yield tax 5 this
far exceeds the most hopeful yield tax rate
ever proposed in this or any other state.
ROAD AND SCHOOL REVENUE LARGE '
This 25 per cent contribution in Idaho for
the six-year period preceding the fiscal year
1931, when the efects of the depression be-
came evident, totaled S979,686, indicating a
normal average at this stage of development
of about S163,000 per year. This income is
based on only a partial utilization of the na-
tional forest resourcesg with the more com-
plete utilization fully to be anticipated in the
future the returns to the counties can be ex-
pected to increase.
In addition to contributing this 25 per cent
of its gross income to the counties, the federal
government spends 10 per cent of its gross in-
come in any state for road construction within
that state. An appreciable part of this re-
places an equivalent amount that would other-
wise have to be expended for this purpose by
the local governments. Hence, that amounts
to an additional financial contribution. The
10 per cent road fund apportionment to Idaho
has reached an aggregate of close to 31,000,-
YVhile the 10 per cent road construction has
attained considerable proportions, it has been
vastly exceeded by the direct appropriations
made by the federal government for f0I'9St
highways and forest development projects-
These have been separate and apart from POS'C
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Road or other Federal Aid projects. The
amount of money allocated to the state from
these appropriations has been dependent in
considerable part on the acreage of federal
forest lands in the state. At one time these
contributions were figured at three cents per
acre per annum based on government-owned
lands in the state. In recent years they have
been much greater. Up to July 1, 1932, the
funds thus expended for direct road construc-
tion and road maintenance work by the Fed-
eral Government aggregated 259,500,000 for
major public roads and 358,900,000 for forest
development roads and trails. Since the major
roads are of primary importance to communi-
ties in or near the national forests, their con-
struction by the government replaces an equal
cost of construction which would have had to
be undertaken by the counties or the state, if
not carried on by the government. The forest
development projects in part provide develop-
ment which otherwise would have had to be
undertaken by local agencies.
GOVERNMENT SPENDS OTHER MONEY HERE
The government's expenditures for admini-
stration protection and development of the
forests aggregate a very appreciable total.
Practically all of the payroll expenditures in
the state are put into circulation locally.
There are close to 200 year-long forest service
employees living in the state, varying from
the highly trained, long experienced forest
supervisors with heavy responsibilities, to the
newcomers among the rangers, all of whom
in normal times receive salaries aggregating
about S475,000 annually.
The recurrent seasonal employment of tem-
porary men for prevention and control of fire
and forest diseases, for the construction of
forest development roads, trails, telephone
lines, lookout houses, and other necessary
structures, provides a tidy payroll. In the
seven national forests in northern Idaho alone
this is estimated conservatively to have aver-
aged during late years upward of 2000 men
for an average of about three months each
year. These 6000 man-months represent
around S500,000 in wages alone. This employ-
ment is in large part made up of local resi-
dents, and a very great proportion of their
compensation is put into local channels of
trade. The temporary occasional crews, spe-
cially recruited for suppression of large fires,
have aggregated 2000 men yearlyg while many
of these have been obtained from outside the
state, practically all available and suitable
local men have been used first, and a very
large proportion has been local, and a large
part of their wages has been spent within the
state. Large aggregates are spent on such
things as subsistence, materials, equipment,
transportation, rent, horse feed, and similar
items necessary for carrying on this large
field enterprise. The state's usual annual in-
come from the government's national forest
activities is indeed of considerable moment in
the prosperity and welfare of the state.
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS
This year a new enormous expenditure by
the federal government is in the way of being
made in the national forests of Idaho. The
Civilian Conservation Corps, while it will
largely be composed of men recruited from
other states, will include a great number of
Idaho citizens likewise and will liberate large
amounts of money into the local channels of
Altogether it can safely be said that the
direct financial contributions of the federal
government, as a result of its national forest
enterprise in the eighteen forests in Idaho,
far exceed what would have been the tax re-
turns to the counties if the land now in na-
tional forests had been permitted to lie open to
public entry fmining laws are still, of course,
unrestrictedly applicablej and had been pri-
vately acquired. It is to be noted that after
all but a small proportion of the national for-
est property would have been privately ac-
quired and retained in private ownership as
worth while for a private owner to hold, ad-
minister, protect, develop, and pay taxes on.
Of the indirect benefits of the national for-
ests the government's timber production ef-
,forts have been and will prove permanently to
yield the greatest return to the state and its
people. This is by providing a source of tim-
ber conversion activities both present and po-
tential. It is not in illing the needs of the
state for lumber itself, although it is not at
all amiss to have available near at hand at no
great cost of transportation virtually an un-
limited supply of timber for use by the mines,
the farms, and other less prominent activities
in the state, and although the government
policy is to sell, at cost of making and ad-
ministering the timber sales, all material
needed by local settlers, and to give away all
dead material free of charge.
Idaho's output of lumber alone has aver-
aged between 800,000,000 and 850,000,000 feet
annually. It has been estimated that each
thousand board feet of timber logged and
manufactured brings between 320 and S25 in
labor, supplies, and equipment paid out in the
local community. While most of the cut in
the past has come from privately owned lands,
the end of privately owned timber as a ma-
terial quantity exploited annually is not very
many years away. In northern Idaho, for in-
stance, private timber holdings will at normal
cutting rates be cut out generally in from
eight to fifteen years, with only a few ex-
ceptions running a little longer. Very ob-
viously the 322.50 for each thousand feet of
timber cut that goes into local circulation will
have to depend more and more on the govern-
ment timber as time goes on.
TI-IE IDAHO FORESTER
YIELD CAPACITY DETERMINES CUT
The amount of national forest timber that
may be cut in any year is controlled by the
sustained yield capacity of the forest land.
The yield at the present time, based on the
present forest land acreage, is in the neigh-
borhood of 550 to 600 million feet annually.
This is much below the past average annual
cut in the state. Furthermore, a large- pro-
portion of this yield is in species not now in
great demand, or consists of the younger
stands too small to fill market requirements,
or is so inaccessible that for quite a number of
decades it cannot be economically utilized.
Consequently, there promises to be a material
gap in the lumber industry's output for a
period commencing about fifteen or twenty
years from now until about fifty or sixty years
from now, when the younger stands come into
merchantability. What this means to local
welfare needs no emphasis. The eiect of
cessation of lumbering activities in several of
the counties and towns in northern Idaho is
already well known.
However, looking ahead to the future the
national forests are definitely a provisiong
first to ameliorate the trying conditions re-
sulting from cutting out of timber, and sec-
ond, to build up the raw material output to
even greater yi-eld possibilities than hitherto
have been utilized.
The first is accomplished through limitation
of cutting-' on national forest lands to their
sustained yield. A movement is further on
foot, using the government timber as a foun-
dation and nucleus, to work out a scheme in-
volving- northern Idaho timber whereby the
timber of other than government ownership
will be thrown in with it and together be cut
and managed on a sustained yield basis.
SECOND GROWTH ESSENTIAL
The second growth is accomplished through
the care and protection the government is giv-
ing to its young timber growth of no present
commercial value as well as to the older mer-
chantable stands. Such a policy is not fully
pursued by any other forest landowner in the
State of Idaho, not even the state itself on its
own land. Its accomplishment is also further-
ed through the authority for acquiring cut-
over or young growth areas, nonagricultural
in character, heretofore privately owned and
adding them to the existing national forest
lands. The lands thus added, having been se-
lected for their timber quality in the days of
free public land acquisition before the insti-
tution of the national forests, are generally
far better than average in timber production
capacity. Hence, the future yield of the na-
tional forests will be increased far out of
proportion to the increase in acreage.
Utilizing land unfit for agriculture, keep-
ing land productive which otherwise would lie
waste, and at no cost to the state, cannot
otherwise than benefit the state. It is well
known that vast acreages of privately owned
land, cut-over, burned, or with unmarketable
second growth, which have no value for agri-
culture or any other purpose than timber pro-
duction, are going back to the counties through
tax delinquencies. The counties, even though
their officials realize full well their responsi-
bility and the vital importance of custodial at-
tention to these lands, are financially unable to
undertake this burden. The state cannot do so.
Somewhat limited authority is available for
the government to take over these lands. This
has afforded a means for keeping much of
these "new public domain" lands productive
and in the way to deliver their manifold bene-
fits to the people of the state.
INVESTMENT FIGURES LARGE
In these ways the national forests areplay-
ing the part of bringing stability to the large
lumbering and allied industries of the state
upon which very many other gainful occupa-
tions depend in great part. In 1927 there
were in Idaho 96 lumber and timber products
establishments, over 10,000 salary and wage
earners faverage for the yearlg salaries and
wages totaled over 314,000,000 and materials,
fuel, etc., exceeded 310,000,000. The value of
the manufactured product exceeded 330,000,-
000. The figures for 1929 were appreciably
higher, but 1927 data are accepted as more
conservative. The 322.50 per thousand feet
that is estimated as going into local circula-
tion, on 800,000,000 feet of annual cut comes
to 318,000,000 The figures from one large
lumber company indicate that on anpinvest-
ment of around 39,500,000, about 32,500,000
yearly has circulated in the local communities
for the past two decades.
The lumber and allied industries comprise
directly a material part of the taxable prop-
erty of the state. From the 1931 report of the
Idaho State Board of Equalization is indicated
that this comes to between 345,000,000 and
350,000,000 Just how much more taxable
values come from business, residence and
similar properties, and even public utility
values, and farm values stimulated by local
markets resulting from the lumbering indus-
try, it is impossible to determine, but un-
questionably their aggregate is v-ery great.
The continuance of the tax return from these
properties is inevitably bound up with the con-
tinuance of these industries.
Of vast importance indeed in the economic
welfare of the state in the future is the as-
sured stability of raw material production.
This assurance of a stable output of forest
crops is not or cannot be assured by any other
agency than the federal government. Despite
these enormous benefits, the obligation has not
been undertaken by any of the county govern-
ments and is redeemed in only a secondary
way by the state. While the justifica-
tion of the federal government's raising tim-
fContinued on page 465
RANGE MANAGEMENT ON INDIAN LANDS
J. P. KINNEY
Director of Forestry, U. S. Indian Service
THE total area of land within the United
States in which the Indians own a beneficial
interest exceeds 71,000,000 acres, and is ap-
proximately equal to one-half of the net area
of Federally-owned lands included within Na-
tional Forest boundaries. The relative pro-
portion of Indian lands that may be classed as
forest lands is much smaller than the relative
proportion of timbered lands within the Na-
tional Forests, the proportion of rough moun-
tain land in the National Forests is greater
than within Indian reservations, and the area
of open grass land within the reservations is
proportionally greater than within the Na-
tional Forests. These disparities are chiefiy
due to the fact that Indian reservations com-
prise large areas in the Plains Region, east
of the Rocky Mountains, and in the semi-arid
portions of Arizona and New Mexico.
AREA or INDIAN GRAZING LANDS
The forage on the grazing areas within In-
dian reservations west of the Rockies is com-
parable to that on National Forests, but the
immense grassy plains of reservations within
the Dakotas and Montana are quite different
from any extensive areas within National
Forests. The capacity of these short grass
areas of the Plains Region to produce forage
for stock is truly marvelous.
While there are Indian reservations under
Federal jurisdiction in twenty states, the chief
reservations containing grazing lands of im-
portance lie within ten states: Arizona,
Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Da-
kota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washing-
ton, and Wyoming. The combined area of the
reservations in these states exceeds 45,000,000
acres and of this total nearly 40,000,000 acres
are classiiiable as grazing lands. These 40,-
000,000 acres include about 5,000,000 acres of
forest land which affords range incidental to
its primary purpose of forest production.
The reservations in these ten states may be
properly assigned to three groups of rather
distinct characteristics. These are the North-
ern Great Plains Region, lying east of the
Rockies and north of the forty-first parallel
of latitude, the Intermountain Region, lying
north of the forty-first parallel and between
the Rockies and the Cascades, and the South-
west Region comprising Arizona, New Mexi-
co, Utah, and a small area in southwestern
Colorado. The Plains Region contains over
12,000,000 acres of range lands, the Inter-
mountain Region nearly 5,000,000 acres, and
the Southwestern Region nearly 23,000,000
acres. In 1930 slightly more than 11,000,000
acres were under lease or permit for grazing
purposes and a yearly cash income of nearly
S900,000 was realized. It will be noted that
the area not under lease or permit was nearly
three times the area from which a cash reve-
nue was being received. The total revenue de-
rived from Indian livestock ranging on Indian
lands in 1930 was nearly 32,340,000 Thus the
total income to the Indians from livestock and
grazing fees amounted to approximately 53,-
250,000. Obviously these range resources play
an important part in the economic life of the
CONDITION or GRAZING LANDS.
While it is unmistakably true that the
grazing lands of the Navajos in Arizona and
New Mexico are greatly overstocked at
present, and while isolated instances of over-
grazing occur on various reservations, the
range lands on Indian reservations are not
generally in a depleted condition. In fact,
throughout the Indian country the faults of
the past have been chiefiy in the line of un-
regulated use and a failure to provide physical
improvements rather than in a general over-
stocking of the ranges. Ranges heretofore
overgrazed could be relieved through the de-
velopment of Water in areas that can not now
be used to capacity because of a lack of wells
or tanks. Large areas have been injured by
the grazing of inferior horses who produce no
income commensurate with the harm done to
the range. Tens of thousands of acres are
practically useless for stock purposes and hun-
dreds of thousands of acres are greatly re-
duced in value because of their occupation by
prairie dogs which could be and should be ex-
Funds have never been available for the de-
velopment of water supplies and the prospects
of future appropriations for such purposes are
by no means encouraging. The Indians have
been reluctant to dispose of their ponies at the
prices that could be obtained for them, and
not only have the funds available for rodent
control been extremely limited, but the Indians,
especially in the Navajo country, have not been
sympathetic with plans for the extermination
of animals that at times afford a partial food
supply in a region that produces but a limited
variety of human diet.
INVENTORY OF GRAZING LANDS
The first task undertaken by the Forestry
Branch of the Indian Service after the ad-
ministration of grazing on Indian lands was
assigned to it on April 15, 1930 was to secure
an inventory of the grazing resources of the
Indians and of the stock utilizing the same. In-
cidental to the taking of this inventory a vast
amount of information was accumulated as
to the precipitation, the kinds of forage, past
experience in stock raising, and other data
for each particular reservation. This infor-
THE IDAHO FORESTER
mation was incorporated in extensive reports
of as uniform a character as the circumstances
would permit. These special reports were sup-
plemented by, and to some extent summarized
in, a general report on the entire problem
entitled "An Economic Survey of the Range
Resources and Grazing Activities on Indian
Reservations" prepared by Mr. Lee Muck,
Assistant Director of Forestry in the Indian
Service, assisted by Mr. P. E. Melis, Assistant
Forester, and Mr. G. M. Nyce, Associate Range
Supervisor. This report was published in
Part 22 of Senate Hearings under Senate
Resolution '79 of the Seventieth Congress. On
June 4, 1931 the Department of the Interior
approved the regulations, permit forms, etc.,
that had been devised in thelight of the stud-
ies conducted during the year following April
15, 1930. The new regulations, stipulations as
to use of range, permit forms, and so forth,
went into effect on July 1, 1931.
An inventory of the grazing resources hav-
ing been made, the main weaknesses of the
former method of administration disclosed,
and a plan outlined for future administration,
attention was directed to special studies of
particular ranges on the various reservations
and to the accumulation in definite, recorded
form of data that could be compared with other
data gathered at subsequent periods so as to
disclose unmistakably the trends toward im-
provement or depletion of the range on such
particular areas. Obviously, studies of this
character require great care and much time
and it is not surprising that the accomplish-
ments along this line during the first two
years have been comparatively limited, when
it is remembered that the current administra-
tion connected with the actual use of 40,000,-
000 acres has necessarily demanded a very
large part of the time of the very restricted
force available. For instance there are several
reservations comprising more than 1,000,000
acres on which only one man is available for
grazing work and while some guidance can be
given by foresters and grazing specialists at
large, it is clearly impossible with such a
limited personnel to devote adequate time to
studies of the most vital importance to the
establishment of successful range management.
ADMINISTRATION CHANGE AT WRONG TIME
Unfortunately the efforts to introduce new
methods of grazing administration on Indian
lands happened to coincide with a period of
the most adverse conditions in the livestock
industry that have been experienced in forty
years, and possibly during the whole history
of the industry in America. The summers of
1929 and 1930 were marked by extreme drought
in diferent portions of the Northwest and
Southwest, and so little precipitation occurred
within extensive areas in Washington, Mon-
tana and the Dakotas in 1931 as to force the
removal from their usual ranges of tens of
thousands of head of stock in the late summer
and autumn of that year. The general eco-
nomic depression having its incidence late in
1929 had begun to be seriously felt in the live-
stock industry in 1930. The low prices of stock
combined with the shortage of forage and even
cultivated crops in the range states, placed the
owners of livestock in a most precarious con-
dition. Economic conditions became succes-
sively worse in 1931 and 1932 until the prices
obtainable for steers, lambs and wool dropped
to one-half or one-third of the realizations of
1928. The inability of the Navajos and other
tribes in the Southwest to dispose of their
lambs and older sheep, greatly accentuated an
over-stocking of ranges that already threaten-
ed future income from their grazing lands.
The disastrously low prices for livestock pro-
ducts prevented permittees on the Indian
ranges from paying their grazing fees estab-
lished on a basis of comparatively high mar-
kets for products. An urgent demand came
from the stockmen that grazing rates be sub-
stantially reduced even on contracts already
made for a term of years.
The Indian Service was not in a position to
reduce grazing fees in existing contracts with-
out the consent of the Indians and was un-
willing to agree to reductions on future per-
mits without the consent of the Indians. For a
long time the Indians on many reservations
opposed any reduction, but as they became
convinced that the permittees were really un-
able to pay the former prices and came to
realize that the ranges might lie idle if rates
were not reduced, agreements on adjustments
were reached and it affords us much satisfac-
tion to state that generally the Indians showed
a very commendable spirit in meeting the users
of the range half way in a reduction of graz-
PROBLEMS OF ADMINISTRATION
The Indian Service is confronted by a pe-
culiarly ditlicult problem in the administra-
tion of grazing lands as well as timber lands.
In 1887 legislation was passed by the federal
Congress that was directed to the individuali-
zation of the Indian problem. The theory back
of this legislation was that if each Indian were
given an allotment Of land in severalty the
tribal status and customs would in a com-
paratively short time be broken up and the
individual Indians with their distinct land
holdings would assume much the same posi-
tion as homesteaders on the public lands.
Under this general allotment act and special
acts of a similar character the greater part of
the grazing land on reservations in North and
South Dakota, Idaho, Montana, and to a lesser
degree in other states, has been allotted in
areas varying from 160 acres to 320 acres, Or
even a larger amount in one or two instances.
1Continued on page 483
BIG GAME MANAGEMENT
ORANGE A. OLSEN
171319907507 Of Grcazing, U. S. Forest Service, Region 1,
GAME management and game conservation
are synonymous, meaning one and the
same thing, that is, both involve propagation,
protection, and a wise utilization of the sur-
plus. Game managers endeavor to get away
from guess work and to build on facts and
make common sense application of scientific
The game manager, when confronted with
a problem of management, soon finds that it is
extremely ramifying and frequently complex.
He does not only have to deal with the habits
and needs of the particular game animal in-
volved, but also has to consider its relation to
man. Civilization has pushed out into the
most remote sections of our game country and
a correlation of land use by man and game
must be worked out. Use by man means his
utilization of land resources-forage, timber,
watershed, agriculture, and recreation. Defi-
nite information concerning the animal to be
conserved is important g its life history should
be well understoodg also, at least, its approxi-
mate numbers, rate of increase and losses
should be known. Information is needed on
diseases and the effects of parasites internally
and externally. What game animals eat and
the amount are also valuable data is correlat-
ing range use by them with that of livestock.
It is evident that those charged with the re-
sponsibility of managing game resources
should have broad training, both technical and
practical, in many of the sciences. The bett-er
they are versed in biology, ecology, forestry,
range management, livestock, agriculture, eco-
nomics, and so forth, the better qualified they
will be to handle game problems. Training
and experience are essential to see the broad
picture of how game conservation should fit in
with our whole economic structure. Correlat-
ing land use by game with that of forage sup-
ply, livestock, recreation, private lands, and
the public is a big undertaking.
The value of wild life and the need for its
proper conservation are being realized and ap-
preciated more and more as the years pass.
Never before has the interest been greater
interest is growing. More thought,
time and money are being devoted to the prop-
protection, and utilization of wild
life than ever before.
The early trappers, explorers, and settlers
who came West found an abundance of game
on lands wherever conditions were favorable.
The buffalo and antelope numbered thousands
on the plainsg deer and elk were abundant in
the foothills, valleys, and some mountainous
regionsg mountain sheep, goats and moose oc-
cupied ranges in reasonable numbers where
the environment was to their liking.
That which is plentiful is seldom appre-
ciated. Game exploitation resulted. In a few
short years the buffalo became strangers to
the plains and the antelope were seldom seen.
Deer and elk in reduced numbers were crowded
into the back country. Not much is recorded
about the mountain sheep, goat and moose, but
undoubtedly civilization adversely affected
their numbers. '
The numbers of game animals decreased
rapidly and in many instances disappeared
entirely. To save them from extinction, State
Fish and Game Departments were createdg
laws were enacted to restrict the kill. Game
preserves were established and serious effort
was made to save the remnants. Public senti-
ment was generally favorable to big game.
Elk plantings were made to restock depleted
areas. Control of predatory animals was un-
dertaken by the States, Federal Government,
stockmen, and sportsmen. In many places
throughout the intermountain region several
species of our big game in response to this
protection, have made a very pleasing "come
back," especially during the past ten years.
On the National Forests of the West, elk, deer,
and antelope have shown excellent recovery.
Mountain sheep and goats seem to be gradu-
ally decreasing, while moose are making nor-
mal increases in some sections.
GAME MANAGEMENT ESSENTIAL
This protection, admirable as it has been
and is, has in some few instances not worked
to the best advantage, even to the game them-
selves. In a few places, big game, especially
deer, elk, and to a lesser extent antelope, have
increased to such density that they have either
of themselves or in conjunction with livestock,
so depleted their ranges that heavy losses in
game have resulted, particularly on winter
ranges which are usually limited in area and
grazing capacity. On some units game have
become so abundant that stockmen complain
against the numbers of deer and elk and main-
tain they are being crowded out. Game fre-
quently trespass in excessive numbers on pri-
vate lands, consuming forage to which the
land owner is entitled. Occasionally game ani-
mals do considerable damage to farm crops,
orchards, and gardens.
Evidently such conditions are not to the best
interests of game. It is poor management
that permits game to increase beyond its food
supply causing losses from starvation and in-
viting parasites and disease. Those who have
seen dead elk and deer scattered over depleted
ranges, due to starvation, are indelibly im-
pressed that too much protection can reach a
stage where it is worse than not enough. It
is difficult to reestablish game on a depleted
range. Management based on the year-long
THE IDAHO FORESTER
grazing capacity of the available range, plus
supplemental feed if provided, should be prac-
ticed. It is inhuman to raise game in the
summer and let it suffer the agonies of starva-
tion in winter. Where there is conflict be-
tween game and livestock on National Forest
lands, a balance between the interests of both
should be worked out. Game and livestock are
both valuable resources and one must not un-
necessarily crowd out the other. The problem
of game on private lands is ditlicult to solve.
Fortunately most land owners are friendly to-
ward game and gladly tolerate game in rea-
sonable numbers and complain only when it
becomes burdensome. Lands which are the
"key" to a particular game problem should be
publicly owned and administered primarily for
the benefit of game. This applies chieiiy to
game winter rangesg summerranges are usu-
CHANGES NEEDED IN GAME LAWS
The conditions surrounding each game herd
vary, with no two herds having the same prob-
lems to meet. This brings out the need for
fiexibility in game laws to permit the handling
of any game herd as a unit, separate and apart
from other herds, in accordance with its par-
ticular conditions and needs. Big game con-
servation has a wider field than mere law en-
forcement and most of the states have now
enacted laws giving to some one, either the
Fish and Game Commissioner, a Game Com-
mission, or a Board, authority to regulate
hunting seasons, limit the kill as to numbers
and sex for the purpose of controlling numbers
where necessary to prevent range depletion
and damage to private property and to use
wisely any surplus of game that may exist.
The first duty of every game administrator
is to produce the maximum amount of game
consistent with the forage supply and eco-
nomic needs of the people. The ideal would
be to remove only the surplus game animals.
A surplus may be considered as existing when
numbers exceed the year-long forage supply
fnatural or artificialj, when control is neces-
sary to safeguard against undue damage to
private property, when the density of game
is out of balance with numbers of livestock,
and when there is a greater ratio of males to
females than is necessary to maintain a proper
The application of management principles
will provide for producing and maintaining
the greatest number of game animals possible
on any given area and will also give the
sportsmen maximum hunting privileges con-
sistent with the welfare of the individual game
herds. On some areas less hunting would be
necessary, while on others it would be in-
creased. Ultimately with wise management,
the optimum of numbers would be reached
and under a system of regulated hunting the
perpetuation of game would be assured and
the needs of the sportsmen, recreationists, and
big game lovers would be provided for to the
highest degree possible.
THE NEW PUBLIC DOMAIN
UCH has been said in recent years about the public domain
remnant of the original public land wealth of the United States,
comprising the culled over leavings after the more desirable lands had
been privately acquired. Its final disposition is a problem of great mag-
nitude. But there is a new and somewhat similar problem that is of
growing importance. Forest land from which the original timber crop
has been removed is gradually going through the stages of tax delin-
quency until, as county land, it becomes a new public domain-a new
"no man's land"-since the counties are doing no more with it than has
the government undertaken hitherto with the old public domain. There
are some distinct differences. The old public domain is constant in size
or, if anything, slowly diminishing. The new public domain is growing
very rapidly. The old public domain is the the poorer land,' the new
public domain was originally the best of the timber producing lands.
M. H. WOLFF.
THE PLACE OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN FORESTRY
E. C. JAHN
Associate Professor of Forestry
THE proper utilization of the products of
the forest is just as important a part of
the science of forestry as is the growing of
timber. Forest utilization has concerned it-
self primarily with lumber and timbers which,
both in quantity, as represented by board feet
of wood consumed, and in value, are our most
important forest products. These products
possess in general the properties of the origi-
nal wood in the tree and, because of these
properties, such as strength, lightness, elas-
static complex structure is still the subject of
Woon OFFERS MUCH STUDY
Neither botanically nor chemically is wood
a homogeneous substance. Botanically it is
made up of a variety of cells, most of which
are spindle-shaped fibers about 1 mm. long in
hardwoods and 1.5 to 9 mm. long in conifers
or softwoods. Communication exists between
most of the cells in wood by means of pits in
The lfVood Conversion Laboratory is oi Valuable Addition to the
Idaho School of Forest'ry.
ticity, and workability, they are particularly
useful for structural purposes.
There are, however, many very important
and valuable forest products which no longer
resemble the wood from which they were ob-
tained. The wood is the raw material for these
products which are manufactured principally
by chemical processes. Wood as a raw ma-
terial is becoming increasingly important as
a basis for chemical and technological proc-
esses which furnish man with many useful
First let us briefiy consider the raw ma-
terial-wood. Wood is organic tissue pro-
duced by biochemical and physiological proc-
esses and is, therefore, a complex substance.
A knowledge of the chemistry of wood is fun-
damental to its utilization by any of the chemi-
cal processes. Of the mechanism of the growth
and synthesis of the various components of
wood we know practically nothing, Our
knowledge of wood is only of the product as
has been elaborated by the plant, and yet this
their walls. The cells are all cemented to one
another by a common medial layer known as
lamella. This cementing layer or
matrix is made up of a complex material not
clearly defined, and known as lignin. The
cell walls are composed mostly of a strong
tough substance, cellulose, together with hemi-
celluloses and some lignin. The cell wall en-
closes a lumen or central cavity which con-
tains extraneous material, since these cavities
function in the storage of food, the transporta-
tion of food and water, and in other life proc-
The scope of this paper does not permit dis-
cussion of the chemistry of these major com-
ponents of wood. Although the chemistry of
wood still offers many baffling problems, the
gradual unfolding of these mysteries adds to
human knowledge and in turn to the increased
usefulness of wood to man.
There are several important chemical in-
dustries which depend upon the forest for their
raw material and yet do not utilize wood. For
example, in the production of naval stores
fturpentine, pine oil, rosinj, maple syrup,
rubber, tung oil, and many other products the
woody structure of the tree is not utilized, but
materials which are naturally produced by the
tree and only require collection are used. Only
those industries which utilize the Woody struc-
ture will be considered here.
CHARCOAL INDUSTRY CENTURIES OLD
Although most chemical industries depend-
ing upon wood as raw material are of recent
development, there are some which originated
several centuries or more ago. The most
notable example is the destructive distillation
of wood. However, the modern wood distilla-
tion industry is a far cry from the charcoal
making of five centuries ago. The old collier
THE IDAHO FORESTER
duction of acetic acid, acetone and wood
The pulp and paper industry is the greatest
of the chemical forest industries and is the
seventh ranking industry in the United States.
Paper was invented by the Chinese in 105 A.
D. and was made by hand from that time until
after the middle of the past century. With the
advent of the chemical processes for producing
pulp from wood, the paper industry passed, in
a relatively short time, from making a few
hundred hand sheets per day to mills produc-
ing 400 tons of paper for the same period of
Paper is a thin sheet of plant fibers made
by separating the individual fibers in the plant
and then felting them together again in a uni-
form sheet. Since wood is composed mainly
The Wood Conversion Laboratory Contains Considerable Modern
Equipment and Machinery for Instructional Purposes.
obtained only charcoal from wood and thereby
unwittingly burned and wasted the most valu-
able products. At present, thanks to research,
chemicals which were formerly lost in gases
and smoke are now the most important prod-
ucts of wood distillation. The more im-
portant chemical products are acetic acid,
wood alcohol, acetone and tar oils which rind
wide industrial uses as solvents, for the manu-
facture of one form of rayon, in preparing
formaldehyde, synthetic resins, various druys,
dyes, perfumes, and other valuable products.
The wood distillation industry is constantly
undergoing radical development and improve-
ment in economy of manufacture, in yield of
products, in the refinement of products and
the recovery of by-products. In the more re-
cent plants sawdust and chipped waste wood
may be fed continuously to the distillation re-
torts, effecting both economy and improved
production. The refinement of the products is
carried out in complex modern chemical en-
gineering equipment. It is believed that with
these improvements the industry will be able
to compete successfully with the synthetic pro-
of fiber-shaped cells it is an excellent raw
material for paper. But in order to separate
these cellulose fibers the cementing substance,
lignin, must be removed. The gradual accumu-
lation of research on Wood during the nine-
teenth century led to the discovery of the
present-day pulping process in which the lig-
nin is dissolved from the Wood, thereby freeing
WOOD A RAW MATERIAL FOR TEXTILES
As in other modern industries, research is
constantly bringing about improvements. The
actual pulping processes are still but imper-
fectly known and are the center of very in-
tensive research. The number of forest spe-
cies which may be used for pulp is gradually
being enlarged. Also improved pulping proc-
esses and the development of pulp refining
methods is broadening the market for pulp.
Highly purihed wood pulp is competing to a
greater extent with cotton as a raw material
for rayon and other cellulose products.
A new industry which is related to the pulp
and paper industry is the manufacture of fiber
LContinued on page 495
PLANNING A FOREST FOR THE UNIVERSITY OE IDAI-IO
E. A. SHERMAN
United States Forest Service
WHEN Dean F. G. Miller, of the School of
Forestry of the University of Idaho,
turns from his desk and looks out of his ohice
window, his eyes rest on the timbered south
slopes of a range of hills known as the Moscow
Mountains. These constitute a short secondary
range running east and west almost at a right
angle to and fairly well detached from the
main mountain mass occupying the central
and northern parts of the State. The most
striking feature of the range, Moscow Moun-
tain proper, is only 12 miles in an air line
from the dean's ofiice. The area is unusually
productive, with a fertility carried to it in
wind-borne soils from the famous Palouse
region. The total area comprises 65,753.62
acres and is divided naturally into two rather
distinct units, the Moscow Mountain unit, con-
taining 35,410.79 acres, and the Potato Hill
unit of 30,342.83 acres. All the principal com-
mercial forest types are well represented, with
acreages as follows: white pine, 14,0803 pon-
derosa pine, 20,0003 larch-fir, 28,7105 Douglas
ir, 1,3905 cedar-white fir, 700. It would be
hard, the dean believes, to find a more nearly
ideal set-up for a university forest.
To obtain this area for the Idaho School of
Forestry as a field laboratory to be studied,
protected, developed, and managed by his stu-
dents has long been the dream of Dean Miller.
Two steps toward the accomplishment of that
ambition have recently been taken. In 1932
the Forest Development Company donated to
the University about three thousand, six hun-
dred and fifty acres of forest land on Moscow
Mountain. This area is already in use by the
forest school and forms a nucleus for the
projected forest. The second step was taken
on January 13, 1933, when Representative
Burton L. French, of Idaho, introduced in
Congress a bill which, if enacted into law, will
enable the State to acquire for its university
the entire forest area in question.
The plan which passage of the bill will fur-
ther is based upon the fact that the State of
Idaho owns large acreages of land within the
boundaries of the national forests in the
State. The bill authorizes the Federal Gov-
ernment to acquire privately owned lands
within certain described sections in the Mos-
cow Mountains region and extending north-
eastward of that region to the Palouse division
of the St. Joe National Forest and southward
to Potato Hill fa landmark of some local
prominencej. Boundary lines are to be so
drawn as to exclude farm lands and settle-
ments and all land having substantial agri-
cultural potentialities. The Federal Govern-
ment would acquire these lands with the
ultimate object of exchanging them for an
equal value of the lands owned by the State
within the boundaries of national forests.
It may take many years to round out the
entire project, as a great many small owner-
ships are involved. Meanwhile, the State and
the Federal Government already own a part
of the land. In addition to the tract donated
to the University, the State owns 8,029 acres
within the boundary limits of the two units,
and the Federal Government before long will
come into ownership of about 9,000 acres, 200
from the public domain and the balance from
pending donations, making combined State and
Federal holdings of approximately 20,000
The terms of the final exchange transaction
between the State and the Forest Service will
be worked out after the Federal Government
has completed the work of consolidation and
the State authorities have been empowered to
make such an exchange.-Forest Worker,
Income From Recreational Sources
New England's annual income from recre-
ational sources amounts to S500,000,000 and,
if this is considered as a 6 per cent return on
a capital investment, it would place the cur-
rent economic value of New England's recre-
ational assets at about 8M billion dollars. The
value of the recreational property in New
England is placed at S550,000,000 and taxes
amounting to 315,000,000 are paid on this
property. The recreation dollar is spent as
follows: Transportation, 20 cents, accommo-
dations, 20 cents, retail stores, 25 centsg food,
21 centsg amusements, 8 centsg confections, 6
cents.-Jozwwzal of Forestry, March, 1933.
Philip Lord, '33, completed his academic
work the first semester this year and returned
to his home in South Pasadena, California,
just in time for the earthquake. He writes as
"Practically all the serious damage occurred
to brick buildings. I have been over a large
part of the damaged area and in no case did
I see any major damage to an all-wood struc-
ture. Some of the wooden buildings were
moved several feet from their foundations by
the shock yet they did not fall. The lumber
companies are advertising with the phrase,
'Wood Stood? Lumber will have no trouble
holding its own as a building material in this
section of the country,"
GIFT OF EXPERIMENTAL FOREST
F. G. MILLER
Dean, School of Forestry, U'nifoers'ity of Idaho
BY OUTRIGHT gift the University of Idaho
has come into possession of a choice ex-
perimental forest for its School of Forestry.
The gift was made by the Forest Development
Company, a VVeyerhaeuser subsidiary at Lew-
iston, Idaho. It consists of 3,646 acres of for-
est land, and it was accepted by the State
Board of Education October 11, 1932.
In conveying this gift to the University of
Idaho Mr. C. L. Billings, President of the
Forest Development Company, stated it to be
the thought of the company that the area
shall be used as "an experimental forest as
long as there is a School of Forestry at the
University." Mr. Billings has also furnished
the School a full and complete report, with
maps, descriptive of the forest cover on these
lands, which will serve the School as a basis
in formulating its plan of management for
LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY
These lands are suitably and conveniently
located for an experimental forest. They are
all within the Moscow Mountain Range, 3,046
acres lying on the north slope and 600 acres on
the south slope. Their average distance from
Moscow is about 18 miles northeast. The
lands on the north slope may be reached di-
rect over a graveled and dirt road known as
the "Old Princeton Road," or by way of Pot-
latch over a graveled highway to Potlatch,
thence over a dirt road the rest of the way.
The 600 acres on the south slope are accessible
over a dirt and graveled road by way of Troy.
It probably will not be many years until the
main body of the area, that on the north slope
of the mountains, will be accessible all the
way over a surfaced road.
TOPOGRAPHY AND SOIL
The land is all either rolling or mountainous
in character, but any of it can be readily
logged. It is practically all good timber pro-
ducing soil. The forest on the south slope is
drained by a beautiful mountain stream
which traverses its full length. That on the
north slope of the mountains is fairly well
watered by streams, the principal one being
The principal species found on the area are
ponderosa pine, western white pine, tamarack,
Douglas fir, white fir, western red cedar, and
lodgepole pine. These species grow largely in
mixed stands. All age classes of all species
of timber common to the northern part of
Idaho are found within this forest. Practi-
cally all of the merchantable timber has been
removed, but the timber was cut in such a way
as to leave intact on most of the area the
trees below merchantable size.
The report of the Forest Development Com-
pany shows that 2,180 acres or nearly 60 per
cent of the area is now covered with from 14
to 53 trees per acre of pole size, that is to say,
trees 8 inches or over in diameter breast high.
There are, of course, some younger trees below
this size, which were not counted when the
cruise was made. This means that there is
left standing a suiiicient number of trees to
restock the area by natural regeneration. In
fact some reproduction has already started.
About 500 acres or 14 per cent of the area
bears young trees of the sapling stage-trees
from 3 to 6 inches in diameter breast high,
per cent is partially
varying in size from
2 inches in diameter
while 180 acres or 5
stocked with seedlings
6 inches in height to
breast high. Nearly 14 per cent has been
burned over and 7 per cent is classed as open
land. Very probably the 79 per cent of the
area now bearing poles, saplings, or seedlings
will restock itself. The other 21 per cent may
have to be planted, though it is possible that
some of this will eventually reproduce by
ACQUISITION 0-F ADJACRNT LANDS
The gift of this line forest property came
at an opportune time as it is opening the way
to the acquisition of a larger School Forest as
described by Dr. E. A. Sherman in an article
under the caption: "Planning a Forest for the
University of Idaho," on page 17..
Besides serving as a field laboratory for the
training of students in forestry and experi-
mentation in methods of silvicultural manage-
ment, this enlarged School Forest would be
highly useful as a game preserve and for
recreational uses, not to mention its potential
value for the production of timber. It may be
added that the School is already realizing some
revenue from the gift area from the sale of
cordwood and grazing privileges. Due ac-
knowledgment is here made to the Forest De-
velopment Company for this timely and im-
portant donation. It will be known as the
Moscow Mountain Experimental Forest.
STANLEY Foss BARTLETT
Let me turn away for a moment
From the ways that are blazed to goals,
Let me wander gypsy-minded
While I rest from my worldly roles.
Let me go where there is 'I'LO commerce,
Thought-free from my friencl and foe,
For Foe peace to make with my soul and God
Ancl Pye dreams of my own to lmow.
BRANDED A "BlLER"
STANLEY Foss BARTLETTS'
THERE are some trades and businesses that
a man can bluff about, but cooking in a
logging camp is not among these gilt-edged
careers. In preparing meals on a large scale
for a big crew of hard working, hungry woods-
men, alibis and hot air should be omitted from
the menug for results of the simple old square
sort are what the boys expect when a hundred
of them face the festal board thrice daily.
And once a cook fails to produce nourishment
fit for "King Spruce" he is branded forever,
a "biler" fboilerl, the cussedest culinary term
known north of the "bright lights."
For the reason foregoing, some of the keen-
est rivalry in the world exists among woods
cooks. From the plentiful, but plain, raw ma-
terials which are furnished them, ambitious
cooks have succeeded in producing about
everything from ice cream to Hungarian
goulashg and if one doesn't mind "taking it
off' tin" a mighty good meal is to be had in
the cook-room of a Maine woods camp.
I know one cook who is famous for his pink-
frosted cakes, fthe extract of this delicate hue
he squeezes from ordinary beetslg another one
carries in his Nwar-bag," as a part of his
regular equipment, several fancy shaped cookie
cutters, and a plate of his cookies would fitting-
ly and properly grace a five-year-old's party
table. Then there are tricks of the trade
which are guarded secrets such as: a grated
raw potato can be successfully used in place of
an egg in mixing up doughnuts.
So rivalry runs high in the big woods
kitchen, and it reached the high-water mark
a few years ago when a lemon pie craze swept
over the camp cuisine of the northland. Where
or how this epidemic started is an unknown
and unimportant fact. But reports of luscious
lemon pies here and there spread from camp to
camp and for a time a cook was rated by the
lemon pie he could make.
At one camp, where the crew was building a
big dam on a Penobscot tributary, the cook-
rooni was governed by an old-time cook of
irreproachable reputation. Heretofore, lemon
pies had not been on his bill of fare, but, not to
be outdone, he ordered a pail of lemon-pie
In due time a full wooden pie-filling bucket
was deposited in the "dingle" Qpantryj. The
cookee removed the cover and the famous cook
proceeded to construct a batch of such pies
as had never been tasted this side of the Ritz.
He was late with his work and the pies were
hot out of the oven when the cookee yodelled
iEclitor's Note: Mr. Bartlett attended the School of
Forestry Ranger Course in 1921-22 and now IS Assistant
Editor of thc Lewiston Lhlztinel SUN-JO1II'1lIlI.-XVl'ltll'lQ."
feature forestry articles. He has been :ln zrctivc con-
tributor to The Imno Fonesrsn and the editorial stan' is
prmtcfxil for his assistance.
the dinner call. The crew of half-famished
men pushed into the cook-room and fell hastily
upon the well-prepared bread and meat. Mean-
while the cookee placed the hot pies on the long
tables at regular intervals within easy reach
of all. For the chief of chefs had at last tried
his hand at the popular pastry and the men
would be anxious to brag about the lemon pie
THEIR cook had made.
Several of the crew, having partaken their
fill of the plain food, reached for the lemon pie,
took large wedges of it into their plates and
lost no time in conveying generous cuts to
their mouth. Woodsmen being undemonstra-
tive fellows of impassive expression, no hint as
to the reception of the pies caught the cook's
beaming paternal eye until "Jim" Malone, the
boss, who had appropriated a half of one pie
for himself, closed his teeth on the first mouth-
ful. He started to swallow but choked and
coughed, his eyes rolled and a series of light
effects and grotesque grimaces passed over
his leathery face.
Then, emitting thick curses of the seven
black ganders of China on some one, he turned
a mean eye toward the cook-the cook had
gone white and the men at the tables w-ere
silent. At last the boss's tight lips opened
slowly-he spoke-"Biler, what is them pies
made of?" The cook, for lack of a better
move, produced the nearly empty pie-filling
pail and as he held it his eye noted a blue-
penciled inscription, made by the storehouse
clerk on the cover, and he read aloud:
"This pail contains petroleum grease for
use on the dam-gate runways." The whiteness
of his face turned to a gray pallor-the crew
muttered fiercely in chorus-the boss was first
to recover and again he spoke loudly and cer-
tainly, "Feedin' vaseline pies to a man-and
built of the gate-grease I been looking for all
Somebody cussed and someone laughed and
the cook, who had been struck motionless said,
anxiously in a trembling voice, "Do you reckon
it'll kill any of yus'?" The boss replied for the
body, "Biler, we don't know that yet, but
vaseline pie is a durned poor diet for a mar-
ried man with three children and no insur-
ance-but nobody here's any nearer death this
minute than you be and if I wuz you I'd evacu-
ate mighty sudden."
The crew arose and sauntered toward the
men's camp with mixed emotions as the once-
famous cook, now branded for life, packed his
"Kennebunker" and left for parts unknown.
A SKIN GAME
In looking over a silver fox farm an inquisi-
tive lady asked "How many times can a fox
be skinned for its fur?"
EXTENSION FORESTRY IN IDAHO
STANLEY C. CLARKE
THE word, "extension," may be defined as
extending information and instruction be-
yond the walls of a college. Certain agricul-
tural colleges were doing some forestry ex-
tension work as early as 1912. Between 1912
and 1925, when the Clarke-McNary law be-
came effective, 14 states developed definite
farm forestry projects. At the present time,
33 states, and Porto Rico and Hawaii have ex-
tension foresters. The potentialities of this
organization are quite apparent when one
realizes that more than 3,000 county agents be-
come the messengers of the extension forest-
ers to hundreds of thousands of farmers with-
in their counties. Furthermore, practically all
of the co-operating states have also taken ad-
vantage of the provision in the Clarke-Mc-
Nary law to operate co-operative tree nur-
series and to produce forest seedlings and
transplants at a low cost to the farmers within
their respective boundaries. Delaware, Flori-
da, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas,
Colorado, Washington, and Oregon do not em-
ploy extension foresters, but they do co-operate
with the federal government in growing farm
forest planting stock for farmlands. In 1928,
the distribution of forest planting stock for
farmlands by co-operating states amounted to
28,757,000 seedlings and transplants. The
states of New York and Pennsylvania dis-
tributed more than 18,000,000 of this total.
West of the Rocky Mountains, Idaho held first
place in distribution of 183,000 trees, of which
150,000 were black locust.
THE BEGINNING or EXTENSION FORESTRY
Mr. Arthur M. Sowder, now Assistant Pro-
fessor of Forestry at the University of Idaho,
was appointed Extension Forester for Idaho
on April 16, 1927. Extension forestry was con-
tinued for the first two years on a half-time
basis in conjunction with farm forestry ex-
perimental research work under a co-operative
arrangement between the Idaho Agricultural
Experiment Station and the School of For-
estry. This latter phase of the program of
work was necessary so that more fundamental
data might be had to further the extension
program in the state. Every Idahoan knows
that his state has a great variation in soil and
climate. It probably is not common knowledge
that some Idaho farmers retain the idea that
all trees planted in close proximity to their
crops are detrimental to crop yield. One of the
major problems of research was a study to de-
termine the influence of windbreaks on the
growth and yield of farm and orchard crops.
Two other studies, which have also been of
value to the extension forester, were determi-
nations of the adaptability of certain species
to alkali soils, and high-altitude plantings.
The early extension work consisted in mak-
ing contacts with the county agents and of
selling the idea of farm forestry to these im-
portant key-men who in turn were to interest
the farmers in this phase of agriculture. The
adaptability of species to diferent counties
and communities was also noted by the condi-
tion of trees already planted. For many years
prior to the passing of the Clarke-McNary
law, Idaho had a state nursery in operation at
Moscow, and was supplying seedlings and
transplants to farmers for windbreak and
woodlot purposes, so it was possible at this
later date to gather considerable data.
A program of education was started through
the use of newspaper articles, the "Idaho Agri-
cultural News Letter," the "Idaho Farm For-
estry News Letter,', through talks and discus-
sions at farm meetings, and occasional radio
LATER EXTENSION WORK
After the extension forester has convinced
each county agricultural agent that forestry
can contribute materially to the agricultural
prosperity of his county and after the county
agent becomes a supporter of the work,f the
extension forester can feel assured that for-
estry will find a place on the agricultural pro-
gram of the county. When this point is
reached, the county agent begins calling for
help, instead of the forester having to plead
for a hearing. This takes time, but it is the
beginning of progress. After this condition has
been brought about, it is possible to work up
the diiferent projects, such as woodland im-
provement and management, the preservation
of fence posts and other farm timber, the
planting of windbreaks and shelterbelts, the
planting of woodlots on areas unsuited for an-
nual crop production, the control of erosion
and fixation of sand dunes and further educa-
tional work through the 4-H Club program.
FARM FORESTRY TREE PLANTING
Through the practice of farm forestry, the
marginal areas of the farm may often be
brought into use to supply the wood needs,
such as posts, poles, fuel, and general repair
material. Southern Idaho, being naturally an
unforested area, gives one the impression that
trees may not do well there, but farmers are
becoming more familiar with the better tree
species, and are also becoming aware of the
fact that trees will grow with the same amount
of soil moisture that other agricultural crops
require. In our irrigated sections, where the
altitude is below 4,000 feet, black locusts have
TI-IE IDAHO FORESTER
been and are still being planted in large quan-
tities because of their rapid growth to fence-
post size in 6 to 10 years' time.
Windbreak, shelterbelt and woodlot plant-
ings are being made at the rate of 250 to 300
plantings per year. All plantings, where the
trees are obtained from the state nursery, are
termed co-operative plantings. Advice in the
preparation of the site, selection of species,
method of planting, cultivation and protection
as well as the actual inspection of the pro-
posed planting site and assistance in planting,
if desired, is given to the farmers of the state
without charge. The extension forester does
not act as a salesman for the state nursery,
but it is to the interest of the state and farmers
that the farmers receive the information that
Idaho, in co-operation with the federal govern-
ment, produces seedlings at a minimum cost
The word "woodland" is used here to sig-
nify a larger wooded tract than the word
Idaho has about 8-00,000 acres of Woodland,
mostly in the northern part of the state, which
are practically all owned by farmers. In many
areas, these Woodlands are gradually being
"clear-cut" to be replaced by other agricul-
tural crops. Most of the farms in northern
Idaho are the result of land clearing, and on
any farm the poorest soils are the last to be
cut over. I-Ience, today, it is thought that there
is a distinct need to demonstrate how these re-
maining timbered stands might become more
productive to the farmer through a proper
system of management.
The United States census report for 1929
gives 5,806 farms in Idaho reporting a total
Livestock Seek the Protection the Woodlot Ajforcls.
for farm forestry plantings. Special demon-
stration plantings have been established ad-
jacent to certain main highways to attract at-
tention to the possibilities of growing trees on
The practice of farm forestry may be bene-
ficial to the farmers of Idaho in some of the
1. Protection to man, farmstead and stock
from the elements.
2. Protection to other crops from summer
drought and excessive evaporation.
3. Provision of fuelwood, fence posts, poles,
props, lumber and other forest products.
4. Furnish winter employment to the farm
5. Increasing the net income by utilization
of areas unsuitable for field crops.
6. Add to the sale and aesthetic value of the
Co-operation with the farmer does not cease
with the purchase and planting of trees. These
co-operative projects are tabulated and in-
spected from time to time.
value of 3938379.00 for farm forest products
disposed of. More than 50,000 cords annually
are being cut in northern Idaho for the paper-
pulp industries alone. Other products are fuel-
wood, ties, poles and piling, fence posts, some
lumber and veneer material.
Farmers in the vicinity of Troy, who lost
their woodlots by fire last year, admit that
they will miss the cash income from these areas
that required so little care.
With the idea of aiding the woodland owners
in making their woodlands more productive and
at the same time less subject to fire danger,
iive Woodland improvement projects in north-
ern Idaho have been carried to completion.
They are located along main traveled farm
highways in order to command the greatest
amount of attention from farm traiiic. The
woodland improvement area is divided into
two plots, each of a size varying from one-
half to about one acre. One plot was left in
its natural condition as a contrast, and the
other is kept properly thinned and pruned.
lContinued on page 511
VICE PRESIDENT PLANTS SPRUCE ON CAMPUS.
HONORABLE CHARLES C. CURTIS, as
vice president of the United States, added
to the University's circle of trees planted by
distinguished citizens when, on Wednesday,
October 12, 1932, he planted an Engelmann
spruce on the campus. The planting site is
conspicuously located directly in front of the
Administration Building, and the Engelmann
spruce, a species native to Idaho, is a valu-
able addition to the landscape of the campus.
Vice President Curtis was visiting northern
Idaho on his trip through western United
States and was able to adjust his schedule to
visit the University of Idaho. During the tree
planting ceremonies he was accompanied by
Mr. E. T. Whitla of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
Other trees oiiicially established by citizens
of note are the"'Roosevelt Tree," a Colorado
Blue Spruce, planted by Theodore Roosevelt
April 10, 19113 the "Taft Tree," a Port Orford
Cedar, commemorating the visit October 4,
1911 of William Howard Taft to the campusg
and the l'Marshall Tree," a red oak, planted
November 17, 1917, by the then Vice President
of the United States, Thomas R. Marshall.
Two additional trees enjoying the environment
of the foregoing mentioned trees are a George
Washington Memorial Elm planted by the
University of Idaho Faculty Women's Club on
November 17, 1931, and a concolor fir, also
planted as a George Washington Memorial by
Paradise Lodge No. 17, A. F. Sz A. M., Mos-
cow, Idaho, on April 10, 1931.
Honorable Charles C. Curtis
LEARN EROM THE TREES p
When you stop to think about trees, all that they withstand, all the
beauty that they shed, all the good that they do and comfort that they
give-do you wonder that people love them?
If human beings possessed many of the characteristics of a tree, what
wonderful folks they would be. The tree pushes its root deep and firm in
the soil. How many folks need to do the same, need to have their convic-
tions, their opinions deeply imbedded in jirm and solid ground? The tree
grows pointing ever upwards. How many folks keep their aims, their
ideals always pointing upward?
As the tree grows it spreads, throwing out its branches which give
shade and comfort to the weary traveler who rests beneath it. As your
advantages increase, as your opportunities grow and your possessions
multiply, how much help, shade, and comfort do you give to the weary and
disheartened soul who looks to you?
Standing firm and erect, the tree withstands both the scorching heat
of summer and the chilling blasts of winter. How ma-ny folks are spoiled
by glory, the heat of success, or crushed completely by the chill and frost
of disaster? Don't only love trees but learn from them. They are among
the greatest of N ature's many teachers.
NEW STATE FOQESTER
Arthur W. Middleton of Weiser was recently
appointed to the position of State Forester for
Idaho, succeeding Ben E. Bush who had held
the office since its creation eight years ago.
Mr. Middleton is a graduate of the College of
Agriculture, University of Idaho, class of
1932. Before entering the university in Feb-
ruary, 1929, he had attended the Oregon
School of Forestry for one year. He is a
member of Alpha Zeta, honorary agricultural
Mr. Middleton is well acquainted with the
forestry needs of Idaho and the relation of
the forests to the agricultural and grazing in-
dustries of the State. He has had a wide
range of practical experience in the United
States Forest Service where he is highly re-
garded. For the time being, at least, he will
keep his ofiice at Moscow.
Arthm' W. Middleton
Tractor Course Proves Popular
The course in tractor operation instituted
the spring of 1932 at the Idaho School of For-
estry has been continued the current year but
with a new "35" Caterpillar Tractor furnished
through the courtesy of the Simmons Tractor
and Equipment Company, Pullman, Washing-
ton and the Caterpillar Tractor Company.
This year, however, more attention has been
given to theory, and Professor Hobart Beres-
ford, head of the Department of Agricultural
Engineering of the University, has been con-
ducting a very much worthwhile course for
the forestry students interested, in co-opera-
tion with the logging engineering department
of the School of Forestry.
The Tractor Short Course, supervised by
Mr. Elmer Humphrey of the University En-
gineering Shops, was given early in the win-
ter and this afforded the forestry students op-
portunity to obtain preliminary training.
Students enrolled in the course took turns at
driving the tractor about the campus and
nurseries, doing odds and ends of jobs for
experience in tractor operation. The class
made quick work of some undesirable fruit
trees growing in the nursery and performed
a real service in towing a road scraper about
An effort is being made to obtain auxiliary
equipment in the way of road and trail build-
ing machinery so that the School Forest on
Moscow Mountain can be improved and made
Blasting Demonstration Practical
In order to give Idaho forestry students
first hand information in the use of explosives
in forest work, a short course consisting of a
series of lectures and terminating with a prac-
tical field demonstration was conducted the
middle of April this year for the benefit of
logging engineering students. The course was
arranged through the courtesy of Mr. A. J.
McAdams of the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Kz
Company and in co-operation with Professors
L. J. Smith and Hobart Beresford of the Agri-
cultural Engineering Departments of the State
College of Washington, Pullman, and the
University of Idaho, respectively.
A south slope of Moscow Mountain ridge
was the scene of activities for the field demon-
stration which embraced three phases-blast-
ing stumps for right-of-way, blasting rocks
for forest roads and trails, and blasting stand-
ing trees and snags. The care and use of ex-
plosives was particularly stressed and the
students handled and placed the dynamite
under competent supervision. It is planned to
continue this course another year and to con-
duct the field work on the School Forest where
it is desired to remove stumps and trees for
road construction and also rocks projecting
along the present road.
The inclusion of this course to accompany
the instruction in tractor operation gives Ida-
ho logging engineering majors considerable
practical field work.
PAUL BUNYAN'S BIG TOP
ERNEST E. HUBERT
P'rofesso'r of Forestry
The year that Paul Bunyan began logging
in the wilds of Idaho remain-ed in his memory
a long time-like skunk odor in a mackinaw.
It was in July, during that famous period
known as the Three Winters, that he bullied
his snarling crews up the snow packed slopes
of the Coeur d'Alenes. And it was the Fourth
of July when his men, tired and cold, slashed
the last tree on the slope and, topping the
ridge, gazed at what is now known as Fourth-
of-July Canyon. It was here that Paul ordered
a huge white pine tree blazed and dated to
mark the progress of this day's work and, as
his voice roared through the bleak forest, it
shook the snow in avalanches from the trees,
almost burying the crew.
The weather was steadily getting worse. It
was what old timers called a hell-bender. It
had hair on it. Snow soon buried the tallest
white pines from sight and the loud booming
of the frozen tree trunks as they split wide
open sounded through those narrow draws like
cannon shots. The next day Paul tried to
mark a few choice trunks for cutting but found
they were frozen so solid that his usual method
of pinching sections out of the bark with his
fingers failed Hatly. At last the camps had to
be closed down.
The logging operation had been hung up for
two weeks and Paul's lumberjacks, soured with
cards and yarn spinning, were roaring for
action. Like caged cougars, they paced back
and forth in the snow-muifled bunk houses
until their boot calks wore deep tracks in the
rough boards and their strong language and
chewing snoos both gave out.
Paul knew his men and he knew something
had to be done. Yet it was getting colder and
the mercury had crawled out of the bottom of
every thermometer in camp and no one knew
how cold it was. Joe Mufraw was brought in
frozen as stiff' as a peavy and had to be thawed
out in the cook's oven. And, only yesterday,
the water in the sheet iron tank serving as
teakettle on the stove, froze so rapidly when
Sourdough carelessly opened the cook shack
door that the ice was still hot and steaming
when he removed the cover.
Something had to be done! Paul, pacing the
office shack, was tearing up a couple of old
flywheel belts in despair when suddenly he
shouted: "By the old roary-eyed son-of-a-rig-
slinger. I've got it!" Bundling up so that only
his bushy eyebrows showed, he rushed out and
strapped snowshoes on Babe the Blue OX. Then
roaring defiance to the storm he and Babe dis-
appeared westward into the white fury of
wind and snow. For three days the blizzard
winds howled about the storm-sieged camp
like a pack of timber wolves, tearing at the
eaves and straining at the doors and windows,
until the snow drifted higher than the roof
ridge. The frost was six inches thick on the
lightless glass and the smoke barely bulging
out of the holes in the snow above the smoke
pipes before freezing solid, plunged into the
crusted drifts with a whish and a thud.
Above the roar of the blizzard on the even-
ing of the third day a strange rumbling and
crunching was heard and Sourdough Sam pok-
ing his nose out through a crack near the
ridgepole of the cook shack, saw a strange
sight. Paul, covered with icicles and snow,
only his head and shoulders showing above
the drifts, his arms revolving like a snow fan,
was seen breaking the trail for Babe who was
covered with huge poles, sections of piping,
ropes and canvas until only her head and tail
That night the storm shivered to a stand-
still and the next morning cracks began to ap-
pear in the snow where you would guess the
doorways were. The gypo boys were franti-
cally tunneling out and it wasn't long before
Paul had his men sinking their teeth into one
of the biggest jobs of his career-rigging a
huge tent over a quarter section of snow-
buried timber. The job was a holy terror. But
so was Paul. -
The snow was so deep that the sheer can-
yons between the high ridges were hard to lo-
cate and twenty of the best snoos eaters tug-
ging at a guy rope stepped off the high ridge
into Deception Creek and plunged out of sight.
They burrowed through the drifts all that
winter and Paul did not find them until next
spring as they emerged at the mouth of the
Little North Fork. Their camp sites can still
be found on the little flats staggering the
main stream every half mile or so.
It was not long before his men knew why
Paul had brought so many sections of pipe for
he strung a pipe line from his sawmill to the
big tent and in no time he had steam filling
the huge canvas and hissing out of every seam.
He steamed the timber for six days and
nights, figuring that the snow would be melted
by that time and the trees would be thawed
out enough to cut down, but surprises w-ere in
store for both Paul and his men.
"Hell and high water," bellowed one bundle
stiff, "these match stems are tougher than dry
hemlock knots." With slush up to their arm-
pits and five gallon oil cans as Palouser lights
to cut the gloom as they felled the trees under
the big top, Paul's timber beasts kept Babe the
Blue OX busy shoving the logs from the tent to
the sawmill through a long tunnel shaped by
the use of Paul's invention, the snow auger.
fContinued on page 511
CLASS OF IQ33
RALPH HUGH AHLSKOG
fGeneo'a,l F o'rest1'y j
Lewis and Clark High School, Spokane, Wash.
Xi Sigma Pi, Sec.-Fiscal Agent, 4.
High Honors, 3.
HAROLD GILSON BROWN
Port Townsend High School, Wash.
WILLIAM VIN-CENT CRANSTON
Union High School, Mt. Vernon, Wash.
KENNETH MILES DANIELS
Moscow High School, Idaho.
High Honors, 2 and 3.
Xi Sigma Pi.
WILLIAM WARREN ENSIGN
KGe'neo'al Forestry Q
Hawarden High School, Iowa.
GEORGE MORRIS FISHER
Harlan High School, Iowa.
Xi Sigma Pig Forester, 3 and 45 Sigma
Highest Honors, 2, 3, and 4.
Senior Forestry Award, 4.
HUME COLLAR FRAYER
Bennett High School, Bufalo, New York.
New York State Ranger School.
JESSE KYSOR HOPKINS
East High School, Rochester, New York.
CORLAND LEHMAN JAMES
North Central High School, Spokane, Wash.
Xi Sigma Pig See.-Fiscal Agent, 3.
Associated Foresters, Publicity Agent, 4.
PHILIP BURTT LORD
Roosevelt High School, Los Angeles.
Vice President, Associated Foresters, 3.
HORACE RICHARDS, JR.
Bend High School, Oregon.
CHARLES AUGUST WELLNER
Twin Falls High School, Idaho.
Sec.-Treas., Associated Foresters, 4.
Xi Sigma Pig Associate Forester, 4.
- JAMES fi 'moan-
A :.1CM,. 'Ei
, ,,.r,.- uf,
, Kea., . ,A
RICHARDS K"--K-zu man
1933 GRADUATE CLASS s
JOHN J. MCNAIR
Cloquct High School, Miifmesota.
Carleton College, Minnesota, B.A. 1930.
University of Minnesota, M.S. 1932.
Xi Sigma Pi.
ROYALE KING PIERSON
Shariton High School, Iowa.
University of Montana, B.A. 1930.
Xi Sigma Pi, Sigma Xi.
Thesis title for the degree, Master of Sci
Thesis title for the degree, Master of Sci- ence in -Forestry! A -
ence in Forestry: "Studies of the Function of the Pycnio-
"Esterification of Wood and of Cellulose SpOr6 Of the White P1119 B11S'C6T Rust
iii situ and the Production of Commercial Fungus."
Products from both the Cellulose and
VIRGIL DANIEL Moss
Fairfield High School, Wash.
PAUL H. TALICH
Bristow High School, Nebraska.
Hastings College, Nebraska, B.A. 1928.
Utah State Agricultural College, Depart
ment of Forestry, Logan.
UHiVe1'Si'Cy Of Idahfl, B-S- fF01'-l 1932- Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins,
Thesis title for the degwe, MaS'C91' Of Sfii- nine weeks' summer forestry camp 1931.
ence in Forestry: Xi Sigma Pi,
"A Summary of Federal and State Quar- Thesis title for the degree, Master of Sci
antines with Discussions on the Diseases ence in Forestry.
and Insects Concerned."
Western White Pine KPiniLs fnioiiticolaj.
When you see me goin' Hshin'
With my briar and my pole,
Just know it ain't so much the fish
That becks from hole to hole
As 'tis the fishini
Fishin' where the water's white-
Juicy worm, they oughter biteg
Fishin' from a tumbled tree-
Big one snatched it, reel goes wheel
Fishin' from a mossy bank,
Waitin' for that thrillin' yank-
'Tain't so much the fish I want
As 'tis fishin' and the jaunt.
When you see me goin' fishin'
With my fishin' pants and coat,
Just know it ain't so much the fish
Inspirin' such a tote
As 'tis the wishin'.
Wishin' that more folks would go
Where the singing waters flow,
Wishin' they'd just take a day
Wanderin' round up yonder wayg
Wishin' folks would take the time
To go up there and think and climb,
Fish and loaf-I know it would
Do 'em just a world o' good.
STANLEY Foss BARTLETT
in Boston Herald
"The Effect of Shading on Seedlings of
THE ASSOCIATED FORESTERS
CORLAND JAMES, '33
SHORTLY after the School of Forestry was
founded at the University of Idaho the As-
sociated Foresters came into existence and
this organization has grown steadily since that
time both in membership and number of ac-
tivities performed. The purpose of the organi-
zation is to create good fellowship among the
forestry students and foster social activities
of various forms.
DEAN MILLER TELLS or EUROPE
Prominent men in the profession of forestry
are obtained to address the forestry students
from time to time throughout the year. Early
in the fall Dean Miller, who spent last summer
in Europe, told of his experience while abroad.
His remarks on sword duels which often take
place between German students created con-
siderable interest. He explained that German
The Associated Foresters
BONFIRE MEETING FIRST EVENT
Some evening at the beginning of the fall
semester each year the Annual Bonfire meet-
ing is held at Price Green in the Arboretum.
This year short introductory speeches were
made by the faculty, and graduate and under-
graduate students. Music was furnished by the
foresters' duet who sang several melodies. A
successful evening was brought to a close by a
feed consisting of hot dogs, doughnuts, and
coffee. "Price Green" surrounded on three
sides by trees forms a very suitable environ-
ment for the affair. A spacious fireplace is lo-
cated at the open side.
DANCE AN ENJOYABLE AFFAIR
On the night of November 19 all foresters
forgot about their studies for three hours and
lost themselves in the atmosphere of music
and lady companions, for it was on this date
that the Associated Foresters held their annual
dance. The Wo1nen's Gymnasium, used for
this occasion, was decorated with pine and fir
boughs that hung from the ceiling forming an
evergreen canopy overhead.
students use this method of settling disputes.
C. K. MCI-Iarg, Jr., and Howard Drake, both
of the U. S. Forest Service with headquarters
at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, and Meyer Wolff' of
the U. S. Forest Service, Missoula, Montana,
were guests of the foresters during the year.
SMOKER INCLUDED THIS YEAR
To fill in that long interval which exists be-
tween the fall dance and the spring banquet
a smoker was held in the Memorial Gym the
first part of March. Professor C. W. Cheno-
weth of the University faculty, the headline
speaker, being a former smokechaser, was
right at home among the foresters. Music,
boxing and refreshments topped off the even-
The evening of March 27, the Annual For-
esters' Banquet was held. With James Even-
den, entomologist of Coeur d'Alene, acting as
toastmaster and Warren Ensign making a
backward flip from his folding chair, the
crowd was kept well amused. Details of the
lContinued on page 517
BANQUET BETTER TI-IAN EVER
WILLIAM V. CRANSTON, ,33
"We may live without books,
What is knowledge but grieving?
"We may live without hope,
Whctt is hope but deceiving?
MORE than one hundred foresters, would-be
foresters, and their guests, gathered at
the Blue Bucket Inn, Wednesday evening,
March 29, for the seventeenth Annual Banquet
of the Associated Foresters. The large crowd
present was a splendid tribute to the efforts
of Lawrence Newcomb and the m-embers of the
banquet committee who, through skillful
planning, carried to thorough completion this
splendid social affair.
"Larry" Newcomb, president of the Asso-
ciated Foresters, opened the meeting with well
chosen words of welcome to all present. The
following guests were introduced by Mr. New-
comb: Mr. J. C. Evenden, forest entomologist
and Mr. Chas. K. McHarg, Jr., regional forest
inspector, both of Coeur d'Alene, Idahog Mr.
C. L. Billings, general manager, Mr. E. C.
Rettig, land agent, and Mr, Walter Field, as-
sistant land agent, all of Potlatch Forests
Inc., Lewiston, Idahog Ranger W. H. Daughs,
U. S. Forest Service, Princeton, Idaho, Mr.
J. J. O'Connell, general manager, and Mr. A.
A. Segersten, land agent, both of Potlatch
Forests, Inc., Potlatch, Idahog Dr. F. W. Gail,
head of the botany department, Dr. F. B.
Laney, geologist, and Mr. T. Ashlee, florist,
all of the University facultyg and Mr. Ben E.
Bush and Mr. Adrian Nelson, both of Mos-
cow, Idaho. The meeting was then turned
over to Mr. Evenden, who was appointed
toastmaster for the occasion. Mr. Evenden's
reputation as a keen wit and a professional
wisecracker had preceded him and in his ca-
pacity as toastmaster he disappointed no one
for he spared no speaker in his introductions,
much to the delight of those present. Mr.
Evenden introduced Miss Louise Throck-
morton who gave a reading which was dis-
tinctly different and highly entertaining. Fol-
lowing this Mr. Evenden introduced Dean T.
S. Kerr of the University faculty who spoke
on "The Role of Government in Business."
Dean Kerr stated that ours was a dual
form of governmentg state government and
national government. The United States Con-
stitution gives the national government control
over states' commerce business. This control
is exercised through the Interstate Commerce
Act of 1887 and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
of 1890. The former applies particularly to
the railroads of the country, and the act was
legislated to prevent the practice of discrimina-
tion in rates, wholesale issuance of passes, the
system of secret rebates, and the charging of
higher rates on short hauls than on long hauls.
"We may live without love,
What is pctssioii but piiiiiig?
"But where is the man who can
Live without DINING?"
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was passed to
prevent "combinations in restraint of trade,"
but the U. S. Supreme Court read into the Act
the word "unreasonable" which reduced its
force. The Supreme Court decides whether or
not monopolistic control is injurious to the
public. The power granted in these acts is the
one and only practical means by which the
national government can regulate business.
Mr. Kerr concluded his remarks by saying
that the grandeur of America consists in pro-
viding opportunity for every young man and
woman in this country and that We are living
in the "Land of Opportunity."
At the conclusion of Dean Kerr's talk the
University Quartet composed of Paul Rust,
Carl Fischer, Wayne Hampton, and Reginald
Lyons, accompanied at the piano by Martha
Jean Rehberg gave seve1'al pleasing vocal se-
WOLFF SPEAKS ON LAND Usn PLANTING
The next speaker was Mr. Meyer H. Wolf,
Assistant Regional Forester in charge, othce of
lands, U. S. Forest Service, Missoula, Montana,
who spoke on "Land Use Planning." Mr.
Wolif's twenty-four years of experience in the
Forest Service enables him to speak with
authority on the subject. He stated that for-
estry was a form of land use, and that if land
is to be put to its best use, careful plans must
be made. Lack of careful planning has result-
ed in the use of marginal lands for grazing
and farming when its use for such purposes
was not needed. The result is chaos. De-
mands for the present use of such lands and
for their future use must be weighed care-
fully, and co-ordinated to the highest degree
possible. Such plans involve consideration of
population, demands for farm and forest
products, taxation, interest on land mortgages,
recreation, Iish and game, back to the land
movements, and numerous other factors.
INCOMPLETE PLANS BETTER THAN NONE
Mr. Wolff emphasized the fact that it is
better to have a plan which does not measure
up to expectations than to have no plans at
all. Some degree of success results in plans
even though these are not adequate, while no
plans result in disorder and chaos. A plan is
not an end in itself but a means to an end, and
is worthwhile only when translated into action.
In conclusion Mr. Wolff mentioned Presi-
dent Roosevelt's reforestation program ex-
plaining that such a program would help out
the employment situation by giving work to
THE IDAHO FORESTER
On the Clecwivater Field Trip
more than two hundred thousand men, and
that it would help the farmer and the com-
munity, but that if sucha program was to be
a success it must be based on careful planning.
Two accordion solos fthe toastniaster called
the instrument a "stomach Steinwaynj by Her-
man Daughs, a member of the Associated For-
esters, furnished entertainment and diversion,
and were rewarded by rousing applause.
Mr. G. F. Jewett, Manager of Potlatch For-
ests Inc., Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, and the last
speaker of the evening, spoke on "Forest Tax-
ation." Forest taxation is one of the major
problems of the timber industry. Present sys-
tems of taxation prohibit private timber own-
ership. Mr. Jevvett declared that "taxation
confiscates white pine in twenty years," and
that the private owner must liquidate in a
few years' time." Forest liquidation is an im-
portant factor in glutting timber markets. At-
tention was called to the importance of this to
educational institutions which receive an in-
come from timber sales. At present the only
way out of this situation is for the government
to acquire all timber. He said that as forest-
ers and citizens we could render real service
to our communities and to the state by giving
them a clear picture of this situation. Private
ownership can be maintained only by some
form of sales tax or yield tax. -
And so ended the Seventeenth Annual Ban-
quet, declared to be as interesting, as full of
the spirit of good will and fellowship, as ap-
pealing to the sense of taste, and with the
bonds which unite foresters and those inter-
ested in forestry woven stronger than ever
by the feeling that we sponsor a great and
worthy cause, that we can and will "Down the
MOUNTAIN TOP THOUGHT
STANLEY Foss BARTLETT
God, niay I never weaken so
I shall be bound to levels lowg
Whevi I shall lack the strength to climb
A peak, with step attuned to rhyme,
And cannot 'mount where winds sweep high
I think that I shall want to die.
When last I scale CL cloudy crest
Then let me tarvcy there to rest-
There in the blue aloof from cares,
Above thc 'much of nien's ajfairs,
Beyond the cursed desire for pelf,
Outside the sonallness of myself-
Thus niongst any fellows may I live,
And die when I have naught to give.
TI-IE I932 JUNIOR FIELD TRIP
J. P. BROWN, '34.
SUNDAY, MAY 22.
Up at six a. m., as the modern Pepy would
say, and as happy with expectancy as a little
boy with a brand new red wagon. All this was
in preparation for the junior class field trip
to the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Ex-
periment Station near Priest River, northern
Idaho. Those assembled for the trip were
Ralph Ahlskog, Rudolph Benson, J. P. Brown,
Loyd Burnett, John Cook, Kenneth Daniels,
Jack Frederic, Corland James, Merton Kuhn,
Paul Larsson, Paul Martin, Lawrence New-
comb, Robert Opie, Theo. Raide, and Chas.
Wellner and accompanied by Floyd Otter and
A. M. Sowder of the forest school faculty. We
left Moscow at 9:10 a. m., almost on schedule.
The cavalcade consisted of "Bud" Daniel's open
air taxi which accommodated the "tractor
gang," and the University truck which took
care of the remainder of the juniors, including
Ahlskog who occupied the floor. "Bud" Daniel's
car stopped at St. Maries at Benson's home so
arrived at the station a triiie late. The truck
was right on schedule for the evening meal.
Doings of the five tractor guys in the open air
taxi after we left them at St. Maries is not
available for publication, but it is known that
they can identify the taste of sandwiches
bought from any lunch counter between St.
Maries and Priest River. Even then Paul
Larsson insisted on eating supper when he ar-
rived at the station several hours late.
MONDAY, MAY 23.
Up at seven a. m. after a very unrestful
night. The writer, who is possessed with that
lightning-like "Arkansas" swiftness, being the
last one to bed was requested by "Prexy" New-
comb to turn out the gas light. In some man-
ner or means his pajamas disappeared as the
light was going out. As a result all the beds
in the east end of the bunkhouse were searched,
but the pajamas were still nil. In the morning
the pajamas were found at the top of the flag
pole fluttering in the wind like brilliant butter-
This day the juniors covered the station
grounds, the buildings and improvements be-
ing explained by John B. Thompson, the resi-
dent ranger. All the buildings were investi-
gated, under, over, and on the sides from the
gas house to "Woods Ohicen which, by the way,
is the only building at the station built accord-
ing to blue prints. The juniors are now well
grounded in the knowledge of the moment of
force required in frost heaving to move a
tamarack block from under a building. The
afternoon was spent in a hike to "Crow's Nest
Lookout" and along the fire break on the ridge
south of the experiment station. After supper
a loud noise broke forth from the vicinity of
George Jemison's residence. The noise proved
to be a charivari for Mr. Jemison, class of '31,
and his recent bride, the former Miss Beatrice
Gibbs of the University.
TUESDAY, MAY 24.
Up at seven a. m. after another pajamaless
night for the whole party. Mr. Jemison ex-
plained to the boys the experimental work he
is conducting in inflammability studies. In
the afternoon we discovered there existed more
instruments for measuring weather than we
P. S.: Benson, James, Daniels, and Brown
are still minus their pajamas.
WEDNESDAY, MAY 25.
"Prexy,' Newcomb wants to know how all
the gravel from the road happened to be in his
bed last night. Benson's recreation was get-
ting votes for white papers, even though John
Cook had a majority for brown papers. Mr. I.
T. Haig showed us a thing or two, in fact
several things about silviculture. Mr. Sowder
blossomed forth this morning minus that
mourning bow tie. Maybe it changed his luck,
he crossed every footlog today without falling
in the creek. Through his iniiuence, Cook has
all the non-smokers to perjure themselves by
voting for brown papers.
P. S.: Bribery did it.
THURSDAY, MAY 26.
Went up on the Kaniksu National Forest
where Floyd Cossitt, another alumnus of the
Idaho School of Forestry, showed us how hem-
lock is being disposed of and later some new
planted areas. We found a deer that had just
recently been killed by a Cougar. Last night's
baseball game was umpired by Loyd Burnett.
Burnett says that since his eyesight deterio-
rated he has quit playing baseball and taken
FRIDAY, MAY 27.
Fought mosquitoes and tried to select seed
trees. Newcomb's spiked topped tr-ees did not
seem to be the proper things. Our baseball
game tonight included such notable players as
Messrs. "Home Run" Koch, "Four Base" Weid-
man, and "Fan 'em Out" Watts from the Re-
gional Office at Missoula.
SATURDAY, MAY 28.
Determined the distance of seed dispersion
from the Knoll Plots. Visited the se-ed extrac-
tory at Falls Ranger Station. On the way
back to the station we took Priest River by
SUNDAY, MAY 29.
It is rumored that about seven juniors visit-
ed the dance at Blue Lakes last night. VVent
up Priest Lake to Beaver Creek Ranger Sta-
tion. The "Tyee" and Captain Markham's
tales will long be remembered. "Dad" Fred-
eric can repeat all of the stories with extras
fContinuecl on page 521
A FOREST MYSTERY SOLVED
"LOOK, boys, there's a dead deer," exclaimed
Floyd Cossitt, a graduate of the Idaho
School of Forestry in 1924 and now technical
assistant to the Kaniksu National Forest in
northern Idaho, as he was escorting the Juniors
over an old abandoned logging road.
The "boys"-fifteen forestry students of the
junior class from the Idaho School of Forestry
on their annual two weeks' field trip to the
Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment
Station at Priest River in northern Idaho-
stopped short and there before them lay a
dead doe. Deep gashes here and there over
the body were evident as if a slashing, sharp
knife had been used to mutilat-e the animal
unto death. Blood was trickling from the
wounds and from the nostrils. Wide open
eyes of the dead animal seemed to show an
expression of intense pain and no little amount
of sympathy for the deer was evident on the
face of every mother's son present. The dead
animal was viewed in silent bewilderment for
several minutes, each man turning over the
same question in his mind-"What could have
Finally one of the boys placed his hand on
the animal and exclaimed, "Why, it's still very
warm. This d-eer met death not so very long
ago." Several of the Juniors then began to
examine the ground around and were ready to
turn detective but there was no time just then.
Our escort, however, promised to return this
way after our day's inspection of forest re-
search projects had been completed, but before
our return to this place each man had suggest-
ed and advanced any number of possible solu-
tions for this forest tragedy.
DEER FIGHTS FOR LIFE
Once back to the dead deer the boys care-
fully examined the area around and were not
long in discovering tracks of the deer's worst
forest enemy-the cougar. It was undoubtedly
sharp cat-like claws which rent the animal's
skin like so much cloth. The ground was
trampled and torn up here and there. Small
brush and vegetation were crushed and beaten
to the ground showing a terrific struggle had
ensued. Smaller-sized cougar tracks were also
noted and right near the body of the deer were
found portions of an animal's jaw containing
soft tender teeth-milk teeth. But of what
Further detective work uncovered an ani-
mal's eye. Again-of what animal? The doe's
head was intact. There was practically no
mutilation above the throat. Besides, the
eye was diH'erent from that contained in the
head of the deer. This eye looked like that of
a cat. And the milk teeth found could also
have belonged to a member of the cat family.
All possible clues were carefully preserved
for evening study in the bunkhouse.
On the way to the truck, which was parked
at the highway more cougar tracks were dis-
covered, and apparently very fresh, probably
made the night before or in early morning.
Some of the boys recalled then having seen
these tracks on the way in but paid little at-
tention to them. That evening at the bunk-
house every effort was made to assemble the
information and develop the solution. That
forest tragedy was enacted in many ways but
no one was entirely satisfied with the solution.
Cossrrr GIVES EXPLANATION
The next day, Mr. Cossitt again escorted the
-group, this time on a timber marking project,
and promised an explanation of the death of
the dead deer as soon as convenient during
the day's routine. I-Ie stated, at the proper
time, this explanation was obtained from an
old-time trapper of his acquaintance and is as
A mother cougar was teaching her offspring
-a cougar kitten-to kill deer and between
the two the dead doe was the result. This ac-
counts for the way the ground was trampled
and dug up. The deer had made a desperate
struggle against her two natural foes. After
the Cougars had killed th-e doe, the kitten was
left at the kill and the mother cougar went
about her way.
Before the kitten had more than started to
devour the dead deer, a male cougar, commonly
referred to by woodsmen as a "tom cougar,"
appeared on the scene, and it seems to be the
habit of male Cougars to kill cougar kittens
whenever possible. This doubtless was what
happened here and seems to account for the
lone eye and portion of jaw which were found
near the dead deer. The male cougar had
taken the life of the kitten which was left at
the kill by its mother.
Shortly thereafter and probably a very short
time before the Juniors came along this old
abandoned logging road, the mother cougar
returned, probably called back by the screams
of her offspring. Finding the male cougar
had killed the kitten she took the body of the
dead kitten with her, and left the scene as the
7 ., h I X gqzl.
3 ,Za-1239 QI , J
: oiafvf 'Q'
, i f
, .-ff' W' gi'
,,, all ' -V
Mr. Bird: "On your way there, two's com-
' , ' -w .
Jam, fh1ee's cz cro d"
A great big owl sat in cm oak,
The more he saw, the less he spoke,
The less he spoke, the more he heard,
Why ccm't we all be like that wise old bird?
XI SIGMA Pl
G. LLOYD HAYES, '34
Ranger, Epsilon Chapter '
EPSILON Chapter of Xi Sigma Pi has, this
year, enjoyed one of its most prospe1'011S
years since its installation in 1920. As surely
as this organization is the leading honorary
forestry fraternity in the United States, Epsi-
lon Chapter has ass.umed a place of major im-
portance among the honorary societies on our
Xi Sigma Pi was first organized as a local
society in 1908 at the University of Washing-
NEW AWARD ESTABLISHED
This year the society has instituted a new
award. Any graduating senior having aver-
age grade of not less than 4.5 for his first two
years and 5.0 for his junior and first semester
senior year is eligible. The candidates are
given a weighted grade on the basis of schol-
arship 50 per cent, professional interest 15
per cent, personality 15 per cent, practical ex-
perience and recommendations regarding the
ACTIVE CHAPTER or XI SIGMA PI, 1932-1933.
Reading from left to right, back row-Dean F. G. Miller, Dr. Edwin C. Jahn, John J. McNair,
Stanley C. Clarke, Royale K. Pierson, Dr. E. E. Hubert, Liter E. Spence, and A. M. Sowcler.
Front Row-G. Lloyd Hayes, Kenneth Daniels,
slsog, Charles A. Wellner, Corlancl James
ton. Since that time it has grown to be a
national organization and has eight chapters
located at leading forest schools throughout
The objects of the fraternity are to secure
and maintain a high standard of scholarship
in forest education, to work for the upbuilding
of the profession of forestry, and to promote
fraternal relations among earnest workers en-
gaged in forest activities. To encourage schol-
arship among Idaho forestry students, Epsilon
Chapter has maintained in the Administration
Building since 1922 a bronze plaque of artistic
design. Each year the name of the student of
each class who attained the highest scholastic
average is engraved on this plaque. This has
proved to be a forceful stimulus to scholarship.
Those who attained this honor last year were:
Senior, Joseph F. Pechanecg Junior, Charles
A. Wellnerg Sophomore, G. Lloyd Hayes, and
Freshman, Floyd O. Tumelson.
Paul Talich, George M. Fisher, Ralph H. Ahl-
anol Dr. VV. D. Mille1'.
same 10 per cent, and leadership 10 p-er cent.
The award consists of membership to the So-
ciety of American Foresters and a y'ear's sub-
scription to the Journal of Forestry. Member-
ship to the Society of American Foresters is
attainable only through nomination by a Sec-
tion of the Society and election later by the
Society, hence Epsilon Chapter shall recom-
mend the award winner to the Northern Rocky
Mountain Section. This section has kindly of-
fered to co-operate and nominate for member-
ship the successful candidate. The winner
this year is George M. Fisher, Forester of Ep-
A third award sponsored jointly by Xi
Sigma Pi and the Associated Foresters is a
silver loving cup which goes each year to the
class winning the annual track and field meet
at the foresters' barbecue. It was won last
year by the Juniors.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
This year an average of two meetings a
month have been held, one a banquet, and the
other a business meeting. Speakers at the
banquets have come from the School of For-
estry, the Botany Department, the Geology
Department, the Department of Entomology,
and the Agronomy Department. While these
departments are all quite closely associated
with forestry, topics have been chosen to cover
a wide variety of subjects in an efort to get
away from purely forestry discussions and get
a broader perspective of these related sciences.
CHAPTER SELECTS NEW MEMBERS
New members initiated this year include Dr.
W. D. Miller, John JK. McNair, T. Stewart Bu-
chanan, and Paul H. Talich. In keeping with
the custom begun last year, each neophyte is
required to prepare a plaque of genuine Idaho
white pine f10X12X1 inches in sizej and burn
on it the Greek letters of the fraternity. Each
member of the local chapter signs his name to
this plaque and the candidate is required to
carry it with him for three days prior to his
initiation. In addition, the candidate is re-
quested to wear Held clothes on the day before
initiation and carry with him some substantial
and conspicuous tool of his profession.
GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PLANTING
Another project completed this season was
the sowing of grass seed on the George Wash-
ington Bicentennial Colorado Blue Spruce
planting area which the chapter undertook last
season. The plantation is conspicuously lo-
cated between the west end of the athletic field
and the Arboretum. At present, plans are
under way for a large stone monument which
is to bear a plate having engraved upon it
the names of those members making the plan-
The second annual dance was held April 15
at the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity house.
This dance is our only important social event
so elaborate arrangements for an enjoyable
evening of dancing and cards were not spared.
The patrons and patronesses were Professor
and Mrs. F. W. Gail, Professor and Mrs. G. L.
Luke, Mr. Otto Turinsky and Mr. and Mrs.
F. A. Patty.
The officers of Epsilon Chapter for this sea-
son are: Forester, George M. Fisherg Asso-
ciate Forester, Charles A. Wellnerg Secretary
and Fiscal Agent, Ralph Ahlskogg and Ranger,
A Believe It OT Not
Idaho alums will recall that it is a long way
from the window ledge of the large School of
Forestry lecture room on the third Hoor of
Morrill Hall to the ground outside-35 feet to
be exact-but an English setter which fol-
lowed George Fisher to school one day last
February made it in just one jump. The dog
made a little dent in the eight inches of snow
and was inclined to set only for a short time.
In fifteen minutes he was running around as
always. After all the School of Forestry does
have a lightning express elevator.
FAITH IN YOURSELF
STANLEY Foss BARTLETT
in Personal Efficiency
When you're blue and discouraged and sore at
Despairing its lust and its greed,
It isn't a hand-out from somebody else
But faith in yourself that you need.
When the man that you think is no
Is prosperous without a creed,
It isn't a graft nor a pull nor a lift
But faith in yourself that you need.
When you're tempted to think that it isn't
To struggle for right till you bleed,
You will find this the answer to all of your
It's faith in yourself that you need.
DO YOU REMEMBER?
MUSINGS OF THE ALUMS
WHEN it took two cups of coffee for a six-
weeks' quizzg four for a final, and six to fill
up "Hank" Hoffman?
WHEN "Prof" Behre took us on a field trip
to the adjacent logging camps, and I CH.
Baumannj couldn't hike?
WHEN Gustafson ran a race with the "I"
Club at a football game and both won and
WHEN Tom Jackson broke out of the guard
house at Hayden Lake encampment and
made his escape in a row boat, and the
thrilling capture by the oiiicer of the guard?
WHEN "Big Bad Bill" Calendar used to tell
us how the wobblies did things and some-
body would always end it by saying '4Yes,
'Big Bad Bill' is 'Sweet William' now"?
WHEN The "Wobblies" of '27 called their
meetings by hanging out red lanterns?
WHEN Dr. Haasis said "You can pour in
more cold creosote anytime now, boys"?
WHEN Percy Rowe headed a self-appointed
committee to investigate the actions of cer-
tain members of the class who were alleged-
ly s-eeking to become faculty favorites? The
investigation was held in the bunk-house of
the Priest River Experiment Station and the
third degree was freely employed.
WHEN the fellows on the Junior Field Trip,
'31, took rocks to bed with them?
WHEN the "CoEee Club" was thriving?
WHEN one forestry professor gave
about being careful about smoking
woods, then put his lighted pipe
I pocket and burned his clothes?
WHEN Franklin Klepinger explained
tail the duties of his summer job to "Wes"
Shull, entomology prof?
WHEN Jack Rodner almost froze his feet in
front of a sorority house?
WHEN Jemison and LeBarron spent a men-
suration period discussing which way a tree
leans on a side hill?
WHEN Fred Kennedy found himself tied to
a tree during a surveying lab and it was
about 20 degrees below?
WHEN and who quoted the following to the
Forest Mensuration class of '29, "That Rus-
sian student thought he was measuring gold
WHEN a professor asked Frank Klepinger,
"What do you expect to learn in this course
in silviculture?" and "Klep's" answer was
"That's just what I want to know, Doc"?
WHEN a self-appointed Vigilance Committee
introduced Farmer to a cold plunge in the
creek at Headquarters on the Held trip of
WHEN Prof. Watson was teaching a group of
lumber jacks how to trim limbs from trees?
I do-"Give 'em the ax."
WHEN Prof. Dahm arrived on time at an
eight o'clock math. class? Neither do I.
WHEN Leonard z'Andy" Anderson held the
"gummy" on the Junior Field Trip of 1931?
WHEN the Foresters hiked to top of Moscow
Mt. on a field trip and laid out over night?
Rain started falling during the night and it
was a wet and dejected party that hiked
back through the mud to Moscow.
WHEN Dr. C. A. Schenck made his original
Moscow appearance in his Teutonic costume
of military cape and small fedora with
feather very rampant therein?
WHEN the mensuration class C265 return-
ing from Potlatch unloaded a truck of par-
tially undressed foresters? 'fIke" Burroughs
WHEN Dean Miller entered the log chopping
contest at the Barbecue in 1925?
WHEN Moscow Mt., our dear old lab., was
hours away for any lad? Foresters then
were real he men, needing no trucks to
WHEN the forestry class started for Potlatch,
away back in the winter of 1913-14 on the
electric train and had to shovel the -train
out of snowdrifts near Viola? Also an-
other field trip to Moscow Mt. when the
class was marooned in an old cabin all night
and removed the ants from the sugar by the
Hotation process? When the Foresters took
camp cooking in the Domestic Science Dept.?
When the tallest tree in the arboretum was
less than five feet in height?
WHEN Dodd, Gill and Eastman sang "Minnie
the Mermaid" over the bunk-house phone at
Priest River Experiment Station and the
telephone girl in Priest River caught it?
WHEN the "Ags" missed around 500 dough-
nuts just before their annual dance the fall
of '22? Boy, if we had had a little more
time we'd had the cider also. Some feed.
And a fraternity got blamed. Ha! Ha!
WHEN the '30 guard school on the St. Joe
turned out to be a "singing in the rain"
WHEN Fred Kennedy '29, got lost from the
main field party, climbed to the Ohio Match
summit, and had to ride back down on the
"Duce"? How about it, Fred?
WHEN Arlie Decker left for the east to take
advanced work? We gave him a real send-
olf. All who attended will never forget-not
even Arlie. Ask him. On this occasion a
special unveiling of the statue on the cam-
pus was had.
fContinued on page 523
IDAI-lO'S RECORD TREES
FLOYD L. OTTER, '29
Instructor in Forestry, School of Forestry
WHERE is the largest tree in Idaho and to
what species does it belong? How do Ida-
ho white pines, cedars, and other trees com-
pare in size and age with trees of this species
found elsewhere? No one knows with certain-
ty the answers to these questions. My purpose
in writing this article is to put before in-
terested readers the facts relative to the above
questions which have so far come to my at-
tention. That this information is certainly
fragmentary and possibly inaccurate is recog-
nized. It is put before you here to serve as an
outline upon which we can build a more com-
plete and accurate picture of Idaho trees. I
am indebted to the United States Forest Ser-
vice, Regions One, Four, and Six for most of
the information recorded here.
WORLD'S RECORD TREES
I-I. D. Tiemann of the U. S. Forest Products
Laboratories has written several articles on
t'big" trees of the world. For purposes of
comparison with sizes to be given for Idaho
trees it is enough to mention that the largest
recorded diameter of a tree in America north
of Mexico appears to be that of a California
redwood cut in 1853 which measured 25 feet in
diameter inside the bark at six feet above
ground. Many trees in several other parts of
the world have exceeded this in diameter.
Douglas fir trees appear to be the tallest in the
world. One cut in 1900 measured 380 feet by
steel tape. Another is reported from British
Columbia to have been 417 feet high. The
tallest standing tree is reported to be the red-
wood, 364 feet. The redwood and Kauri of
New Zealand both claim supremacy in vol-
ume, C361 and 376 thousand feet board mea-
sure respectivelyj. Needless to say, all reports
of sizes and ages of 1'big" trees must be care-
fully examined before accepting them. There
are errors in measurements and in human
memories. Very few reports of heights, vol-
umes, and ages of living trees are to be relied
upon to any degree whatsoever.
IDAHO "BIG" TREES
The largest tree so far recorded in Idaho
was still standing July 31, 1931. It is in the
Washington Creek drainage not far from
Headquarters, Idaho in Clearwater County.
This giant is a western red cedar, Thuja
plicccta, reported by Elers Koch and J. A. Fitz-
water of the U. S. Forest Service to be 39.4
feet in circumference or about 12.5 feet in
diameter at breast height. Butt swell was
only normal. No larger western red cedar has
come to my attention. This may be a world's
record for the species.
This tree takes the blue ribbon for diameter.
The height, volume, and age were not and
probably could not be measured. Very prob-
ably this same species holds the age record
for Idaho although some junipers of southern
Idaho may be older. A well guarded estimate
of the ages of the large cedars of the Roosevelt
Grove in the Kaniksu National Forest, near
Priest River, Idaho, gives their ages as be-
tween 2000 and 3000 years. The "Story of
Redwood" by Cantrell in the December, 1929
Timbermom states that the oldest redwood
logged to date was 3140 years old. The 'fJar-
dine Juniper" just south of the Idaho-Utah
state line is estimated to be about 3000 years
old, but there is very little upon which to base
such an estimate. The record-breaking British
Columbia Douglas nr previously mentioned is
believed to have been 2000 years old.
The records which are on hand to date are
condensed into the following table. Part I of
the accompanying table gives the largest
known measurements for, in some cases, well-
grounded estimatesj of the largest and oldest
trees found within the boundaries of Idaho.
Part II gives similar information for species
native to Idaho, but in which specimens of
these species outside the state are reported
which are larger or older than any reported
to date within Idaho. Any information which
will correct, corroborate or bring up to date
these data, will be appreciated by the School
of Forestry of the University of Idaho.
According to these records it would appear
that Idaho holds World records for diameter
on seven species of trees, viz., western white
pine, whitebark pine, lodgepole pine, ponde-
rosa pine, Western hemlock, lowland white fir,
and western red cedar. Of the seven species
above it seems very likely that larger ponde-
rosa pines have been found in other states
than the one reported from Elk River. The
same may be true of the other six species. We
await with eagerness communications from
some of the "native sons" of our well-adver-
tised neighbor state to the south.
On the other hand we need more and better
information about the trees growing right
now in Idaho. Idaho ought to be able to beat
Montana's record Englemann spruce. The
largest western hackberry may be growing
along the Salmon River. How about some
measurements on mountain hemlocks, alpine
firs, and Lyall's larches by you lookouts and
rangers? There are some enormous fire-killed
mountain hemlocks near Cook Mountain on the
Clearwater National Forest. No record of
sizes of our common western larch seem to be
Northern Idaho ought to be able to beat
that lodgepole pine record from the Weiser
and 'twere a pity if the yellow pine country
tributary to Boise cannot beat northern Idaho
on sizes of ponderosa pine. There follows a
33 THE IDAHO FORESTER
THE LARGEST RECORDED MEASUREMENTS OF IDAHO TREES
PART 1, TREES IN IDAHO
Common Standing, Cut, Age in
Spenies Name Location Reported By or Dead Diameter Years Height
Pinus 'Western Marble Creek Standiford 5 mel-ch,
monticola white pine Rutledge Tbr. Co. CE. Kochi Cut 92" Stump 480 lugg
Pinus IfVestern E Little N. Fork -
moniicola white pine iClearwater River C. K. Mel-Iarg, Jr. Standing 84" D.B.H. -- -
Pinus Western Kaniksu
moniicola white pine Natl. Forest Howard Drake Cut-1922 -- L 15 logs
Pinus Whitebark i Prof. Bonser, -
rllbiccmlis pine St. Joe River Spokane Standing 23" Base - T
Pinus Loclgepole i Weiser
cantorfa pine Natl. Forest U.S.F.S. R-4 - 40.7" D.B.H. -- l
Pinus Ponderosa Wolf Lodge Bay
poriclerosa pine I near C. d'Alene C. K. McHarg, Jr. Standing '29 73" D.B.H. i 10? logg
Pimrs Ponderosa i Elk River. Potlatch W
ponderosa pine Idaho Lumber Co. Cut-1922 78" Stump 1 .1
Pinus Ponderosa Payette
ponderosu pine , Natl. Forest U.S.F.S. R-4 Z 31" D,B,H, ... 208'
Tsugfl Western f Upper Priest R. R. I-I. Weidman,
lzeteroplzyllu hemlock 1 Kaniksu N. F. G- KSIHDYT, et 211 Standing '28 64" D.B.H. 1 -
Cache N. F. fNot
Pseudofsngfr Douglas stated whether in U.S.F.S. R-4 T 59.0" D,B,H, .1 l
iaivifolia Iir I Idaho or Utahj
Abies Lowland i N. Rocky Mt.
grmidis white fir Forest Exp. Sta. G. Kempff Standing '28 53" D.B.H. - -..
-Tlmja IVestern I Washington Cr., E. Koch and
plicnfn red cedar Clearwater Co. Fitzwater Standing '31 1.50" D.B.H. 1- T
Tlzuja Western Roosevelt Grove, C. B. Clark, H. 2000 to
plicata red cedar Kaniksu N. F. Flint, tk Gerrard Standing '19 1411" D.B.H. 3000 ....
Juniperus Rocky Mt. Fiiield Basin
seopuZo1-um red cedar Idaho Falls W. G. Steward Cut-1928 57.2" Base 1625 L
.- -1- - 4 - v
Tnfozls i Clearwater Weekly Bul., D-1
lzreuifolia Western yew i Natl. Forest U.S.F.S. 5-22-22 Standing '10 22" Base .1 393
Betula V Carpentier Cr. W--
jfO7Zff7lfIZfS Red birch Payette N. F. Floyd L. Otter Standing '31 13" D.B.H. T --
PART 2, RECORD TREES OF IDAHO SPECIES
Reported found in other States
Enos G1'ey's River,
flexilis Limber pine Wyo. U.S.F.S. R-4 - 70.5" D,B,H, L i
flexilis Limher pine Utah Beacraft. U.A.C. Standing 37" D,B,H, U.. 4014.
Picefl Engelmann Gordon Cr.. Flat- -
eizgelmmmi I spruce head N. F., Mont. H. Thol Standing '29 742 at 5 feet T 2001s
I 1 R. E. MQA1-die in -
Pseudotswga Douglas fir Near Mineral, U.S.D.A. Tech. Cut 18-1.8f' D.B.H. logos 225fk
trwrifolia N VVn. Bul. No. 201
Pseudotsuga 3 Timberman, H M
taxifolia I Douglas fir Toledo. Ore. Oct., 1926 Cut i -. I 340,
Pseirdotsilga Mt. VGTDOH, R. E. McArdle - N
inxifolirv Douglas Hr Wasli. Tech. Bul. No. 201 Cut-1913 1 1400 i
Jvmiperzfs Rocky Mt. Cache N. F..
scopulorum red cedar Utah U.S.F.S. R-4 Standing '32 95" Base 2700s 421+
Tnxus Western yew Watershed. Olyin- R. D. Maclay, Q 48M Base
brerifolicl DIC N. F.. Wash. U.S.F.S. 37" D.B.I-If
THE IDAHO FORESTER
list of the species of trees not mentioned here-
tofore which are known to be native to Idaho
and for which we have no size or age measure-
White fir, Abics concolor.
Utah juniper, Jim-iperus utcchensis.
Rocky Mt. red cedar, Jwniperus scopulorum.
Western juniper, Jtmiperus occidentalis.
Dwarf juniper, Jzmiperzts commzmis.
Aspen, Populus tremulofides.
Northern black Cottonwood, Populus tricho-
Balsam poplar, Populus balsaimifera.
Narrow leaf poplar, Populus cmgustifolia.
Paper birch, Betula payJy1'iferct Q1arict'Zcs.
White alder, Alnus rhombifolicr..
Mountain alder, Almts temcifolia.
Thornapple or hawthorne, cmtaegus sp.
Boxelder, Acer neyzmdo.
Dwarf maple, Acer glabrum.
Curl-leaf mountain mahogany, Cercoccwpus
Western chokecherry, Primus 'virginicma 'va-
Bitter cherry, Przmus emarginata..
Cascara, Rhamfmfts pu'rsl1,'icma.
Western mountain ash, Sorbus amcricoma
Western serviceberry, Amelomchier.
Blueberry elder, Sambucus coerulea.
PROPER TREE MEASUREMENTS ESSENTIAL
Tree diameters should always be measured
at breast height-MW feet above groundj. A
string or cord which does not stretch can be
carried in the pocket and used in the absence
of a diameter tape. The cord can be cut or
marked at the circumference length, measured
at any later time and converted into diameter
in inches to tenths. Care must be taken to
avoid or record abnormal butt swell and gross
irregularities in bole circumference. The exact
location should be noted so that anyone can
check the measurements. The report should be
made to the School of Forestry, University of
Idaho, Moscow. The nearest National Forest
officer will also be glad to receive any report
of large trees. If measurements of large
trees which have been cut are sent in, the lo-
cation of the stump should be given and any
corroborating evidence such as the names of
the logging companies and the scaler or other
person actually measuring the tree should be
given. Newspaper clippings are of value.
Some other interesting tree records have ap-
peared. The Pend d'Oreille National Forest
has a section of white pine 14 inches D. B. H.,
with only 21 annual rings. There are only 11
rings in the last 5 inches of growth and during
the last decade of its life it increased in di-
ameter QMQ inches, almost an inch a year.
First place for height goes to the western
white pine reported by Howard Drake shown
in the table, Part I, He states this tree yield-
ed 15 sixteen-foot logs or 240 feet of mer-
chantable length. The additional length of
top and stump was not stated. What site
index would this tree indicate, you students of
Chapman? Further, Mr. Drake states that
the quarter section of timber from which the
tree came cut eleven million fe-et of white
pine besides five million "mixed" species, or
enough timber for 1,000 average houses. At
that, though, it would take three acres to pro-
duce as much wood as has been taken from
one giant redwood.
And finally, Mister Smokechaser, with your
little Pulsaki tool, how would you like to find
that your fire was in the top of a 67-inch
d. b. h. fire-killed Idaho white pine reported
from the Kootenai National Forest and your
job was merely to fell the tree.
SCHOOL HAS DISTINGUISHED VISITORS
Mr. Howard Drake, Logging Engineer of
the Coeur d'Alene National Forest, gave a
series of two lectures to Idaho School of For-
estry students, Thursday, February 23. "Tim-
ber Appraisals on the National Forests" was
the subject of his lecture to the logging and
lumbering students. Later in the day he dis-
cussed fire protection to the class covering this
Mr. H. L. Redlingshafer, regional fiscal
agent for the U. S. Forest Service, Alaska,
was a School of Forestry visitor on Thursday,
November 17, 1932. His son, Thomas, is
registered as a freshman in the School of
Forestry. The elder Mr. Redlingshafer was
greatly pleased with the Idaho forest school.
Mr. Charles K. McHarg, Jr., Regional For-
est Inspector, with headquarters at Coeur
d'Alene, Idaho, chose "Aspects of the Idaho
Forest Law" in his lecture to the forestry
students on December 20, 1932.
Mr. E. A. Sherman, Associate Forester, U.
S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C., with
Mr. Meyer H. Wolif, Assistant Regional For-
ester in Charge, Office of Lands, U. S. Forest
Service, Missoula, Montana, were callers at
the School in early fall. Mr. Wolff returned
late in March to be present at the Associated
Foresters' Annual Banquet and on March 30,
this year, delivered an interesting lecture to
the students on the subject "The New Public
Domain" which he has defined elsewhere in
this issue of THE IDAHO FORESTER. Mr. Sher-
man is author of the article entitled "Planning
a Forest for the University of Idaho," also
contained in this issue of THE IDAHO FOREST!-IR.
A GENERAL COMPARISON OF AERIAL AND GROUND
SURVEYS THROUGH FOREST AREAS
J. A. CHAMBERLIN
E'I'Lg'i'l'L66'1", Idaho Department of Public Wo1'ks
THE survey through the forest for the
crossing of the Bitter Root Mountains by
the Lewis and Clark Highway between Lewis-
ton, Idaho and Missoula, Montana was under-
taken by aerial methods in the interest of
speed, economy, and improved survey methods.
The project was undertaken jointly by the
United States Bureau of Public Roads and the
Idaho Department of Public Works.
A discussion of the general conclusions
reached in comparison with those usually se-
cured by the customary ground methods is of
interest, as many new and essential advan-
tages have become apparent. These advan-
tages are individual to aerial methods, so
constitute aerial method assets, and are
enumerated rather than compared, as there
are no ground method equivalents to set
Ground survey methods have remained prac-
tically constant as to time, cost, and scope for
a long period. The speed of construction ac-
celerates annually. Nature's obstacles and hu-
man endurance have remained constant. Man's
chief limitation has been his natural means
of locomotion and his limited horizontal vision.
Aerial methods provide another dimension
and will lift him above these limitations.
The necessity for greater dispatch in con-
structive decision to supplement the increasing
speed in transportation and communication is
well recognized. The planning and prepara-
tion for constructive undertakings usually
consumes more time than the construction it-
If constructive decision and design are not
accelerated in proportion to that of the other
elements, the cycle of speed and time saving
will not be complete. The slower functions will
nullify, to a large extent, the general advance.
The net saving in time will be reduced and de-
velopment be retarded in a general economic
The time factor carries an economic and
political value that is not readily determinate
in dollars and cents when monetary first costs
are considered and compared. It is, however,
a dominant factor when measured in terms of
final value received. The holding of projects
in suspense during long periods of investiga-
tion and ground survey is a liability on public
projects and a financial loss to operating com-
panies. Rapidity of decision allows the stream
of development to flow continuously and re-
moves obstructions that delay not only the pri-
mary project, but related ones as well.
The public or business interest which sup-
ports the particular undertaking is continually
sustained by rapidity of decision. Interest is
not allowed to subside through long prepara-
tory periods during which adverse conditions
may arise and administrations change.
During the preliminary period of considera-
tion, the economic foundation of an undertak-
ing is laid, as the primary findings form the
basis for acceptance or rejection. It is during
this period that the information at hand is
usually most meager and assurances are slow
in developing. By the use of aerial methods,
this situation is reversed. All physical and
topographical information is secured with the
greatest of dispatch at a time when its pos-
session is most essential. Facts are immedi-
ately at hand. The maximum information is
available at the psychological time and not
months or perhaps years later when condi-
tions, opinions and persons have changed.
Preliminary examinations and reports are
usually made by one individual whose findings
are sometimes checked by the independent re-
ports of another individual and on these find-
ings the program is outlined. The reports and
maps submitted are unavoidably colored by the
competency and reactions of the individual
maps and the scope of the examination refiect
his opinion as to the suiiiciency of the infor-
mation. This individual attitude or "personal
equation," has a greater effect and infiuence
during the preliminary stages than at any
other time. The report of the individual is
considered by a superior officer who has little
means of measuring its merit and sufiiciency.
The present interrelation of business and
departmental subdivisions is making more and
more essential the necessity for joint decisions
when determining upon a course of action. The
situation must be considered from varied as-
pects by various executives. The information
wide in scope as well as finely de-
tailed to meet the requirements. Aerial photo-
graphs, mosaics and maps, when submitted to
a management allow the subject to be con-
sidered by all concerned.
The executive heads may then reach their
own individual conclusions without being sub-
ject to the "personal equation" of any individ-
ual and without the possibility of misunder-
standing any supplementary verbal or written
information. The final outline for action is
then developed and becomes a joint or group
decision in which all interested parties have
participated in proportion to their jurisdiction.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Th-e form of the information lends flexibility
to it and its completeness instills confidence
by removing uncertainties. Group decision and
the elimination of the "personal equation" will
tend to strengthen judgment and are a natural
outcome of aerial examination and surveys.
DIVERSITY OF USE
The diversity of use of aerial photographs
and mosaics, particularly when made under
government or public auspices, enhances their
economic value and conversely reduces the
ultimate cost, as the information is applicable
to many purposes. Aerial photographs and
mosaics embody the possibility of being de-
veloped into topographic maps. In addition
they depict a replica of every ground feature
and can be used for all purposes, including
forestry, agriculture, reclamation, and state
and government highways projects. This
adaptability enhances very materially the
value of the resulting information by eliminat-
ing duplication of effort. Ground survey maps
would indicate and emphasize only the fea-
tures or subjects directly applying to the par-
ticular purpose under consideration.
In many cases it is essential that certain
technical aspects of projects be discussed with
and made clear to nontechnical persons, for
purpose of financing and appropriations. To
many of these persons maps, profiles, and dia-
grams are not readily comprehensible. A pic-
ture or a mosaic with the project indicated up-
on it brings ready comprehension and when
supplemented with oblique pictures, affords
understanding and eliminates long complicated
explanations. A common ground of under-
standing is thus provided and any tendency to-
ward an individual uncertainty is removed,
to the end that negotiations can proceed with
more assurance and confidence in both the
project and the representative.
The preceding general statements introduce
a few engineering aspects of aerial surveys
and some of the resulting advantages. The
scale of the pictures and the extent of the de-
tail depend only upon the height from which
the picture was taken and the extent of it is
later enlargement. The map scale will vary
A comparison of relative values between
ground and aerial examination, particularly
on preliminary Work, is not readily present-
able with brevity inasmuch as the aerial
method introduces new elements of great val-
ue that are not obtainable by ground methods.
A dollar for dollar comparison is not equit-
able as the advantage of the a-erial method in
providing a quicker and broader understand-
ing of the entire situation is infinitely gI'eater
than the ground method. Similar results might
be obtained by either method by the same in-
dividual provided he covered the country on
the ground with a thoroughness equal to the
plane in the air, took enough time, and made
a decision that his superiors would approve if
they had seen everything that he had seen.
This is a rather heavily qualified statement
and the result of that procedure would be to
again become subservient to the personal equa-
tion and delete all of the fundamental advan-
tages and assurances previously enumerated.
The sole advantage would be that the man
had been upon the ground and would be in a
better position to classify the material. Upon
returning from a reconnaissance, he would
bring no corroborative evidence to support his
opinion. Upon the return of the plane, a
series of photographs of each route considered
would be available for d-etailed study and con-
sideration and would constitute a permanent
record available at any time for any purpose
affecting the area covered. For an explora-
tory flight as compared to a ground trip, the
flight would cost the least.
For a photographic flight as compared to a
ground trip on trails, the cost would be about
the same, as the ground trip would require
much more travel to gain the sam-e understand-
ing and assurance. In certain very difficult
areas, the ground reconnaissance would cost
A Forest Survey Party Makes Use of Pack Horses to Ca.r1'y Men and E'qnfipment into
Inaccessible Regions Where There Are No Roads and Often Few Trails.
more than a photographic flight, but with the
qualification in each case, that ground trips
do not aHord the advantages previously
It appears, then, that up to the point of
actual maps and surveys, aerial methods offer
a great advantage not only in time, but in
returns from the cost, and further, that there
is a credit balance to carry over and apply on
the cost of ground control and mapping.
The effectiveness of the reconnaissance and
photographic flights on the Lewis and Clark
project over that of ground reconnaissance
was evidenced in many ways. On the Hrst
flight the Bitter Root Mountains were crossed
over the Lochsa River Route and recrossed
over the North Fork Route. The Ridge Route
lying between the above mentioned routes was
observed at the same time. The flying time
was three hours, over diiiicult mountain coun-
try, and the distance flown, about three hun-
dred miles. The main streams were in deep
narrow recesses and the high ground was
sharp and ragged in form. The flight was
made at an elevation of from 1,000 to 5,000
feet above the ground. The highest elevation
reached was 10,000 feet and in only one case
did the plane descend within a few hundred
feet of the ground.
It was naturally supposed that the general
course and relation of the routes as well as
the drainage systems would show clearly, but
a surprising amount of detail proved to be
ascertainable at the same time. The plane
was held to one side of the objective rather
than immediately above it in order to permit
of the ground view in perspective.
STREAMS SHOW PLAINLY
In the burned areas, ground details showed
with a great clearness and the nature of the
material was evident. On fully timbered sec-
tions where the trees rose tier on tier from
narrow bottoms, and the river seemed to fill
the channel, the details were not so readily
ascertained. In this case, judgment could be
rendered only from the general steepness of
the side slopes, the bald rocky spots and
masses of rock that had rolled into the river.
The general configuration, however, was
readily observed. The heavily timbered sec-
tions were not extensive in the canyons and
offered little interruption.
The various routes flowed by with such
rapidity that the outstanding differences were
presented with emphasis and comparisons
were readily made. Secondary streams could,
in many cases, be seen from their sources to
their mouths. The side of the main rivers
having the least tributary streams was easily
selected. The requirements for bridges were
evident. The varied characters of ground
along the river bank were easily segregated.
Slopes and cliffs and the main trails showed
THE IDAHO FORESTER
clearly, as well as fluffs of dust stirred by a
plodding pack train, with which, perchance,
there traveled some engineer on ground re-
connaissance. The position of the pack train
indicated to a certain degree the nature of
the ground near the river by its occupancy or
TREES lVlARK HIGH WATER
In many cases a line of isolated trees stood
at highwater line along the rivers and so
showed that the area between them and the
water was a bar, and not tenable.
Steep sections of the main streams were in-
dicated by narrow channels and white water,
and slack sections by Wide channels and black
water. The scars of snow slides and cloud
bursts led down the slopes to fantails of debris
on the river bank and bars in the stream.
The entire panorama lay spread beneath in
all its detail and close or distant observation
was accomplished by a word to the pilot.
Mountains led away on both sides and wide
deflections in the courses of river and streams
were seen in their true relations and in some
cases invited cut-offs by the use of more ascent
and descent. The top of the divide was viewed
for many miles and the passes lay spread out
for observation. There is slight likelihood of
missing a hidden pass from the air. Out from
the divide ran slopes and ridges of varied
ground which told much of their texture by
their form. Basins were viewed from all sides
and peaks are circled with celerity. A remark
to the pilot, and distant ground is quickly
close by and then swept away as ,questions are
answered visually. An effortless investiga-
tion conducted by a seemingly detached intel-
lect that requires no endurance for its trans-
ROUTES EASILY COMPARED FROM AIR
The examination of routes lying reasonably
close to main streams is comparatively simple
as the actual position of the line is determinate
within narrow limits. The position of a sup-
ported line that may loop about is not so
readily decided upon from the air as a wide
area may be occupied and the elevation line
can not be determined. In such cases, the ex-
amination becomes more general. The con-
figuration and formation of the country over
which a descent is proposed, is open to con-
sideration as a whole. Desirable ground for
development or support is much more readily
located from the air, although ground work
would be required to prove its utility and co-
incidence with the desired grade line.
In any case, the general character of sup-
porting ground on any route or routes is
readily open to comparison. Aerial recon-
naissance eliminates that ever present fear
on ground work of overlooking something by
not knowing what lies just beyond one more
hill. From the air, the entire area and many
miles on each side are examined in a few ef-
THE IDAHO FORESTER
fortless minutes and conclusions are reached
that are qualified by few mental reservations!
The flights, both reconnaissance, photo-
graphic and reflights for the Lewis and Clark
Highway, were completed in twelve hours of
fiying time and about 1,000 miles were flown.
A ground party would occupy that period in
traveling ten miles along the trail and mak-
ing camp. The films were sent to Washing-
ton, D. C. by airmail for development and
printing. In ten days from the date of taking,
the pictures were received and the stereoscopic
From the air, the alternate routes are con-
sidered close together and no term of time or
effort lies between the observations to dull the
impression derived, as is the case when travel-
ing laboriously along faint trails upon the
ground. When observed information is sup-
ported and supplemented by continuous photo-
graphs, the aerial method far outstrips ground
reconnaissance in every respect. In addition,
the resulting record is of much greater value,
due to its increased scope and versatility of
use. It is, in fact, visual proof of the condi-
tions, while that of ground reconnaissance is
simply verbal and subject to the "personal
After the photographs of the various routes
have been studied under a stereoscope and a
tentative route has been indicated upon the
mosaics, the pictures are again studied and a
preliminary cost estimate is made.
This preliminary or reconnaissance estimate
is made just as it would be by a man upon
the ground. The ground conditions show
clearly under the stereoscope. Some distortion
occurs in the steepness of the slopes due to
variation in the overlap of the pictures, but
the same condition obtains on all the routes so
the result balances suhiiciently for comparison
Stream crossings are more readily determi-
nate upon the pictures than upon the ground.
Advantageous breaks in the slopes above the
rivers are located at once and not passed by
as when traveling below. The choice of ground
along the main streams is readily made as the
pictures show half a mile on each side. Cliffs
and slopes are easily distinguishable, particu-
larly in open country, and large boulders in
the rivers are discernible.
BEST ROUTE READILY ASCERTAINED
When the line leaves the rivers and supports
along the slope, the procedure does not con-
tinue with as much confidence as along the
river as there is no gauge of elevation except
by estimating the height of the trees and step-
ping off the ascent or descent accordingly.
The character of the country shows, however,
and the gross ascent is usually known, so the
distance across each type of ground is de-
terminate and the cost is estimated. The pur-
pose at this time is to arrive at comparative
costs and so know the relative value of alter-
nate routes. With these figures are placed
the physical values of rise and fall, curvature
and distance, together with climatic, political,
maintenance, and economic values, the most
suitable route becomes evident.
To the engineer making a ground recon-
naissance in heavy country, the matter of dis-
tance is usually approximated, but on the air
pictures that difficulty does not appear, as they
can be measured on the photograph and the
In making these approximate reconnaissance
estimates, the ground method has the advan-
tage in a more detailed classification of the
material. It contains, however, the more seri-
ous possibility of overlooking the opportuni-
ties of more favorable ground that is plainly
evident from the air. Estimates of this type
are visual approximations based on previous
knowledge of similar conditions and little
variation in judgment should occur.
The completion of the reconnaissance Hights
and the photography concludes one complete
section of aerial work. The choice of routes has
been made and the remainder of the work re-
quired is the making of a topographic map of
the accepted route and the actual staking of
the located line upon the ground and final esti-
mating of cost.
From this point, then, two courses are
open. The topographic map can be made from
the photographs after a ground control has
been placed, or it can be made from measure-
ments taken on the ground after a staked
preliminary line has been established. The
desired end is to obtain topography and tie it
into a base line. This is required in order
that the center line when projected upon the
topography may be transferred to the ground
in the same relation to the base or preliminary
line that it occupies upon the map. Ground
control consists of elevations on certain dis-
tinguishable points at random on the picture
and also the length and bearings of the courses
between the points. This information may be
secured by stadia or otherwise as the condi-
A preliminary line would be a precise staked
line close to the position that the highway
was expected to occupy and form the base
from which the topography would be taken and
from which the projected center line would be
located upon the ground.
GROUND CONTROL IMPORTANT
In mountain country such as that under
consideration the preparations for doing either
would be similar. The size of the party for
ground control was less on the Lochsa than
would have been the case for a preliminary
line and the time taken for the fifty miles of
canyon was less. Survey points upon the
THE IDAHO FORESTER
ground control were not established perman-
ently and there is no prospect of utilizing the
topography in detail when the final location
The question at once arises as to how ex-
tensive the ground control should be. The
results obtained on the Lochsa would seem to
indicate that they should either be more than
was used or less. If the ground control had
been placed in the form of a preliminary and
have had the points well established, the
projected line could have been located without
the necessity of additional preliminary or
If less work had been placed upon the
ground control by using existing maps and ele-
vations and building up a map that would ad-
mittedly contain some variations in course and
elevation, the map in that case would have
had about the same preliminary value and the
field control would have cost nothing.
As the matter stands now, there is no ready
manner by which to place the paper projection
on the ground as a located line. When the line
is located, a preliminary line and a working
strip of topography, as well as a new projec-
tion of the line, will be required. The present
work and map, therefore, is limited to pre-
liminary and general purposes.
Two PHASES OF TWORK
This situation is no reflection upon the
aerial surveys but the recitation of a result
due to occupying an intermediate position.
This develops the fact that aerial mapping and
topography divides itself into two classes. One
class for preliminary estimate purposes and
one for final detail work. These two classes
vary in value in proportion to the scale of the
map, and the accuracy, class and permanency
of the ground control. The cost varies in a
similar ratio and their desirability in propor-
tion to their cost as compared to that of the
usual ground survey costs when supplemented
by aerial photographs.
SCALE or MAP VARIES WITH COUNTRY
The Lochsa River aerial map was made on
a scale of 500 feet to the inch and the contour
interval was ten feet. For a country as difli-
cult as that through which the river passes,
that scale is too small to permit the projecting
of a close final line. A final ground map to a
scale of one hundred feet to the inch will be
required over the strip that will be occupied
by the highway, This aerial map then falls
within the preliminary class and as such, the
necessity for refinements in the quality of the
ground control were not vitally essential, and
could have been heavily curtailed without af-
fecting the net value of the projection and
estimate made upon the map.
The quality of the ground control should
Nora: Mr. G. E. McKelvey is Commissioner of Public
Evorlisl zrncl Mr. J. H. Steuimer is Director of Highways
or r a io.
vary in proportion to the scale of the map.
The scale of the map should vary in propor-
tion to the roughness of the country. The
price of the map can equal the price of a
ground preliminary and topography on one
line plus a reasonable amount for the increased
scope of the information.
The aerial map, however, has an outstand-
ing advantage in utility over the ground map
by reason of its greater scope and detail. In
addition, increased width in the topography
to include both sides and the slopes above a
river does not increase the cost proportionally
for the reason that no additional flying is re-
quired and little more ground control. On
ground surveys, additional preliminary and
base lines would be required for expansion of
the area and for alternate propositions. The
ground map usually covers a limited strip.
The suiiiciency of this strip is determined by
the individual upon the ground and there is
little opportunity to study alternatives and to
guard against oversights.
The flexibility and completeness of aerial
survey information, its diversity of use and
the ready expansion of topographic area,
makes it a more positive and complete source
of understanding than the usual ground
methods. The enhanced value of the results
and the safeguards in judgment that it affords
makes it a better dollar for dollar investment
and justifies a greater gross expenditure than
ground work because it is very evident that
the ultimate net economic cost will be less.
The editorial staff of The IDAHO FORESTER
is grateful to the contributors for their part
in the publication of this issue. The staff also
acknowledges the co-operation of several agen-
cies in supplying certain cuts. The University
of Idaho Publicity Department supplied the
cut appearing on page 41. The Caxton
Printers, Ltd., Caldwell, Idaho, publishers of
this year's edition, furnished the cuts on pages
1, 2, and 6, and supplied the art work for the
hand lettered heading of The IDAHO FORESTER
appearing on page 3.
A "green" fire fighter was aroused from his
slumbers at 3:00 a. m. to begin the day's rou-
tine. Getting ready for breakfast he was
heard to say, "It sure doesn't take long to
spend a night in this country."
During his youth he was a knotty problem,
but his father was a lumberman, therefore he
was a chip off the old block.
AN ADDRESS TO THE ASSOCIATED FORESTERS
GEORGE M. FISHER, '33
Delivered at the Bonfire Meeting at Price Green, October, 1932
Mr. President and Associated Foresters of the
University of Idaho:
NO DOUBT everyone here, with the possible
exception of the freshmen, knows what an
honorary fraternity or society is. Existence
of such an organization in our School of
Forestry is evident, but some of you know
very little more than that. I have recollec-
tions of reading in the catalog about such an
honor society when I was a freshman in the
University. But it was not until my sopho-
more year that I fully realized what the or-
ganization meant, what the functions of the
group were, and how admission was possible.
Xi Sigma Pi, National Forestry Honor Fra-
ternity, stands for an honor society in every
sense of the word. It is a distinct honor to our
institution and is based upon the very highest
of standards which are recognized in our For-
estry School. It is an honor to the profession
of forestry because its representation is select-
ed with much care in regard to the active for-
estry profession and is composed almost 100
per cent of men now engaged and holding high
positions in this chosen field. It is an honor
to the individual when he is recognized and
chosen for membership. I think I am right in
stating that no one ever received membership
in Xi Sigma Pi who did not earnestly work for
it and did not feel that after he had received
this honor that it was indeed another victory
The organization has grown up with the
field of forestry. Established in 1908 at our
neighboring institution, the University of
Washington, it has now a membership of
almost 1000 and has eight chapters represent-
ed in the country's finest forestry schools. This
membership figure means considerable as there
are not very many thousands of men at the
present engaged in forest activities. A further
comparison is possible when it is known there
are roughly 2500 members of the Society of
American Foresters, the largest group of pro-
fessional foresters in our country.
The local chapter at Idaho has been in exist-
ence 12 years, the charter having been granted
in 1920. It has steadily grown in importance
in our school, having one of the strongest
alumnae chapters in the fraternity, as well as
one of the best represented in the profession.
At the end of last year the active resident
membership of Idaho Epsilon Chapter was 19.
This fall the group is represented by 16 actives.
The objects of the fraternity are: 1. To se-
cure and maintain a high standard of scholar-
ship in forest education. 2. To work for the
upbuilding of the profession of forestry. 3. To
promote fraternal relations among earnest
workers engaged in forest activities.
You will see from this that recognition of
membership by the group would be based on
scholarship, activity in forestry work, and
true professional interest. The eligibility re-
quirements are high and stand among the top
in relation to other existing societies. But
they are high for a purpose. It is necessary
to maintain forest school standards and pro-
fessional forestry on par with the best of
other professions. Also an honor difficult to
attain and worth working hard for is much
more valued and appreciated after such an
honor is obtained. Three-fourths of all the
grades a student makes during his college
course must be B or better or in other words
above 80 per cent. Second semester junior
standing is necessary except in a few cases
where a limited number of students of excep-
tional ability may be pledged during their
first semester of the junior year. A failure
in any forestry subject completely rejects the
student from membership. Faculty members
and graduate students with the necessary high
scholastic records coming from institutions
that do not have a chapter of Xi Sigma Pi are
eligible for membership.
Now this leads up to one thought I wish
to get across to the new students tonight.
Start right now working toward a member-
ship inthe fraternity. It may not seem urgent
at this time but it is most important. When
you get to be sophomores and juniors and re-
alize that you would like to be a member of
Xi Sigma Pi, and what it may mean to you,
it might be too late. An eligiblity requirement
of '75 per cent B and better is hard to make
and it is mighty important that you start
working for this in your first year of school.
Let me give exact Hgures to explain what I
HIGH GRADES FIRST YEAR IMPORTANT
The average student in the forestry school
carries 18 credit hours each semester or 36 a
year. If the student completes 20 hours of
work B and better the Hrst year, which is
above the average, this gives him 5516 per cent
above C. But even then the following year
this student must make all but two hours of
this 36 earned his second year, B and better,
to be eligible for Xi Sigma Pi with a '75 per
cent. How many do this? The thing to do is
work for good grades and get interested in
scholarship your first year in school. It is
lContinued on page 52l
The Benehtsand Serdces Rendered By
the National Forests of the State
fContinued from page 101
ber is to provide the material for consumers
throughout the nation, nevertheless the bene-
fits to the local state and its people are so
great and of such vast service to them that,
were the federal government not carrying the
task, the state itself or its counties would be
virtually forced to undertake the effort, to far
larger extent than now, to protect the pros-
perity of a large portion of its people.
MANY DEPEND ON WATERSHEDS
The other basic purpose of the national
forests is watershed protectiong the stabiliza-
tion of waterflow and the prevention of ero-
sion. How vital is water in Idaho for irriga-
tion is well known and attested to by the fact
that of over forty thousand farms in the state
about 60 per cent Ccomprising 55 per cent of
the improved acreagej are irrigated. Over
EB90,000,000,000 has been spent in irrigation
works. Idaho's streams are capable of generat-
ing 2,000,000 horse power, although it should
be borne in mind that not all this horsepower
will be developed in the state for a great many
Virtually all streams of importance for irri-
gation or for power have their source among
the high forested slopes within the national
forests. Despite the fact that no abuse of the
mountain watersheds could wholly destroy this
resource, the loss of the timber or other plant
cover might result in depreciating a large part
of a value. Height and duration of Hoods
would be accentuated and the much needed
water during the irrigation period would be
much reduced. Erosion from barren hillsides
would result in silting up reservoirs and
canals, making their maintenance more ex-
pensive. The goVernment's eiorts in the na-
tional forests in preventing forest fires, over-
grazing, and the thoughtless cutting of timber
safeguard these watersheds against the ef-
fects of such mistreatment. The farms and
the water power developments have indeed a
considerable interest in the national forests
and are rendered an enormous service through
the federal government's safeguarding of their
GRAZING RESOURCES VITAL
Intermingled with the forest-producing land
and integrally a part of them, particularly in
the national forests in the southern part of the
state, are lands carrying forage values of con-
siderable utility. These forage resources are
handled under the same general policies of
constructive and conservative use that are ap-
plicable to the timber. Thus is insured a per-
manent production of range feed upon which
THE IDAHO FORESTER
the welfare of many a livestock producer is
heavily dependent. Furthermore, by the sys-
tem of preferences that is established under
Forest Service policies the smaller stockmen
have equal opportunity with the larger and
more powerful, for finding range for their
stock. Constancy and stability in the number
of stock permitted, based upon the output ca-
pacity of the land, is a further benefit to the
stockmen so they can plan ahead with rea-
sonable conidence on their livestock produc-
For the convenience and economy of opera-
tion of the range users the government is con-
tinually improving the range facilities through
such activities as driveway construction, water
developments, rodent and poison plant eradi-
cation, and drift fence construction, things
that no individual could undertake but which
redound very greatly to those who obtain an-
nually in the neighborhood of 3500 permits to
use the range.
It is commonly agreed among stockmen and
land use students that some control of the open
range is essential. Experience has shown that
not otherwise can the public range be pro-
tected from the first-come-first-served scramble
for its resources with consequent overgrazing
and rapid deterioration of great injury finally
to all users. Many of these range lands are of
such character that it is very questionable
whether they would have gone into private
ownership and remained there, interest on in-
vestment and tax charges being considered.
They would then have remained public domain
range subject to all the abuse that the remain-
ing public domain range meets in most of the
GRAZING FEES Low
It is to be noted also that the fees charged
by the government for range per head are low
compared to the fees very generally charged
on private lands of similar range character,
and much below the usual cost per head that a
stock producer would have to bear in the
event he owned his own land, oftentimes the
cost per head of government range is less than
the cost per head of the taxes alone on pri-
vately owned lands. One cannot help but note
that in spite of appeals for grazing fee re-
ductions from livestock men in many quarters
who are using national forest ranges, the fact
that they are getting the range at less cost
than they would probably through any other
ownership, coupled with the marked advan-
tages of the government methods of range use
control, has resulted in national forest graz-
ing users so Well satisfied that they have in
many an instance urged the extension of na-
tional forest range control to other public do-
main range lands.
How important an element are the national
forest ranges in the livestock-producing busi-
ness of the state is evident by the fact that
over 60 per cent of the 2,275,000 sheep and
THE IDAHO FORESTER
close to eighteen per cent of the 635,000 cattle
in the state find range in the national forests.
The livestock-producing operations behind the
stock grazed on the national forest ranges, on
which they vitally depend, have an estimated
value of very close to 320,000,000
FOREST SERVICE DEVELOPS RECREATIONAL USES
The recreational resources of the national
forests are of considerable benefit to the citi-
zens of the state because they lie practically at
the back door in most places and at very short
distances elsewhere in the state. The Forest
Service policy is to encourage the use of the
forests for recreation and to develop rec-
reational resources and to make them more
readily usable. Camping and picnicking, hunt-
ing and fishing fexcept for necessary state
licensesj, are free of charge. These are the
principal recreational uses made of the for-
ests by the local people. The seven-year aver-
age, from 1925 to 1931 inclusive, for this form
of recreational use came to slightly over 135,-
000 people. How rapidly this is growing is
evidenced by the fact that the figures for 1932
alone come to slightly over 190,000. Other
forms of recreation are also encouraged, for
nominal fees tracts for exclusive use for re-
sorts or for summer homes can be obtained
under a minimum of restrictions designed to
protect public interest and other recreational
Just how many of these visitors hunt or
fish is a number not available but it is known
to be large. They are attracted by the over
80,000 head of big game, and the fine fishing
streams virtually everywhere in the national
forest areas. The Forest Service liberally and
whole-heartedly co-operates with the state
game authorities in fostering the fish and
game and enforcing the game laws. In the
formulation of the very essential game man-
agement plans, insuring foresight in these
matters, the Forest Service has considered its
responsibility virtually co-ordinate with that
of the state agencies, since it is a Forest land
use that is concerned. It is only with such
plans that the present and future well-being
of the game and fish resources can be soundly
GUESTS OF STATE BRING REVENUE
What portion of the recreation users come
from outside the state it is possible only
roughly to estimate. Assuming that 10 per
cent would be a conservative figure, the actual
recreation occupants of the national forest
land, other than Idahoans, come to about 20,-
000 in terms of approximate person days. A
great contribution this is to the pleasure, in-
spiration, refreshment and health of the state's
guests. It is also a source of inflow of outside
money, it has been conservatively estimated
that every day's recreation use represents a
local expenditure of 35.00. Thus results an
estimated income of S100,000 annually. And
it is to be confidently expected that this use
will greatly increase with return to normal
conditions in the country and as machine
development constantly enables mankind to
enjoy greater and greater leisure. The For-
est Service recognizes recreation as one of the
major uses of the national forests and gives it
a prominent place in its land use, protection,
and development plans.
Very clearly its national forests are of
manifold benefit to the people of the State of
Idaho, far in excess of any sacrifices that may
be considered-chiefly in the form of taxes
that may have been collectible on a small part
of the lands had they remained open for pri-
vate acquisition. It is to be borne in mind,
however, that the major reason for the forests
as a national enterprise is to insure their
benefits for the people of the nation, which
could not be attained by any other means than
federal ownership and control. The govern-
ment in the national forests as with other of
its activities, undertakes its burden with the
aim of benefit and service to the people of the
nation, as well as locally, and not for any
profit or other direct financial gain. Funda-
mentally that is why the national forests in
Idaho are of such great benefit to its people.
George Washington Memorial
The members of Epsilon chapter of Xi Sig-
ma Pi met in the Arboretum the noon of Cam-
pus Day, May 10, 1933 for a luncheon and
formal dedication of the George Washington
After a lunch of coffee, beans, sandwiches,
and pie, served at "Price Green" by Paul
Talich, chairman of events, the stage, consist-
ing of two chairs and a table, was set for a
clever playlet entitled, "The Moonshinersf'
John McNair and Dr. W. D. Miller composed
The group then adjourned to the memorial
planting of 19 Colorado Blue Spruce nearby,
established May 3, 1932. Dean F. G. Miller
oHicially dedicated the memorial, addressing
the members as they gathered around the
large granite rock upon which a bronzed plate
had been mounted commemorating the plant-
ing.-G. M. F.
Grin and "She" Grin
Do you remember that November
When two budding woodsmen
With axes in hand
Went for some firewood at Watson's command
And then came back
With a tamarack?
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Range Management on Indian Lands
1Continued from page 125
Obviously, an Indian cannot engage in the
stock business on 160 acres or ordinarily even
on two or four times that amount. Further-
more, only a comparatively few Indians have
indicated an active desire to utilize their in-
dividual holdings. The result is that the In-
dian Service must block up ranges composed
of scores or hundreds of allotments and then
secure an agreement among the owners of such
separate parcels as to the conditions on which
they are willing to allow a permittee to use
their lands. As many of the allottees have died
and their interests are now held by numerous
heirs the details of administration are very
complex and difficult.
Fortunately, on the reservations in Wash-
ington, Oregon, Wyoming, Arizona, and New
Mexico large areas of grazing land are yet
held in a tribal status and a unified control
and conservation management is practicable.
Such management seems unquestionably the
logical one both from the standpoint of the In-
dians and of the public at large. Considerable
thought has been given by the Forestry Branch
of the Indian Service to the devising of a
plan that will insure a unification of owner-
ship and control over allotted areas that are
adapted only for range use, but as yet no
satisfactory solution of the problem has been
found. It is extremely difficult to consolidate
ownership after a natural grazing area has
been subdivided into hundreds of separate legal
tracts and separate patents issued to indi-
With the limited funds available for range
administration on Indian lands, it has not
been practicable to undertake intensive recon-
naissance nor is it thought the results to be
obtained from such studies would be com-
mensurate with the cost. The principal objec-
tives for the next five years at least should be
C11 the grouping of allotments and arrange-
ment of grazing units on tribal lands so as to
secure the best utilization of range values,
125 the convincing of permittees and Indians
that it will be to their own advantage to adopt
the bedding out system with sheep, to keep the
stocking of their ranges conservative and to
develop water and other range improvementsg
C35 to bring to the Indians a realization of the
need for conservative management as a means
of assuring future income from their landsg
and C41 to educate the Indians in methods of
improving their flocks and herds with a view
to the ultimate utilization of the greater part
of the grazing resources on Indian lands by
All of these objectives are so obviously de-
sirable that it may seem that they would be
easily accomplished. Such is not the case.
The grouping of allotments is often opposed
by individual Indians from selfish motives and
both Indian and white owners of stock often
desire an assignment of range areas not con-
sistent with sound management. There are
still permittees and Indians who keep their
sheep too long at the water or at other con-
venient locations. The task of selling "con-
servative range managementn and "improve-
ment of stock" to a people who are peculiarly
indifferent to the motives and ambitions for
economic advancement that actuate the Cauca-
sian race is one requiring great tact and pa-
Idaho White Pine Saw Logs Leaving the Clearwater Region. The
Clearwccter Region of Northern Idaho has the Largest Body of
Western White Pine Extdnt. A Stand of Second Growth Tifmbev'
is Shown in the Bcwkground.
JUNIGRS REPEAT BARBECUE WIN
THE Junior Class of the School of Forestry
seems to have a monopoly on the Barbecue
contests for they again won the tenth annual
affair with a handsome margin. The Juniors
emerged with a total of 40 points as against
the Sophomore total of 24 and the Frosh of 19.
The Seniors also competed. Keen rivalry was
evident for each class was constantly priming
and tuning up its gladiators to fighting pitch
and the same spirit which marked the success
of the Hrst barbecue held May 24, 1924, at the
mill site on the School Forest, was much in
evidence at this year's meet.
The Barbecue Committee headed by Maurice
March, spent Campus Day morning, May 11,
1933, making arrangements for the meet to
be held in the afternoon at Luvaas Grove,
five miles northeast of Moscow, and had every-
thing in readiness for the "gang" which began
arriving at 1:30 p. m. Baseball served to
loosen up stiff muscles and put the contestants
in a fighting mood for the field meet which
was called just in time to prevent a casualty
so far as the umpire was concerned.
Cranston, senior entry and sprint ace of
barbecues of former days, raced neck and neck
down the straightaway with March, champion
of more recent barbecues and running for the
Juniors, only to lose when March stuck out
his tongue to win the race. Davis came in
third for the Sophs while Stevens, Frosh rep-
resentative, came in last.
The three-legged race ended in a three-point
landing and a win for the Sophomores with the
Davis and Ziminski team taking a pretty spill
right at the finish. The first win for the Frosh
came in the sack race when Nelson crossed the
tape a split hair ahead of Wright for the
Juniors, followed by Heger for the Sophs.
RELAY PUTS SOPHOMORES IN LEAD
The judges had difiiculty in selecting the
winners of the relay race for the four teams
were very evenly matched. The Sophomore
team, though, had the edge and this event
gave them a one point lead over the Juniors.
However, when the scrambled eggs were un-
scrambled after the egg-tossing contest, the
Juniors were back in the lead with a win by
Ledford. The usual caustic statements about
the winner using hard-boiled eggs were tossed
about prolifically as were the eggs, but when
the "crash" came, such remarks were forgot-
ten. Carlson for the Sophs took second place
in this event with Larsson for the Seniors
LEDFORD TAKES ANOTHER FIRST
Parker, another Junior, took the tree climb-
ing contest, reaching and returning from the
24.3 foot mark in the remarkable time of
eleven seconds flat. Newcomb took second
place for the Seniors. Ledford's weeks of
practice were not suiiicient to displace New-
comer's mark made several years ago in the
"Horseshoe" contest, but it was enough to
take first place for the Juniors. Frank Cline,
Frosh entry, had a backfir-e so was disabled
for further contests during the afternoon.
In the one man bucking contest, Tumelson
for the Sophs pushed and pulled the saw for a
handsome win in spite of Sach's persistent
coaching and encouragement to his classmate,
the Frosh entry, Lownik, who placed second.
The two-man bucking contest was won by the
Wright-March team for the Juniors with
March making a valiant effort to ride the saw
without a saddle. The "T-bone" Hultman-
Tumelson combination plac-ed a close second
for the Sophomores.
LAST EVENT A CLIMAX
The final event was a free-for-all in which
it was every man for himself and the devil
take the hindmost. When each forester had
his plate full to over-flowing with luscious
food, he was seen to go into a huddle or a
cuddle with himself and later to emerge with
that satisfied smile prevalent only when all
wrinkles are ironed out. By this time Nature
was drawing her curtains and nightfall saw
the finale of the Tenth Annual Barbecue.
Place of Chemical Research
KContinu-ed from page 163
building boards. During the past decade this
industry has developed rapidly and has as-
sumed a position of importance in the building
trade. The annual consumption of wall and
insulating boards in the United States is now
about 900,000,000 square feet. Practically all
of this is produced domestically and, in addi-
tion, the United States exports about 200,000,-
000 square feet annually. Since fiber boards
are largely manufactured from wood they have
taken a definite place in the economy of forest
The uses for fiber boards are continually
expanding. A recent paper on the subject lists
121 uses for hard pressed and insulation board
alone. Besides these two types of fiber boards
there are the wall boards which are widely
used as a finishing cover for partitions, ceil-
ings, and interior walls. Fiber boards are
manufactured in order to improve upon cer-
tain properties of wood and to add other spe-
cific properties for insulation, plaster holding,
Many, if not most fiber boards made of
wood, utilize sawmill waste. In the Pacific
Northwest an insulating board is made from
Douglas fir sawmill waste, and several other
examples of waste utilization for fiber board
manufacture may be cited.
MECHANICAL PROCESSES REQUIRE CHEMICAL
Some fiber boards are manufactured entire-
ly by mechanical processes by which the fibers
are rubbed or torn from one another. The
masonite process depends upon the explosive
force of steam to separate the fibers. Chips
are placed in a chamber and steam under high
pressure is introduced. This is suddenly re-
leased and the internal pressure in the chips
causes them to explode producing masses of
fiber bundles and individual fibers. The pro-
duction of boards by these mechanical proc-
esses require the strictest technical control
and also much research in the chemistry of
lignin and fibers.
Many fiber boards are made from wood by
chemical digestion or by a combined chemical
pulping and mechanical shedding process. The
same principle of pulping applies here as in
the production of paper pulp. However, the
processes used are usually milder and only a
portion of the lignin or cementing material is
removed from the wood, allowing the fibers to
be readily separated by m.ild mechanical action.
Intensive research is being carried out on
fiber board manufacture. This research covers
not only production of the pulp and methods
of control during manufacture, but also the
water, fire, decay and termite proofing of the
The most spectacular of the modern chemi-
cal forest industries has been the development
of rayon and related products. This industry
did not, however, develop overnight but had
its beginning in the fundamental cellulose re-
search of the nineteenth century. Chardonnet's
investigations dating from. 1878 laid the foun-
dations for the Chardonnet process which be-
gan commercial production in 1900. The pro-
duction of rayon by the viscose process began
at about the same time as a result of the
chemical discoveries of Cross and Bevan, two
English chemists. At present 85 per cent of
the world's rayon is made by the viscose proc-
ess. Purified wood pulp is the principal raw
Both the wood pulp which is used to make
rayon and the final product are cellulose.
They are chemically the same. By chemical
means the wood cellulose is modified and
brought into a thick viscous solution. This
solution is then forced through miniature
round openings into an acid bath which trans-
forms the fine stream of modified cellulose in
solution to a continuous solid cellulose fiber.
CELLOPHANE FROM CELLULOSE
Rayon is not the only product of the viscose
process. If the viscose solution is forced
through a slit instead of through fine holes, a
thin transparent sheet is obtained, known as
cellophane. By mechanical variations other
products such as sausage casings, braid, rib-
bon, artificial straw and horsehair may be
produced. Fruit is sometimes given a pro-
tective cellulose coat by a dipping process.
The Chardonnet and the acetate processes
for rayon both use cotton cellulose for their
raw material. From cotton cellulose are also
THE IDAHO FORESTER
manufactured smokeless powders, various
lacquers, plastics, films, toys, safety glass, and
a variety of other products. During the war
wood cellulose was used for smokeless pow-
ders. These proved effective even after 10
years' storage, and there is no reason why
the use of Wood cellulose cannot be continued.
Research on the refining of pulp to obtain uni-
form quality and to control viscosity may en-
able the use of wood cellulose in the lacquer
and plastic industries.
Braconnot in 1819 converted wood cellulose
into a simple sugar which was not only edible
but fermentable to alcohol as Well. The com-
mercial production of sugar and alcohol from
wood has received much attention since Bra-
connot's time, and partial success has been
obtained. In Germany hydrolyzed wood is
used as a stock food. Four commercial plants
for the production of alcohol formerly operated
in this country. Continued research on im-
proved production and the increased use of
alcohol may put the process on an economical
basis not only for the production of alcohol
but for a variety of sugars which may be of
Many other chemical products from Wood
may be mentioned. The utilization of wood
waste for gas generators offers many interest-
ing industrial possibilities. Various wood eX-
tractives are used as raw material for tannin,
dyes and medicinals. The western larch of the
Inland Empire contains a potential raw ma-
terial in the form of galactan. Patents have
been taken out on the preparation of mucic
and oxalic acids from larch galactan. These
acids have Wide industrial application.
From this brief discussion it is seen that
Wood is a chemical raw material and that the
chemical utilization of wood is an important
part of forest utilization. It is obvious that
for the improvement of these chemical prod-
ucts from wood and for the extended use-
fulness of our forests through the develop-
ment of other valuable articles, chemical re-
search is an important part of any forest
utilization program. Because our knowledge
of the chemistry of Wood is still so imperfect
there is justification for optimism with regard
to future developments in the chemical utiliza-
tion of wood.
The fire fighting crew just off a 20-hour
shift was taken to a restaurant to eat. The
Waitress inquired of the first one who hap-
pened to be as big and tough as they make
them, "What will you have, sir?"
"And how do you Want it?"
Impatiently he replied, "Just drive in a
steer and I'll bite off what I Want."
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Extension Forestry in Idaho
fContinued from page 215
Signs have been erected to attract the atten-
tion of the farm traffic to the projects. No
quick returns were expected from these plots,
but the beneficial results of these managed
projects should be evident within a decade,
and it is hoped that they will serve as an ob-
ject lesson to farm Woodland owners in the
respective communities. When suitable co-
operators can be located, more of this work
will be done.
There has been a slight interest shown,
among farmers of Idaho, for the preservative
treatment to prolong the life of fence posts.
This is not only true of Idaho farmers, but is
true in many other states. The cost of coal tar
creosoted posts is the least expensive in the
long run, but the initial expense is much
greater. As long as the farmer can procure
posts from thinnings on the National Forests,
we cannot expect him to consider creosoting
One cannot teach old dogs new tricks, but
through the 4-H Club projects we expect to
keep our young people interested in the value
of forested areas to our state. Four-H forestry
clubs have been increasing in enrollment quite
steadily, and this phase of the extension proj-
ect calls for subject matter for the four years'
training. Outlines have been prepared on
tree appreciation, tree planting, woodlot im-
provement and tree nursery practice. To ad-
vance in extension work, much publicity ma-
terial is necessaryg through repetition the idea
is finally put across. Approval has been given
to issue an extension circular on farm forestry
for Idaho farmers, and publication will prob-
ably occur this year. Forest Service officers
have been very willing to co-operate with this
department in both county agent and non-
county agent counties.
Paul Bunyon's Big Top
CContinued from page 245
On the second day of the cutting Paul was
"stepping on 'em" trying to get the big canvas
set up over the next quarter section when Joe
Mufraw, the millboss, came tearing through
the drifts leaving a trail of windfalls in his
Usually excitable, he was now wildly danc-
ing around and waving his arms. "By Gar,
Paul, you cut dead timbair, eh? Why for she's
not green? Sucre tete dc coclionf Dese plank
-she's come out dry!" As Joe explained, hell
was popping in the millg the odor of dry
scorched wood was in the air, dry slivers were
flying in all directions from the head sawsg
the bands were running hot and the men could
barely keep the boards cleared ahead of the
machines as the stock moved out over the
green chains-dry as camp hardtack. The
steam had dried the trees on the stumps and
Joe Mufraw was cutting dry logs!
Paul strode over to the mill to see for him-
self. He was so tickled to find this true that
he slapped Joe on the back with gusto and dis-
located his collar bone. Chuckling over his
latest invention, he brought over an armful of
dry planks for Sourdough Sam to use as
kindling Wood in the cook shanty.
Paul used the big tent to finish the winter's
cut and when warm Weather returned he set it
up over his drying yard near the mill. Thus
he Was able to season his lumber both summer
and winter, and to this day lumbermen have
used Paul's idea in kiln drying their product.
fContinued from page 275
banquet are announced elsewhere in The IDAHO
Officers for the year are: President, Law-
rence Newcombg Vice President, John Cookg
Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Wellnerg and
Ranger, John Parker.
FORESTERS' BALL PROVES
AUBR1-:Y ARTHURS, '34
THE annual foresters' ball, one of the out-
standing all-college dances of the year,
was held November 19 in the Women's Gym-
nasium. As has become the custom for this
affair, the dance hall was so decorated as to
impress one as dancing under a closed forest
canopy. Cider was served during the evening
at a log cabin which was built among the
trees in one corner of the hall. A very realis-
tic representation of a forest fire, secured
through playing colored lights on an enlarged
glass painting, added to the decorations.
Paul Bunyan's widely known blue ox,
"Babe," featured in announcing the various
dance numbers. "Babe," carrying a placard
announcing the dance, was made to cross one
end of the floor at scheduled intervals. With
another year's training it is hoped the ox will
broadcast the information direct. The custo-
mary large crowd was present at the dance.
An Address to The Associated Foresters
fContinued from page 455
increasingly harder to do this every year and
the low grades the first year are not unlike
the old ball and chain-pretty hard to drag
along and after the second year may be even
impossible to unshackle. It pays to get a
good start, men. It makes the sledding in the
following years much easier. If you get this
idea of Working on scholarly attainments early
in the game, the professional activities, con-
tacts, and interests that go to make up what
is recognized as the attributes of a real for-
ester, will later take care of themselves.
Xi Sigma Pi would like to recognize each one
of you, but the attainment of the goal is up to
you. Do not hesitate to go to any of the mem-
bers and especially the instructors to ask
questions which may come up in your mind
about what I have discussed tonight. We as
a group want to be interested in each indi-
vidual student and give him all help possible
in his educational problems.
In the shade of your mw"mu1'iug pine trees
Is healing and peace and rest,
The long dim trails on the mountain side,
Call meh of the East and West.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Do You Remember?
fContinued from page 363
WHEN "Shorty" Bennett dropped the stadia
rod on "Humpy" Ellis's head?
WHEN Prof. Watson herded a range man-
agement class into a leading cafe in Lewis-
ton where we ordered coffee only to augment
the lunches we had with us and which were
WHEN Bill Lansdon got his corduroys torn to
shreds when returning from a field trip to
WHEN the mensuration class staged a mock
funeral march through the streets of Mos-
WHEN Dr. Haasis got in Fred Newcomer's
path during a contest at the barbecue in
WHEN the boys accused Dean Miller of not
practicing forestry and he said, "Well, there
are two kinds of bald heads. One kind is
bald on the outside, the othertu and then
he sat down?
WHEN Spence Went fishing on the Clearwater
River near Lewiston and claimed he
"caught" an 8-pound salmon but was observ-
ed by the lumbering class coming out of a
Lewiston meat market?
The I932 Junior Field Trip
iContinued from page 311
MONDAY, MAY 30.
Today may have been Memorial Day for
some people, but just another work day for
the juniors. Did some preliminary thinning
work. In the afternoon we visited some es-
tablished thinning plots and calculated the
thinning to be done on our own thinning plots.
TUESDAY, MAY 31.
Went up Big Creek to where George "Wood-
'em-up" Yarneau showed us logging opera-
tions. Superintendent E. C. Olson sure gave
us some meals, five kinds of dessert included.
Paul Larsson, after much persuasion Cby
forcej was taken from the table.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 1.
Worked on our thinning plots. Most people
get pay for working, but we paid to work.
THURSDAY, JUNE 2.
It rained this morning so we got a half a
day to catch up on reports. Benson and James
spent the morning by "putt-polishing." In the
afternoon we put the finishing touches on the
thinning plots and destructively criticized the
plots of the others.
FRIDAY, JUNE 3.
Spent the morning cruising timber up Big
Creek. Found out that we were not as good
cruisers as we thought we were. About two
p. rn. we started for Moscow. At Spokane the
party divided and "so-longs" and "farewells"
were given. Cook, Brown, Opie and Sowder
nursed the temperamental truck back to Mos-
cow. By "nursing" is meant that part of the
distance covered was by the main strength of
pushing. Thus endeth the junior field trip of
?mr1,1Illllmllnn-iiH-Hu1..u1lU.1ll,,1.n.1 1 ... .-lmllw
. A. R. MATTHEWS
In writing advertisers, please mention The Idaho Forester
DIRECTORY AND NEWS OF ALUMNI
AND FORMER STUDENTS
WILLIAM D. MILLER
Instructor 'in Forestry cmd Associate Editor Idaho Forester
ANDERSON, BERNARD A., M.S. fFor.D '28, 618
Realty Building, Spokane, Wash. No
change is reported in Andy's address. He
is Junior Forester with the Office of Blister
AXTELL, DONALD H., Ex-'29, 211 Fourteenth
Ave., Lewiston, Idaho. Don is stock clerk
of the Clearwater unit, Potlatch Forests,
Inc. He writes, "My work consists mainly
in keeping a perpetual inventory of all
dressed and rough lumber manufactured at
BAIRD, JOHN C., Ex-'28, Ranger, Treasure
District, U. S. F. S., Pagosa Springs, Colo-
BALCH, A. PRENTICE, '29, Box 374, Ashton,
Idaho. Balch is Junior Forester on the
Targhee National Forest. Mr. and Mrs.
Balch spent several days in Moscow, March
16-18, 1933. They were en route to Cali-
fornia for a vacation.
BARTLETT, STANLEY Foss, Ranger Course, '21-
'22, 129 Oak Street, Lewiston, Maine, As-
sistant Associated Press Editor, Lewiston
fMaineJ Sun Journal. A story and some
verses from Bartlett's able pen appear else-
where in this issue.
BAUMANN, HERMAN, '24, Woods Superintend-
ent, Fruit Growers' Supply Co., Susanville,
BEALS, WILFRED F., '27, Forest Ranger, Elk
Mountain District, Harney National Forest,
with headquarters at Lauzon, South Da-
kota. Mr. Beals visited the school Septem-
ber 7, 1932, and acknowledged many cam-
pus changes. Mr. and Mrs. Beals have two
children, both girls.
BEDWELL, J. L., '20, M.S. Oregon State College,
'24, Ph.D., Yale, '32, Jess is Associate
Pathologist with the Division of Forest
Pathology, U. S. D. A., Washington, D. C.
The subject of his doctorate dissertation
was "Factors Affecting Asiatic Chestnuts
in the United States."
BENNETT, CAREY H., '29, Bureau of the Bio-
logical Survey, Washington, Dl C.
BICKFORD, ALLEN, M.S. fFor.J '31, Room 600
Stern Bldg., 348 Baronne St., New Orleans,
BIELER, PAUL, Ranger Course '21-'22. Bieler is
in Ogden, Utah, where he is active in the
L. D. S. Church and Boy Scout organiza-
BIKER, J. BERNAL, '28, Box 669, Trail, British
BOLLES, WARREN H., '26, M.F., Yale '29, 514
Lewis Bldg., Portland, Oregon. Bolles is
Working on the Federal Forest Resource
Survey. He states, "I am beginning to feel
at home in the Douglas Hr region and feel
that I Want to stay here. I have become
immune to the rain and have found a peace
of mind and contentment within the last
year which I never expected to be possible
on the coast. No, I am not in love."
BROWN, DR. FRANK A., '22 Cdentistb, 217 South
Los Robles, Pasadena, California.
BUCKINGHAM, ARTHUR, '30, Challis, Idaho,
Forest Ranger, Challis National Forest.
BURROUGHS, I. C., '27, M.F. Yale '28, cfo Texas
Forest Service, Lufkin, Texas. Burroughs
is Assistant Chief of the Division of For-
BURTON, LESLIE, '30, Halsey, Nebraska, Dis-
trict Ranger, Washakie N. F., Dubois,
Wyoming. Burton spent three months this
spring on the Nebraska National Forest.
BUSH, BEN E., '03, Moscow, Idaho.
CHAMBERLAIN, FRED' B., 59 Albert St., Mel-
CHAMBERLIN, GALE B., Ex-'22, Coeur d'Alene,
Idaho. Chamberlin is in the wholesale lum-
COCHRAN, ALLEN R., '28, M.F. Yale '30, Buena
Vista, Virginia. "Al" is District Ranger
on the Natural Bridge National Forest. He
is married and is the father of one girl.
COCHRELL, ALBERT N., Ranger Course, '22, As-
sistant Forest Supervisor, Pend d'Oreille
National Forest, Sandpoint, Idaho.
CONNAUGHTON, CHAS, '28, U. S. Forest Ser-
vice, Washington, D. C. Connaughton is on
detail from the Intermountain Forest and
Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah.
CooNRoD, MELVIN, '32, 1311 East State Street,
Boise, Idaho. Coonrod expects to be driving
a "cat" on the Boise National Forest this
Cossrrr, FLOYD M., '24, Technical Assistant, U.
S. Forest Service, Newport, Washington.
CUMMINGS, LEWIS A., '25, M.F. Yale '29, Dis-
trict Ranger, Rio Grande National Forest,
South Fork, Colorado.
CUNNINGI-IAM, R. N., '17, Forest Economist,
Lake States Forest Experiment Station,
University Farm, St. Paul, Minnesota.
DANIELS, A. S., '23, 306 W. 23rd Avenue, Hous-
ton, Texas. Daniels is chemist and Assist-
ant Superintendent for the Southern Pacific
Wood Preserving Works. He writes, "Work
THE IDAHO FORESTER
consists of supplying all the treated forest
products used by the Atlantic SYSt9m Of
the Southern Pacific Railroad, also a con-
siderable amount of cross ties for the Pa-
cific System of the Same railroad. In ad-
dition we do quite a bit of investigative
work on new preservatives which are sub-
mitted to us. We have an experimental
treating plant that is kept in almost con-
tinual operation on the various phases of
wood preservation. Toxicity tests are made
on all of our creosote purchases, and a cer-
tain amount of experimental work is also
done on this Subject. This company main-
tains eight test tie Sections, the inspection
and care of which are part of the duties
of this laboratory. Recently I donated to
the Houston Public Library the last seven
issues of the Idaho Forester. The library
expressed considerable satisfaction on re-
ceiving this publication."
DAUGHERTY, CHAS., Ex-'22, Forest Ranger,
Greenhorn District, Sawtooth National
Forest, Hailey, Idaho.
DAVIS, ROBERT, '28, 2668 Grant Avenue, Ogden,
Utah. Davis is with the U. S. Forest Ser-
DECRER, ARLIE D., '13, M.F. Yale '17, 2224
Rockwood, Spokane, Washington. Arlie is
in the cedar pole business for the Weyer-
DE LA CRUZ, EUGENIO, '26, M.F. Yale '27, 1214
Miguelin St., Sampaboc, Manila, P. I., As-
sistant Chief of the Division of Forest
Lands and Regulations, Philippine Forest
Service. Eugenio is the proud father of
three children, one girl and two boys. The
youngest, a boy, was born February 8, 1933.
DOYLE, IVAN S., '26, Potlatch Forests, Inc.,
Headquarters, Idaho. The forestry Stu-
dents gratefully acknowledge "Ike's" cour-
tesy to them on the Headquarters trip in
DRISSEN, JOHN P., '21, Browning, Montana.
EASTMAN, VIRGIL H., '31, U. S. F. S., Orofino,
EDDY, LESLIE, Ex-'24, Beaver Creek Ranger
Station, Coolin, Idaho.
ELLIS, F. GORDON, '28, Lakeview, Oregon.
FARMER, LOWELL J., '30, M.S. fFor.J '31, 403
Federal Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah.
Farmer is Junior Entomologist, Bureau Of
Entomology, U. S. D. A., and proud father
of a Son born December 17, 1932.
FARRELL, J. W., '22, Challis, Idaho. He is for-
est supervisor of the Challis National For-
FAVRE, C. E., '14, M.S. CFor.J '15, Kemmerer,
Wyoming. Favre is forest supervisor of the
Wyoming National Forest.
FENN, LLOYD A., '17, LL.B., U. of Montana '26,
Superintendent of Schools, owner of the
Kooskia Mozantaineeo' and attorney at law,
FERGUSON, RAY S., Ranger Course, '22, Selway
National Forest, Kooskia, Idaho. Ferguson
is Ranger of the Middle Fork District. He
writes, "One of the biggest jobs on my dis-
trict this year is the completion of the visi-
bility studies and the start of our improve-
ment plan. An interesting study being car-
ried on this year is type mapping by air-
plane. Jas. Yule from Missoula, had a
strip of pictures made along my boundary
on an unmapped area. We took the pic-
tures and outlined every change visible.
Then from sample plots on the ground we
made a physical inventory and tied it to
the picture. The balance of the types were
determined by comparison, using the sam-
ple plots as a starting point. We will not
have a chance to test the results until May.
It is quite interesting and I believe it will
FICKE, HERMAN, '31, U. S. F. S., St. Maries,
Idaho. Herman has been in Moscow from
time to time.
FIELD, WALTER D., '26, is assistant land agent
for Potlatch Forests, Inc., Lewiston, Idaho.
FIFIELD, CHAS. E., '32, is taking advanced
work in the University the current year
. and hopes to return to his job with the
Office of Blister Rust Control the coming
FISHER, DON C., M.A. '25, Yorktown, Virginia.
Fisher is Assistant Chief Ranger, Colonial
National Monument, National Park Ser-
vice. He writes: "National Park work is in
many ways similar to forestry although the
chief Object differs. In forestry it is pre-
serve the forest. In park work-help peo-
ple enjoy the park. Very similar to public
relations work in forestry."
FOLSOM, FRANK B., Ex-'22, Senior Forest
Ranger, Deschutes National Forest, Bend,
Fox, CHARLES E., '28, Principal Leland Clda-
FRITCHMAN, HOLT, '31, is at his home in
Naches, Washington, awaiting employment.
GARIN, GEORGE ILLICHEVSKY, '29, M.S. fFor.D
'30, U. S. F. S., Dixon, Montana.
GARNER, L. H., Ranger Course '23, Hailey,
GATLEY, HOWARD A., Ranger Course '23, Scout
Executive, Kenosha, Wisconsin.
GENAUX, CHARLES M., M.S. CFOr.J '29, Depart-
ment of Forestry, University of Idaho,
Southern Branch, Pocatello, Idaho. Genaux
was field assistant at the Priest River
Forest Experiment Station last summer.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
,:,,,,1,,,,,1,,,...,,1,,,,1 1 1,,1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,,.5
l 501 S. Main St. Telephone 6716 l
Insure In Sure Insurance
1......i. 1 .-Hi.-I..-mi-In-ii..-ii..-Ii..--....1m....i..1.i..1 ...M
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1 Dining Room, Colfee Shop, and I
Banquet Rooms and Private Din-
I ing Room
New Attractive Booths
5 ,,,, 1 ,,,, 1 ,,,, 1 ,,,, 1,01 1.,,1 illy 1 iili 1 1 - ilii 1 1 -nn--lull
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I Moscow, IDAHO
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: Photographic Supplies .
2 K. Sz E. and Dietzen Instruments I
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The Campus Social
i Blue Bucket Inn
In writing advertisers, please mention The Idaho Forester
GERRARD, PAUL H., '23. Assistant Forest Su-
pe1'visor, Clearwater National Forest, Oro-
I'ino, Idaho. Gerrard was in charge of Blis-
ter Rust Control operations on the Clear-
water during the past season.
GILLHAM, NORMAN F., '26, 309 W. Elm, Flag-
staHi, Arizona, with the U. S. Biological
GODDEN, FLOYD W., '27, Assistant Forest Su-
pervisor, Idaho National Forest, McCall,
Idaho. Floyd paid the school a visit March
13, 1932, and was accompanied by his wife
and two children.
GREGORY, CHAS. A., Ex-'28, cfo U. S. F. S.,
Halsey, Nebraska. "Spike" was married to
Germaine Gimble, a graduate of the Uni-
versity of Idaho, in July, 1932, in Colorado.
GUDMUNSEN, ORIN S., EX-'26, 5614 Wellington
Avenue, Chicago. Gudmunsen's record since
leaving Idaho is as follows: B.A., St. Olaf
College '27g C.T., Luther Theological Sem-
inary '313 now pastor of the Parkside
Lutheran Church, Chicago.
GUERNSEY, WILLIAM G., '29, 618 Realty Bldg.,
Spokane, Washington, office of Blister Rust
GUSTAFSON, CARL, '26, M.S. CFor.J U. of Cal-
ifornia '29, Sierra National Forest, North-
HAMMOND, GEORGE M., '20, Vice President and
Assistant General Manager Bowman Lum-
ber Co., 1622 San Fernando Road, Glen-
HAND, RALPH L., Ranger Course '22, Ranger
Roundtop District, St. Joe National Forest,
St. Maries, Idaho.
HARLAN, PAUL M., '25, 1329 Clay St., San
Francisco, California. Harlan is Produc-
tion Manager for M. E. Harlan, Advertis-
ing. Paul writes: "My only contact with
forestry since graduation has been with a
redwood shingle manufacturer who went
broke six months after I began handling his
advertising. I still think I'm good. How-
ever, agriculture, that step-sister of for-
estry, must be a hound for punishment, as
I am still acting as advertising counsel for
six or seven agricultural advertisers. Odd-
ly enough or not, one of them sells ferti-
lizer. Seriously, I should like to try my
hand at merchandising and
some product of good old pinus or acer. I
believe I could show the public some in-
teresting quercus that would make the cash
HARRIS, THOMAS H., M.S. CFor.J '30, 618
Realty Bldg., Spokane, Washington. Harris
is Junior Forester in the Division of Blis-
ter Rust Control, U. S. D. A. He Writes:
"At present I am stationed at Berkeley,
California, at the Blister Rust Control Of-
fice on the University of California campus
where several of us are engaged in prepar-
ing a sugar pine inventory of the State
of California. This survey is to make pos-
sible a policy for the control of Blister
Rust in the sugar pine stands of the state.
Type maps showing the location of sugar
pine are being prepared for each forest."
HATCH, ALDEN B., '28, M.F. Yale '29, Harvard
Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts.
HEPHER, W. STANLEY, '31, M.S. fFor.J '32,
Boswell, B. C., Canada. Hepher was co-
author with Dr. E. C. Jahn of an article on
"Action of Ammonium Sulphite on Abies
g1'cmdis" published in the Paper Trade
Jozwnctl, November, 1932. He plans to
work for a Ph.D. degree in the field of
HILL, EDWARD B., '31, gives his address as that
of U. S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah. He
has been busy with timber surveys, land
exchanges and insect control work the past
year and till December 27, 1932 was in
company with Tyler Gill, '31, Mr. Hill re-
Hill have a daughter,
ports he and Mrs.
Helen Louise, born February 12, 1932.
HILLMAN, WILLIAM P.,
A Ex-'13, Assistant Su-
pervisor, St. Joe National Forest, St.
HOCKADAY, JAMES M., '31, Moscow, Idaho.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
HOFFMAN, H. C., '28, 46 Holly Rue Apts., Og-
den, Utah. Hoffman is technical assistant
on the Cache National Forest.
HUME, JOHN F., '31, Route 2, Meridian, Idaho.
Jack is assistant working boss on about 500
acres in the Idaho Valley and is applying
formula V to 96 acres of bearing apple
JACKSON, TOM, '19, resident manager, lumber
operation, Fruit Growers' Supply Co., Hilt,
JEMISON, GEORGE M., '31, Junior Forester,
Northern Rocky Mountain For-est and
Range Experiment Station, Missoula, Mon-
tana. George's "Climatological Summary
for the Priest River Forest Experiment
Station" was published last year. He
writes: "At present I am in the Washing-
ton ofice on a 'training' detail, studying
statistical methods. I am working on a
iire-weather analysis and am enrolled in
two courses in advanced statistics in the
Department of Agriculture night school.
Have a sore neck from sight-seeing. This
is too great a change from Moscow."
JOHNSON, R. B., '32, Hailey, Idaho, Senior
Forest Ranger, Sawtooth National Forest,
Hailey, Idaho. "Bob" visited the school
during the past winter.
JOHNSTON, ROYAL, '27, assistant time keeper,
Potlatch Forests, Inc., Lewiston, Idaho.
1 1.1111111111n-nu1nu1uu-nu-nu-nn- nn-nn-nn-mi-un11:11-mx-5
I-love An Outfit That Will Lost
The Summer Cut
at no extra, cost
Davids' are official agents for Filson Clothing-Duluth Packs-
"Forest Ranger" Sleeping Bags - B0ne-Dry- and Bergmann's
Shoes-The adopted Forester's Hat-"Perfect Fitting"-
Exclusive But Not Expensive
MOSCOW ' '
1 - IDAHO
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Say: "I saw the advertisement in The Idaho Forester."
THE IDAHO FORESTER
Permanenee of Adjustment
These are the characteristics which have enabled Gurley to
continue to serve Foresters, Engineers, Surveyors, and Explorers
during the past 88 years.
The ability to stay in service under extreme conditions is
responsible for the selection of Gurley Instruments for many
expeditions-from the frigid Arctic and Antarctic to the torrid,
steaming Amazon jungle, on the windy dust-bitten steppes of
Mongolia, along the shores of tropical seas, scaling the Andes, and
covered With the slime of mines.
Modern in design and materials, experienced in workmanship,
made throughout in one Factory, and guaranteed to give entire
satisfaction to the user-suflicient reasons for the selection of
Gurley instruments at all times.
. 8: L. E. GURLEY
Civil and Hydraulic Engineering Instrument Makers
TROY, N. Y., U. A.
I t d t pl mention Th Il h F t
THE IDAHO FORESTER
.,,,1,,,.1 1 1w,1-1 1 1,,,,1m1 1 1 1l1nn1un
FIRST lnusm SAVINGS BANK
Invites your business on a
basis of mutual helpfulness
'Largest Bank in Latah County
Henry J. Botten
Quality Watch Repairing
108 E. Third Street
MOSCOW - :- IDAHO
,,,,...lm.-.lm1.m1-m.1,,,,.1 1 1 1. 1 .1nn...nm1nu1im1,,.,l
nu-nu1nn-uu--nu1-nnu-nn-nn- 1 I-un-nIn-nu-nn-nn-nn
School Supplies Phone 2149
"If It's New We Are First To
Sc Music Store
RADIO AND KODAK
ROSS R. SHERFEY, Prop.
MOSCOW, - :- IDAHO
,I,,.1,,,,1,,,,1uu1nn1 1 1 1 1 1 1,,1,,,,1,.,.1lm1,,,..
vm..n1i.. :.-ml114H-uxr-nn-nn-un1nn.1nu-nu- 1 -nn1m
"Better Groceries For Less"
3rd and Washington
Moscow, - :- Idaho
JOHNSTON, H. W., EX-'17, St. Michael, Alaska.
Johnston is manager of the F. P. Williams
Trading Co. and U. S. Commissioner.
KEENE, EDWARD L., '29, Targhee National For-
est, St. Anthony, Idaho.
KEMP, R. L., Ex-'27, Spirit Lake, Idaho. Mr.
and Mrs. Kemp are parents of a boy born
February 16, 1933. The newcomer, accord-
ing to Dick's report, was ushered out of
the hospital in a red stag shirt and wear-
ing a pair of calked shoes.
KENNEDY, FRED H, '29, writes: "I was trans-
ferred from the Weiser National Forest in
Region Four to the Northern Rocky Moun-
tain Forest and Range Experiment Sta-
tion, Miles City, Montana, in this region
on August 1 of last year. I have been as-
signed to the branch of Range Research.
The project that I am working on is the
management of short grass ranges in east-
KLEPINGER, FRANKLIN, '30, 1137 Thirty-sixth
Place, Los Angeles, California.
KREUGER, Orro C. F., '29, 111 East 5th, San
Bernardino, California. Otto is a county
forester in the California Extension Ser-
KRUMMES, WILLIAM T., '30, acting supervisor
Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge, U.
S. Biological Survey, Mumper, Nebraska.
LANGER, CHARLEY J., '30, Fort Duchesne, Utah.
Langer is Junior Forester with the Indian
Service, and has charge of all forest and
range management work on the Uintah and
Ouray Indian reservation. He likes the
Indian Forest Service very much.
LANSDON, WILLIAM H., '27, 1502 N. 6th Street,
LEBARRON, RUSSELL K., '31, Lake States For-
est Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minne-
LEFLER, LOVVELL, Ranger Course, '24, 3597
Sandborn Ave., Lynwood, California. Lef-
ler is mechanic for the Arco Brake Co., Los
Angeles, California. He was married in
December, 1930 and has one daughter.
LEHRBAS, MARK M., '27, 348 Baronne St., New
Orleans, Louisiana. "Polly,' is assistant
forest economist, Southern Forest Experi-
ment Station, assigned to the Forest Sur-
LINDSAY, CLIVE J., '31, Moscow, Idaho. Clive
is taking special work this school year.
LINDSTROM, C. E., EX-'26, district representa-
tive, Weyerhaeuser Forest Products, Box
65, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
LOMMASSON, THOMAS, EX-'17, Range Manage-
ment Division, U. S. F. S., Missoula, Mon-
Say: "I saw the advertisement in The Idaho Forester." tama-
THE IDAHO FORESTER 59
5uu1W1nn1nn-uH1,,,,1nu...nn1,,,,1,,,,1 1. 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,,,.1,,.,.,
Logging and lumber manufacturing methods
T are constantly changing, perhaps never with '
greater rapidity than today. 1
I The Timbermom, an International Lumber T
t Journal, dealing with all aspects of the conver-
sion of timber from the Woods to the finished
products, Will be of material aid in keeping the
student in touch with last-minute technical de-
velopments and prove a permanent source of help
I after leaving the campus.
Get The Timbermcm Habit Early
- . I
I The Tlmbermon I
i An International Lumber Journal
Founded by Geo. M. Cornwall T
329 Oak street,
I OREGON Q
1....-.... .. - - .. - - .. - - 1 - ... - -..,.-,,,...,,..- -- - - -.- .. - - - -. -
I 'L cl t 11 ' mention Tl Ilh T L
THE IDAHO FORESTER
MCLAUGHLIN, ROBERT P., '25, M.F. Yale '26,
Ph.D. Yale '32, 118 Grand Avenue, New
Haven, Connecticut. Bob's dissertation on
"The Comparative Anatomy of the Wood
of the Magnolialesn is to be published in an
early issue of T1'opica.Z Woods. He is work-
ing part time with the Yale Landscape de-
partment and also doing some independent
MAKARA, FRANK R., M.S. CFor.J '32, Depart-
ment of Cellulose Chemistry, McGill Uni-
versity, Montreal, Canada.
MALHOTRA, DES RAJ, '25, Assistant Conserva-
tor of Forests to the State of Kashmire at
Jammu, Kashmire State, India.
MALMSTEN, H. E., '17, 231 Giannini Hall, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, California.
Malmsten is assistant professor in the Cali-
fornia School of Forestry. His specialties
are forest protection and range manage-
MARTIN, PAUL J., '18, 705 N. Fiftieth Street,
MILLER, DOUGLAS R., M.S. QFor.J '32, 231
Giannini Hall, Berkeley, California. Miller
is Junior Forester with the Division of
Blister Rust Control and is working with
T. H. Harris on a sugar pine inventory of
the State of California.
MILLER, WILLIAM BYRON, '22, M.S. CFor.J Cal-
ifornia '25, Fort Bayard, New Mexico.
Miller is Associate Range Examiner, U. S.
Biological Survey, and has been on fur-
lough since March, 1931, recovering from
MITCHELL, WILLIAM W., '28, 1105 Madison St.,
MOODY, VIRGIL, '17, Ranger, Lakes District,
Coeur d'Alene National Forest, Coeur
MORGANROTH, EARL S., '32, cfo George Wil-
llams Gaiy Station, Route 1, Boise, Idaho.
Morganroth will be lookout-platting agent
on the Wallowa National Forest next sum-
mer. He intends to return to school and
work for a higher degree as' soon as pos-
MUNSON, O. C., '21, 1367 Shasta Ave., San
Jose, California. Munson is supervisor of
maintenance and installation work for the
Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co.
MYRICK, E. H., EX-'17, Oroino, Idaho. Mr.
Myrick is Forest Supervisor, Clearwater
National Forest. He was transferred from
the same position on the St. Joe National
Forest February 1, 1932.
lim-nn-1un-nn-1:u1nn1nu1nu-un1un1 1 1 1 1 ...un-7
I arter's Drug Store
i Chas. Carter, Prop. I
l Drugs and Drug Sundries
Stationery and Fountain Pens
Canterbury Chocolates l
Moscow - :- Idaho
L...-....-....-....-..........- - - .. -...-...,-....-....-....-.
rr.- .... .. .,.. - .... ..--- ..., --..- ..., -.- ..., -..- ,.,, T
Oldest Established Studio in
T Moscow T
T 521 s. MAIN Moscow
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water fowl insulates you. Down interlining is kept from shifting by Descqf-iyjtjfve
Harwood patent equalizers. Windbreaker cover and pure wool Hannel
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air. Rolls cornpactly. Over 25 years the choice of Explorers, Forestry 'ee
men, Woodsmen, Aviators, Hunters, Campers. Two sizes, two weights, W7-ite
362.50 to 46.50. Others for less, with down or wool batt interlining.
From your dealer, or direct, transportation free. TODAY!
, WOODS MFG. CO., LTD., 3324 Lake St., Ogdensburg, N. Y. In Canada-Ottawa, Ont.
Say: "I saw the advertisement in The Idaho Forester."
THE IDAHO FORESTER
NERO, E. T., '23, Moscow, Idaho. Nero is agent
for the Northern Life Insurance Co. of
NEWCOMER, FRED R., '31, Banner, Wyoming.
Newcomer is working on a ranch and wait-
ing for a Forest Service appointment. His
senior thesis, entitled, "Moisture-Absorb-
ing and Retaining Capacities of Various
Tree Packing Materials," was published in
the Jozvrnccl of Forestry for April, 1933.
OLSEN, C. C., '26, Superintendent of Construc-
tion, Cascade National Forest, Eugene,
Oregon. Olsen published an article en-
titled "Peaks Dominate Cascade Forest"
in the Eugene Morning News, November 4,
OLSON, OSCAR A., JR., '27, Marshall, Missouri.
Olson is manager of the Page Milk Com-
pany's large establishment at Marshall.
OTTER, FLOYD, '29, Instructor in School of For-
estry, University of Idaho, Moscow. Floyd
has been on leave of absence for the past
year working for his master's degree at the
School of Forestry and Conservation, Ann
PAGE, MILFORD M., '29, Idaho Falls, Idaho.
Page is in the photography business.
PARSONS, RUSSELL M., '23, Resident Engineer,
Idaho Bureau of Highways, Coeur d'Alene,
u- 1 1 1
: nu 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1mi1nu1im1nn1nm
PATRIE, C. R., '21, Forest Supervisor, Colville
Indian Reservation, Nespelem, Washington.
PECHANEC, JOE, '32, Moscow, Idaho. Joe re-
turned to school in February and is taking
special graduate work.
PHELPS, EUGENE, '27, 235 N. Long Avenue,
PIKE, G. W., '27, M.F. Yale '28, Deadwood,
South Dakota. Galen is on the supervisor's
staff of the Black Hills National Forest,
and reports that the depression is Stimu-
lating land exchange activity.
PLUNGUIAN, MARK, M.S. fFor.J '31, Depart-
ment of Cellulose Chemistry, McGill Uni-
versity, Montreal, Canada. '
POTTER, ARTHUR, EX-'26, Assistant Forest Su-
pervisor, Boise National Forest, Boise,
PUGH, L. R., '26, Pugh is sales manager for the
Russell and Pugh Lumber Company,
RENSHAW, E. W., '25, Senior Ranger, St. Joe
National Forest, Avery, Idaho.
RETTIG, E. C., '19, 203 15th Ave., Lewiston,
Idaho. Mr. Rettig is Land Agent and For-
ester for Potlatch Forests, Inc. '
RODNER, JACK W., Ex-'24, Emida, Idaho.
ROWE, PERCY B., '28, M.F. Yale '30, 332 Gian-
nini Hall, Berkeley, California.
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In Writing advertisers, please mention The Idaho Forester
RUTLEDGE, R. H., Regional Forester, U. S. For-
est Service, Ogden, Utah.
SAJOR, VALENTIN, '26, M.F., Yale '27, 1213
Constancia, Manila, Philippine Islands.
Sajor is forester with the Bureau of For-
estry, Philippine Government, serving as
Assistant Chief, Division of Licenses.
SALING, WALLACE M., '28, M.S. CFor.J '29,
junior range examiner, Boise National For-
est, Boise, Idaho. "Smoky" worked on bug
control on the Wasatch National Forest
last fall, and was on detail during the win-
ter in the Ogden regional office and at the
Intermountain Forest and Range Experi-
ment Station. Mr. and Mrs. Saling visited
the University April 5, 1933. "Smoky" was
delighted to renew acquaintances.
SARGEANT, HOWARD J., '30, 428 Scarritt Bldg.,
Kansas City, Missouri. Sargeant is Junior
Forester with the Biological Survey, Land
Acquisition Division. He is assigned to ex-
amination-appraisal work in the central
states. On a western trip he was able to
visit his Alma Mater September 22, 1932.
SCHOFIELD, W. R., '16, 2728 Ohio St., Sacra-
mento, California. Schofield is Forest En-
gineer and Tax Economist with the Tax
Research Bureau of the State of California.
SCHUMAKER, FRANK, '31, Blackfoot, Idaho.
Schumaker was on the protection force of
the Kaniksu National Forest last summer,
and with the U. S. Reclamation Service
from September to November.
SCRIBNER, C. H., Ranger on the St. Joe Na-
tional Forest, St. Maries, Idaho.
SHANER, F. W., Ranger Course, '23, Ranger,
Selvvay National Forest, Kooskia, Idaho.
SHANK, PAUL J., '31, Assistant Ranger, Idaho
National Forest, Warren, Idaho. Shank's
work includes timber sales, construction,
projects for unemployment relief and fire
protection. He was recently married.
SHARMA, P. D., M.S., CFor.J '22, Technical
Adviser to the forestry department in the
State of Gwalior, India.
SHARP, ANDREW G., M.S. fFor.J '29, Kapuska-
sing, Ontario. Sharp has been promoted
from wood technician to sulphite engineer
by the Spruce Falls Power and Paper Co.
He writes: "After having spent the last
two years working as contact man between
the woods department and the mill I am
now specializing on technical problems in
the sulphite mill. The work is interesting
and as this mill produces several grades of
sulphite for shipment along with their re-
quirements for newsprint a high degree of
technical control is required and main-
SNOW, E. A., '25, Arapaho National Forest,
Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado.
THE IDAHO FORESTER
I-.,,..nn- .... .1 1 1 I-uu1uu--nu1m-nn-nn-nu-un-uni
oNE sror SUPER
SERVICE STATION I
Opposite Post Office
Moscow IDAHO i
- - .. - - - - -- - -- -.,..-...l
- .... -..-- .... - .,.. - .... .. .... - .... - .... -.---..- ,.,, -
To Idaho's Foresters and Alumni
Insurance and Bonds
Say: "I saw the advertisement in The Idaho Forester."
THE IDAHO FORESTER
SOWDER, ARTHUR M., '25, M.S. fFo1-.J '27, As-
sistant Professor of Forestry, School of
Forestry, University of Idaho, Moscow.
SPACE, JACKSON W., '27, Senior Forest Ranger,
U. S. Forest Service, Pecos, New Mexico.
SPACE, RALPH S., '25, Assistant Supervisor,
Blackfeet National Forest, Kalispell, Mon-
SPENCE, LITER E., '28, M.S. fFor.5 University
of California '3O. Liter is with the Idaho
School of Forestry, teaching Range Man-
agement and Wood Technology.
STANLEY, WILFRED B., '30. Don Axtell reports
that "Bill" is scaler for a Weyerhaeuser
logging unit near Kelso, Washington.
STAPLES, I-I. W., '20, Assistant Cashier, First
National Bank, Moscow, Idaho.
STILLINGER, C. R., Special '19, Associate Path-
ologist, 406 Federal Bldg., Spokane, Wash-
STONEMAN, J. W., '23, Colbert, Washington.
"Stony" is manager of the Greenleaf sum-
mer and winter sports resort.
STOUFFER, DAVID J., M.S. QFQI-.J '32, 273
Durand Street, East Lansing, Michigan.
Stouffer is taking advanced work at Michi-
gan State College. V
STOWASSER, CLARENCE, '30, 525 West Summit
Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
TAYLOR, JOHN, EX-'32, Extension Forester for
North Dakota, Bottineau, North Dakota.
He has published a check list of North
Dakota Woody Plants. He plans to con-
tinue his forestry studies at Idaho next
THORNTON, JAMES A., Ex-'12, Coeur d'Alene,
TOOLE, ARLIE W., '27, Klamath Agency, Ore-
gon. Toole is Forest Assistant, U. S. In-
dian Forest Service, Klamath Indian Res-
ervation, Oregon, in charge of timber sales
WARD, RAY, Executive Assistant, Colville Na-
tional Forest, Republic, Washington.
WALRATH, FAIRLY J., '27, Oroiino, Idaho.
WENDLE, REX, Ex-'30, Equipment Clerk, Bur-
eau of Highways, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
Wendle's work consists of purchasing sup-
plies and keeping equipment records for
highway machinery in the five northern
WHEATON, RODGERS G., '24, M. F. Yale '25,
Manufactui-er's Agent, 631 White St.,
WHITE, HAROLD Z., '26, 1113 10th st., Lewiston,
Idaho. White is Superintendent of Dry
Kilns, Potlatch Forests, Inc. He announces
the birth of a daughter on March 29, 1933.
WILLIAMS, GUY V., '27, Mountain States Tele-
phone and Telegraph Co., Boise, Idaho.
orestry Clothes of ins'-fi'-Soi
orestry Cloth .r,q1,gEITg!gs"'
Outdoor clothingnthat fits well, looks well
and gives long Wear. For the forester or out- E
door lover nothing can be more comfortable
' F l
Order Coat or Shirt 1
and convenient than an outfit of Forestry.Cloth. l
Designed especially for the purpose. Ample
pockets well distributed to make the load
inch larger than white I
'r' . . -
Cal Y collar S1Z6.Bl'G9ChGS give L
Cruising Coats ...... ...... S 12
Laced Breeches .... .... 1 2
Shirts to Dflatch ,,,,,,h,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7 In Khaki as low as S3 the T
garment. Illustrated ca- T
C. C. CO. talog FREE on request.
Second at Madison Seattle, Washington
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In writing advertisers, please mention The Idaho Fureslex
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