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19 3 9Copyright BURNS A. DOBBINS. Jr.
ELLSWORTH P. UHLER Managing Editor
EDWIN G. BUCHANAN Business Managern
Library T ample University Haaltk Soiemoes C ter
PUBLISHED BY THE SENIOR CLASS
TEMPLE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIAFOREWORD
FOUR years of one's life cannot be surrendered without the wish that sometime, somehow, a record c: those trials, tribulations and pleasant associations could be made im-memorable. It is with this purpose in mind that the following informal pictorial review of our life at Temple University School o: Medicine has been compiled.m
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, tootsWILLIAM N. PARKINSON, B.S., M.D., M.Sc. (Med.), LL.D., F.A.C.S.
Dean and Professor of Clinical SurgeryPresident of the University4
FRANK C. HAMMOND. M.D.. Sc.D.. F.A.C.S.
Honorary Dean and Professor of GynecologyEMERITUS
•AMES C. ATTIX. M.D.
Emeritus Professor of Toxicology
WILMER KRUSEN. M.D.. F.A.C.S. Emeritus Professor of Gynecology
H. BROOKER MILLS. M.D.. F.A.C.P. Emeritus Professor of Clinical Medicine
ARTHUR C. MORGAN. M.D., F.A.C.P. Emeritus Professor of Clinical Medicine
WILLIAM EGBERT ROBERTSON.
Emeritus Proiossor of Medicine
HENRY F. SLIFER, M.D.
Emeritus Professor of Physiology
SAMUEL WOLFE. M.D.
Emeritus Proiessor of Medicine"T TOUR aim is as far as possible to alleviate human suiier-1 ing and to lengthen out human existence. Your ambition is to gladden as well as to prolong the course cf human life by warding off disease as the greatest of rnortai evils; and restoring health, and even at times reason itself, as the greatest of mortal blessings. ... If you follow these, the noble objects of your profession, in a proper spirit of love and kindness to your race, the pure light oi benevolence will shed around the path oi your toils and labors the brightness and beauty that will ever cheer you onward and keep your steps from being weary in well doing; . . . while if you practice the art that you profess with a cold-hearted view to its results, merely as a matter of lucre and trade, your course will be as dark and miserable as that low and grovelling love that dictates it."
(From an address by Sir James Simpson to a group of senior medical students.)DILL JOSEPH ALBRIGHT, Jr., B.S.
Born in Allentown, Pa., January 3, 1912.
Attended high school in Allentown.
Attended Muhienberg College 1S29-1933.
Received B.S. degree from Muhlenberg In 1933.
Junior interneship at Allentown General Hospital, Allentown,-'"'Pa.
Senior interneship at Allentown General Hospital, Allentown, Pc., one year.
Ph Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Married to Elizabeth Naomi Boughter in 1934.
Senior internes'nip at Montgomery Hospital, Norristown, one year.
Attended Ursinus College 1931- 935. Received B.S.--degree frorfTUrsinus in 1935.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.
■VOWEN BELMONT, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia. Pa., November 5. 1915. Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple yfTivorsity 1932-192 Received B Segree from Temple University in 1936.
etjieship at Jewish Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa., irs.
Phi 3elta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.
WILLIAM ALLISON BENDER. A.B.
Born in 'May 14, 1914. J
Attended high school in Chambersbx Attended Gettysburg College'dt)3I-1935.
Received A-Br gree Irom Gettysburg in 1935.
Married to Kathryn E. Warfel in 1938.
Junior interr.eship at St. Joseph's Hospital, Lancaster. Pa. Senior interneship at Reading Hospital. Reading, Pa., one
year.HYMEN ROBERT BLANK, B.S.
BRANSFORD, Jr., B.S.
Born In Philadelphia. Pa.. March 23, 1914.
Attended high scjicol' in Philadelphia.
Attended Tafn je University 1932-193S.
Receives B.S. degree from Temple University in 1935.
Senior interneship at Wilmington General Hospital, Wilmington, Dei., one year.
YU , . '.r Born in Jacksonville, Fid., August 12, 1912.
Attonded higti school in Jacksonville. "”
Attended University of Florida'1931-1935.
Received B.S."degroa ffom University of Florida in 1935.
Senior interneship at Duval County Hospital, Jacksonville, Fla., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.OLIVER RAYMOND BROMMER, B.S.
Trenton, New Jersey
Received B.S. degree from Rutgers University in 1935.
Senior interneship at Wilmington General Hospital, Wilmington. Del., one year.
EDWIN GRAHAM BUCHANAN
iloomfield, New Jersey
Attended h:"gK School in Glen Ridge, j r Attended Opfayette College 19321935.
Married to Dop ethiUntfaUs in 1939.
Senior interneship at Chester Hospital, Chester, Pa., one year.
Born in Poltsville, Pa., May S( 1913. Attended high S£ha6jf in Trenton. Attended Rdtgers University 1931-1935.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.HORACE TAYLOR CASWELL B.S.
Trenton, New Jersey
Born In New York, N. Y., November 13. 1913. Attended high school in Trenton.
Attended Rutgers University 1930-1934.
Received B.S- degree from Rutgers University in 1934.
Senior interneshlp at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., two years.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.
FRANK NEAL COOKE
v rS i Y’M
Born in S
Attended Cletnson College 1932-1935.
Married to Mar -M.- Boal"tn 1937.
Junior interneshlp at Temple University Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa.
Senior interneship at Duval County Hospital, Jacksonville, Fla., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.GEORGE CHARLES COVALLA, B.S.
Born in Somerset. Pa.. November 7, 1912.
Attended high school in Somerset.
Attended Villanova ..College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. degree from Villanova in 1935.
Senior interneship at St. Vincent's Hospital, Erie, Pa., on© year, j
Phi Rho ,Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Born in Ne Attended Attended Received A.B. do1
ollins College in 1934.
Senior interneship at Bellevue Hospital, New York, N. Y., two years.
Phi Alpha Sigma Medical Fraternity.WALTER ANTHONY D'ALONZO, B.S.
LFRED DAVIS, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 4. 1914.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Villanova College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. degree from Villanova in 3935.
Senior interneship at St. Agnes Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.,
Born in Mahanpy. Plane,. Pdw luna 5, 3 912.
AitendedVhiqh school In Tamaqua.
Attended Pennsylvania State Gdlfege 1931-1935.
Received B. Slides ree Jn5m Penn State in 1935.
Junior interneship at Burlington County Hospital. Ml. Holly,
Senior interneship at Pottsville Hospital, Pottsvillo, Pa., one year.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.ARMOND ANTHONY DeVITTORIO, B.S.
Phi ©t S Pi Modical Fraternity.
Born in Beaverialls, Pa.. March 4, 1911. Attended high school in Ridgway. Attended Villanova College 1930-1934.
Received B.S. degree, irom Villanova in 1934.
Junior interneslrfp at Sacred Heart Hospital, Norristown, Pa.
Senior internoship at Burlington County Hospital. Mt. Holly. N. ]., qhe year.
Born ir. Dei!
Attended Pennsylvania State Colloge l932-1935.
Junior internes’nip..crt LaTroB©" Hospital, LaTrobe, Pa.
Senior jnterneship at Pittsburgh Medical Center. Pittsburgh. Pa., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.BURNS ALAN DOBBINS, Jr., B.S.
Born in Birmingham. Ala., July IS. 1915.
Attended high school in Birmingham.
Attended University oi Florida 1932-1935.
Received B.S. degree from University of Florida in 1935.
Junior interne'ship at Phoenixville Hospital, Phoenixville, Pa.
Senior interneship at Philadelphia General Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., two years.
Phi Bho Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Senior interneship at Allentown General Hospital, Allentown, Pa., one year.
Received B.S ' tetgrge Jro'm Muhlenberg in 1934.
SIMON BENJAMIN FORMAN, A.B.
Born in Philadelphia. Pa.. March 8, 1913.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Received A BT degree from Temple University in 1935.
Senior interneship at Mount Sinai Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., tv o years.
mbda Kappa Medical Fraternity.
WT'T • !
Born in tphiladejuli
sr 24, 1914.
AttendocThigh school in Philadelphia—
Attended Temple University 1932-1935.
Senior internship, at M ?rcy Hospital. Altoona, Pa., one yearRAYMOND JOSEPH FURLONG, B.S.
Born In Philadelphia. Pa., December 19. 1912.
Attended St. Joseph Preparatory'School 1926-1930.
Attended Tejm'ple University 1931-1935.
Received' B.S. degree from Temple University in 1935.
Senior interneship at St. Agnes Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., year.
DONALD HUGH GAHAGEN, B.S.
Born in Wiadber; Pa., July 24, 1909.
Attended Miigh school in Windber.
Attended Jilniata College 1930-1934.
Received B.S. ■deQzqgJxefn Jumata in 1939.
Married to Bernice Ethel Abram in 1934.
Junior interneship at Windber Hospital, Windber. Pa.
Senior interneship at Windber Hospital. Windber. Pa., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.THOMAS ANTHONY GARRETT. A.B.
Born in Philadelphia, Pa.. June 1. 1908.
Attended high scjjcdYin Philadelphia. '
Attended Vitlartova College 1927-1931. 1933-1934.
Received A.B. degree from Villanova in 1931.
Senior tnternoship at Holy Name Hospital. Teaneck, N. J.. oni year.
IE DANIEL GARTLAND. Jr.. B S.
_ 1 xl 1
Born in fifchi atown,'--F
Attended high' sdhool in Johnstown.
A.ttended VSilanova College 193ld935.
Received B.S.vdegrea_fr6rrTvillanova in 1935.
Junior interneship at Conemaugh Valley Memorial Hospital, Johnstown, Pa.
Senior interneship at Providence Hospital, Washington, D. C.. two years.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.ROBERT PAUL GEARHART, B.S.
Born in Asibna; Cor g- siarid- N. Y., March 1 Attended High school in Erie.
Attended Joh is Hopkins University 1931-1935. Received A.B. de rrec-frdm Johns Hopkins in
Born in Montoursville, Pa.. June 2, 1912. Attended high school In Indtanc Pa., and Erie.
irsitj orPittsburgh 1930-f935.
Received B.S, degree from University of Pittsburgh in 1934.
Senior inferneship at St. Vincent's Hospital, Erie. Pa., one year.,
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.LEWIS WARREN GERHART
Born in Philadelphia, Pa.. March 21. 1913.
Attended high school Jrv- Philadelphia.
Attended Duke'University 1932-1935.
Junior int rnoshlp at Elm Terrace Hospital. Lonsdale, Pa.
Senior inter noship at Frcnkford Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., one year.
Born in Philadelphia, Pa.. February 28, 1915.
Attonded Tetaple University 1932;
Received B.S. degree fronv-'Temple in 1936.
Senior interneship at Philadelphia General Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., tv o years.
Phi Delta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.PAUL EARLE GORDON
Born in Philadelpbia Pa., June 3, J9T47 Attended hjch school in Philadelphia.
Attenc i Temple University 193M934.
Senior nterneship at Northeastern Hospital. Philadelphia,
LEWIS GOYNE, B.S.
Attended highf school in Ashland.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1931-1935.
Received B.S egtfee-’ffonTPenn State in 1935.
Junior intemeship at Locust Mountain State Hospital, Shenandoah, Pa.
Senior intemeship at Harrisburg Hospital, Harrisburg, Pa., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.RUSSELL PAGE GREEN, B.S.
Born in Attended
Attended thfe University of
Received B.S.Mggree from University of Pittsburgh.
Junior interneship at Pittston Hospital, Pittston, Pa.
Senior interneship at Danbury Hospital, Danbury, Conn., one year.
Born in Philadelphia. Pa., April 18, 1914.
Attended high school in Abington, Pa.
Attended Temple University 1932-1935.
Recoivod B.S. degree in 1938 from Temple University.
at Abington Memorial Hospital, Pa.
Senior interneship at Abington Memorial Hospital, Abiagton, Pa„ two years.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.
fARMAND CHARLES GREZ, B.S.
Leonid, New Jersey
•H ADRIAN GUSTAITIS, B.S.
Attended Gettysburg College.
Attended the University of Alabama.
Received B.S. degree in 1932 from Gettysburg.
Born in Santiago. Chile, November 9. 1911.
Attended high school in Leonia.
Attended Georgetown University 1929-1933.
Received B.S. degree' fr. 1933 from Georgetown.
Junior internps'hip at Beilevue Hospital, New York.
Senior infemeship at New York Polyclinic Hospital, New York, two years.
one year.HENRY CLIFFORD HACKETT, B.S.
Portville, New York
Born in Ceres. Pa., April 9. 1914. Attended high schcpp-'fn Portville.
Attended Altera Univorsitv. IS32-1935.
Received B.S. degree in 1236 from Alfred.
Senior intorneship at Episcopal Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa. two veers.
FRANK BENNETT HAINES, B.S.
Attended h gh' school in Ocean City.
Attended West town Boarding School; Swarthmore Preparatory 'School.
Attended Geneva College 1930-1934.
Received B.S. degree in 1934 from Geneva.
Senior interneship at Mercer Hospital. Trenton, N. J., one
year.OWEN WISTER HARTMAN. A.B.
Born in Greencastle, Pa., July 3, 1914.
Attended high school in Greencastle.
Attended Gettysburg College 1931-1935. Received A.B. degr -in T$35lrom'G$Uysburg. Married to
legree.-i ie Elizabeth Mason in 1938.
Senior internoship at Mothodist Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., one year.
Phi Rh'o: Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Tehiple University !932;1935.
Received B.S. degree h T939 from Temple University.
Senior interneship at Harrisburg Hospital, Harrisburg. Pa., one year.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.VINCENT ADOLPHUS HOCH, B.S.
Born in Chicora, Pa., March 21. 1913.
Attended high school iq-Chicora.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. degree in 1935 from Pennsylvania State College.
Senior interneship at West Penn Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa., one year.
RICHARD RADCLIFFE HOFFMAN, A.B.
Born in Columbia. Pa, August 28, 1911.
Attended high school in Jonestown.
Attended Catawba College 1930U931.
Attended University-oP Pennsylvania 1932-1935.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 from University of Pennsylvania.
Senior interneship at Lancaster General Hospital, Lancaster, Pa., one year.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.MARY JANE HOWELL. A.B.
Oyster Bay, New York
JOHN SIDNEY HUNTER, A.B.
Born in Oyster Bay, N. Y., August 13, 1913.
Attended high school in Oyster Bay.
Attended Mount Holyoke College 1931-1935.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 from Mount Holyoke.
Junior interpeship at Meadowbrook Hospital. Hempstead, N. Y. A
Senior interneship at Meadov brook Hospital. Hempstead, N. K, two years.
Born in Vfyo.tujgsing, Pa .- arch'4. 1913.
Attended hjgK sctidol' in West Reading.
y v ’'
Attended V ftpmissing Polytedinic'Tnstitute 1930-1931.
Attended Duke-Uniyersity 931-1935.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 from Duke.
Married to Grace Virginia Gabel in 1938.
Senior interneship at Reading General Hospital, Reading. Pa., one year.
Phi Alpha Sigma Medical Fraternity.
WILLIAM ST. JULIEN JERVEY
Tryon, North Carolina
Born In Charleston, S. C.. June 6. 1914.
Attendee high school In Tryon.
Attended University oMjorth Carolina 1932-1935.
Junior interneshlp at Spartanburg Baby Hospital. Saluda,
Senior intorneship at Charity Hospital, New Orleans, La., year.
Phi hi Medical Fraternity.
HOWARD JOHN JOHNSON, Jr., B.S.
»mber 21, 1910.
Attended liigh school in Norristown.
Attended Bucknell University 1,930 1931.
Attended Ursimis-.College T93 1-1934.
Received B.S. degree in 1934 from Ursinus.
Senior interneship at Methodist Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., one year.
GEORGE JAMES JONES, A.B.
Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania
ELIX JONES, B.S,
Born in Pottsville, Pa., June 15. 1913.
Attended high school in Mount Carmel.
Attended Gettysburg College 1931-1935.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 Irom Gettysburg.
Junior internostyjtf dt Locust Mountain State Hospital, Shenanaojzh, Pa.
Senior ij erneshlp at Hahnemann Hospital, Scranton, Pa., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.
Bom in Tafoqa.ua, Pd.V January 23, 191 •». Attended high school in Tamaqua.
Attended Pennsylvania S
Received B.S. degree in 1935 from Pennsylvania State College.
Junior interneship at Burlington County Hospital.
Mount Holly. N. J.
Senior Interneship at Atlantic City Hospital, Atlantic City, N. j., one year.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.ISADORE KENIG
Born in Capo May. 1- June 29, 1911.
Attended high school in Cap© May.
Attended Tompl© University 1932-1935.
Senior interneship at Harrisburg Polyclinic Hospital, Harrisburg, Pa., one year.
New York, New
Y % I
ROBERT JAMES KENNEDY
Attended high school in Jamaica, N. Y.
Attended Ney York University 1932-1933.
Attended Duke.. University 'f933-1935.
Married to Dorothy F. Patcholl in 1939.
Junior interneship at Caledonian Hospital. Brooklyn, N. Y.
Senior interneship at Staton island Hospital, New York, N. Y., one year.MERL FRANCIS KIMMEL, B.S.
Attended high school in Edwardsville.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1932-1935. Senior internesh p’ ST'Hdrrisburg Polyclinic Hospital,
Born in Altoona, Pa.. December 16, 1913.
Attended high school in,A4toonav
Attonded Pennsylvania State College 1931-1935.
Received B. degree in 1935 from Pennsylvania State College.
Senior irftemeship at Tomplo University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Phi Alpha Sigma Medical Fraternity.EUGENE FREDERICK KOSTER, A.B.
Meiuchen, New Jersey
Born in Perth Amboy, N. J., November 7. 1913.
Attended high school in Metuchen.
Attended Sv arlhmore College 1931-1935.
Received A.B. degree in .iS3S lro.in. Swarthmoro.
Junior interneship at Hospital oi St. Barnabas, Newark, N. J.
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., 9 months, and Newark City Hospital, Newark, N. J.jwo years.
Phi Ch'i Medical Fraternity.
PAUL EDWARD KRUPKO
ter,-i i X W Jf
■ pr.l 17. •■915.
Born in SI
Attended high school in SHeppton and Hazleton, Pa.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1932-1935.
Junior intemeslnfc"at Sacred Heart Hospital, Norristown. Pa.
Senior interneship at Williamsport Hospital, Williamsport, Pa., one year.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.NORMAN LEARNER, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 25, 1915.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple University "7932=1936;-
Received B.S degree in 1936 irom Temple University.
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Phi Delta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.
BERCHMANS LEARY, Ph.B.
rgate City, New Jersey
Born in Atlantic City. N.. J ; '7dly 19) 1912.
Attended Roriian...Cathblic High School. Phikrdelphia. Pa.
Attended Georgetown University .1928-1932.
Received Ph.B. degree in.T932 lrom Georgetown.
Junior interneship at Misericordia Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa.
Senioi interneship at Misericordia Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., one year.
Nu Sigma Nu Medical Fraternity.CHARLES JAMES LEMMON. Jr.. B.S.
Sumter. South Carolina
Born In Sumter. S. C.. December 8, 1914.
Attended high school in Sumter.
Attended Duke University 1931-1932.
Attended College of Charleston 1932-1934.
Attended the Medical College of South Carolina 1934-1936. Received B.S. degree .in'19 35 from the College of Charleston.
Junior internoship at Tuomey Hospital, Sumtor, S. C.
Senior ipterneship at Philadelphia General Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.
HARRY FEHL LENHARDT. B.S.
Attended liigh sc bol in Lancaster.
Attended Juniata College 1931.
Attended Franklin_and Marshall College 1931-1934. Received B.S. degree in 1934 from Franklin and Marshall. Married to Katherine G. Troup in 1933.
Senior interneship at United States Naval Hospital.HOWARD LORENZ, B.S.
40ND JOSEPH LUTZ
Born in Philadelphia, Pa.. November 14. 1914.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple Uhtversity 1932-1935.
Received B.S'. degree in 1937 from Temple University.
Junior interneship at Jewish Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa.
Senior nlerneshlp at Jewish Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., tv o
Born in T
Attended high school in Tamaqua.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1932-1935.
Junior interneship“aT 7Ctlantic City Hospital. Atlantic City, N. J.
Senior interneship at Atlantic City Hospital, Atlantic City, N. J., one year.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.MILTON CHARLES MALONEY, B.S.
Born in Wattsburg. Pa.. September 13, 1913.
Attended high school in Meadville.
Attended Alloghep.y''CoHoge 1931-1935.
Received B.S- degree in 1935 from Allegheny.
junior internoship at Warren State Hospital, Warren, Pa,
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., tv o years.
JOSEPH GEORGE BIERY MARKLE, B.S.
Attended high-school in Allentown.
Attended f yhlenberg College J93td93S.
Received B.S. 'degro.e_in-'f935 from Muhlenberg.
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., tv o years.
RICHARD CHARLES McCLOSKEY
THEODORE RUSSEL McCLURE, B.S.
Ri'chwocd, West Vir
1 in Richv cod.
Attended Marshall College 1932'
Attended University or West Virginia Medical School 1935-
Born in Beaver, Pa., March 25, 1915.
Attended high school in Beaver.
Attended University of Notre Dame 1932-1933.
Attended Grove City College-rS334935.
Junior internship at Tuomey Hospital. Sumter. S. C.
Senior injdrneship at St. Frances Hospital. Pittsburgh, Pa., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.
Received B.S. degree in 1937 from the University of West Virginia.
Married to Lillian Blanche McWhorter in 1936.
Senior interneship at Charleston General Hospital. Charleston, W. Va., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.THORNTON STALLINGS McINTIRE, Jr.. A.B., B.S.
Morgantown. West Virginia
Bom in Morgantown, W. Va., August 10, 1914.
Attended high school in Morgantown.
Attended University of West Virginia 1931-1935.
Attended University of West Virginia Medical School 1935-1937.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 and B.S. degroe in 1937 from West Virginia. -------------------------
junior intemeship at Charleston General Hospital, Charleston,' W. Va.
Senior intemeship at Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh. Pa., one year.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.
RAYMOND SCRIBNER McKEEBY, A.B.
Binghamton, New Yoj
Born in Binghamton,
Attended high school in Binghamton.
Attended Cornell University 1931-Received A.B. degroe in 1.935 from Cornell.
Junior intemeship at Kilmer Pathological Laboratory, Binghamton, N. Y.
Senior intemeship at Binghamton City Hospital, Binghamton, N. Y.. two years.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.ESTHER CLARKE MONTGOMERY, B.S.
Attended Muskingum College 1931M935.
junior interneshlg at Epii9c6pa! Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa,
Born in Claysville, Pa., July 15. 1914.
Attended high school in Claysville.
Attended Muskingum College 1932-1935.
Received B.S. deg.te Tn 1935 from Muskingum.
Junior interpdship a . Allentown General Hospital. Allentown, Pa.
Senior mterneship at Allentown General Hospital, Allentown. Pa., one year.
WILLIAM HENRY NICHOLSON. B.S.
Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., September 10, 1913.
Attended Wyoming Seminary.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1931-1935.
Recoivod B.S. degree in 1935 irom Pennsylvania State College.
Married to Lillian May Rupert in 1938.
Junior interneship at Harrisburg General Hospital, Harrisburg, Pa.
Senior interneship at Germantown Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Received B.S. degree in 1935 from Pennsylvania State College.
Junior Interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa.
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa., two years.
CHARLES MORGAN NORRIS, B.S.FRANK TURNER NORRIS
Wake Forest, North Carolina
HARRY COPE NYCE
-y y 1 i
Attended high .school In Chester. Pa.
:o University 1932-1935.
ran tic Shoros Hospital.
Junior internes :
Born in Holly Springs. N C.. October 15. 1915.
Attended high school in Wake Forest.
Attended Wake Forest College 1932-1935-Attended Wake Fore UOOlIege Medical-School 1935-1937. Received B.S. degree from Wake Forest College in 1935. Junior interneship at P.ex Hospital, Raleigh, N. C.
Senior ntornoship at United States Naval Hospital.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Senior intornoship at Presbyterian Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.PEDRO ORPI
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
JAMES JARVIS PARKER, B.S.
rfreesboro, North Carolina
Bern in Ivfiydreesbe;rp sW-December 10.
Attended Slab .school In Murfreesboro.
Attended CRcv On College, 193
Attended Wak .Forest Qoitegs. 1933-1935.
Attended Wake Forest Medical School. 1935-1937.
Senior interneship at Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Va. one year.
Born in Arecibo. Puerto Rico, February 23, 1912.
Attended high school in Arecibo.
Attended Georgo Washington University 1930-1935.
Married to Olga L. Aguiar in 1936.
Junior intemeshi xrt" Arecibo Municipal Hos talT A;ec:bo. P. R.
Senior ini rneship at Baycxmon District Hospital, Baycxmon P. R.. bne year.
Phi Cm Ivtadical Fraternity.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.GEORGE PARRIS, B.S.
CURTIS ROBERTS PAXMAN. B.A., B.S,
Hamilton, North. Dakota
Bom in Philadelphia. Pa.. July 9. 1914.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended TempleJJntversity 1932-1935.
Roceivod degree in 1936 from Temple University.
Senior iqiorneship at Harrisburg Polyclinic Hospital. Harrisburg, Pa., ono year.
Phi Delta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.
Born in HcTOlJtfSn; N, D” jdnuary 20. 1913.
Attended high school in Hamilton.
Attended the'.University of Nprth Dakota 1928-1932.
Attended the University" of North Dakota School of Medicine 1935-1937.
Received B.A. degree in 1932 and B.S. degree in 1937 from North Dakota.
Senior interneship at Orange County Hospital. Orange, Calif., one year.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.MARGARET PAXSON, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia. Pa., September 23, 1913.
Attended high schpbfTn Philadelphia.
Attended Ursinus College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. degree in 1935 from Ursinus.
Senic Werneship at Pottsvillo General Hospital. Pcttsviile, Pa one year.
JAMES McCAHAN POMEROY, A.B.
City, N! August 31. 1913.
Attended high school in Media.
Attended Kiskiminetas Springs i
Attended Washi'r Ttsrr nd Jefferson College 1931-1935.
Received A.B. degree in 1935 from Washington and Jefferson.
Senior interneship at Chester Hospital. Chester, Pa., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.JOSEPH THOMAS POPIELARSKI, B.S.
Senior'interneship c: St. Agnes Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa.
Attended'' h,gh sctxx si in Wilmington.
Attended Duke University 1932 93ST Attended Wake Forest Medical School 1935-1937.
Born in Canonsburg, Pa., January 13, 1914. Attended high schoolrr'Bndgeporl.
Attended Vdltffiova College 1931-1935. Rocoivod B.S. degree in 1935 from Villanova.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.
CHARLES ELI PRICE
Born in Philadelphia Pc., March'll, 1915.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended'Temple University 1932-1935.
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Attended high school in Freeport.
Attended G ove City College 1931-1935.
Received B.S.'-degree .in 1935 from Grove City College.
Junior interneship at McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, Pa.
Senior interneship at McKeesport Hospital. McKeesport, Pa., one year.
Alpha Kappa Kappa Medical Fraternity.Phi Cm Medical Fraternity.
RINEHIMER. Jr.. B.S.
J. EDWARD RAWLS. A.B.
Bom in Suffolk, Va., April 13, 1914.
A Handed high school in Suffolk.
Attended Elon College 1932-1S35.
Attended Duke University Medical School 1935-1936.
Received A.B. dej --in'f935 :rorh''Elon.
Junior interneship at Lakoviow Hospital, Suffolk, Va.
Senior injdrnoship at Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Va., one yI
Born in Fdrjy Fort a., Ju'r.i?7 7,.j9l3.
Attended Seminary 1927-1931.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. 'degree li A$3S from Pennsylvania State College.
Junior interneship at Nesbitt Memorial Hospital. Kingston, Pa.
Senior interneship at Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., two years.STUART ROBERT RIZIXA
Bern in York. Pa.. May 21, 1915.
Attended high school in York.
Attended Dickinson Collage 1931-1935.
Attended Johns yedkir.s University summer sessions? Received B- dograe in 1935 irom Dickinson College.
Senior ii erneship at York Hcspital York, Pa., one year. Phi Lagihda Kappa Medical Fraternity.
TH RUGH, B.S.
Born in . ,.
Attended lsg« school fit Bolivar.
Attended Virginia Military Insiitute i329-1933.
Received B.S. degree in ISJpS'from Virginia Military Institute.
Junior internaship at Conomaugh Valley Memorial Hospital, Johnstown, Pa.
Senior internoship at Western Pennsylvania Hospital. Pittsburgh. Pa., one year.
—WILLIAM GARRISON RYON
Ethel Louise Bannar in 193?.
NICHOLAS SAUER, A.B
Sti Louis. Missouri
Born in Wilmington. Del., February 26, 1914.
Attended high school in Wilmington.
Attended North Caroiina'Slate C5trego of Agriculture and Engineering gfciho Greater University of North Carolina 1932-1935,
Senior intemeship at Wilmington general Hospital. Wilmington, Del., two years.
Born in SI
Attended Westminster College 1928-19
Attended Stanford University 1930-1932.
Attended WasFnttgtoruiJfnversity Medical School 1934-1936.
Received A.B. degree in 1932 from Stanford University.
Married to lane Lambert Behan in 1938.
Junior intorneship at Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.
Senior interneship at Presbyterian Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.WKMIGLENN HARTMAN SCHANTZ, B.S.
Born In Macungie. Pa., August 10. 1913.
Attended high school in Emaus, Pa.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1930-1934.
Received B.S. degree College.
Junior sship at Undorcliff Sanatorium. Meriden, Conr
Senio: teship at Harrisburg Hospital, Harrisburg. Pa.
Alphfc a Kappa Medical Fraternity.
CHARLES SCHNALL B.S.
" £. »
f T' rw '
Born in Poland. July'S. .1914.
v. • ■
Attended fcighl school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple University 1932-1935.
Received B.S.' Jo ree -In' 1936 irom Temple University.
Senior intornoship at St. Luke’s and Children's Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., one year.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.NORMAN GRAHN SCHNEEBERG, B.S.
JOSEPH FELIX SCHNEIDER, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia, Pa., February 21, 1915.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Tempio Upiverslty l952 l935;
Received BS,-degree front Temple University in 1936.
Senior irjfernes’nip at Mount Sinai Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., tjvo years.
Phi Delta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.
Born in FfoiLadelphifc;- l B£’’ January 20. 1913.
Attended Sf. Joseph's Preparatory School 5927-1931.
Attended St.sJoseph's College 193 1935.
Received B.S. degree frortTSt. Joseph's College in 1935.
Junior intorneship at Quakertown Hospital, Quakertov n. Pa.
Senior interneship at St. Agnes Hospital, Philadelphia Pa., one year.
Born in Elizabeth. N. J., October 16, 1915.
Attended bigh school in Philadolphia.
Attended Temple University 1931-1934.
Senior interneship at Altoona Hospital. Altoona. Pa.
LYS E WILBUR SHERWIN, B.S.
Born in Windbp:. P_ j;„ June 6, 1 11.
Attended Kiglv school in' Windber.
Attended Allegheny College 192JW929.
Attended Juniata College,-! 1-1934.
Received B.S. degree from Juniata College in 1936.
Married to Anno f. Ganneka in 1937.
Junior interneship at Berks County Sanitorium. Reading, Pa.
Senior intorneship at Windber Hospital. Windber, Pa., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.DOROTHY LOUISE SHINDEL
Born in York. Pa.. May 18. 1916.
Attended high school in York.
AttendedAJrsinus College 1931-1935.
Senior mtorneship at Harrisburg Hospital. Harrisburg, Pa., on©; year.
:albach shivelhood, b.a.
Born in ________
Attended high-'school in Philadelphia.
Attended University of Pennsylvania 3931-1935.
Received B.ASdegr.ee Jr$m University ol Pennsylvania in 1935.
Senior interneship at Williamsport Hospital, Williamsport, Pa., one year.RICHARD WILLIAM SONNTAG. A.B.
Salt Lake City, Utah
Bom ir. Salt Lake City. Utah. February 3, 1913.
Attended high school in Salt Lake City.
Attended University of Utah 1931-1937.
Received A.B. degree from-University of Utah :n 1936. Married to Frances Sandberg in 1936.
Senior interneship at Latter Day Saints Hospital. Salt Lake City, Utah, two years.
Phi Beta Pi Medical Fraternity.
IN SPECTOR, B.S.
f r f
Born in Philadelphia, Eg., January 27 1916.
Attended high- school fh Philadelphia.
Attended Te'tnple University
Received B.S. degree fronpTemple University in 1936.
Senior internoship at Northeastern Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., one year.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fratornily.HERBERT MILTON STAUFFER, A.B.
HAMILTON STAUFFER, B.S.
Bom in Philadelphia. Pa., April 26, 1914.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple University_19ai:19.35.
Received A.B. degree from Temple University in 1935.
Junior internship at Temple University Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa.
Senior inferneship at Temple University Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa., two years.
Born in Ch
Attended Gettysburg Academy.
Attended Gettysburg College 1330- 1934.
Received B.S. degF’ e-dFonr'Gettysburg College in 1934. Married to A. Elizabeth Boyer in 1938.
Junior inlerneship at Annie M. Warner Hospital, Gettysburg,
Senior interneship at Temple University Hospital. Philadelphia. Pa., tv o years.GLENN CAMERON STAYER, A.B.
Born in Johnstown, Pa., October 24, 1913.
Attended high school in Johnstown.
Attended Mercersburg Academy 1930-1931.
Attended Haverfora College 1931-1935.
Received A.B. degree from Havorford College in 1935.
Junior intornoship johnstown, Pd.
Senior in rnoship at Conemaugh Valley Memorial Hospital, Johnstown, Pa., two years.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.
Cor.omaugh Valley Memorial
EVAN C. STONE, Jr., B.A.
Minot, North Dakota
Born in BaUou.r, N. D., March 16, 1912.
A.ttended University of Minnesota 1931-1934.
Attended University of North Dakota 1934-1935.
Attended University of North Dakota Medical School 1935-1937.
Received B.A. degree from University of North Dakota in 1935.
Senior interneship at Methodist Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., one year.
Phi Rho Sigma Medtcal Fraternity.JACK STRASSMAN, B.S.
MURRAY GAGE STROMBERG, B.S.
Ldngdon, North Dakota
Born in Philadelphia, Pa.. May 16. 1913.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple Received B.S.
Married to Goraldino Reis in 1934.
Senior yiterneship at Mercy Hospital. Altoona, Pa., one year. Phi D lta Epsilon Medical Fraternity.
roo rrom Temple University in 1935.
3orn in Lbme.Nj ,
Attonded nigVscftool in Langdon.
Attended Nbrthv estern University 1931-1934.
Attended Unive; ity_ol J4orth Dakota 1934-1935.
Attended University o! North Dakota Medical School 1935-1937.
Received B.S. degree from University of North Dakota in 1935.
Married to Mary Rector in 1938.
Senior interneship at Conemaugh Valley Memorial Hospital, Johnstown. Pa., one yeat.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.SAMUEL SUGARMAN. A.B.
A iron more, Penn
;ool in Avonmore.
Attended UnVorsily of Alabopra 1932-193$.
Married to Marti
Born in Philadelphia. Pa., July 10. 1913.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple University 1930-1934.
Attended Temple University Graduate School 1934-1935.
Received A.B. degr from Temple University in'1935.
Junior internship at Frankford Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa.
Senior iy'fornoship at Frankford Hospital. Philadelphia, Pa-one
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.FRANCIS XAVIER SWEENEY, B.S.
Born in Philadelphia. Pa.. November 8. 1907. Attended Lincoln Preparatory School.
Attended St. Joseph Colleg© 1931-1935.
Received B.Sydegree from St. Joseph's College in 1935. Married to''Gertrude Kleschick in 1936.
Senior interneship at Northeastern Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., one year.
Born in Foi Attended hit
Attended Campbell College 193M933.
Attended Wake' Forest._College 1933-1935.
Attended Wake Forest Medical College 1935-1937.
Received B.S. degree from Wake Forest College in 1935.
Married to Dorothy Niece Taylor in 1938.
Junior interneship at Abington Memorial Hospital. Abington. Pa
Senior interneship at Abington Memorial Hospital. Abington, Pa., two years.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.MORGAN FITCH TAYLOR, B.S.
Hop Bottom, Pennsylvania
Born in Hop Bottom. Pa.. December 21. 1913.
Attended high school in Hop Bottom-
Attended Franklin and Mcrshall College 1931-1935.
Received 3.S. degree" irom Franklin and Marshall College in 1935.
Senior interneship at Moses Taylor Hospital. Scranton. Pa., one year.
Attended high school in'Easton.
Attended Ldfayotte College 1933 1 935.
Received B.S. degree fropyTlafcyette in i935.
Junior interneship at Warren Hospital. Phillipsburg, N. J.
Senior interneship at Reading General Hospital. Reading, Pa., one year.WILLIAM DREXLER VanRIPER
Paterson, New Jersey
Born in Paterson, N. ]., May 29. 1911.
Attended Mount Hermcn School 1927-1931.
Attended Colgate University Attended Tue ulum College 1933-1934.
Junior irflerneship at St. Joseph’s Hospital, Paterson, N. J.'
Senior interneship at Englewood Hospital. Englewood, N. I., eighteen months.
JABETH VARDARO, B.S.
Iv school in Philadelphia. tiladolphia Normal JsOncol 1930-1933.
Attended Pohnay]van:q State College 1933-1935.
Received B.S. degree from Pennsylvania State College in 1935.
Senior interneship at Northeastern Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., one year.AMOS SHEPHARD WAINER. B.S.
Born in Fort Snolllng, Minn., December 23, 1912.
Attended high school in Minneapolis. Minn.
Attended high school in Balbo, Panama Canal Zone. Attended University of Pennsylvania 1929-1933.
Attended Temple University 1933-1935.
Received B.S. degree from University of Pennsylvania in
PAUL MORDECHAI WAPNER, B.S.
Attended Temple University 1932-1
Received B.S,. degree from Temple University in 1936.
Senior inlernoship' at''St. Luke's and Children's Hospital.
Junior interneship at Jewish Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa.
Senior interneship at St. Agnes Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., one year.
Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.JACOB DAVID WEINBERG
Born in Philadelphia. Pa., June 17, 1914.
Attended high school in Philadelphia.
Attended Pennsylvania State College 1931-1932.
Attended Tepzpfe University 1932-1934.
Senior infornoship at St. Joseph's Hospital, Lancaster, Pa.. one yyear.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.
JACK WEINER. B.S.
Bom in PH tedeipbiav PffT'Qcic
Attended HlgK School in Philadelphia.
Attended Temple University 1932-'f935.
Received B.S. degree.Jrorf Temple University in 1936.
Senior interneship at St. Vincent's Hospital. Eiie. Pa., one year.
Phi Lambda Kappa Medical Fraternity.IICLARA GERTRUDE WERTIME, A.B.
Born in Springfield, Mo.. December 31, 1915. Attended high school in Chambersburg.
Attended Wilson P-aliaap
Received A.B. degree from Wilson College in 1935.
Junior internship at Harrisburg General Hospital, Harrisbyrg, Pa.
Senior iiitorneship at Harrisburg General Hospital. Harrisburg. Pa., one year.
LEROY ALMON WILCOX, B.S.
Born in Gr
Attended high school in Greenville.
Attended Thie College 1930-1934.
Received B.S. degree-ItorfTThiel College in 1934.
Senior interneship at St. Vincent’s Hospital, Erie, Pa., one year.
Phi Rho Sigma Medical Fraternity.ROBERT UIBEL WISSLER, B.S.
ALAN WRIGHT, Ph.G., B.S.
Born in Ephrata, Pa.. February 13. 1914.
Attended high school in Ephrata.
Attended Franklin and Marshall College 1931-1935.
Received B.S. degree from Franklin and Marshall College in 1935.
Senior interneship at Lancaster General Hospital. Lancaster. Pa., one year.
Phi Rhb Sigma Medical Fraternity.
Attended Temple University 1931-1932.
Attended Juniata College 1933-1935.
Received Ph.G. degree from Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science.
Received B.S. degree from Juniata Collage in 1939.
Senior Interneship at Mercer Hospital. Trenton, N. J.. one year.
JAMES SUTTON President
RICHARD McCLOSKEY Vice-President
RAYMOND DAVIS Secretary
RAYMOND McKEEBY TreasurerSKULL BOARD
FRANK NORRIS Associate Editor
BURNS DOBBINS Editor
CHARLES NORRIS Associate Editor
EDWIN BUCHANAN ELLSWORTH UHLER FRANK COOKE
Business Manager Managing Editor Advertising Manager
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LETTERS TO THE EDITORS
Doctor William A. Steel
It seems hardly possible that more than 35 years have slipped into memory since the young doctor who had just moved next door called to request an appointment in the Surgical Department of Temple. He had proved a clever student-instructor in Anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania; had helped to make a championship trap-shooting team foi his I Diversity, and had won a coveted interneship at the Episcopal Hospital. Then just as private practice seemed so full of promise, came long travail in a deep, dark valley, as yielding joints, melting flesh and mental nightmare seemed to mock ambition. Finally, after many months came returning hope. The scars of typhoid had brought spiritual growth, deepened sympathy, and increased devotion to the healing art. Only a short conversation was needed to convince me that here was a most desirable colleague, a conclusion that time has abundantly proved.
To me the association has been a very happy and inspiring one. Together we have looked toward uncharted surgical seas of philosophy as well as technique, often enticing because apparently new and untried. Together we have barn-stormed at Medical meetings, or
(Continued on page 4)
Members of the Class of 1939:
May 1 extend my congratulations on your selection of Doctor William A. Steel as the dedicatee of your Year Book? Thirty years of close association has shown him to he a student anti scholar. No one has been more untiring in time and care in the preparation of clinics anti lectures to further the knowledge of his students.
1 feel you have made a very wise selection.
JOHN P. EMICH, M.I).
To the Class of 1939. Temple University Medical School, I extend congratulations on the selection of Dr. Steel, to whom you have dedicatcd your year hook.
In my opinion you are honoring one of the ablest and most distinguished men we have in the medical world.
I have known Dr. Steel for many years but only for a few years as a colleague. In the few years as his assistant I have enjoyed his personal hospitality and friendliness and have stood in constant admiration of the extraordinary energy, capacity for work, and ability to bring forth the best results.
As one of the younger men. I believe 1 can speak for the younger group in saying that the teachings and clinics of Dr. Steel have been more than helpful to them in their practice.
Dr. Steel is still a student and always will be. He is forever writing and trying to benefit both himself and you with his experimental studies. As an originator of methods, one finds in daily use many procedures which he introduced early in his career and which are still used. He is a lover of youth and of teaching youth so that they may teach someone else.
It is a great pleasure to me to write these few lines.
C. Howard McDevitt, Jr.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITORS
staged operative or demonstration clinics—Doctor Steel by his meticulous preparation and dramatic skill always arousing an enthusiastic response. To do a thing meant to him the necessity of doing it unusually well, and the many hours he has devoted to the preparation of his lectures and papers, added to exceptional native ability, have made him preeminent as a teacher.
In Temple Doctor Steel has given courses Imth in surgery and urology. His work in relation to the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, in spinal anesthesia, in anastomotic operations upon the gall-bladder, in technical methods for the relief of pain, are among his many achievements that merit special mention.
Hours of laborious surgical work exact much from even a robust physique; but week-ends of outdoor relaxation at his shore acres is the secret formula which enabled him to carry on with that even, pleasant, enthusiastic spirit where others would have failed. I have been privileged to join in some of these happy hours with rod or gun. The dedication of the SKULL to Doctor Steel by the Class of 39 is splendidly deserved, and I appreciate this opportunity of recording my affection and esteem for such a talented colleague and loyal friend. W. Wayne Babcock.
The following letter was received by the Obstetrical department and will he. I am sure, of interest to every reader and especially to the members of the Senior class:
June 26. 1938,
Kind Sir: Philadelphia. Pa.
May I take this privilege to thank you and the Hospital for the kindness in taking care of my wife and baby. On June 21, '38. two of the finest doctors. Artnand C. Grcz and Walter D'Alonzo attended the birth of our little son, that I have ever met. 1 wish to congratulate the Hospital on having such fine men. They allowed me to help them and I watched their line work, such precision and accuracy is to be commended. Having worked myself from door to door and town to town, meeting all kinds of people, I appreciate the conditions that you men and women work under.
Having been in Girard College 9 years 1 know the joy of being praised for good work as our Dr. Charles A. Herrick would take you up on the platform with him and praised you to the rest of the boys and it certainly made you feel fine. If you have meetings with your men for orders and pep talks, will you kindly praise these two doctors for me and I know it will do good.
If you have time would you please answer our letter and tell us you will, as 1 feel that these doctors are future Aces? I would he proud to receive your answer and would keep it always with the Birth Certificate.
Thanking you and the Hospital again.
Mr. and Mrs. B-------
P.S. The baby’s name is Harry.
J. 0. Arnold.Page 5
- - 3545 - -
NORTH BROAD STREETPage 6
EARLY IN THE FALL OF 1938, WORK BEGAN ON THE NEW ADDITION TO THE HOSPITAL
PROGRESSIVE STEPS TOWARD THE COMPLETION OF THE NEW MODERN FLOOR ARE SHOWN BELOWPage 7
PICTURES. . .
...A NEW FLOOR IS ADDED TO TEMPLE HOSPITAL
In keeping Temple’s hospital facilities in Step with the growing reputation of her medical school, seventy-six beds were added this spring to the front of the hospital. Comprising one and one-half floors, the skyward extension closely approaches the height of the school across the street.
That great American pastime—watching men at work -was patiently indulged in by great and small, from chief to freshman student, as the building grew.
The addition, costing one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, increases the total beddage from a former four hundred and twenty-six to five hundred and two. New rooms are air-conditioned and occupied by private and semi-private patients: the entire back half of the hospital is now reserved for ward patients. New delivery rooms, as well as all old operating rooms, are air-conditioned.
Of special interest to students: ward beds are increased by sixty; four beds are reserved for seniors on obstetric duty— not to be encroached upon by internes. Of very special interest to prospective mothers: delivery rooms have partitions dampening the sounds of those farther along in labor.
A VIEW FROM THE CORNER OF BROAD AND ONTARIOPoge 8
Dr Pritchard wail- for °n»« "walking and talking" about.
SPEAKING OF PICTURES
An announcement by the “Skull" staft that a prize would be given for the best candid camera shot submitted brought a widespread response from the student body. It was emphasized that excellent photographic ability was not necessary and any snapshot which was obviously not posed for would he considered.
Careful thought was given to the selection of the winner and it was felt by the staff that the most candid of all those submitted was one of Dr. William C. Pritchard who was caught in a characteristic stance. A copy of the 1939 “Skull" was awarded to Arlington Bensel of the Freshman class for this picture.
Polymastia is not only found in text books. This case Three generationSuf I.enhardts—Harry and Harry. Jr., look
was seen in the obstetrical ward of the hospital. at a picture of Harry’s father.
"The Dead-Pan Fafflily"dcmonst rates the retinal changes of cardio-vascular-renal disease, ficr being exhibited at various conventions, the sextet came home to rest in the museum.Page 9
Vo!. !, No. 1 May. 1939
THE YEAR'S EVENTS
New Obstetrical Residency at Temple......... 18
Professor McNair Scoll Comes fo Temple ... 18
"Essentials of Pathology" by Smith and Gault 18
Association of Medical Students Convention . . 19
Dr. William Boyd Speaks fo Students......... 19
THE HISTORICAL ESSAY
The Making of a Doctor......................... 94
Amateur Shots of Professional Men.............. 20
The Life of Dr. William A. Steel.............. 57
Steel Clinic................................... 59
SKULL Across Town.............................. 62
Life at Temple Medical School............... 11
Science and Industry........................... 66
A Day in Ihe Life of a Medical Student ... 60
A Day in the Life of a Sludent Nurse........ 61
"It Might Happen Here".........................100
"Life Began in 1935"...........................102
Lighter Shades of Life.........................105
Letters to Ihe Editors.......................... 2
Speaking of Pictures; Hospital Grows Up . . . 6
SKULL Goes to a Party.......................... 86
Pictures to the Editor.........................109
editor: Burns A. Dobbins. Jr.
mamcinc editor: Ellsworth P. Uhltr
associate editors: Charles Norris. Frank Norris
PACt-LTr editor : Richard Hoffman. John Hunter
senior class editor : William Jones. Herbert Stauffer. Charles
ruATERNirr editors: Raymond McKeeby. Herman Hirsh
historian: Mary Jane Howell
hi mor editors: Robert Gearhart. Russell Green
ffOM-HAL editor: Milton Maloney
bisineu manager: Edwin G. Buchanan
advertising manager: Frank Cooke
circulation MANAGER: Robert Mulberger
assistant CIRCULATION MANAGERS: Simon Foiman. B. I. Tart. Walter D’Alonzo
tacclty advisers: Dr. Marsh Alesbury. Dr. John B Roxby, Dr Melvin Saylor
IMITATION OF LIFE
Through ihe courtesy of the publishers of LIFE, the nationally read pictorial weekly, the editors of the 1939 SKULL have been permitted to imitate LIFE’S style of presentation.
SKULL'S COVER : The man pictured on the cover of this edition of SKULL is Dr. William A. Steel who has been connected with Temple Medical School since 1903. Dr. Steel has served Temple in various positions and has always been a leader in boosting the medical school. A precise surgeon and an efficient teacher. Dr. Steel is admired by colleague and student alike. At the present time Dr. Steel is Professor of Principles of Surgery. His didactic lectures are well presented and his clinics are one of the bright spots in the Juniors’ Curriculum. Yet. with all of his studious, exacting pursuit of his chosen profession he has found time to live a full life colored with participation in many extra-professional activities. A man who truly puts his entire effort in whatever he does whether it be work or play. It is a privilege for the Class of 1939 to dedicate the SKI'LL to him.
(See feature article on Page 58.)Page 10
Rl SSELL II. CON WELL Founder TEMPLE I NIV ERSITV
Acres of diamonds
To Temple's Founder. “Diamonds" were wherever an opportunity for service could he found.
It was upon the opportunity to serve seven young men who “wanted an education" that Temple University was first visualized.
From that original enrollment of seven students taught by Dr. Conwell in 1881 Temple University has, in the span of half a century, educated more than 100,000 young men and women.
Each year, the Founder’s Philosophy of “Education for All" is being more and more extended, developing and supplementing the ability of each new generation to live more enjoyably . . . more purposefully.
VOL. I. No. I
STUDENTS CROSS BROAD STREET FROM CLINIC TO CLASS AND FROM WARD WALK TO LABORATORY
LIFE AT TEMPLE MEDICAL SCHOOL
Crossing at Broad and Ontario— no other glimpse would so typify student life at Temple. Nothing could better give picturization to the close association between hospital and school, between the clinical and the academic. Many times daily doctors and doctors-to-be cross Broad at Ontario from class to clinic, from ward-walk to laboratory. This point acts as the hub of a professional educational set up
extending to hospitals and clinics throughout Philadelphia: from Broad and Ontario graduates disseminate medical knowledge and services throughout the world.
Herein is presented a photographic record of every-day happenings, outstanding personalities, places, faces in short, a composite cross section of student life.Page 12
The "Hub of the School” where medicos eagerly search day after day for new notices among many old ones. Rumor has it that a new one was found once.
JUNIOR SECTIONS OBSERVE DELIVERIES
LIFE AT TEMPLE
To the layman, until recently, every phase of medicine was shrouded in deep mystery. His ideas of the doctor's part in everything from the delivery-room to the post-mortem table were equally vague. However, the recent barrage of medical movies and printed matter, and the Government’s interest in the two pathological entities. Syphilis and Socialized Medicine, have engendered in the public a new interest and knowledge in things medical.
But one phase of this public enlightenment movement has been badly, if not wholly, neglected—the medical school. The average layman believes that the surgical aspirant lakes a different course from
. . „( ne"
in is assisted by Byron in sorting «PPl,ca,,°
MlSS Perla talks with Dr. Wvcis as he waits to sec the Dean.Evans appears to be very diligently dissecting Emil, George and Frank pause to hold a "session
while the camera grinds. on the sixth floor.
Extra-curricular activity is very important to the These props held up the new floor while the lec-
medical student. (Ed. note to girl back home— turer's voice collapsed under the hammer’s tattoo,
this picture was posed by request.)
A comer in the cafeteria where students lunch, lounge, and lull extra time away between classes.
Temple Basketeers Moore. McCeorge, Stauffer, iggiano, l.ilicnfeld. Kyhachok. Wieckowski. Warshafsky. Sigman. IS games played. 13 won."BULL SESSIONS” ARE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE MEDICAL STUDENT’S LIFE
in the making offers hazards »o Dobbins and
2. Music lovers gather about the piano for the pause that refreshes.
4. Phi Betes linger leisurely on the steps of their house.Page IS
lluit of the genera] practitioner; that an anatomy laboratory is a place where unfortunates have their organs used as snow-balls by a group of happily-mad medical students.
Tor these reasons, in this volume of •‘Skull” is presented a rather thorough description of each department. The first two years with its endless lectures and laboratory hours: the junior year’s introduction to the patient and to his many afflictions; the senior year’s instruction in what to do for the patient once he is introduced and diagnosed. Laboratory, lecture, clinic, dispensary, ward-walk these are the formative factors in the slow evolution from youthful layman to young doctor.
Ward sections require good a relics because much time is spenl standing and listening.
1. Orpi piles "it" up in front of lhe medical school.
2. The five o'clock rush with all of its pushing and shoving.
3. A glimpse at “Life'' affords diversion for students.
4. The famous four "P’s" here are Pyxman. Paxson. Pa and Pomeroy.Page
LONG-LEGGED FRANK NORRIS
Freshman year a- recall - ! by Stauffer. Walker, ami Oscar.
Social life is. a phase not included in the curriculum. This important side of the student's life is represented by pictures of hull-sessions. dances, and other pursuits whereby he prepares to integrate himself into that particular social stratum in which he wishes to practice.
Some of the work which must be done might well become a very tedious proposition: however. a remarkable sense of humor and the ability to ignore routine tasks allows the greater majority of students to enjoy life as completely as his contemporaries in other walks of life. A strong bond of friendship springs up between all who are interested in medicine which does not permit the student to become too far removed from social life; for there is always someone to ask "A movie tonight?" or “How about a few rubbers of bridge?
New mirrors provided ! tile Association «»f Medical Slu- Spearing-Relyea check-up: “Tliat's only three; let’s give hi
dents are used frequently. another.'Page 17
THIRTY-TWO FEET ARE EXPLORED BY WALMER AND PHILLIPS IN THEIR SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE
seniors loaf in the ‘un when Spring fever strikes. Lunching on food from across the street appeases hungryPage 18
A new obstetrical residency was bejzun by I)r. Quindien in January, 1939.
EVENTS OF THE YEAR
The 1938-39 school year has been singularly fortunate in having events of history-making importance. Dr. MrNair-Scotl. F.R.C.P. (Canlb), educated in Fngland and serving as research Pediatrician for several well-known medical institutions, since his arrival to this country, was chosen for the Chair of Pediatrics, last summer. Drs. Smith and Gault, after several years of careful work both in selecting written material and in photographing morbid anatomy specimens, presented a new text-book of Pathology. During the Christmas holidays the A.M.S. convention was held in Philadelphia and David Hepford, sophomore student in T. Li. Medical School, was elected president. It also provided an opportunity for Herbert Stauffer and (diaries Price to establish a date bureau at Convention Headquarters. A new Residency in Obstetrics was established which was filled in January by Dr. Quindien who is a graduate of Temple Medical School, and served his internship at T. U. Hospital. He was resident in Obstetrics at Harlem and Kings' County Hospitals in New York. William Boyd, author of several textbooks of Pathology, came to Temple to give a very interesting and instructive lecture on diseases of the kidney supplemented by many splendid lantern-slide illustrations.
Space permits mentioning only the high lights of the year and these few are shown on these pages.
Essentials Of Pathology, by Drs. Smith and Dr. McNair Scott look over his duties as Professor of Pediatrics
Gault, came off the press in September. 1938. in August, 1938.Pa ic 19
The Date Bureau was an essential pari of the recent medical David Hepford was elected co-president of the students’ convention. A.M.S.
The faculty of the preclinical years as well as those underclassmen who made exceptionally high marks in the recent National Board Examinations should he highly congratulated for their efforts in this direction. No better recommendation could be asked for than the satisfactory
showing in an examination or examinations in which practically every medical school in the country participates. Unfortunately the results were received too late to allow photographs of the students to be taken.
OR. WILLIAM BOYD, AUTHORITY ON PATHOLOGY, LECTURED ON DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYPage 20
AMATEUR SHOTS OF
PROFESSOR JOHN 8. ROXBY
A8LE ASSISTANCE IS GIVEN BY DRS. WESTON. HUBER. AND SOLOWAY
Devoted to imparting a sound knowledge of the structure of the human body, its organs and tissues, the Department of Anatomy supplies the first fundamental of an organized medical education, and guides the greater part of the effort of the first-year medical student. With the advantage of laboratories designed and equipped for greatest efficiency, freshmen find their time divided between gross dissection of the entire human cadaver, microscopic study of
the individual organs and tissues, and investigation of the embryological development of the human body.
The actual dissection, which occupies the majority of the time devoted to anatomy, is facilitated by the constant attendance of the members of the anatomy staff, who are always available for table-side consultation, encouraging thorough and individual work. And yet there is little feeling of compulsion in doing the work; a day interspersed with Dr. Roxby’s inevitable anecdotes and Dr. Pritchard’s friendly chiding is not dull. Study and drawings of prepared cross-sections of the body and extremities are a part of this phase of the work; the lectures and conferences are correlated with the work in dissection.
The work in histology consists largely in microscopic study and color drawings of the body tissues; frequent slide examinations and informal class quizzing provide a practical stimulus to effort. These studies show their full value when, in the sophomore year, the course in path-
Dr. Roxbyaid.s a student in finding a reference in the anatomy textbook.Poqc 21
Drs. Roxby and Pritchard lay ihe cornerstone of medicine by their tireless efforts in teaching anatomy.
ology requires a tine distinction between normal and abnormal tissues as seen microscopically.
Embryology traces the development of the human body from its origin in the ovum to its maturity; visualization of the steps concerned in this process is again aided by the execution of numerous drawings.
The course in Anatomy is further amplified by a full series of lectures on “Anatomy as Revealed by the Roentgen Ray,” which has as its purpose the demonstration of X-ray appearance of normal structures and the correlation of X-rays with anatomic studies.
Neuroanatomy and Neurohistology are given as a separate correlated course, which includes
The anatomy staff post'- for ihe SKULL photographer in the anatomy museum.
dissection and microscopic study of the brain and cord, their histology and embryology. In the second year, a course in Special Anatomy, concerned with the organs of special sense, includes dissections of the eye, ear, nose and throat, paranasal sinuses, and larynx.
The study of function, normal and pathological, and the correlation of disease with its clinical manifestations all require primarily a knowledge of normal structure; in fact anatomy may be considered the starting point of all medical knowledge, and the Department of Anatomy executes well its responsibility in this regard.
A friendly word with Dr. Pritchard in the anatomy lah often lends encouragement for better dissection.
John It. Roxby. M.D., Professor of
Anatomy, Histology and Embryology
William C. Pritchard. M.D.,
Professor of Histology and Embryology
John Franklin Huber, A.M.. M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Anatomy. Histology and Embryology
David Soloway. A.B.. M.D., Assistant
Professor of Histology and Embryology
!oe B. Markus. D.D.S., Lecturer on
Anatomy of the Mouth and Jaws
Clinton S. Herrman, M.D., F.A.C.S..
Demonstrator of Anatomy
Joseph C. Donnelly, A.B.. D.D.S., M.D.,
F.A.C.S., Demonstrator of Anatomy
Frank Glauser. M.D., Assistant in Anatomy
Isadore Katz. M.D___Assistant in Anatomy
Jean Kendrick Weston. M.A., Ph.D..
Assistant in AnatomyThG allergists in conference exchange ideas about various problems of their department.
Technicians play an important part in the Bacteriology
Mr. Goode, Dr. Lennon and Mr. Bondi observe Dr. Spaulding’s demonstration. Dr. Oault saw it before.
3r. Spaulding, assistant professor of Bacteriology, inocu-ates a culture medium in the laboratory.
PROFESSOR JOHN A. KOLMER
Bacteriology will be remembered by the senior class as a freshman course. The lectures, conferences and practical laboratory exercises introduced the specific causes of disease even at that early date. In-, spiring lectures by Dr. Kolmer, in which references to practical problems of specific cases encountered in his wealth of experience, transform what might be rather tedious hours into colorful word pictures of the marauders of the human race.
Dr. Gault does much to improve laboratory technique by his constant vigilance and helpful suggestions.
Part of the course is devoted to the study of those parasites most likely to be found in this part of the world.
The course has since been advanced to the sophomore year.
John A. Kolmer, M.S., M.D., Dr. P.H., D.Sc.. LL.D.. L.H.D.. F.A.C.P..
Professor of Medicine. Bacteriology and Immunology Edwin S. Gault. M.D., Associate Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology; Earle II. Spaulding. B.A.. Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Bacteriology; Ernest E. Aegerter, B.S.. M.D., and H. C. Lennon. B.S.. M.D.. Instructors in Pathology and Bacteriology; and William G. Goode. Instructor in Bacteriology, complete the staff.
Dr. Kolmer's familiar words, “Now. ladies and gentlemen.” 3re heard by all four classes.Page 23
liRONCHOLOGY AND ESOPHAGOLOGY
THE JACKSON CLINIC is, without question, a true representation of the Temple of today. Along with the Jacksons,
Emily VanLoon, M.D., F.A.C.S., associate professor of broncho-esophagology; Nathan Martin Levin, M.D., clinical assistant; and George McReynolds, M.D.. fellow in broncho-esophagologv, comprise one of the school's most skilled staffs. The clinic is
. , , • , , I HONORARY PROFESSOR JACKSON
recognized world-wide by physicians as well as a large number of the laity for its amazing achievements. It affords the senior class an opportunity to appreciate the difficulty which would arise in attempting to teach anything but the principals of peroral endoscopy in such a highly specialized subject.
Chevalier Jackson. M.D., Sc.D.. LL.D., F.A.C.S.,
Honorary Professor of Broncho-esophagology
Chevalier L. Jackson. A.B.. M.D., M.Sc. (Med.), F.A.C.S.,
Professor of Broncho-esophagology
Emily VanLoon. M.D.. F.A.C.S..
Associaie Professor of Broncho-esophagology
Nathan Martin Levin. M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Broncho-esophagology
George McReynolds. M.D..
Fellow in Broncho-esophagology
Dr. C. I. Jackson uses the well known bronchoscope.
Foreign Body: Dr. McReynolds surveys the bronchial tree. Famous son of a famous father—Professor C. L. Jackson scrubs.Page 24
Colloidal chemistry i$ revealed to tile freshman class
by l)r. Mona Spiegel-Adolph.
Melvin A. Saylor. B.S.. M.D..
Professor of Physiological Chemistry
Mona Adolf, M.D...........Professor of Colloid Chemistry-
Earl A. Shrader. B.Sc.. M.S.. Ch.E.. Ed.D..
Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry
Kohcrt II. Hamilton. Jr.. M.A., Ph.D.. M.D..
Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry
CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY
The course in Chemistry is another of the fundamentals which form a background for the full understanding of the mechanism of disease. It is concerned especially with those chemical relations in the living human body which form the basis of many clinical and diagnostic tests, which come to the aid of the physician who desires to confirm or disprove a diagnosis. The interpretation of routine and standardized laboratory work is an adjunct of unquestioned value in the thorough study of disease.
The lectures in the first part of the course are devoted to a consideration of the physio-chemical phenomena and their relation to functional activity; then follows a course designed to give fundamental training in physiological chemistry, comprising the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipins, proteins, the tissues, the secretions and excretions, including the intermediate and final products of normal metabolism. The second part of the course is concerned with pathological conditions affecting the character of the gastric juice, the blood, and the urine; basal and abnormal metabolism, respiratory metabolism, and the regulation of neutrality are discussed.
The laboratory work of the first semester includes volumetric analysis, chemistry of the foodstuffs and of milk, of enzymes, of the action of the digestive juices, of the blood, of hemoglobin and its derivatives, and of hemolysis, all with special reference to medical applica-
Chemisfry i? studied in the laboratory under the supervision of Dr. Shrader.
PROFESSOR MELVIN A. SAYLORPacje 25
A STAFF CONFERENCE IS CONDUCTED 8Y DR. SAYLOR
lion. The second part of the course is confined to important practical aspects of clinical chemistry and nutrition. The work is largely quantitative, including the analysis of gastric juice and urine, determining renal efficiency, analysis of blood and of milk. Actual metabolism experiments are carried out by the students upon themselves, which tend to impress the cardinal points and familiarize them with the procedures having important and direct application in medical practice. Special stress is laid upon the significance and interpretation of the laboratory findings.
A series of lectures in toxicology are given, in which the various alkaloids, the common mineral poisons, and the most common poison-
ous gases are considered, together with their effects, detection and treatment of the symptoms and conditions arising from their use. Lectures outlining the subject of colloid chemistry are given particularly in reference to the proteins and lipoids of biological interest. The most important colloid chemical methods are shown and their application to medical problems is discussed.
This well rounded course provides more than the principles of physiological chemistry: it gives an opportunity to realize in a practical way the significance, as well as the method, of the various laboratory aids which contribute much to the diagnosis and management of medical problems.
DR. SAYLOR SPENDS MUCH TIME IN THE LABORATORY ASSISTING STUDENTSDERMATOLOGY AND SYPHILOLOGY
Dermatological chromographs provide nu excellent
means for supplementing clinical material.
Dr. Wright consults with Dr. Friedman alK ut »
dermatological problem in the Therapy room.
Dermatology begins in the junior year and consists of a weekly didactic lecture with presentation of illustrative cases. During the first half of the year the more common cutaneous diseases and cutaneous manifestations of general diseases are discussed. In the second half of the year a course of lectures on syphilis, with consideration of its neurological, cardiovascular, visceral, and dermatological manifestations is given. Especial emphasis is placed on the recognition of the dermatological lesions. A consider ation of therapeutic agents and their administration is presented. The lectures during the year are frequently illustrated with lantern slide demonstrations.
During the first half of the senior year a weekly clinic is held for the entire class, at which time a small group of students has the opportunity to diagnose and recommend treatment for the patients presented. In addition small sections of the class attend the clinic-in Dermatology and Syphilology for three weeks, during which time they take an active part in the diagnosis and treatment of the clinic patients.
Carroll S. Wright, B.S., M.D.,
Professor of Dermatology and Syphilology
Jacques Cuequicrre, B.S., M.D.,
Associate Professor of Dermatology and Syphilology
Reuben Friedman. B.S.. M.D.. Associate in Dermatology and Syphilology; Kenneth M. Brighter. B.S.. M.D., Stanley Joseph Skroinak. M.D., and J. Neafie Richardson. B.S.. M.D.. Clinical Assistants in Dermatology and Syphilology.
PROFESSOR CARROLL S. WRIGHT
Instruction in Gynecology is begun in the junior " year, and consists of a weeklj didactic lecture and instruction to small sections in the wards and outpatient department of the Temple University Hospital. Ihe lectures cover the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of women. the differentiation of operable and inoperable cases, and the various techniques and methods used in performing plastic and abdominal operations. The lectures are amply illustrated with charts and lantern slides.
Throughout the senior year small groups of Students spend ten days in the gynecological outpatient department. During this term they are afforded the opportunity of examining, suggesting diagnoses, and actively treating the patients. This is done under the guidance and supervision of an instructor who is in constant attendance. Each senior student also spends a week on the gynecological ward of the Temple University Hospital, during which time he takes complete histories, does physical examinations, and necessary laboratory work on all patients admitted. He makes the diagnosis, suggests
PROFESSOR FRANK C. HAMMOND
treatment, and presents each case to the instructors. In addition small groups of students spend three weeks on the wards of the Philadelphia General Hospital, at which time the most interesting cases are presented and discussed.
Frank C. Hammond, M.D.. Sc.D.. F.A.C.S.,
Professor of Gynecology
Harry A. Duncan, A.B.. M.D., F.A.C.S..
Associate Professor of Gynecology
Chas. Scott Miller. M.D.. F.A.C.S., Lecturer on Gynecology; Harold L. Bottomley. M.D., Isadorc Forman, M.D.. Joseph H. Schoenfeld, M.D., F. F. Osterhout, M.D., and Saul P. Savitz, M.D.. Instructors in Gynecology.
Dr. Hammond lectures. “There are four varieties of ectopic pregnancy.'
Pelvic exam in Gyne clinic.MEDICINE
Wai'tl rounds in 2Cl Dr. Klcinbart and Dr. Weiss examine the abdomen for possible pathology.
Di. Groff and Dr. Farrar check the senior students’ tccords with Mrs. Smith, supervisor of the medical clinic.
The Department of Medicine gives instruction throughout the four years of the medical course, with a view of imparting training in acceptable technical methods for the intelligent examination of patients, as well as in the principles of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, and with proper emphasis upon patients as individual problems. In this manner, it is aimed to present both the art and the science of medicine for the purposes of broad training and experience and without any effort toward specialization.
The first-year student is brought at once into a medical atmosphere, with an early and prompt realization of the responsibilities of the profession. by a series of clinics given during the second semester by Professor Kolmer. A pictorial course in the History of Medicine portrays the profession as a developing panorama throughout the ages, from Primitive and Egyptian Medicine to modern American Medicine.
During the second year, in addition to the weekly clinics of Professor Kolmer, weekly lectures by Professor Kay introduce the principles of physical diagnosis and history taking; these are correlated with section work devoted, during the first semester, to normal physical signs, and during the second semester, to practical work at the Episcopal and Jewish Hospitals.
In the third year, lectures by Professor Brown and Assistants on the theory and practice of
PROFESSOR CHARLES L. BROWNPage 29
Dr. Kay emphasizes the principles of the Dr. Klein conducts well presented and interesting clinics at Phila-art of physical diagnosis. delphia General Hospital.
medicine emphasize the clinical features and complications of disease. Clinics given twice weekly in the Hospital are devoted to the presentation and discussion of selected cases, which show typical manifestations of the pathological physiology of internal diseases. Several special series of lectures are given in Applied Therapeutics, Biologic Therapy, Medical Jurisprudence, Medical Ethics, and Diseases of the
Chest. Ward rounds in the Temple University Hospital also form a part of the year's work.
The clinics and lectures of the fourth year are concerned especially with differential diagnosis and therapy. Clinico-Pathological Conferences given in conjunction with the Department of Pathology, and X-ray Clinical Conferences given in conjunction with the Department of Roentgenology are a valuable means of cor-
MANY SENIOR MEDICAL CLINICS ARE HELO IN THE ERNY AMPHITHEATRE DR. GINSBURG DR. SOLOFF DR. DURANTPage 30
Cardiac clinic is conducted on Tuesday and Thursday evenings. Dr. Koesler and Wolffe instruct the seniors.
relation. Special scries of lectures arc given in Physical Medicine, Applied Therapeutics, and Chemotherapy. Ward work in small sections is given at the Temple University Hospital, the Jewish and Philadelphia General Hospitals, and opportunity for close contact with patients is further provided in the out-patient department of the Temple University Hospital, in the General Medical, Chest. Immunology, Endocrine, Cardiology, Metabolic, Hematology and Gastroenterology Clinics.
Charles Leonard Brown, B.S., M.D., F.A.C.P.. Professor of Medicine and Head of the Department of Medicine
John A. Kolmer. M.S., M.D., Dr. P.H.. D.Sc., I.L.D..
L.H.D.. F.A.C.P., Professor of Medicine
Arthur C. Morgan. M.D.. Sc.D., F.A.C.P.,
Emeritus Professor of Clinical Medicine
Edward Weiss, M.D., F.A.C.P..
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Allen C. Beckley, M.D., F.A.C.P.,
Clinical Professor of Medicine
Fever therapy in the department of Physiotherapy is being supervised by Dr. Wood.
The History Of Medicine i- introduced to the freshmen during the first semester by Dr. Robinson.Page 31
Michael C. Wold, M.D.,
Associate Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology)
Joseph B. Wolffe. M.D..
Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiology)
William A. Swalm. M.f)..
Associate Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology)
C. Morion lllman, M.D.. Associate Professor of Medicine
John Lansbury, M.I).....Associate P fessor ot Medicine
Roy I.. Langdon. M.I)___Associate Professor of Medicine
Thomas M. Durant, B.S.. M.I).. F.A.C.P.,
Associate Professor of Medicine
Samuel A. Savitz, M.D—Associate Professor of Medicine
George E. Farrar. Jr.. B.S., M.D..
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Hematology)
Daniel J. Donnelly. M.I).. Assistant Professor of Medicine
Louis Cohen, M.D..
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Chest)
Henry C. Groff. M.D.....Assistant Professor of Medicine
Members of the faculty of the Department of Medicine, in addition to those listed above, include Ellis B. Horwitz, M.D., Reuben Davis. M.D., Louis Tuft. M.D., Leroy J. Wenger, M.D.. Ralph A. Klemm. M.D.. Morris Kleinbart, M.D.. Louis Soloff. M.D.. Max B. Walkow. B.S., M.D.. Robert F. Sterner, B.S., M.D., Savere F. Madonna, M.D.. Max Schumann, M.D., Charles-Francis Long, B.A., M.D., George Isaac Blumstein, M.D.. J. Paul Austin, M.D.. David Suiter. M.I).. Emanuel M. Weinberger. M.D., Milford J. Jluffnaglc. A.B.. M.D., Victor Andre Digilio. B.S.. M.D.. David Stcuart, M.D., Frank
M. Dyson. M.D., Joseph A. Pcscatorrc, M.D.. Lawrence
N. Ettelson, B.S., M.D.. Leon S. Caplan, M.D., C. Charles Imperiale, A.B., M.D., Lester Morrison, M.D., Robert Cohen, M.D., Jerome Miller. M.D., Oscar T. Wood. B.S., M.D.. Isadore Ginsburg. A.B., M.D., Stoughton R. Vogel, M.D., and George E. Mark, Jr.. B.S., M.D.
Professor Kolmer divide- his teaching time l etwcen the medical school ami the hospital.
Professor Brown and Dr. Pcnta hold an informal conference in front of the medical school.
Consultations make for heller diagnoses. Dr. Farrar consults Pneumothorax technique is demonstrated by Dr. with Dr. Langdon over this patient. A. J. Cohen at Eaglcville Sanatorium.Page 32
DR. GILPIN CONDUCTS A CLINIC
PROFESSOR TEMPLE FAT "LITTLE CHIEF" SCOTT TALKS ON EPILEPSY
NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY
In the junior year the field of neurology is carefully covered by a scries of lectures by Dr. Gilpin. Ward-walks conducted by others of the staff supply adequate material to firmly fix the more commonly occurring neurologic diseases in the mind of the student.
The senior year's work consists of lectures 1 Dr. Fay on neurosurgical problems as well as detailed consideration of the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral trauma, epilepsy and infantile spastic states.
The principles of water balance will always he remembered after Dr. Fay’s exposition, even
though certain localizing signs and symptoms may he forgotten.
Temple Fay. B.S., M.D., F.A.C.S., Professor and Head of the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery Sherman F. Gilpin. Jr.. B.S., M.D..
Clinical Professor of Neurology
Other members of the staff are: James J. Waygood. Ph.B., M.D.. Edward L. Clemens, A.B., M.D., Michael Scott, B.S., M.D., Associates in Neurology; Paul Sloane. A.B., M.D., Alexander Silverstcin, M.D., Lecturers on Neurology; John H. Taeffner, B.S., M.D., Associate in Neurosurgery; J. Kay Van Meter. B.S.. M.D.. George N. Haines. B.S.. M.D., Lieut. M. C.. L. S. N., Clinical Assistants in Neurology; Gillis A. Esslinger. B.S., M.D.. Fellow in Neurology; and Augustus McCravey, M.D., Fellow in Clinical Research.
DR. FAY AND DR. LILLIE PRESIDE OVER NEUROLOGICAL CONFERENCES ON MONDAYSPage 33
Obstetrics begins in the junior year with a series of didactic lectures covering the fundamental principles of normal or physiological pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium. In addition the student becomes conversant with the chief abnormal or pathological conditions met with in these periods. Juniors come into contact with clinical obstetrical problems by attending all deliveries at the hospital for a two-week period. Too. they attend manikin demonstrations in small groups so that more individual instruction can be given. An hour a week with Dr. Alesburv as a sort of quiz conference rounds out the first year's work.
The work of the senior year is entirely clinical. One hour each week is spent with the Professor of Obstetrics during which time interesting or unusual cases are reviewed and discussed. The highpoint in the seniors' obstetrics course arrives when they go onto the wards in pairs for a six-day period at which time they assume the duties of an interne caring for patients in labor, following them to the delivery room there to deliver them, and subsequently seeing to their postpartum needs. Following
PROFESSOR JESSE O. ARNOLD
this training period they go on “outside duty" where they assume the duties not of an interne but of a physician caring for and delivering women in the home.
Many amusing and educational incidents are met with on “outside Ob." The student has but to make a single call to find that the home is a far different type of stage for the drama of a birth than is the hospital. Sterile technique so well illustrated and religiously practiced in the hospital is, in most instances, short lived in the home. Not because the student is lax in his efforts but because a thousand and one unfore-
NOT THE C.I.O. OR A.F. OF L. BUT LABOR PROBLEMS ARE DISCUSSED HEREPage 34
"Another point now" Conferences are held for the Dr. Alesbury listen as l)r. Arnold utter words of senior class each Saturday morning. obstetrical wisdom gleaned from four decades.
seen and unanticipated accidents happen to spoil the smoothness which a hospital delivery room can muster. Calls at all hours of the day and night provide the student obstetrician with plenty of practise in arousing from a deep and often well earned slumber. Sometimes a call is quite fruitful and the student returns to the hospital to write up two birth certificates for one mother; many times medical problems must be controlled to the comfort of the patient but to the disappointment of the baby-loving obstetrician.
The student obstetrician’s assistants who are usually most of the patient's friends and all of their relatives are sent hither and yon searching for wash-basins, hot water, baby blankets, etc., etc., anything to get them from directing or actually participating in the delivery.
Follow-up calls give the student obstetrician practice in the management of the lying-in period. Most of the difficulty here arises when the patient is found walking around the house on the day following delivery and an attempt is made to persuade, beg or order the patient hack to bed. But all in all it is an experience invaluable in every sense of the word.
In addition to the above work some time is spent at the prenatal clinics observing the fundamentals of prenatal change and care.
It has been the extreme good fortune of this year’s graduating class to have learned their
fundamental obstetrics at the feet of I)r. Jesse 0. Arnold, beloved teacher and adviser to Temple students since 1904 when he first assumed the duties of Professor of Obstetrics. It has. also, the distinction of. in a sense, graduating from Temple with Dr. Arnold who retires this year, chronologically an old man hut physically the equal of any of us, and mentally still the “Chief." Like a good showman, though, he lays down his tools in a blaze of glory, what with his greatest piece of work, the “Temple Treatment of Eclampsia” an assured success. Let him he just as assured that his other teachings will live on and that there will always he “Arnold Obstetricians” because of him.
Jesse 0. Arnold. M.D.. F.A.C.S.. .Professor of Obstetrics Charles S. Barnes. A.B.. M.D..
Associate Professor of Obstetrics J. Marsh Alesbury. M.I).. Assistant Professor of Obstetrics
Bradford Green. B.S., M.D----Demonstrator in Obstetrics
C. Kenneth Miller. M.D.......Demonstrator in Obstetrics
Philip Fiscella, M.D............Instructor in Obstetrics
Lewis Karl Hoberman. M.D........Instructor in Obstetric
Chester Reynolds, A.B., M.D.....Instructor in Obstetrics
Joseph Lomax, B.S.. M.D.........Instructor in Obstetric-
Helen Hayes Ryan. M.D., Clinical Assistant in Obstetric
Hugh Hayford, M.D........Clinical Assistant in Obstetrics
J. Henry Hinchcliffe. B.S., M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Obstetrics Juliu Amsterdam. M.D.. .Clinical Assistant in ObstetricsPaqc 35
Each Friday the senior class receives instruction in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the eye proper, as well as the part played by the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of systemic and neurological diseases by study of the eye grounds, of the patient with the ophthalmoscope. Dr. Lillie has a remarkable gift of selecting words to explain those problems which are particularly difficult and to make them seemingly no harder than any other rather obvious condition. Lantern slides, peculiarly enough, fail to have the usual sedative effect that one usually expects upon a three o’clock class.
The eye clinic acquaints the senior with the problems of functional tests, the use of the ophthalmoscope and other instruments of precision. Although practical work is rather limited, it is, nevertheless, of sufficient quantity and quality to be of indispensable value to that approaching internship. No problem is too small nor any question too insignificant to be disregarded by any of the members of this gentlemanly, cooperative staff.
Walter I. Lillie. M.D.. M.S. (Ophlh.i, F.A.C.S..
Professor of Ophthalmology Glen Gregory Gibson, M.D.. .Associate in Ophthalmology Robert Hamilton Peckham, A.B.. Ph.l).,
Instructor in Research Ophthalmology Lewis Randall Wolf. B.S.. M.l)., Fellow in Ophthalmology Joseph S. Lynch. B.A., M.D....Fellow in Ophthalmology Homer R. Mather. B.S., M.D... Fellow in Ophthalmology
PROFESSOR WALTER I. LILLIE
1. Refracting the eyes of a patient in Ophthalmology clinic—Dr. Lillie and Dr. Gibson.
2. A field defect is being outlined by Dr. Wolf with the perimeter while Dr. Lynch looks on.
3. Dr. Malher aids Dr. Lillie in taking an eye ground photograph to be used for teaching purposes.DR. MOORE POSES INFORMALLY
PROFESSOR JOHN ROYAL MOORE
Drs. Forman and Steinbergh reach a diagnosis on a clinic patient.
Stuck of Orthopedics is begun in the junior year and consists of weekly didactic lectures illustrated with lantern slides, roentgenograms, and case demonstrations. The lectures include congenital malformations, both primary and secondary, acute and chronic infectious lesions of hone, metabolic diseases involving hone, acute and chronic pathological lesions of joints, benign and malignant hone tumors, classification and diseases of muscles, diseases of tendons, metastatic hone lesions, and the osteochondritiles.
During the senior year weekly didactic lectures are given, illustrated with numerous roentgenograms. A historical consideration of fractures, principles of fracture union, causes of non-union, dislocations, subluxations, springs, sprain fractures, theories of hone repair, types of malunion. classical signs and symptoms of fractures, and a careful consideration of all of the fractures of the bony skeleton, beginning with the phalanges of the fool on upward, are discussed. The importance of considering injury to nerves and blood vessels involved in fractures is stressed. In addition each senior student spends two weeks in the outpatient clinic, at which time he examines and diagnoses orthopedic cases and discusses them with the instructor. He also witnesses the treatment of these patients. For four hours duing the year the senior student witnesses actual reduction of fractures and check-ups under the fluoro-scope.
John R. Moore, A.B., M.D., F.A.C.S..Professor of Orthopedic Surgerj
Worth B. Forman, M.D.......................Lecturer on Orthopedics
Saul S. Steinbergh, B.S., M.D..........................Resident in Orthopedics
Harold P. Muller. A.B.. M.D............................Resident in Orthopedics
Diagnoses are made and treatment prescribed in the out-patient clinic of this department.Poqe 37
"Unde Matt" Ersner gives lectures to the Or. Rachlis demonstrates the way to use the Politzer l ag in treating
juniors and clinics to the seniors. the eustachian lube.
Otology begins in the junior year and lasts for one semester. It consists mainly of didactic lectures, supplemented with anatomical specimens and a series of lantern slides. A thorough review of the anatomy of the ear precedes a careful consideration of the diseases of the ear, with especial emphasis on cerumen, foreign bodies, acute and chronic otitis media, acute mastoiditis, and deafness.
During the senior year a series of eight one-hour clinical conferences are held. The subject matter is mainly a clinical review of the didactic work covered during the preceding year and depends on the material available at the time. The more common procedures and diseases of the ear, including the method of incising an ear drum, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic otitis media, acute mastoiditis, and post operative mastoid treatment, are covered. 1 he rela-
tionship between Otology and Neurology, bearing tests, and the use of the audiometer are also demonstrated. In addition the senior student spends two weeks in the outpatient department. at which time he learns to examine and treat patients.
Matthew S. Eisner. M.D., F.A.C.S.. .Professor of Otology Edward K. Mitchell. M.D.. F.A.C.S..
Associate Professor of Otology
Julius Winston. M.D...........Associatein Neuro-otology
S. Bruce Greenway, M.D..............Associate in Otology
Simon Ball. M.D....................Instructor in Otology
Burech Kachlis. M.D................Instructor in Otology
David Myers, M.D...................Instructor in Otology
Louis H. Weiner, M.D........Clinical Assistant in Otology
llarrv G. Eskin. M.D........Clinical Assistant in Otology
Frank L. Follweiler. B.S.. M.S.. Pli.l).. M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Otology
Floyd W. Uliler, M.D........Clinical Assistant in Otology
Francis A. Harold Sanders. A.B.. M.D..
Clinical Assistant in Otology
PROFESSOR MATTHEW S. ERSNER
DR. HAYES EXAMINES AN EAR IN THE OUTPATIENT CLINICPage 38
Qathology in the sophomore year is designed ■ to give the student an understanding of the fundamental changes which take place in the cells and tissues of the body in disease, so that he may subsequently apply this knowledge in his interpretation of the physical signs and symptoms which he finds clinically in his patients. The first part of the course concerns the general pathological tissue responses as exemplified by the various retrograde processes, disturbances of circulation, inflammation and repair, and infectious diseases. The second part deals with the origin, nature, and classification of the various tumors, and the third part correlates the various pathologic states as applied to the different organ systems.
The laboratory part of this course, planned around a loan collection of histologic preparations, is supplemented by slide projections and demonstrations. In parallel to this work, sections study mounted and unmounted specimens in the Museum of Pathologic Anatomy, and each section in rotation attends the autopsies at the
Temple University Hospital.
The course in Clinical Pathology is concerned with the laboratory diagnosis of diseases of the hemapoietic system, the interpretation of laboratory findings in infection, renal disease, hepatic disease and diseases of metabolism, with practice training in blood counting, blood typing, urinalysis, and spinal fluid examination.
In the junior year, a course in Morbid Anatomy and Autopsy Technique is given at the Philadelphia General and Temple University Hospitals; these autopsies are used as the basis for conferences providing correlation with the clinical aspects of disease. The various surgical pathological problems of general surgery, gynecology. urology, neurosurgery, and oto-rhino-laryngology are studied didactically and in the laboratory.
During the senior year, students observe and conduct autopsies at the Philadelphia General Hospital. Clinical pathological conferences are held weekly in conjunction with the Department of Medicine.
Microscopic pathology is studied by Drs. Aegerter. Mounfed specimens in the Pathology museum are Smith, and Pt-ale. used lor teaching purposes.Pace 39
Dr. Smith was chosen as professor of pathology in 1935 and quickly and efficiently reorganized the department. Doctors Aegerter and Lennon were also added to the faculty at that time.
The laboratory periods are scheduled so as to give the student special section work with various men on Gross pathology, microprojection, quiz sections, and microscopy. A certain part of each laboratory period is set aside so that the student may present any question of practical significance to the members of the staff in attendance.
'file autopsy work in the Junior year is performed by the Students; giving them practice in technique. Other students do the microscopic examination and present the case to the entire class.
Lawrence W. Smith, A.B.. M.D..
Professor and Head of the Department of Pathology
Frank W. Konzelmann. M.D.............Professor of Clinical Pathology
Benjamin Gruskin. M.D..
Associate Professor and Director of Experimental Pathology
Edwin S. Gault. M.D.,
Associate Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology
David B. Fishhack. M.D.....................Instructor in Pathology
Ernest E. Aegerter. A.B.. B.S.. M.D........Instructor in Pathology
II. C. Lennon, B.S., M.D...................Instructor in Pathology
Augustin R. Peale, A.B.. M.D..
Special Resident in Pathology and Radiology
PROFESSOR LAWRENCE W. SMITH
Drs. Aegerter and Fishback discuss a recent pathology exam.
Mli(h assistance is given in the laboratory by the men of the department.
Dr. Konzelmann holds a conference with a small group of students in tin- projection room.POQC 0
Dr. Levitsky palpates for pathology as he examines a baby in the pediatric clinic on “well baby” day.
PROFESSOR T. F. McNAIR SCOTT
Many children are treated in the pediatric outpatient department every day.
Dr. Lucchesi appears to be enjoying this examination much more than the baby but maybe the baby is modest.
The Department of Pediatrics commences its work at the beginning of the junior year and continues on throughout the senior ear. The junior year study consists essentially of a well organized series of lectures covering the examination, growth and development, and feeding of normal children, care of the newborn, contagious diseases as related to the child, and the essentials of child psychology.
This year brought to us a new professor of Pediatrics in the person of T. F. McNair Scott. Whereas our association with him has been brief we have come to respect his ability both as a teacher and as a clinician.
'I'. F. McNair Scott. M.S. (Cantab.). M.R.C.P.
(Loud.). Professor of Pediatrics Samuel Goldberg, M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.A.P.,
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics P. F. Lucchesi. A.B.. M.D., F.A.A.P.,
Associate in Pediatrics
Joseph Levitsky, M.D...........Instructor in Pediatrics
Sidney Weiss. M.D.......Clinical Assistant in Pediatrics
Domenico Cucinotta, M.D.. Clinical Assistant in Pediatrics
The Roof Garden lias accommodations for ill children. Drs. Ward and Cucinotta examine one of them.Pace 41
The third-year students are divided into small sections. These sections meet in the hospital for ward-walks, where they receive instruction in the diagnosis, pre-operative and post-operative treatment of diseases of the anus, rectum and pelvic colon. These sections also gather in consultation rooms where informal conferences are held mainly to review anatomy, physiology, and pathology involving these parts.
In the fourth year a full course in proctology is given. Instruction consists of one hour lectures frequently illustrated by lantern slides, of section work in the outpatient department, and assisting in the operative work. The didactic material is devoted mainly to the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the anus, rectum, and lower colon.
In the outpatient department each student has an opportunity to contact patients and to observe the methods of examination and the technic in treatment.
In the operating room the student acts as an assistant and receives instruction in the common surgical procedures used in proctology.
Harry Z. Hibshman. M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.P.S.,
Professor of Proctology
Harry E. Bacon, B.S., M.D., F.A.C.S., E.A.P.S.,
F’ranklin D. Benedict, M.I).............Demonstrator
Samuel W. Eisenherg. A.B.. M.I).....Clinical Assistant
llesser C. C. Lindig, A.B., M.D.............Clinical Assistant
Henry C. Schneider, B.A., M.D...............Clinical Assistant
PROFESSOR HARRY Z. HIBSHMAN
Dr. Hibshman emphasizes important proctological find-kings with his significant index finger.
Sigmoidosiopic Examination by Dr. Hibshman is observed by Drs. Bacon. Schneider. Benedict, and Eisenherg.PHARMA COLOG Y
1. Pharmatology department holds siafT meetings i dis-cuss problems am! plan future work.
2. Dr. Larson discusses the apparatus used for recording the respiratory movements of animals.
3. Dr. Livingston demonstrates the kymograph which he designed and made in his laboratory.
Sophomores are instructed in Pharmacology hy lecture, laboratory work and quizzes. No student forgets the long hours of work in the Pharmacology laboratory, but none complains because the members of the staff work hard also. In the beginning of the course the student learns the methods of preparing drugs in various forms, their uses and the proper dosages. He familiarizes himself with the appearance, smell, and taste of the different medicaments. Much time is spent in learning the proper methods of prescription writing. The first part of the course is completed with a practical exam. Many vividly recall the small unlabeled bottle with a cork smelling like peppermint, containing a liquid smelling like ether and whose actual contents consists of chloroform. After this exam most of the class decided that they were very poor pharmacists.
The remainder of the work in the Pharmacology laboratory consisted principally of animal experimental work and made up a very interesting portion of the second year’s work. In this manner the effects of the various drugs were studied. The class was divided into small groups of about four each so that each member might have a particular procedure to perform during the experiment. Two worked as surgeon and assistant, another as anesthetist because all animals are carefully anesthetized before experimental work is begun, and the last member of the group acted as technician looking after the kymographic set-up.
Professor Livingston works long hours in the Pharmacology laboratory with bis students.Pogc 3
A free (hat with the Prof. gives insight and enjoyment that cannot he derived from hooks.
"Bab(0(ks of the Dog World” i r. i viiows.
ori an anesthetized animal.
aided hy Mr. Phillips operates
The Pharmacology notebook is the disagreeable feature of the Sophomore year at Temple Medical School. Many hours outside class including nights and week-ends are consumed itt the preparation of this lengthy write-up of each of the drugs studied and the experiments performed. Some of the books prepared are real masterpieces and quite a wealth of knowledge is accumulated so that the completed book is a worthwhile possession.
FACULTY Mfred E. Livingston, B.S.. M.S.. Ph.D.,
Professor of Pharmacology
Edward Larson. B.S.. M.S.. Ph.D..
Assistant Professor of Pharmacology Ralph C. Bradley. B.S.. M.D., Instructor in Pharmacology Edwin J. Fellow?. B.S.. M.S.. Ph.D..
Instructor in Pharmacology Raymond W. Cunningham. B.S.. M.S.. Ph.D..
Instructor in Pharmacology
PROFESSOR ALFRED E. LIVINGSTON
Dr. Larson, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, does Informal discussions in small groups during laboratory a great deal of research in his laboratory. periods is of great value to the student.Page
Physiology is the science of function, and as such it forms a very suitable accompaniment to the other studies of the first year, which comprise anatomy, the study of structure, and biological chemistry, the study of the body processes. This triad of sciences constitutes the foundation of the medical course, for in them the whole concern is with the normal human body, as distinct from the diseased human body. The study of pathology, which deals with abnormal structure and function, follows in logical sequence in the second year, and the study of medicine from the clinical point of view, which occupies the last two years of the medical course, falls into line as the practical correlation of these disturbances with their outward manifestations.
Physiology is therefore given a position of considerable prominence in the work of the first two years, and, as personal observation is the most effective method of learning, most of the time is spent in practical work in the laboratory. The equipment at hand is the best available, and with this advantage there is opportunity for first-hand study of the fundamental physiology of the organs and systems. Much of the work is done on the lower animals, and with the aid of suitable apparatus, visible records are obtained, which constitute the basis of a laboratory notebook, valuable because it represents the product of personal observation and interpretation.
For example, in investigating the circulatory system, work is begun using the cold-blooded vertebrates, the frog and turtle. In these subjects the fundamental properties of heart muscle are studied by
PROFESSOR J. GARRETT HICKEY
The artificial respirator used in animal experiments i inspected by Drs. Collins. Spiegel. Oppenhcimer. and Hickey.
The Circulation Schema, devised l Dr. Hickey, gives much
valuable knowledge in students of physiology.Page 45
EXPERIMENTS ON ANESTHETIZED ANIMALS REVEAL MANY PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTS
suitable preparations in which the heart of the living vertebrate is exposed, attached to carefully adjusted apparatus and exposed to varying external conditions, recording on a kymograph sheet the changes in heart function. Further experiments are conducted on the excised heart, to determine the effect of several drugs on the action of the heart. Study of the circulatory system as a whole requires a more elaborate set-up, in which a cat or dog, after being anesthetized, is carefully operated upon to expose blood vessels which are connected to the recording apparatus. With such a preparation it is possible to study the effect of both the nervous mechanisms which control the circulation. and of the drugs used clinically, at the same time obtaining graphic records which may he referred to as needed. An ingenious “Circulation Schema” devised by Professor Hickey serves to demonstrate effectively the variations associated with several pathological states of the circulation.
By such practical methods the several great
systems of the body are investigated. The first half-year is devoted to the cardiovascular, respiratory and alimentary systems: the subjects of the second half-year are metabolism, the muscular and peripheral nervous systems, secretory and excretory mechanisms, the central nervous system and the special senses. The physiology of the central and autonomic divisions of the nervous system is presented in a series of lectures and demonstrations by Professor Spiegel.
Such a presentation of the course in Physiology provides, in addition to the fundamental principles of function, opportunity for individual observation and deduction, and training in interpretation and coordination of vital phenomena.
J. Garrett Hickey. M.D........Professor of Physiology
Ernst Spiegel. M.D........Professor of Neurophysiology
Morton J. Oppenheimer, A.B., M.D.,
Assistant Professor of Physiology
Dean A. Collins. Ph.D., M.D.,
Assistant Professor of PhysiologyPREVENTIVE
Field trips arc an event of the year. Here a group inspects a sewage disposal plant.
MEDICINE, HYGIENE, AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Ninety-six hours are devoted to this course which is offered to the second-year students. Instruction is by lectures, demonstrations and field work. For the field work the class is divided into sections which makes it possible for each student to visit: a modern public school with the physician in charge, a large filtering plant, the Philadelphia disposal plant, a standard creamery, and a pharmaceutical house. These field trips are instructive in the hygiene of infants and school children, in the problems of the sanitation of air, food and water, and methods of waste disposal, and the preparation of medicines used in prophylaxis.
The lectures cover prevention of disease, vital statistics, and the methods used by municipal.
state, and federal governments for the control of transmissible diseases.
Fach student is required to write a complete sanitary report of his city or town: this is usually written in the summer.
Harriet L. Hartley, M.D., Professor of Preventive
Medicine. Hygiene, and Public Health
Lyle Jenne. B.S.. Ch.E...............Assistant Professor
W alter S. Cornell. B.S.. M.l).. D.P.H., Assistant Professor
T. Ruth Weaver, M.D..................Assistant Professor
J. Moore Campbell. B.S.. M. I).......Assistant Professor
.Maurice B. Cohen. M.l)....................Demonstrator
James Hale Paul, M.D.......................Demonstrator
Donald Riegel. M.D..........................Demonstrator
"Sign for me" is the cry of those in the hack who can't get near
the book. professor Harriet i. hartleyPage 7
Psychiatric clinics arc conducted every Wednesday morning for the juniors at Philadelphia General.
IN the first year an introductory course of eight lectures is given which mainly deals with the development of the personality.
In the second year sixteen lectures are given discussing the psychological structure of the various neuroses. Cases are presented and the matter of their management is taken up. Each student in addition writes a personality study ot himself and hands it in to the department.
In the third year the course is a combination of lecture and clinic material. This is given once each week at the Philadelphia General Hospital where the various types of neuroses and psychoses are presented.
In the fourth year section work brings the student in closer contact with the various psychological problems of adults and children.
FAC I LTV
0. Spurgeon English, M. I).................Professor of Psychiatry
Gerald II. J. Pearson, M.D...Associate Professor of Child Psychiatry
Morris Brody, M.D...........................Lecturer on Psychiatry
Herbert N. Freed. M.D..........................Clinical Assistant
PROFESSOR O. SPURGEON ENGLISH
A mental condition is Studied by Drs. English, Freed. Child psychology and its many problems is discussed
and Brody in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. by Dr. Pearson of the psychiatric staff.A
The multiplane fluoroscope devised by Dr. Chamberlain
is used for diagnosing and reducing fractures.
A COmer in the viewing room. The chief is checking a stereoscopic view of the mastoid.
X-ray therapy given by Dr. Arbuckle—observed by Dr.
PROFESSOR W. EDWARD CHAMBERLAIN
Instruction in Radiology begins in the freshman year, with a course dealing with the fundamentals of X-ray Physics, the biologic effects of X-rays, and “Anatomy as Revealed by the Roentgen Ray. ' including work in the X-ray Museum and Anatomy Conference Room.
During the sophomore year, a course is correlated with the instruction in Physical Diagnosis, including the fundamentals of fluoroscopy and Orthodiagraphy. In the junior year, a systematic presentation of “Organ and System Pathology as Revealed by the Roentgen Ray" is given.
The senior course in “Clinical Radiology" emphasizes the role of the radiologist as a consultant in the various fields of medicine.
FACULTY W. Edward Chamberlain. B.S., M.D.,
Professor of Radiology Other members of the faculty in Radiology include Hugo Roesler. M.D.. Associate Profess of Radiology; George C. Henny. M.S., M.D., Director of the Department of Physics; Barton R. Young. M.D., Assistant Professor of Radiology; Robert K. Arbuckle. B.S., M.D.. Instructor in Radiology; Robert P. leader. M.D.. Gustavus C. Bird. Jr.. M.D.. and Thomas A. Campbell. A.B., B.S.. M.D.. Residents in Radiology; and Augustin R. Pealc, A.B.. M.D., Special Resident in Pathology and Radiology.
Campbell and Dr. Meadcr.
Df. Chamberlain reviews a set of stereoscopic film- with Drs. Young and Giambalvo.Poqe 4?
PROFESSOR ROBERT F. RIDPATH
DR. ANDERS TREATS A NASAL CONDITION
RHINOLOGY AND LARYNGOLOGY
I the first semester of the Junior year Dr. T.
Carroll Davis begins the course in Laryngology and Rhinology by ably reviewing the anatomy and physiology of the nose and throat. Also he discusses the components of Waldeyer’s ring in relation to its pathology and symptomatology. Later in the same term Dr. Robert F. Ridpath describes in great detail the diagnoses and treatment involving the pathological conditions of the several sinuses, along with other abnormal factors which may occur in the upper respiratory tract.
The senior year is chiefly devoted to practical work in the out-patient dispensary where in small groups the students examine, diagnose, and prescribe for real clinical conditions. 'I bis is supplemented the second semester by weekly clinics held in the surgery amphitheater of the hospital. In these conferences Dr. Ridpath and his staff efficiently demonstrate various important tech-
Dr. Davis demonstrates the proper method of examining a nose lo a group of seniors.
nical procedures all the way from radical sinus operations to the proper method ol post nasal packing. These demonstrations are interspersed with movies, diagnostic problems, follow up cases and informal talks in which Dr. Ridpath shows the importance of the specialty in general practice.
Rohen F. Ridpath. M.D.. Sc.D.. F.A.C.S.,
Professor of Laryngology and Rhinology T. Carroll Davis, P.D.. M.D.. F.A.C.S.,
Assistant Professor of Laryngology and Rhinology J. Wesley Anders, M.D.,
Associate in Laryngology and Rhinology Charles H. Crimes, M.D., F.A.C.S.,
Associate in Laryngology and Rhinology Charles Q. DoLuca, M.D.,
Associate in Laryngology and Rhinology A. Neil Lemon, M.D..
Associate in Laryngology and Rhinology Samuel S. Ringold. M.D.,
Demonstrator in Laryngology and Rhinology Kerman Snyder. M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Laryngology and Rhinology Morris S. Kttcngcr, B.A., M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Laryngology and Rhinology
Philadelphia weather provides ample material for the outpatient clinic of the Rhino-laryngology dept.SURGERY
ALL EYES ARE FOCUSED ON THE HANDS OF DR. BABCOCK AS HE EXPLORES AN ABDOMEN
PROFESSOR W. WAYNE BABCOCK
Horn in East Worcester, New York, June 10, 1872, Dr. Babcock became Professor of Surgery and Clinical Surgery at Temple Medical School in 1903. His “Text Hook of Surgery’' is widely used by students and practitioners over the country.
The Surgery Courses are introduced in the sophomore year by a series of lectures dealing with the principles of surgery, including inflammation and repair, suppuration, ulceration, sinus, fistula, traumatic, thermal, chemical and electrical injuries, surgical infections, tumors, cysts, fractures and dislocations. One elective hour weekly is devoted to the fundamentals of clinical surgery.
In the third year, general, special, and operative surgery are considered. A systematic lecture given on Monday morning, illustrated by films or lantern slides, serves as a didactic and pictorial basis to reference reading, and for the correlation of the clinical teaching of the rest of the week. On Wednesday mornings at the Philadelphia General Hospital, a group of patients illustrating the surgical conditions described the previous Monday are personally examined by a section of five students, and demonstrated with associated roentgen and other laboratory findings to the rest of the class. Two clinical conferences a week at the Temple l’ni ersit Hospital present clinical material correlated with the surgical topics of the week. In addition, small sections are assigned in the surgical wards of the Temple University Hospital and in the wards of the Philadelphia General Hospital for ward classes and for clinical clerkships. One hour a week is devoted to practical instruction in surgical technic, andPage SI
Dr. Burnett conducts clinics for the senior class each Tuesday.
Dr. Coombs teaches surgical procedures to the juniors on Friday.
the Surgical and Interdepartmental Conference may be attended by members of the junior and senior classes.
The surgical course in the fourth year is clinical, and includes practical work in wards, dispensaries and operating room, the administration of anesthetics, assistanceship in minor and major operations, ward-walks, clinical and clinico-pathological conferences. Kmergency surgery, surgical diagnosis, applied surgical technic and surgical therapeutics are taught. The class is divided into small sections which in rotation have service in the operating rooms, in the wards, and in the dispensary. Patients are assigned to individual students for study, diagnosis, and recommendations for treatment. The student examines the patient, prepares a careful history, makes the necessary diagnostic tests, and if an operation is necessary, serves, if in proper turn, as an operative assistant, and under supervision takes a part in the post-operative treatment of the patient. Especially is he aided in perfecting himself in minor surgical procedures, in the administration of anesthetics. and in the surgical methods that any physician should he able to use in the general practice of medicine. At the completion of
’ 3 •
Dr. Leedom supervises redressings in the accident dispensary.
Dr. Babcock speaks about the advantages of the “sump” drain.
The Three Ring Show'is the name student- have for Dr. Steel's excellently prepared clinics.
Redressing technique is demonstrated by Dr. Burnett to Drs. Brant. Lawrence, and Haines.Page 52
TUESDAY MORNING CONFERENCES BRING TOGETHER REPRESENTATIVES OF MANY DEPARTMENTS
Much surgery is performed, sans instruments, in the locker room during a free moment.
the year, each student is required to have assisted in at least six operations, to have given a general anesthetic not less than six times, and to have prepared a thesis from the literature upon an assigned topic.
I'lte topics cover carefully selected subjects upon which there has been recent original work presented in current literature. In this way the student in his review of the literature gains knowledge of his particular subject as well as to become familiar with gathering material which may some day be beneficial should he decide to do some original work in surgery or any other branch of Medicine in which he he interested.Page 53
FA Cl LTV
W. Wayne Babcock. .M.. M.D., LL.D.. I .A.C.S..
Professor of Surgery and Clinical Surgery
William A. Steel. B.S.. M.D., F.A.G.S.,
Professor of Principles « f Surgery
William N. Parkinson. B.S.. M.I).. M.Sc. (Med.).
I.L.D., F.A.C.S., Professor of Clinical Surgery
John l.ecdom. M.D.........Associate Professor of Surgery
G. Mason Astley, M.D......Associate Professor of Surgery
John P. Emich, M.I).......Associate Professor of Surgery
W. Emory Burnett. A.B.. M.D., F.A.C.S..
Associate Professor of Surgery
.1. Norman Coombs, M.I)., F.A.C.S..
Associate Professor of Surgery
Giacchino P. Giamhalvo, M.D.. F.A.C.S.,
Associate Professor of Surgery
Daniel J. Kennedy, M.D............Demonstrator in Surgery
M. H. Genkin. M.D.. F.A.C.S—Demonstrator in Surgery
Louis Kimmelman, M.D................Instructor in Surgery
Joseph N. Grossman. M.D.............Instructor in Surgery
R. I). MacKinnon. M.D...............Instructor in Surgery
Morris Franklin, M.D......Instructor in Junior Surgery
F. L. Zaborowski. M.D..............Instructor in Surgery
Eugene T. Foy, M.D..................Instructor in Surgery
Martin H. Gold, M.D.........Clinical Assistant in Surgery
L. Vincent Mayes, M.D.......Clinical Assistant in Surgery
Frederick A. Fiskc, R.S.. M.D..
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
C. Howard McDevitt. M.I)., Clinicul Assistant in Surgery
Harold Coffman Roxby, B.S.. M.I).,
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
Herbert S. Raines. A.B.. M.I).,
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
Theodore II. Swan, .B.. M.I).,
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
Richard P. Thompson, A.B.. M.D..
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
M. Hoyden C. Astley. A.B., M.I)..
Clinical Assistant in Surgery
Daniel J. Preston, M.I)...............Resident in Surgery
George P. Rosemond, B.S.. M.D.......Resident in Surgery
1. Drj. Babcock and Astley confer between operations.
2. Inspection is the secret to many brilliant diagnoses.
3. Dr. Coombs discusses surgical technique with the Juniors.DEPARTMENT
PROFESSOR W. HERSEY THOMAS
W. Ilerscy Thomas. A.B., M.D., F.A.C.S..
Professor of Urology
Howard C. Fretz. A.B.. M.D.,
Associate Professor of Urology
Low rain E. McCrea. M.D., Assistant Professor of Urology
Stanford W. Mulholland. M.D., M.S. (Urol.),
Lecturer on Urology
Harry Bernstein. M.D......Clinical Assistant in Urology
Although the subject of Urology includes the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the genital tract in the male and of the injuries and diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, but few hours are devoted to its study. The subject is covered hurriedly in a series of didactic lectures during the first half of the senior year. Whereas the juniors have a few ward-walks the bulk of the clinical study conies to the seniors when they spend time in the outpatient clinic at the medical school, on the wards at the Philadelphia General Hospital, and studying cases admitted to the wards of Temple University Hospital.
In the early part of his career, while associated with the Medico-Chirurgical and Philadelphia General Hospitals, Dr. Thomas gained reputation which has been further amplified, both in respect to professional standing and practical teaching ability, since his association at Temple.
Dr. Frefz does a cystoscopic examination to diagnose disease of the lower genilo-urinary tract.
Drs. Thomas and McCrae and the patient are apparently pleased with the result of a prostatectomy.Page 55
JEWISH HOSPITAL STAFF
AN INTERESTING PROBLEM IS PRESENTED BY DR. DOANE TO HIS MEDICAL STAFF
Among the several hospitals with which Temple University School of Medicine is associated is Jewish Hospital. It is here as sophomores under the direction of Dr. Doane and his assistants that at least one half of the class first get their hands on a patient as they begin the actual observation of physical signs, normal and abnormal, at the bedside. In small groups, two hours a week for a period of eight weeks are spent in such activity. The facilities of this excellent hospital are again taken advantage of by
Senior schedule is planned by Drs. Doane, Goldberg, Blumberg, Jacobs, and Weiner.
the Seniors when they spend the greater part of five days each week for a nine-week period on the wards and in the classrooms of this institution. At this time they come under the more immediate attention of Dr. Doane who sees to it that they know how to conduct themselves as ethical medical men as well as how to make a diagnosis. His withering quiz sessions are things never to he forgotten. Nevertheless, to have the privilege of being associated with him even though briefly is most profitable. In Drs. Gold-
Ihe Roentgenogram serves as a means lo clinch the
diagnosis in many clinical problems.Page 5
Systematic review correlates all of the features of Dr. Goldberg'S clinics in the pediatric department
diagnostic importance in a case. are enjoyed by students and interns.
berg, Bluniberg, Steinfeld and others, Temple students have suberb teachers. They offer instruction in Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, Clinical Pathology, and Therapeutics with the accentuation on Medicine.
For the most part the work in Medicine is purely clinical. Cases are assigned to individual students to be completely worked up so that they may be presented properly to a member of the teaching staff for consultation and discussion. Therapy is stressed in these conferences. Included as a part of the Medicine course are several interesting and instructive lectures on the subject of Gastro-enterology by Or. Tumcn. Medical Therapeutics as presented by the Jewish Staff prove to be extremely practical.
A weekly clinic in Pediatrics is most capably presented by Dr. Goldberg whose chief objective seems to be to teach the student to think logically at the bedside.
On the whole, then, it can truthfully be said
that at Jewish Hospital we receive some of our best clinical training. Not only is the material well presented and our efforts capably guided but also here the teachings are those of men well recognized in their own particular field.
Joseph C. Doane, M.D., F.A.C.P..
Professor of Clinical Medicine Nathan Blumberg. M.D., F.A.C.P.,
Associate Prof« »« r of Medicine Edward A. Steinfeld. M.D..
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Henry I. Tumen, A.13., M.D........Associate in Medicine
Maurice S. Jacobs. M.D..............Associate in Medicine
Joseph G. Weiner. M.D...............Associate in Medicine
Sydney Harhcrg. M.D................Instructor in Medicine
Eugene M. Schloss, M.D.............Instructor in Medicine
Mycr Somers. M.D...................Instructor in Medicine
Edwin LeWinn, M.D..................Instructor in Medicine
Mitchell Selickman. M.D.. Clinical Assistant in Medicine
Albert Adlin, M.D.........Clinical Assistant in Medicine
A. Rosenfeld. M.D.........Clinical Assistant in Medicine
Louis Zisserman, A.B.. M.D.,
Clinical Assistant in Medicine J. George Teplick. A.B.. M.D..
Clinical Assistant in Medicine
BEDSIDE DISCUSSIONS BRING OUT MANY POINTS IN DIAGNOSIS THAT MIGHT OTHERWISE BE OVERLOOKEDPage 57
WILLIAM A. STEEL AT EIGHTEEN MONTHS
FIVE YEARS OLD AND ALREADY A MASTER
STEEL. A SOPHOMORE AT U. OF P.
DR. WILLIAM A. STEEL
1939 SKULL IS DEDI-CATD TO DR. STEEEL
Dr. William A. Steel. B.S., M.D., F.A.C.S., was born in Camden, Mew Jersey, October 12, 1871. Although not from a long line of physicians, interest in medical education had long before been established by bis great uncle, Joseph Klapp, who was one of the founders of Jefferson Medical College.
Dr. Steel was educated in the Philadelphia public schools; received his B.S. degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1895, and his M.D. degree from the same institution in 1899. While attending medical school he was an instructor in Mammalian and Human Anatomy in the School of Biology. He served his internship at St. Agnes Hospital and Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia, from 1899 to 1901.
Despite his diligent study. Dr. Steel never permitted an opportunity for extra-curricular activities, in which he felt capable of participating, to escape his attention. He qualified as 100-yard man at Penn in his college days and received his letter at that institution as captain of the intercollegiate rifle team. Even today he is an enthusiastic hunter and fisherman. Periods of ill health which threatened to stop his professional career have been fought off on his New Jersey estate by week-ends of fishing, hunting and farming.
An ardent sportsman, Dr. Steel finds relaxation in hunting and fishing on his Jersey estate. The game is evidence of his marksmanship.Poge S8
Cdpldined by Dr. Steel, this team raised twenty thousand dollars in the 1022 drive for a new Temple Hospital addition.
Dr. Steel's wife shares his enthusiasm for outdoor life as recreation.
A precise surgeon, Or. Steel has conceived and developed many new surgical procedures.
Dr. Steel married Frieda Spierling in 1909, lias one son, Horace Witiner Steel, who, following his father’s footsteps as a lover of sports, was elected captain of the U. of P. track team in 1932.
Dr. Steel is one of the ablest men, and one of the oldest in point of continuous service on the Temple Medical faculty. He came here in 1903 and has served in the capacity of Instructor in Surgery; Clinical Professor of Genito-Uri-nary Surgery; Clinical Professor of Surgery, and Professor of Principals of Surgery, the position he now occupies.
Not only has Dr. Steel given his services as a teacher but he has materially aided in the growth of the institution by raising twenty thousand dollars in 1922 as captain of the winning team in a drive for funds for a new hospital building.
Dr. Steel is a Charter Member of the American College of Surgeons, a member in good standing in many medical societies and social fraternal organizations, and has been president of the Babcock Surgical Society since its organization. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the American Society of Anesthesiology and a charter member of the American Board of Surgery.
To W illiam A. Steel who, in his quiet unassuming way played such a vital part in the expansion and perfection of Temple Medical School, and who is known by us as a scholar, a teacher and above all a real friend, the Class of 1939 gratefully dedicates this edition of the “Skull.”THE STEEL CLINIC
Aii excellent teacher, Dr. Steel possesses a most pleasant and lovable personality and the ability to present his subjects in a most lucid manner. Hours of thorough preparation are spent preliininan to his clinic presentation of the course in question. An authority on anaesthesia and surgical procedures. Dr. Steel is well qualified to thoroughly acquaint the student with details which might otherwise be considered trite.
Once a week the junior class assembles in the surgical amphitheatre for an hour of clinical problems presented by the Junior Surgery staff. Drs. Giambalvo, Kinich. and McDcvitt find that their work has been planned and accurately timed so as to give each a few minutes as the chief performer in a clinic truly as interesting and busy as a three-ring circus. Vet with ail the activity occurring simultaneously the students' attention is never allowed to become fixed on an unimportant detail for Dr. Steel has the uncanny ability to transform what might easily be chaos into an orderly instructive clinic.
Dr. Steel is kind enough to bring in private patients, who present problems in diagnosis and treatment which might not be available among ward cases. Most of these patients are promptly put at ease by a really magnificent example of masterful bedside manner and soon become so absorbed in the demonstration that they completely forget about themselves as being the center of interest. Another feature of the clinic worthy of mention is the actual demonstration of the various types of anaesthesia which firmly fixes the meaning of the didactic material in the students' mind. Similarly, demonstrations of surgical procedures leave no possible doubt as to the technique necessary for ideal results.
The clinics have, also, in the past years, served as a research laboratory for Dr. Steel and out of which he gathered material to write several articles. The booklets on “Anaesthesia and “Surgical Technique and Therapeutics,” serve as text-books for the student and interne: and two others, one. “Fractures and Dislocations,” another. “Genilo-Lrinary Surgery,” i on-tain a wealth of knowledge in their respective specialties.
1. Technique for regional anesthesia is demonstrated by Drs. Manlovc and Giambalvo.
2. An interested teacher gains interested students in well arranged clinics.
3. Dr. McDevift points out important anatomical relationships in a Wednesday clinic.Page 60
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A MEDICAL STUDENT
Classes and (Units occupy the early morning and late Life begins at seven A. M. when there is an eight afternoon hours providing didactic instruction. o'clock class; one hour later for nine o’clock classes.
A hurried lunch is obtained in the cafeteria at some time between 11 and 2 depending on class schedule.
Diligent sludy over long hours at night is necessary for the next day’s work.
Senior student becomes physician as individual cases arc assigned for clinical and laboratory sludy.
Aseemingl) drab routine, followed for six days a week, with the exclusion of the hobbies, reading, music and other pursuits formerly followed by the student, make up the med student's week. The similarity of the days requires picturization of only one day here.
Four hours of class, three hours in hospital or clinic, two hours for eating, a conservative four hours of study, eight hours of sleep, three hours miscellaneous enterprise —and another day closer to an M.D. The greatest variable is the alternation between getting up for eight o’clock and nine o’clock classes: the greatest monotony is experienced by our “lay” friends in conversation with us—we may even ask: "Who is Hitler?”Page 61
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A STUDENT NURSE
Life begins in chapel at six-thirty A. M. for the student Breakfast is eaten before the student nurse Roes to take nurse. A morning devotional is held. up her duties on the floor.
Practical workpia}' the principal role in a nurse’s instruction. The patient’s comfort depends on nursing care.
Turning out at six-thirty for chapel, the nurse begins her day; on duty at seven she begins b giving patients a bath. Throughout the day. between bed-pans, she administers medications and a smile; every move and movement must be charted. Two or three hours she is off duty for c lass, study, or washing her hose.
Seven o’clock finds her studying, washing more clothes, or getting ready to see Henry. If there is no Henry, a night that was made for love turns into one for resting the longitudinal arch of the foot.
Regimentation, arduous work, close supervision, and strict adherence to a set routine: good patients, bad patients, human supervisors, inhuman supervisors the good balances with the bad in the dav of the student nurse.
Classroom work occupies several hours a week. Some classes are held in the day and others in the evening. Telephone conversations are many and long. Dates
arc short and few as nurses come in early.Page 62
MANY VERY DESIRABLE PRIVATE ROOMS ARE IN THE MORE RECENT BUILDINGS
SKULL ACROSS TOWN: Jewish hospital
Jewish Hospital is situated at York and Tabor Roads and occupies a twenty-three acre area. It was established by the Jewry of Philadelphia in 1865 as a non-sectarian institution, “dedicated to the relief of the sick and wounded without regard to creed, color, or nationality ' The now greatly expanded institution is a general hospital with a capacity of 126 beds including bas-
sinets. Recent additions to the hospital include the New Hachenberg Building which is devoted to the care of maternity patients and has a capacity of 50 beds. It also provides for a new nurses’ quarters. The newest addition to this already fine group of buildings is the Mone Friedenberg Memorial Surgical Building. This building containing 51 beds was opened in 1931.
SPACIOUS GROUNDS CREATE A MORE PEACEFUL ATMOSPHERE AROUND JEWISH HOSPITALPage 63
SOPHOMORES AND SENIORS ENJOY EXCELLENT TEACHING MATERIAL
Located at Front Street and Lehigh Avenue, The Hospital of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, more familiarly known as Episcopal Hospital, gives to Temple sophomores and seniors the privilege of utilizing its clinical material in the study of the Principals and Practice of Physical Diagnosis. This splendid hospital was incorporated in January, 1851. and admitted its first patients in December of that year. Since that time it has rapidly increased both in size and in reputation. Today its impressive buildings give it a capacity of 525 beds and bassinets.
As sophomores we first came in contact with Episcopal. Here, under the direction of Dr. James Kay. we were instructed in the physical properties of the normal human body primarily but opportunities to observe interesting signs of disease were not passed up.
As seniors we returned to Episcopal, this time to walk the wards with Dr. Kay. reviewing our fundamental Physical Diagnostic Principles and seeing the manifestations of disease through his eyes.
To have been associated with Dr. Kav will
DR. JAMES KAY
undoubtedly prove, in years to coinc, to be one of the most unforgettable experiences of our student days. Not because of the medicine that we learned but because if ever we walked with genius it was here. Eccentric perhaps but none the less an inspired and sincere teacher who has the respect of us all.
James Kay. M.D..........Clinical Professor of Medicine
W. Cordon McDaniel, B.S.. M.D., Instructor in Medicine S. Lawrence Woodhouse, Jr., A.B.. M.D.,
Instructor in Medicine James A. Lane, B.S., M.D., Clinical Assistant in Medicine
EPISCOPAL HOSPITAL PROVIDES MUCH EXCELLENT TEACHING MATERIAL FOR
SOPHOMORES AND SENIORSPage 64
ENTRANCE TO THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING OF PHILADELPHIA GENERAL HOSPITAL
PHILADELPHIA GENERAL HOSPITAL
Philadelphia General Hospital, with its limitless supply of clinical material available to Temple for teaching purposes, opens its doors each Wednesday of the year to both Juniors and Seniors. For the Juniors that means Surgery. Psychiatry, and Neurology clinics topped off by
TB or Pathology conferences. For the Seniors it means small group conferences in practically all of the medical specialties ending in a Clinico-pathological conference conducted by Dr. Thomas Klein and his associates who ably discuss the cases in question.
MANY BUILDINGS ARE NECESSARY TO HOUSE THE TWENTY-FIVE HUNDRED BEDS AT P. G. H.Paqe 65
Municipal Hospital affords instruction to the seniors in contagious disease.'.
MUNICIPAL, EAGLEVILLE AND SHRINER’S
Shriner S Hospital does a valuable work in the orthopedic care of crippled children.
In Municipal Hospital, Eagleville Sanatorium, and The Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children. Temple enjoys connections with specialty institutions second to none. At Municipal, under the able direction of Dr. Pascal F. Lucchesi, Seniors have the privilege of becoming acquainted with the manifestations of the contagious diseases. Drs. A. J. and Louis Cohen.
using the clinical material available at the Eagle-ville Sanatorium, provide instruction in Tuberculosis. Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children. with Dr. J. K. Moore as its Chief Surgeon, constitutes a fruitful source of clinical material to those Temple seniors interested in Orthopedics. All of these institutions have beautiful surroundings.
Eagleville i a true modern example of proper s:nalo:ium methods.SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY: JUNIORS
Buck Ron (left to rights: Moore. Waldman, T voxel. Whitaker. A. Peterson. Petrucei. Trolinger, Sharkey. Monitor. Warner, Cooper. Jahn. Straughn, Uarhold. Stuart. Calhoun. Parrott. Baker.
Middle Row (left to right): McCurdy. Henderson. Deen. Bolir. Lauhenstein. Weber. Saul C. Jones. Hanson. Bellar-tnino, Barron, Morris, M. Brown, Sluigcrt. Hershey. Fissel. M. Jones. Byrd, Koehler. Trautnian.
Front Row (left to right): Linn. Ivowe, Johnson, Person. Summons. C. Peterson, Mills, Blanchard, Strawn, Meloro. Anderson. Sellers, Harris. Dawson, Ronzulli. Bream, Connelly.
President William Saul
Vice-President Robert Wells
Secretary- Howard Summons
Treasurer ...... Forrest Moyer
Anderson, Ralph Andes, Thomas Baker, James Barr, Arthur Barron, Gilbert Bcllarmino, Francis Bennett, John. II Black, William Blanchard, Irvin, Jr. Bowers, John Bream, Charles Brown. George Brown, Maurice Byrd. Charles Calhoun. Hugh Chaffee, John
Christenberry, Kenneth Clare. John Connelly, Joseph Cooper, Robert Cortner, Mary Davis, Harry Dawson, Reese Deen, Robert Dekker, Omar Denting, Frank Dumoff, Edith Fissel, George Fitzgerald, Robert Frantz, Robert Goldsmith. Charles Gunby, Walter, Jr.
Haddad. Joseph Hanson. Walter Harbold, Harold Harris. Tom Harveson. Theodore. Jr. Heather, Arthur Henderson, Oliver Herr, John Hershey, Thomas Hess, Charles Holland, Clarence Hubbard. Samuel. Jr. Hunter, Henry Hyman. Harold Irmisch. George Jahn, RobertPage 67
Johnson, Alfred Johnson. Robert Jones, Charles Jones, Edward Jones, Millard Kane, Sydney Keebler, Howard, Jr. Kinder. William Knapper, Howard Large, Fred Laubenstein, Helen Laurusonis, John
I.ecks. Harold Leeks. Leonard Linn, Jay. Jr.
Loomis. Herbert Matthews, George Mauro, Dorn Maxwell, Maurice, Jr. McCurdy, Robert MeGeorge, Chauncey Meloro, Anthony Miller. Henry
Miller, Herman Mills, John Molter, Howard Moore, Jack Morris, Robert Moyer, Forrest Pace, William Parrott, John Persun, Lloyd, Jr. Peterson, Albert Peterson, Charles Petrucci, I eonard Pickert. Edward Renzulli, Francis Rohr, Mary Rowe, Harold Saul, Francis Schuler, William Scott, James Sellers, Richard Sharkey, Thomas Shugert, George Smith. Charles
Spiegelman, Jay Straughn, Robert Strawn, Lueicn Stuart, Lawrence Summons, Howard Thomas, Arthur Thomas, Eugene Tomaseski, Chester Trautman, Edwin Trolinger, James Troxel. Richard Tuft, Harold Viggiano, Frank Wagner, Alfred Waldman, Abraham Warner, Halsey Warshafsky, Morton Weber, Laura Weld, Stephen Wells, Charles Wliitaker, Donald Wigton, John Xaslow, Jerry Zeidman. Herman
Hack Row (left to right): E. Thomas, L. Leeks, A. Thomas, Gun by, Tomaseski, McCeorgc. Holland, Goldsmith, Dumoff, Demin", Fitzgerald, Haddad, H. I.ecks. Tuft. Pickert. Pace. G. Brown. Irmisch. Dekker.
Middle Row (left to right): Kinder, Christenberry, K. Johnson, Kane, Moyer, Chaffee, Barr, Mauro, Knapper, Meloro, Zeidman, Warshafsky, Zaslow, II. Miller, Baker. Andes, Schuler. Renzulli.
Front Row (left to right): Herr, Hunter, Wagner, Davis. Viggiano, Trautman, Loomis. Glare, Calhoun, Jaltn, Parrott, II. Miller, Harveson, Wigton. Weld, Wells.SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY: SOPHOMORES
Hack How (left to right): Reilly, Herendecn. KotlolT, Laughlin, Hepford, Rusmiscll, Peters, Boyer. Durand, Wonsettler, Etzel, Sigman, Hoffmeier, Medwick, Reno.
Middle Row (left to right): McGannel, Kearney. Smith, Crocker, Hess. Gillespie. Wilson, Becklcy, Randall, Cooke.
Burkliurdt, Donahoo, Rulic, Roxby.
Front Row (left to right):; Burcnbaum. Percbonock. Rabinovilz. Scbilp. Crosby. Korsmo. Morgan. Weber, Bundens. Keicbam. Calm, Jacobson. Katz,
President ice-President Secretary Treasurer
CLASS OFFICERS Carl Korsmo
W illiam Morgan
Albright, Ed win Ballard. Claude Barenbaurn. Daniel Beck ley, Robert Benson, Jacob Bianco, John Boyer. George Brau, Joseph Brodsky, William
Bundens, Warner. Jr. Burkhardt, Hans Bush. Elliot. Jr. Butters, J. Guy Calm. Milton Caughey, Edward Christopher. Frank, Jr. Cooke, Stanley Crispin. Maximilian
Crocker, Helen Crosby, W illiam DeKlyn. Ward Donahoo, Harry, Jr. Durand. Pedro Ealy, John
Edwards, George. 2nd Ellison, oimna Etzel. ConradPage 69
Garfield, Sam Gerih. Eugene Gillespie. Eugene Gloetzner, Henry Gosper, Ralph Hall. John Henry, Walter Hepford, David Herendeen, Ralph, Jr. Herman. Frederick Hess, Catherine Hetrick. Gurney Hines, Harrison Hoffmeier, Charles Hoover. Russell Hosner, James Hume. William lannucci. Christopher Jacobson. Sidney Katz. Jacob Kearney. Hugh Ketcham. G. Norris Kligerman. Morton Kline. Robert Knight. Lamar
Knoch, Henry Konzelmann. John Korsmo. Carl K oil off. Leone Laughlin, Henry Leiphari, Clarence Lentz, Robert Linguiti, Paschal Lloyd. Edwin Lloyd, John. Jr. Mallams, Delbert Maye, Thomas, Jr. McCannel, Malcolm Medw ick. Joseph Mills, Melvin Morgan, William Murphy. John Perchonock, Meyer Peters, Frank Piserchia, Gerald Rabinovitz. Mos.es Ramsey, William, 2nd Randall, George Reid. Elsie Reilly, John
Reno, Joseph Risk, Catharine Roxby. John. Jr.
Ruhe, David Rusmisell, James, Jr. Rybaehok, Taras Sanford, Caroline Schilp, John, Jr. Schultz, Julius Sigman. Murray Smith. Edgar Smith. Edward Snyder, Jon Sweeney, Joseph. Jr. Taylor. Raymond VandenBerg, Henry, Jr. N ila. Jose Waltz. Paul eber, Beatrice Weidner, John Weston. Jean Wiater, Edward Wilbur, Carl Wilson, Thomas Wonsettler. Donald Yahraus. Jack
Hack Ron (left to right): Hoover. Waltz. Maye, Konzelmann. Hosner, Benson. Garfield. lannucci, Brodsky, Mallains.
Kill’d man. Yahraus. Hall. Gosper. Vila.
Middle Ron (left to right): Mills, Rybaehok. Sweeney, Weidner, Wiater. Leiphart. Lentz. Knight, Hume, Hetrick, Gerih. Bush. Lloyd. Linguiti. Ballard.
Front Ron (left to right): Snyder, DcKlyn. Butlers. Albright. Wilbur. Hines. Schultz. Ramsey. Brao. Piserchia. Henry. Murphy. Crispin.SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY: FRESHMEN
Back Row (left to right): Rearick, Goluboff, Trosow, Luther. LaFoJlette, Natoli, Ernst. Weickowski, J. Richardson.
Limbcrt, Callison. Berry. A. C. Boyer. Beck, Sargent.
Middle Row (left to right): Luster. Rudolph. English. Degge, Shugert. Wozniak, McElwee, Marshall. Rogers. Cunningham. Hoachlander. Posalko, Phillips, McRae, Hand, Lawrence, Pfaltzgraff.
Front Row (left to right): K. Boyer, DeStefano, Rowland, Frantz, Pugh, Livingston, Foertsch, Casanova Diaz, Evans. Lyon. Robertson, Wentz, R. Brown, Saidman. Collier, O’Donnell. Frumin.
President ice-President Secretary Treasurer
Russell Da vey
................. ... Luke Jordan
....... ...... . Margaret Gerlach
Ambrose, Isadore Bailey, Jack Batoff, Milton Beck, Xopher Bcnsel, Arlington, Jr. Berry, Lewis Bew, David Bobb, John Boyer, Arthur Boyer, Frank Braham. Herbert, Jr. Braitman, Robert Brandt, Julia
Brown, Robert Brown, William Brundage, Oliver Callison, Robert Casanova Diaz, Angel Collier, James Comaratta, Grace Cunningham, Frank Da vey, James, Jr. Degge. James, Jr. DeStefano. John Diehl, Gilbert DiSilvestro, Helen
Donoho, Christopher English. James Ermilio. Frank Ernst, Edgar Evans, John Finnegan, William. Jr. Foertsch, Fred, Jr. Frantz, Ralph Frumin, Abraham Gerlach. Margaret Goluboff, Bernard Grant, Constance Greco. TobyPage 7l
Halloran. Dorothea Hand, Frederick Hawkins. Donald Hazlett, William Heim, Mary Hill, Arthur Hill, Frank I loach lander, Fldon Hoenninger, Joseph Hughes, Elwyn Jordan. Luke Kirby. Mary Klimas, Enoch. Jr. Krepps, Gerald LaFollette, Paul Lawrence, Granville. Jr. Limbert, Lawrence Livingston, Sydney Luster, Henry Luther, Ralph Lyon. George, Jr. MacFarquhar, Murdina Mallory, Robert. Ill
Marshall, David Mathias, Mervin Maltleman, Nathan Maurer, Martha McElwee, Charles McRae, William Mcnapace, Francis Meyer, Jake Naloli, Thomas Newhart, Earl O'Donnell. Harry Osborne, David PfaltzgralT, Roy Phillips, David Posatko, Peter Prazak, Beatrice Prowell, Joseph Pugh, Thomas Queeney, Mary Rearick. John Richardson, Frank Richardson, Janies Robertson. Alexander, Jr. Rogers, Nathan
Rosenberg, Irving Rowland, George Rudolph, Joseph Saidman, Lester Sargeant, Alden Sawyer. Walter. Jr. Schwab, Morton Shacklett, Dorothy Shelley. Joseph Shugcrt, John Smith, James Sobeck. Charles Thompson, Alden Toland, Joseph. 3rd Trosow, Alfred Waliner, John Wentz, Clarkson Weyland, Charletta Whalen, Edward Wieckowski, Edwin Will, Daniel, Jr. Williams, Reginald W old. George Wozniak. John
finch Row (left to right): Bcnsfel, Toland. Donoho. Hawkins. Mallory, Braham, Klimas, Shelley. Sawyer. Schwab, Krmilio, Williams, Rosenberg, Newhart, Hazlett, Walmcr, Ambrose, Brahman.
Middle, Rote (left to right): Bailey, Mattleman, Menapace, Osborne, DiSilvestro, MacFarquhar, Brandt, Prazak. Comaratta, Shacklett, Weyland, Maurer, Heim, Kirby, Halloran, Grunt, Queeney, Wolil. F. Richardson. Wozniak, F. Hill, Finnegan. Sobeck, Whalen, Natoli.
Lower Row (left to right): Diehl, Smith. Bold), Will, BatofT, Mathias. W. Brown, Brundage, Davey, Jordan. Gerlach, A. Hill, Bew, Hughes, Luster, Hoenninger, Krepps.ALPHA KAPPA KAPPA
THAT ALL-AMERICAN GAME WHICH IS PLAYED WITH -CHIPS" IS INDULGED IN BY A FEW OF THE BOYS
A K Iv
Early last September Alpha Kappa Kappa, the third oldest Medical Fraternity founded at Dartmouth in 1889, held its 20th bi-annual convention in San Francisco overlooking the tranquil blue waters of the Pacific atop Knob Hill. Beta Omicron was represented by its President, Bill Ralston. The usual Convention business and sight-seeing expeditions were indulged in. Between ramifications over the country-side, it was decided to award a prize of fifty dollars to the chapter submitting the best idea for the future interests and further development of the fraternity.
Early in October, when the greenness of summer has given way to a new autumn brown, and quizzical faces peer into the expressionless features of their respective cadavers, the members of Beta Omicron are diligently searching for pledges. In order to become belter acquainted, they are invited to the house for dinner and other social functions.
When autumn has relinquished itself to November snows, the time has come for our Thanksgiving banquet This epicurean fete is attended by the Faculty members, alumni, and chapter members.
In the usual inter-chapter spirit the members of Alpha Kappa Kappa from Penn, Jeff, and Temple hold their annual frolic- the Tri-Chapter Dance. This is a formal gathering during which formality is left in the cloak-room.Paae 73
Ignoring the bleakness of winter (which is really bleak in Philadelphia) Spring arrives with its final exams. Annual Chapter Banquet, and Fishing Parly. Final exams can be omitted because they are bleak too (and they are really bleak in Philadelphia) but our annual banquet is definitely not. The Toastmaster is one of the Faculty members, speeches are delivered by various alumni, and the active members eat well and listen. The fishing party is the final social event of the year with the usual Roosevelt luck. A few of the more nefarious members take over the ship and the trip turns out to be an extended Caribbean cruise off the New Jersey
V. Emory Burnett. M.D.. F.A.C.S............Primarius
Neil Lemon, M.D.....................District Deputy
W illiam J. Ralston...........................President
Richard E. Govne.........................N ice-President
Charles A. Bream..............................Treasurer
Frederick W. Herman.................Recording Secretary
Richard C. McCloskey..........Corresponding Secretary
FAClI n MEMBERS W . Emory Burnett. M.D.. F.A.C.S.
W. Edward Chamberlain. M.l).
Thomas M. Durant. M.l).. F.A.C.P.
Frederick A. Fiskc. M.l).
Eugene T. Foy, M.l).
Jacques P. Gueguierre, M.D.
Chevalier Jackson. M.D.. F.A.C.S.
John A. Kolmer. M.D., F.A.C.P.
A. Neil Lemon. M.l).
Joseph S. Lynch, M.D.
Homer R. Mather, M.l).
Stanford W. Mulholland. M.l).
Karl A. Shrader. Ed.I).
David Steuart, .M.D.
Stoughton R. Vogel. M.D.
SENIORS: Edwin C. Buchanan, Frank N. Cooke. Kenneth I.. Diehl, Richard L. Goyne, George J. Jones. Jr.. Charles J. Lemmon. Jr.. Richard C. McCloskey. W illiam J. Ralston. Jr.. Glenn II. Schantz.
Jl MORS: Charles A. Bream, Reese E. Dawson. George E. Fissel. S. Thatcher Hubbard. Jr.. Fred D. Large. Howard A. Molter. George F. Shugert.
SOPHOMORES: Frank G. Christopher, Jr.. Frederick W . Herman. II. Roehling Knock. Joseph P. Shilp; Jr.
FRESHMEN: I. Paul Ambrose. Jack F. Bailey,
Arlington Bensel. Jr., Robert C. Brown. W'illiam R. Finnegan. Jr.. Frank B. Hill. Gilbert 11. Diehl. David P. Osborne.
Spirits are higher after dinner and a short session is held before the evening work begins.
ring-pong serves as an easy accessible sport at and affords plenty of exercise for its players.
FOUl can read two books when the subject
ing enough.PHI ALPHA SIGMA
Dinner hour doesn’t ©nd the day at Phi Alpha. It Just
Phi Alpha Sigma as a national organization was established in 1886. Iota Chapter at The Temple University Medical School was installed on May 16. 1932. Iota Chapter of Phi Alpha Sigma is the youngest member of the Greeks on the campus, and through the past seven years has gradually increased in size and prestige. Its members have been well represented in college life, holding class officerships, memberships in the various societies, and positions on the staff of the year book. “The Skull. " Its members are held in esteem for their good fellowship by all who come in contact with them.
The Chapter maintains a house near to the school and runs its own dining room for the convenience of its members.
Scholastically Phi Alpha Sigma has always been proud of its achievements and high standards, working for the mutual benefit of its brethren and the medical group as a whole.
Interesting and instructive talks were given by the senior brethren throughout the year, and informal get-togethers were held, at which Drs. Hadden, Dav is. and Beardsley discussed topics of current medical interest. Several dances were held at the Chapter house at which time they were joined by the brothers from Beta and Delta chapters- -University of Pennsylvania and Jefferson Medical Schools respectively. Iota played host to Beta and Delta chapters at the annual tri-chapter party.
Morning rush in the second floor bathroom. The freshman must have an examination.
starts the members on a nicht of hard work.Paqe 75
TABLE POLO IS A FAVORITE GAME AT THE PHI ALPHA SIGMA HOUSE
The Chapter tries to maintain a limited library where many books are available. The J.A.M.A. may also be consulted. Plans are being made for the coming year whereby the Chapter can purchase a multi-volume set of medical books, lota Chapter life is rounded out by partaking in the various forms of entertainment, such as table tennis, table polo. etc.
The aims of the Chapter are to aid the brethren and The Temple University Medical School and the medical profession in general as much as lies within their power. Phi Alpha’s arc a small select group which, like the medical profession as a whole, is moving gradually forward determined to find its place in the world.
John T. P. Cudmore.....................Primarius
Pom J. Mauro......................Sub-Primarius
John S. Hunter...........................Scribus
Edward J. Wiater.........................Gustos
SENIORS: John T. P. Cud more, John S. Hunter, Stanley C. KIcmek.
Jl MORS: Francis M. Bellarmino, Robert I . Fitzgerald. Pom J. Mauro.
SOPHOMORES: Hugh J. Kearney. Thomas J. Maye, Jr.. Gerald J. Piserchia. John 11. Wiedher, Edward J. Wiater. Joseph G. Sweeney, Jr.
l A 2
FRESHMEN: Gerald W. Krepps, Francis J. Mena-pace, Joseph J. Toland, 3rd.
FACULTY: Edward L. Clemens. M.D.. Charles 11. Grimes, M.D.. J. Garrett Hickey. M.P.. Milford J. HufT-nagle, M.D., Wilmer Krusen. M.D., George McReynolds, M.D.. Jay Ray Van Meter, M.D., Lewis R. Wolf, M.D.. S. Lawrence Woodhouse, Jr., I.D.
Happy countenances usually mean vacation hut these are just pre-Saturday night smiles.Happy countenances suggest that Sharkey, for one,
must have passed an exam.
What are we looking at? we don’t know but it isn’t
the camera. We were told to pose.
PHI BETA PI
Known to all and sundry, who pass up and down Broad Street is Phi Beta Pi. Spring and Fall its members may be seen lolling on the steps and porch with all the airs of retired Capitalists enjoying life. Enchanting as this may seem, work is the keynote of Beta Eta, from the time school begins until it closes in the spring. One social event, however, each Phi Bete holds near and dear. That is the Annual Founders' Day Banquet. Every year on or about March 1 Ith. this gala occasion holds full sway. Faculty members, alumni and members in collegio associate in the delights of epicure and terpsichore. Its arrival is looked forward to with keen anticipation. its passing with regret. Other events of the year are merely preludes to this. The year, however, is replete with many interesting and entertaining occasions other than the climactic banquet.
The familiar brownstone house a stone’s throw from the school, at 31-14 Broad Street, i- owned by the fraternity. Its portals are always opened for those who might want to while away an hour or two in pleasant company amidst pleasant surroundings.
Activity is continuous. From time to time throughout the year faculty members give talks of great interest to all. often accompanied by movies or slides. There is a small but adequate library, which is the source of much valuable research. Many an animated discussion may be w itnessed, caused by some statement or other in one of the encyclopedias. All join in with gusto. Freshman and senior alike adds his little bit until the question is finally settled, by authority rather than by common consent. The memory of sessions such as this bring back fond recollections to many who have left as graduates for distant parts. Every other Saturday night a house party is held as a means of relaxation to relieve the tension of a week of study. The various class dances are usually attended by the fraternity cn masse. In the southwest corner of Mitten Hall at any of the affairs, one may meet eachPage 77
PHI BETA PI
and ever) member of the chapter during the course of the evening.
The main athletic events of the year include ping-pong and double, triple or quadruple solitaire. Ping-pong attracts many enthusiasts and many are the exciting contests which may be witnessed in the basement game room.
Such comprise the activities of the youngest, but possibly most active, of the fraternity groups on the hypothetical but. nevertheless, existent campus. Begun in 1929 as the I psilon Chapter of Omega I psilon Phi. which charter was made vacant when the Medico-Chirurgical School of Medicine was incorporated with the University of Pennsylvania. This group flourished in the years that followed, but when the National Chapter declined, Lpsilon Chapter, through the efforts of Drs. T. Carroll Davis and Edward Larson. merged with Phi Beta Pi and becair? the Beta Eta Chapter. This constitutes the fraternity at the present time. A small but compact group, active in the national organization as well as at Temple. Its members have always been active in class functions and extra-curricular campus endeavor. Included in its members in facilitate are many of the most prominent members of the faculty whose guidance and interest are a source of pleasure and gratitude to every Phi Bete.
Thomas Sharkey .........................Vice- rchon
Irving Greenfield ........................Secretary
Paul Krupko ..............................Treasurer
SENIORS: Raymond Lutz. Irving Greenfield, Paul
Krupko. rmand DiYittorio. Raymond Davis. William F. Jones. Nick Sauer.
JI NIORS: Leroy Bowers, Cltarle- Jones. Tom Sharkey. John Laurusonis, Alfred Johnson. William Black. James Trolinger. Henry Hunter. John Wigton, Richard Troxel.
SOPHOMORES: John Ealy. Harrison Hines. Carl Korsmo. Delliert Mallams. Jose Villa.
FRESHMEN: David Phillips, Harry O'Donnell. John Wozniak, John Rearick.
FACULTY: Doctors Charles S. Barnes. H. Winfield Boehringer, Harold L. Bottomly, James E. Bowman, Charles L. Brown, John C. Burns. J. Norman Combs. Leon O. Davis. T. Carroll Davis, Charles 0. !) • Rticca. Daniel J. Donnelly. J. Vincent Farrel, Glen C. Cibson. Francis Glenn. L. Vincent Hayes. Frank C. Hammond, Frank V . Konzelman. Edward Larson, Walter I. Lillie. Savere F. Madonna, Washington Mcrschcr, C. Kenneth Miller. Charles S- Miller. II. Brooker .Mills, Robert H. Peckham. Francis Pipkin. Herbert Raines. Melvin A. Saylor. Scott L. Verrei. Edward Weiss. T. N. Richardson.
At dinner the Phi Betes discuss the day's work and argue
as to which year is the hardest.
The Devil may care expression on the faces of this
group typifies the regular Phi Beta Pi bull sessions.PHI CHI
The dinner table Is greatest opportunity for contact between brothers. Frat food Is surprisingly good.
Hof music but ward walks have broken down arches so there is no “jitterbugging.”
The Theta Upsilon Chapter of Phi Chi has the distinction of being the oldest organized body of Temple medical students, having been founded in 1907. It has the added distinction of being a chapter of the largest medical fraternity in the United States. Social activities include several dances each year, alone and in conjunction with the chapters at Jefferson and the University of Pennsylvania. Numerous smokers are also held, the ones during the early part of the year being devoted to those freshmen considered prospective members, the ones during the remainder of the year to seminars when faculty members and guest speakers meet the members and talk to them on topics of common interest. The entire program of the chapter is designed to carry out the idea that Phi Chi men serve best by striving to make themselves a source of strength and pride to their Alma Mater, from whom the fraternity derives its reason for existence.
Robert P. Gearhart..........................Presiding Senior
Gilbert Barron..............................Presiding Junior
Japheth E. Rawls.......................Judge Advocate
Glenn C. Stayer............................Secretary
Edwin F. Trautni3n.........................Treasurer
FACULTY: Jesse 0. Arnold. M.D.. F.A.C.S., C. Mason Astlcy, M.D.. W. Wayne Babcock. M.D.. F.A.C.S., Harry Bacon. M.D., F.A.C.S., Charles R. Barr, M.D.. Allen G. Beckley. M.D.. F.A.C.P.. Franklin D. Benedict, M.D., John 0. Bower. M.D.. F.A.C.S., John P. Enrich, M.D., George E. Farrar, M.D.. Philip Fiscella, M.D., Worth B. Forman, M.D.. Sherman F. Gilpin. Jr„ M.D.,Page 79
SENIORS ARE BARFLIES IT IS SAID. BARTENDERS DO NOT WEAR WALRUS MUSTACHES AND DRINKS ARE
"Bulling ' is a fine arc and Haddad seems to be a master with this crowd.
G. P. CiamboJvo, XI.D.. F.A.C.S., Bradford Green, M.D., S. Bruce Green way. M.D., Henry C. Groff, M.D.. Hugh llayford, M.D., D. J. Kennedy, M.D., John Leedom, M.IX, Robert I). MacKinnon. M.D., Edwin II. Me 11 vain, M.D., John Royal Moore. M.D., F.A.C.S., Morton J. Oppcn-heimer, M.D.. William .V. Parkinson, M.D., F.A.C.S.. William C. Pritchard. M.D., Chester Reynolds, M.I).. John if. Roxby. M.D.. Harold S. Roxhy, Si.I)., William 1. Steel. XI.D.. F.A.C.S., H. Tuttle .Stull, M.IX. Barton R. Young. MIX. F. L. Zaborowski, M.l).
SENIORS: Wilbur II. Anders, l e E. Bransford, Jr., Donald II. Guhagcn. Robert P. Gearhart. Carl F. Giegle. rmand C. Grey., W. St. Julien Jersey, E. Frederick Koster. Ilurry C. Xycc, Pedro Orpi. Jr., James :X. Pomeroy. Elisha I.. Pttiter. Japheth E. Rawls, Jr., Lyle W. Sbcrwin, Glenn C. Stayer. James A. Sutton. B. L Tart, Jr., Amos S. Wainer.
JHNIORS: Arthur X. Barr. Gilbert Barron. John W.
Bmnett, II, Charles Byrd. Hugh II. Calhoun. John S.
Chaffer, Kenneth W. Christenherry, Robert F. Frantz,
Joseph G. Haddad. Rtdiert J. Jahn. Jay G. Linn. Jr.,
Herbert E. Loomis, George R. Matthews, William D.
Pace. Francis J. Ren .ulli, Harold J. Rowe. Richard O.
Seller . Edwin F. Traulman, Halsey F. Warner, Charles R. Wells.
SOPHOMORES: Robert F. Beckley. George S. Boyer.
Ward II. DeKlyn. Ilarry C. Donalioo. G. Norris Ketcham.
Robert . Kline. Robert Lentz. Ilarry P. Lough I in.
William H. Morgan. John T. Reilly. Joseph Reno. James Rusmisell. Edward W. Smith. Ilenry Van den llerg.
FRESHMEN: l)avi l F. Bcw, Frank Boyer, William E. Ilrown, Oliver II. Ilrundage. J. Russell Davcy. Jr.,
Elwyii Hughes. Enoch G. Klimas. Jr.. Lawrence Limberl,
Sydney li. Livingston. Jr.. J. E. Meyer. Jr.. Nathan Rogers.Page 90
LEARNER ENTERTAINS PHI DELTS DURING A PERIOD OF RELAXATION
PHI DELTA EPSILON
Chess is a favorite game and is indulged in by many. Two players and three kibitzers enjoy this game.
Phi Delta Epsilon Fraternity was founded October 13, 1904, at the Cornell University Medical School, New York City, by a group of eight students. Within the next three years chapters were established at Bellview and Columbia and also at the Long Island College Hospital.
The period between 1914 and 1918 indelibly stamped in the world's history and characterized by unrest, turmoil, strife and chaos, reacted upon the fraternity by producing a spirit of defense as against one of expansion. The fraternity entered this period a collection of chapters and emerged a unit, and one of the most influential medical fraternities in the United States.
By means of increasing its ownPago 81
chapters in numbers and strength, as well as by amalgamating with another medical fraternity, Alpha Phi Sigma, similar in purpose. the fraternity now extends throughout the country from coast to coast and from the Gulf of Mexico into the Dominion of Canada. At the present time there are 55 active chapters, and 17 graduate clubs in the leading cities of our own and foreign countries.
Sigma chapter, here at Temple, has always been an active and integral part of our national organization. This past year has been no exception. The opening affair was the traditional yearly smoker and dinner for the incoming men held early in the school term. Prominent graduates turned out in great numbers, and Freed’s restaurant was the scene of gaiety and good food. The four-chapter dance was held on the 25th of February in the Mirror Room of the Adelphia Motel, and was a complete success. An impressive induction ceremony for new members was held in conjunction with the Hahnemann chapter at Kugler's restaurant on the 25th of March. The annual senior banquet was held on April 19th. The activities also included scientific meetings with the cooperation of Graduates, biweekly parties at the Fraternity house, and a New Year’s F.ve affair that will not soon be forgotten.
The seniors leave Temple and Sigma with regrets, but the fraternity activities will continue in the various graduate clubs. The active interest and services of graduate members have always been and will always be characteristics of Phi Delta Epsilon.
SENIORS: Norman Learner. Consul; Norman Schnee-berg, Vice-Consul; George Parris, Treasurer; Owen Belmont. Secretary; Jack Strassman; Isidor Cordon.
Jl MORS: Leonard Leeks. Harold Leeks.
SOPHOMORES: Morton Kligerman, William Rrodskv. Leon Rolloff. Daniel Barenhaum.
PLEDGES: George Wold, Mervin Mathias. Irving Rosenberg. Lester Saidman, Morton Schwab.
FACT LTY: Doctors Simon Ball, Nathan Blum berg. Leon S. Kaplan. Louis Cohen. S. W. Eisenbcrg. M. S. Ersner, Isidor Forman, Frank Glauser. Martin Gold, Samuel Goldberg, J. N. Grossman. Sydney Harberg, Maurice S. Jacobs. Nathan M. Levin. David Myers, Saul P. Savitz. Harry Simpkins. Louis A. Soloff, Edward Steinfeld, Henry J. Tuinen. E. M. Weinberger. Louis Weiner. -Sydney Weiss, Michael G. Wohl, Joseph B. Wolffe.
Bull sessions are dear to the hearts of the boys But to serious medicos they’re just lots of noise.
just hitting the notes
8 by and gloats.Page 82
PHI LAMBDA KAPPA
PHI LAMBDA SENIORS ARE HAPPY BECAUSE THEY KNOW SCHOOL WILL SOON BE OVER
l L Iv
The Alpha Iota chapter of the Phi Lambda Kappa Fraternity, consisting of 27 members, has attempted to be active in several fields— social, academic, and medical. Throughout the school year there are social gatherings at the house at 3535 Germantown Avenue every feu-weeks, and attempt to wipe the medical lore from the cerebra and give the social cobweb a cleaning. The refreshments are light, and beer is often the heaviest indulgence! ? . There are two radios available: the one in the main room
always emanating modern jazz: the other in a smaller, effectively lit room may, if some wish, give forth of the majestic strains of Bach or Beethoven. In this way, a happy medium and pleasant mental attitude is obtained. Formal affairs are held each year with the other chapters in the city.
The academic and scientific spheres are taken care of at several scientific dinners or open-meetings at which prominent physicians are invited to speak. The initiation of new members is signalized by such a dinner, and this year Dr. Mitchell Bernstein spoke on “Diagnostic Measures," a very interesting talk. Previously, Dr. S. Leon Israel spoke on gynecologic problems at an open meeting, still well remembered. Also Dr. I. Ginsburg spoke at a later date on how to get most out of an interneship.
At the end of each business meeting, an attempt is made to have some of the fraters speak on whatever they wish. Thus far, J. Schultz hasPage 83
given an exceedingly interesting, though intricate. discourse on physical energy applied to biologic problems.
Fraternity business is taken care of at bimonthly meetings at the house. Co-sponsors Dr. L. Tuft and Dr. L. kimmelman attend whenever possible, and give a helping hand, which is duly appreciated. The meetings were well conducted by Superior Paul Wapner, aided by H. Hirsh. Chancellor. H. Zeidman. Exchequer, and J. Brau. Scribe. The newly-elected officers are:
H. Zeidman. Superior; M. Warshafsky, Chancellor; ]VI. Rabinovitz, Exchequer: and A. Frumin, Scribe.
Paul M. Wapner......................Worthy Superior
Herman Hirsh .....................Worthy Chancellor
Joseph Brau ..........................Worthy Scribe
Herman Zeidman.. .Worthy Chancellor of the Exchequer
SENIORS: Simon Forman, Herman Hirsh. Stuart Rizika. Charles Schnail. Martin Specter, Samuel Sugar-man. Paul M. Wapner. Jacob Weinberg, Jack Weiner.
Jl’NIORS: Edward Pickert. Jay Spiegelman, Harold Hyman. Harold Tuft. Morton Warshafsky, Jerry Zaslow, Herman Zeidman.
SOPHOMORES: Jack Benson, Moses Rabinovitz,
Joseph Brau. Jules B. Schultz.
FRESHMEN: Robert Braitman, Milton Batoff, Bernard GolubofT. Abraham Frumin. Bernard Maltlemun, Henry Luster, Joseph Rudolph.
FA Cl LTV: Doctors Herman Gold. Louis K. Hober-man. Isadore Katz. Morris Kleinbart. Julius Kimmelman. David Soloway. Joseph Levitsky. Kerman Snyder, Jerome Miller, Morris Brody, Henry Perlman
The officers, Brau, Wapner. Herk. and Brau smile because rushing season is over once more.
The juniors are jovial, while the sophomores mock But they'll all look sad when they study Babcock.
Informality is the air that prevails over ail While Hyman takes aim, and then misses tho ball.
“No brains at air rings out loud and clear For all is close harmony and merriment here.
PHI RHO SIGMA
Relaxation is. indulged in aflcr dinner — a nice friendly game. Pop. this picture was posed.)
The Alpha Lambda chapter of Phi Rho Sigma is housed in a rather spacious liome at 8232 . 16th St. Here its members acquire the social and recreational aspect of a medical education along with their medical knowledge gained by hours of study over Cunningham, Boyd and Babcock. Each evening after dinner for awhile, the recreation room is alive with the clamor of relaxing medicos enjoying a game of cards, darts, ping-pong, clc., and the chapter room holding other members engaged in reading or listening to the radio.
It is the object of the chapter not to neglect any phase of fraternity life and thus the regular custom of fireside talks has been continued throughout the year. This year the following brought knowledge and interest to their listeners: “The Anatomy and Physiology of the Sympathetic Nervous System." by Dr. Huber: “Radiologic Treatment of Carcinoma of the Breast." by Dr. Pfahler: “Medical Emergencies." by Dr. Lansbury, and “Office Records of Medicine." by Dr. Meader. Dr. Combs presented an illustrated talk on his travels and adventures.
The social life of the chapter starts in September with “Open House’ for new members. December finds the social season at its peak with all the members donning "tuxes." lop hats and tails and attending the Annual Tri-Chanter Ball at the Stephen Girard Hotel sponsored by the chapters of Phi Rho at Temple University. University of Pennsylvania, and Jefferson. Then Hallowe’en and St. Patrick's Day are celebrated while on “occasional" Saturday nights the mem-Page 85
At dinner the affair- of the day are discussed. Conversation swings glibly from work to play, from clinics to night clubs. Thirty boarders—all active Phi Rho's, all well fed.
l P 2
hers (rip the light fantastic within the chapter house.
Thus Alpha Lambda has developed into a leading organization at Temple.
They laughed when Albright sat down to play but when Hoffman and McCeorge sang—Wow!
Its start hack in Oct., 1931, at a meeting sponsored hy Dr. Ridpath, Dr. R. C. Morgan, Dr. Joseph Doane, and Dr. Harry Z. Hibschman, was culminated hy the University Council approval in February, 1932.
Today Alpha Lambda is not only proud of its fine home but equally proud of the activity of its members and their achievements in school and class affairs.
Owen W. Hartman..........................President
Raymond S. McKeeby..................Vice-President
Frank T. Norris..........................Treasurer
Chauncey Kay McCeorge....................Secretary
SENIORS: Dill J. Albright, Jr., George C. Covalla. Burns A. Dobbins. Jr., George D. Gartland. Jr.. Owen W. Hartman. Richard R. Hoffman. Raymond S. McKeeby, Frank T. Norris, James J. Parker. Jr.. Curtis R. Paxman. Evan C. Stone, Jr.. Murray G. Stromberg, Morgan F. Taylor, I-eroy A. Wilcox. Robert U. Wisslcr, JUNIORS: Chauncey K. McCeorge, Anthony Mcloro, Jack I). Moore. Howard J. Summons. Chester G. Toma-seski, Frank A. Viggiano.
SOPHOMORES: John J. Bianco, Warner D. Bundens. Jr.. Eugene J. Gillespie. Gurney E. Hetrick, Clarence
D. Leiphart. Melvin D. Mills, Paul K. Waltz.
FRESHMEN: John P. Evans. Frederick C. Hand. Eldon Hoachlander, Joseph E. Hoennimter, David S. Marshall. Charles II. McElwee. John D. Walmcr. Edward M. Whalen.
FACULTY: Doctors Ernest Aegerter. Ralph C. Bradley, Sacks Bricker, Joseph C. Doane, Harry Z. Ilihsch-man, John F. Huber, Robert $. Huffner, Thomas Klein, Pascal F. Lucchesi. Arthur . Mitten. Arthur C. Morgan. Daniel J. Preston. Robert F. Ridpath, W. Hershcy Thomas.Page 86
Corsage tonight, date arranged, now a hurried removal of that five o’clock shadow.
OUT ON THE FLOOR THEY SWING AND SWAY.
Freshmen entertained sophomores on February tenth as four hundred couples tripped the light fantastic at Mitten Hall, scene of the Temple medicos' dances. One of the best dances of the embryo doctors’ social season, the affair was almost identical with all other dances at Mitten Hall—a stereotyped sort of thing—differing only in an unusual amount of zip and hilarity.
Drinking was taboo -huge football-player bouncers patrolled the floor threateningly. Fven smoking was prohibited.
A survey of couples showed that young doctors follow a precedent set long ago—they still predominantly prefer nurses. lying for second were neighborly Philadelphia girls and home town fiancees. A scattering of co-eds and technicians filled out the bill of effeminate fare— and the escorts fared extremely well.
The constant stream of taxis was symbolic of the paucity of automobiles among the student group. The hilarity signified a group having their total week's fun in one night—and spending two weeks’ allowance concurrently.
Favors, consisting of ebony necklaces bearing a Temple seal, were given to the ladies accompanying freshmen and sophomores. Chaperones were Drs. Huber and W eston: honorary chaperones were Drs. Pritchard, Roxby. and Saylor— the triumvirate of the pre-clinical years. Music by Roger Kent, about par as far as school dances go. lasted from nine ’til one. Nurses left early so as to be in by midnight. Med students stayed out late, almost getting home before the milkman.
Other dances of the year were the Sophomore Dance (December 16th) and the Skull Dance ( March 31 si t. The latter wound up the social
BACK IN THE CORNER THEY SIT AND SAYPaoe 87
THE FISHPOND WAS A FEATURE ATTRACTION AT THE DANCE GIVEN BY THE FRESHMEN
season with a bang—the most looked forward to and best attended of the year’s dances. Given annually by juniors honoring the seniors, the dance is one of the very few social traditions of the medical school.
Smaller dances were given at frequent intervals by the fraternities honoring themselves and restricting attendance to members. Smaller, better acquainted crowds in hotel ballrooms make these affairs somewhat more attractive than the mass medical school dances at Mitten Hall.
A large group of medicos do not attend the dances. The average medical student, his neck very tender to the stiffness of the rarely-worn formal collar, is a very poor dancer. Arches broken down by ward-walks and increasing weight are not so springy as formerly. About two numbers and he is struggling for breath, ready to sit one out and talk the only thing he knows—shop and technicalities. Yet, the “door-dies’" who dance without fear of decompensation, have great fun—for an evening they are not worried professional men, but college boys again.
Faculty members as wdl as students enjoy the occasional social affairs.Page 83
The Babcock Surgical Society was organized in 1905 in accordance with the wish of a group of students who wished to honor Dr. V. Wayne Babcock, and with the assistance of Dr. William A. Steel. It is the oldest student society of Temple University School of Medicine, and in the thirty-four years of its existence has come to occupy a position of distinction commensurate with its purpose and ideals.
Membership is made up of those Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors who show' particular qualification from the standpoint of scholastic attainment and personal qualities. At regular meetings, the student members read papers prepared from the current literature on topics of surgical interest, and outstanding guests are invited to discuss those subjects in which they are particularly interested. The annual banquet of the Society is the occasion for the gathering of eminent surgeons from all parts of the East. The Society serves not only to stimulate interest in the current surgical problems and literature, but also to bring closer together the students and the faculty.
The influence of the Babcock Surgical Society extends far beyond the limits of the Medical School, and it is the hope of every medical student that he might become one of its members, both students and faculty feel a definite and growing pride in the Society and its beloved patron. Dr. Babcock.Page 89
W. Wayne Babcock. A.M.. M.D.. I.L.D.. F.A.C.S....................................Honorary President
William A. Steel. B.S.. M.D.. F.A.C.S......................................................President
John P. Emich. M.I)..............................................................Secretary-Treasurer
Charles M. Norris.................................................................Student President
Jay C. Linn. Jr............................................................................Secretary
I.ee E. Bransford, Jr. Frank N. Cooke John T. P. Cudmore Raymond A. Davis Robert P. Gearhart Carl F. Ceigle Armand C. Grez
Gilbert Barron John S. Chaffee Kenneth W. Christenberry Joseph R. Connelly Charles P. Goldsmith
Edwin P. Albright J. Guy Butters Ralph K. Herendeen. Jr.
SENIORS Richard R. Hoffman John S. Hunter Paul K. Krupko Harry F. l.enhardt Milton C. Maloney William H. Nicholson Charles M. Norris
JUNIORS Joseph G. Haddad Clarence A. Holland Samuel T. Hubbard. Jr. Jay G. Linn. Jr. Chauncey K. McCeorge
SOPHOMORES Henry P. A. Laugldin Melvin I). Mills John T. Reilly
Harry C. Nyce Charles E. Price Herbert M. Stauffer Howard H. Stauffer Glenn C. Stayer Morgan F. Taylor Robert U. Wissler
Herman Miller Robert S. Morris Forrest G. Moyer George F. Shugert Charles R. E. Wells
Joseph H. Reno John B. Roxby. Jr. Murray D. Sigman
Hack How (lejt to right): Mills. Christenberry, Hoffman, Taylor, Reilly. Bransford. Barron. Herendoen. Sigman, Linn.
Albright. Reno, Butters. Laugldin.
Middle How (left to right): Maloney. H. II. Stauffer, Stayer, Shugert, Connelly, Haddad, Chaffee. Moyer, H. Miller, Holland, Wells, McCeorge, Goldsmith, Morris. Krupko.
Front How (left to right): Cooke, Nicholson. Wissler. R. Gearheart. Davis. Dr. Brown. Dr. McDevilt, Dr. Babcock. Dr. Preston. Dr. Burnett. Norris, Price. II. M. Stauffer. Grez, L.enhardt, Cudmore.Page 90
On October 25, 1927, a group of twenty men, senior and junior medical students of Temple University, met and unanimously adopted that a permanent organization be formed for mutual advancement and profitable pursuit in the knowledge of Dermatology and Syphilology. It was further decided that the name of this organization shall be the Stickler Dermatological Society, in honor of Dr. Albert Stickler, the then professor of Dermatology and Syphilology.
The Society continued as such until 1931 when Dr. Car-roll S. Wright came to Temple as Professor of Dermatology and Syphilology -and thus, the Wright Dermatological Society was born.
It has been the custom to invite men of national repute to speak to the society on some phase of Dermatology and Syphilology. Also, many papers have been presented by the student members themselves. Through the kind guidance of Dr. Wright, the society every year has been able to hear authoritative talks from prominent men. This year the society was very fortunate to hear an extremely interesting talk by Dr. Anthony Cippollaro of New York.
Membership in the society is open to members of the Junior and Senior classes who have attained an acceptable scholastic level. Since its existence it has served its purpose in creating in many a great interest in the previously neglected science of Dermatology.Paqe 91
Dr. Carrol! S. Wright
Simon B. Forman.......
Burns A. Dobbins-----
Stuart R. Rizika.....
Nicholas Sauer .......
Hymen R. Blank Walter D’Alonzo Simon For Qian Merl Kimmel Raymond Furlong Abraham Freedman Thomas Garrett Russell Green Herman Hirsh Vincent Hoch
T. E. Andes William Black J. Leroy Bowers C. A. Bream Maurice Brown J. R. Connelly Thomas Harris Harold Hyman Henry Hunter Alfred Johnson Robert Johnson Charles Jones
HONORARY MEMBERS Jacques Guequicrre, M.D. Reuben Friedman. M.D.
William Jones Thornton McIntyre James J. Parker George Parris Stuart R. Rizika Charles Schnall Joseph Schneider Richard Sonntag Martin Spector Jack Strassman
S. H. Kane John Laurusonis Harold Leeks Leonard Leeks George Matthews Chauncey McGeorge John Parrott Edward Pickert F. H. Saul Jay Spiegelman R. A. Straughn Thomas Sharkey
Samuel Sugarman Ellsworth Uhler Paul Wapner Jacob Weinberg Jack Weiner. Walter Wright Burns A. Dobbins Nicholas Sauer Leroy Wilcox Irving Greenfield
Eugene Thomas James Trolinger Richard Troxel Harold Tuft Frank iggiano Morton Warshafvky John Wigton A. Waldman Jerome Zaslow II. Zeidman H. H. Calhoun Richard 0. Sellers
Back Row (left to right): Hirsh, Wapner, R. Johnson. Harris. W. Jones. Black. Kimmel. Kane. Yiggiano, Sellers, Brown. Saul. Troxel, Warshafsky, Spiegelman, Zaslow, Tuft. Calhoun, Sharkey. Trolinger. Uhler.
Middle Row (left to right): Mclntire, Sugarman, Furlong. L. Leeks, Garrett, Laurusonis, Pickert, Weiner, C. Jones. Wigton. R. Strawn. Hyman, E. Thomas, Parrott, 11. Leeks. II. Hunter, Waldman. T. Johnson. Andes. Spector, Zeidman. Bowers. Friedman. Sonntag.
Front Row (left to right): Schneider, Wright. D’Alonzo, Wilcox. Dobbins, Forman. Dr. Friedman, Dr. Wright. Dr. Richardson, Rizika, Blank, Hoch. Weinberg, Parris, Schnall. Strassman.TEMPLE INTERNS AND RESIDENTS
'EM PL K I MV ERSITV HOSPITAL offers an interneship consisting of two years and including a total of nineteen services. These services are as follows: Medicine; Senior Surgery; Associate Surgery: Orthopedic Surgery; Junior Surgery (including Urology and Proctology!; Obstetrics; Gynecology: Anesthesia (including Radiology); Laboratory (including Bronchoscopy!: Accident Dispensary; Ear, Eye, Nose, and Throat: Neurology and Neurosurgery;
Pediatrics; Outpatient clinics. Two services are given by affiliation, one at Philadelphia Hospital for Contagious Diseases, and the other at Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children.
Many of the above-named services are available only in a large hospital such as Temple. It is of distinct advantage to the interne to become familiar with all of the specialties so that he may have a broader field from which to select that branch of medicine in which he wishes to specialize. The variety of services is also of great value to the interne who wishes to he a general practitioner.
The benefits to he derived from interning at a teaching institution such as Temple where there are adequate ward as well as private patients cannot he overstressed. Opinions of authorities in the various specialties are easily obtained. Also, the numerous meetings of various hospital and medical organizations, as well as regularly scheduled conferences serve to keep the interne well posted on the latest developments in medicine.
The internes at Temple Hospital during the year 1938-39 are: Drs. Walter Davey, 0. P. Large. Millard Lawrence. Arthur Scifer. Alex Steigman, Valentine Manning. Henry Wycis. Howard Baker. Robert Lehman. Francis R. Manlove, Win. T. Snagg. James J. Lucey, Franklin B. Wilkins. George Lister. Paul B. Wilson, William Pritchard. Edward Hutton. Charles J. Schreader. Richard Y. Dalrymple.
The various residents are: Broncho-esophagology—Dr. George McReynolds; Medicine—Drs. Isadore Ginsburg, S. R. Vogel. George E. Mark; Neurology and Neurosurgery—Drs. G. A. Ksslinger and Augustus McCravcy; Ophthalmology—Drs. Lewis R. Wolf, Joseph S. Lynch. Homer Mather: Orthopedics—Drs. Harold P. Muller, Saul S. Steipbergh; Pathology and Radiology -Dr. Augustin R. Pealc; Radiology—Drs. Thomas A. Campbell. Robert P. Meadcr. G. C. Bird; Rhinology, Laryngology and Otology Dr. Merrill B. Hayes; Surgery -Drs. Daniel J. Preston, George P. Rosemond.
Front Ron (left to right): Hutton. Large. Lehman. Davey. Lister. Wilson, Wilkins, Snagg. Lawrence. Manlove. Kendall.
Second Row (left to right): (Juindlen. Kaplan. Steigman, Baker, Pritchard. Manning, Sage, Rosemond. McReynolds. Third Row (left to right): Preston. Wolf. Mark. Mather, Lynch, Campbell.Roqe 93
HE TEMPLE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL for Medical Technologists was organized in 1930 by Dr. Frank . Konzelinann. who is its present Director. The course outlined for the first class of sixteen members was of eighteen months duration. and all work was done in the Temple University Hospital with rather limited facilities.
The present course comprises two years of study in the College of Liberal rts and Sciences followed by two years of technical training in the Temple University Hospital and Medical School, where adequate facilities are now provided for an enrollment of twenty students. Applicants for admission to the College course must rank in the upper half of their respective graduating secondary school classes or pass entrance examinations.
The course offers opportunity for young men and women to equip themselves for laboratory-duty in hospitals, research units, research foundations. medical schools, public health bureaus, and the offices of private physicians. All ol the 105 graduates have been immediately employed by such agencies as the DuPont Company, the United States Army, and hospitals from coast to coast and from Canada to the Gulf, which have been eager to replace any vacancies by other
Temple graduates. The School is one of four in the United States granting the degree of Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology.
The present faculty is composed of Frank W. Konzcl-niann, M.D., Director, Edwin Sartain Gault. M.D.. Robert II. Hamilton, Jr., M.A., Ph.D.. M.D., Earle H. Spaulding. A.B., Ph.D., and eight instructors.
Student technicians arc: Lucy Barnes. Ellen Beard. Dolores M. Bid and. M. D. Bounds. Erma M. Burke. Jean Glennon. Loraine Groskin, Vera Harrier, Mary L. Hazleton. Louise Kelccc, Elizabeth McC. Knotts. Margaret Mason, Janet Person, Doris Power, Marion Wilson.
Front Ron (left to right): H. Hagen. M. McGinty, D. Powers, L. Barnes. B. Harvey. R. Rolman, B. M. West. L. Kelcec. V. Carstcns.
Ruck Row (left to right): L. Hazleton. D. Boland, L. Groskin. E. Bounds, E. Knotts. M. Mason. V. Harrier. J. Person.Pogc 94
£TAe f iia ctn cfl a Qjoc o'
Countless hours of Anatomy. Histology.
September, 1935—Freshmen—. Quite young, fairly green, but very important. Freshmen in medical school. “Freshmen report to Room 510 ' We gathered slowly, feeling rather self-conscious, hut very eager. What a tremendous laboratory it seemed, a large speaker’s platform, glorified by a real microphone. An august body of men there to greet us: Dr. Parkinson, Doctors Roxby, Pritchard, Kolmer and Saylor. A gracious word of greeting from the dean, who introduced to us the men who were to firmly guide our faltering footsteps that first year. They spoke to us pleasantly enough, but at once we detected a faint, hut oh so definite, hint of threat—we w'ere told that the sincerity of our purpose, our success, or mere passing would depend entirely upon never ceasing work. This did not come exactly asa surprise— our impression h a d always been that medicine, o f c oursc. required work and hard w ork hut this intimation of impending slavery reduced us to sober thought of the present, rather than hazy visualization of the glowing future— it made us realize that indisputably we were only freshmen, were fledglings and of not the slightest importance, that it was only by the most generous concession of the faculty that we were privileged to exist at all.
After that we belonged. We were ready to begin. We began. I irst we bought equipment long lines in front of the book store—hooks, colored pencils, notebooks, slides, slide boxes, dissecting instruments. Then bankrupt by our recent investments, undaunted by threats and warnings, burdened down by huge books, with the gleam in our eyes of would-be conquerors, w ith the satisfying mental picture of our future selves as busy efficient doctors—we certainly did begin.
Embryology and Parasitology and that single hour in History of Medicine (introduction to medical humor?). Dr. Roxby fascinated us by his eloquent mastery of the King's English, his stead) flow of clinical allusions, his understanding of “the human economy’’—and paralyzed us with fright by declaring that it took at least eighteen hours of work a day to make a real doctor. We soon became accustomed to the anatomy lab and dissection, gruesome at first, then more than natural—just second nature (Forever, even, the flavoring in our food)—and Roxby’s lab quizzes ending in a bull session, often a dramatization of the great flu epidemic of 191819.
Dr. Pritchard, ever understanding, but never indulgent, beating us down daily with his rapid fire lecturing. “Pritch," fingers covered with chalk of all colors, hammering relentlessly away at us, leaving us not only exhausted at the end of every lecture but barely able to move our cramped fingers which were exhausted from uninterrupted note taking. And those Saturday mornings! What a surprise (more accurately: what a rude awakening) that first quiz section when we learned that no detail was too unimportant to slight, and learned that Pritch failed to appreciate even the most skilled, highly developed and tenderly nourished art of bluffing. “Next man—NEXT MAN. You know, tell him Sw ivelhoop, Squivelcould, Shaw- whatever your name is, you tell him. . . . In self defense we pulled many brave boners—for instance: The history making occasion where Pritch persisted unmercifully in asking how many glomeruli there were in a kidney—he was hardly prepared for the answer when it came—“seven." (Note: Nicholson sincerely hoped there were seven.) Caine two occasions of grim tragedy for main of us- after a noble harvest of failures from the virgin slide quiz Pritch instituted the man-to-man system of scathing scornful criticism— one by one we the failures filed shamefully into his office, to return minutes later bowed hut not broken. Then after the semi-final in Histology and Embryology. Pritch with an irresistible plea to our intellects (if we had any) asked if it were his fault or ours that we were withoutPage 9S
y - Medical SPcAcc
exception the worst class he had taught and (final humiliation) he had been teaching for
Dr. Kolmer kind, wise, calm, and terribly sincere with ministered inflections, gave us the rare treat of perfectly outlined lectures. And Dr. Kolmer's medicine clinics—where one and all we solemnly rose to greet the professor where we began our long association with dear l !) old E. A- where we saw our first real life and blood patients and from these associations felt a glow of pride thow truly rare and wonderful a thing is the spirit of a freshman medical student). From these clinics two lasting impressions: A boy with sub-acute bacterial endocarditis. inevitably to die—our first experience with the hopeless prognosis: the other, a candid camera shot of the master clinician with “this little citizen”—a charming cherub with noma.
Parasitology—Impression: Dr. Gault leading the blind. There was that one exam on which we ignominiously bungled Eddie’s pet question on malaria, so he thoroughly chastized us and sent us home to learn it for the next exam, which with touching faith we did to the minutest detail —came the next exam and no question on malaria.
Dr. Roeslers X-Ray anatomy—combined with a vigorous anti-sleep campaign—cold air everywhere. but no free trip to Florida to convalesce from pneumonia. The delightful flavor of accented English, the penetrating honest philosophy. the subtle humor, and those rare demonstrations of proper positions of the patient for X-ray.
W hat with the drawing of the cockeyed bacteria, the peculiar parasite, the never-ending tubes with their layers of muscle, the anatomy-in life size, and the embryo in all sizes, stages and forms—no wonder there were moments ot bitter regret that, though few men are born ailists, and fewer have the talent or inclination to learn, all medical students must pour out their life’s blood in a heroic effort to be artists.
In an incredibly short time mid-year exams cast their menacing shadow of the unknown over our paths. Previous exams (especially that notable one in Histology and Embryology) had conditioned us to a high standard of healthy
respect for medical school exams. However, this was our first encounter with the final exam; facing this unknown quantity we experienced a peculiar stage fright (what exam was it that later, somewhere along in the middle of Junior year, produced those same familiar symptoms of abject terror?).
Exams over. A period of relaxation. A few (a very few ) minutes to re-organize. Time enough to realize that the streets had become sheets ol ice, time enough to realize that a thorough going, old fashioned winter was upon us, time enough to watch our southern colleagues nearly congeal before our eyes and lament with bitter anguish that they ever left the sunny south.
Back to work. Dr. Hickey—cool and intellectual, with occasional painfully well-pointed sarcasm—initiated us into the elusive mysteries of physiology. Kymographic paper industriously burnt to a crisp, then with extreme caution the next piece tenderly underdone (and all the time it LOOKED so simple) scissors innocently placed on the wrong shelf, too much equipment on the desk—a handsome complicated apparatus exhibited only to be told it was backside forward (in other words: Dr. Lathrop’s life was anything but simple, and ours was downright difficult). We played happily with Dr. Hickey’s circulatory apparatus—we sweated in our effort to put large cannulas into tiny veins—from all of which we collected reams of very scientific material and made a pretty little notebook.
Dr. Saylor the man who made chemistry (seem) simple—with a wry smile, a bit of dry humor, and a spry step—led us on to share with him certain great (but simple) truths. Behold! the color is amber and always will be—not yellow or straw-colored, but AMBER: that the chloride shift works something like a well-oiled merry-go-round tin spite of Dr. Saylor not quite so simple, however), and that you put this little molecule here, and that one there. And chein lab—the site of election for the university to get our money’s worth out of lab fees. Could Dr. Shrader have found us just a bit trying when he was asked privately hundreds of times what he had already explained publicly at least a dozen times? Unknowns?—unpleasant subject—better forgotten.THE MAKING OF A DOCTOR (Continued)
Our old pal Anatomy still with us. Pi itch haunting the lab to insist on concentration (or work). "No more walking and talking about.'’ Spring came. So did final exams. Anxious days, those. Honest hard work. By this time we had learned that it is a wise medical student who profits by the experiences of those who have gone before him. When someone said: “Or. Saylor likes them short and straight” or “write everything you know for Kolmer’’ or “you can't be sure about Pritch—know everything" we listened with avid attention. Exams past. Did we? We went our various ways for the summer the first two weeks of vacation were the hardest: People said “. . . . and now you've finished your first year"—but we didn’t know; had we finished our first year? We didn’t dare answer one way or the other; we learned early in the game to assume nothing. Growing anxiety, feverish interest in the day's mail—at last it came (irony: Doom addressed to ourselves in our own handwriting)—whether to open it or not—of course at last we did—and there they were—our grades—our year's work in numbers.
September, 1936—Sophomores—Back again — some sooner than others due to a little matter of re-exams. Back with the new satisfaction of feeling casual and familiar, back to great faculty friends with a special outburst of applause. About this time a fleeting sense of discouragement for some of us. On an average we were beginning our 18th year of school we were still doggedly learning rudiments, our goal far away realizing that meanwhile most of our friends had jobs, some were married, and a few already parents. But little time for sentiment or philosophizing the slave drivers put us promptly to work.
More Anatomy—neuro-anatomy this time— something nice and complex to struggle with this time, something sufficiently elusive and evasive to tax the mind of an Einstein, let alone a simple medical student:—vague impressions of wires connecting little islands surrounded by-vast deserts, of hopeless confusions which we knew added up to sensitive, active and more or less intelligent beings. Very fine if kept in the
abstract for the philosophically minded, but diabolically contrived to involve the helpless medical student in a sea of bewilderment. Somehow by the combined efforts of Roxby. Pritchard, and our own determined selves we unraveled and sufficiently mastered the mass of complex facts (and a little fancy?) to pass the exams, i Now. in the glorified estate of Seniors, we—if one observes carefully—may be caught open mouthed listening in awed admiration to Dr. Fay and to Dr. Scott rattle off a great string of neuroanatom icaI facts—awed not only by Fay and Scotty , but by ourselves for our previous great knowledge !)
And the last of physiology
Dr. Hickey aidedand abetted by Dr.
Spiegel w h o with his trein e n d o u s knowledge and inestimable flow of neuro-physiologic information, polished off our mystification of things neurologic.
Chemistry completed the first trimester. A new and fascinating side of Dr. Saylor was revealed to us. Dr. Saylor the toxicologist, the weaver of mystery stories, the modern scientific-sleuth.
Meanwhile we had started several new courses. Cooking by Dr. Hartley, the bedside manner by Dr. Kay. the fine art of I fine I carving by Dr. Giambalvo and the investigation of the inner man by Dr. English. We had our first taste I literally i of Pharmacology by Dr. Livingston. Latin a bit rusty—olfactory sense active but not very discriminating—eye for color better (or worse) for selecting ties and shirts than for identifying drugs. In the second trimester Pharmacology demanded most of our time and efforts—in the form of drugs (and doses!). Miles of Kymographic record, and everlasting struggle between gravity and an upright position—anything to comfort a foot-sore, hungerPcqe 97
ridden body in lab, when all sane people were having dinner (whoever said a medical student was sane anyway? ). In Pharmacology we learned the full meaning of the word notebook: Something not unlike a textbook, idealized and conceived by Dr. Livingston, realized by the student, the creation of which consumed many hours intended for sleep and made the last week of February, 1937, hectic.
Our various courses began to suggest the approaching clinical work—in our optimism and with this encouragement, we could, in a polite way, almost smell a patient in the woodpile.
Dr. Kay (with a tich, tich) taught us how to use our hands and our eyes I for purposes of physical diagnosis), to look for detail (which he and assistants found!, to observe with penetrating accuracy l what he and assistants pointed out to us). We began by the study of the normal (we hope—since it was us)—we carried stethoscopes and percussion hammers. (Here is a student who asked Dr. Roesler, freshman year, when did one use a percussion hammer to percuss.) Later we went to Jewish and Episcopal where we had the thrill of actually being at the bedside. Gravely we inspected, palpated, percussed and ausculted—gravely we offered our (very humble) opinions (one man’s guess was as good as another’s), gravely we accepted correction—all the while anticipating the remote day when we would be confident in diagnosis land now:—still anticipating).
Dr. Hartley herded us here and there over the city and countryside—it was fun: A chance to stretch our legs, play football and for Clara to wear that new spring hat—harried officials answered innumerable, more or less sensible questions. (Cowboy at Sharpe Dohme: “How near do you have to get to a snake before he knows you are there?") — We got our first chances to do something: A vaccination or two and with what pride we did them!
Dr. English's course confounded us at first— subtle and startling in its implications -material that we found it hard to apply to ourselves, as we must do in order to accept its validity. -However we felt about it at first, we were fascinated by the new field of thought and new aspects of people.
Third trimester our entire lives underwent a metamorphosis - for that trimester we changed from being, in a broad and general way. primarily medical students to being in a very
specific way pathology students. Almost all outworking hours became pathology hours, every school day: mornings, afternoons and frequently evenings, for many of us it was an extremely satisfactory period—the period when disease became the vital, all-important subject to us, the period- therefore—toward which we had all been working and looking for many years. The very distinguished Dr. Smith, with his pipe, and his delightful way of talking—Dr. Smith, the organizer, the professor and the author. (Now there is “Essentials of Pathology’’ by Smith Gault—but then there was our notebook handed out page by page, and plate by plate—we really had the privilege of studying from the extremely first edition of the new book even as ii was being delivered.)—Pathology: Lectures, lab, museum, quiz sections, projection room, our first autopsies—repeated in endless pleasant rhythm. (A few pathology boners admitted by their creators in moments of weakness: -Someone gravely asking the scholarly Dr. Smith the difference between a carcinoma and a carcinomata: someone proudly identifying the cross section of the spinal cord as a tubercle: someone with fine discernment mistaking a giant cell for a bronchus.) Every Friday after quiz section exhaustive post mortems in which every detail of the quiz was reduced to its finest fragments, in which it was proved beyond a shadow of doubt that the other fellow was wrong (or unfortunately that you were—), either way an excited weekly “search for the truth” greatly enhanced by being right.
And clinical pathology under Dr. Konzelmann with his dynamic manner of lecturing, his ready-emphasis on the significant, his unfailing ability to sustain interest, his (sometimes distressing) habit of individualizing the class las the time when in Junior year he discovered to his disappointment that Wertime threw the airplane, and his peculiar persistent habit of calling on Howell and Cook—“Tell us, Mr. Cook—if I'm not disturbing your sleep." I Here we were initiated into a few clinical techniques, as “merely" sticking the end of a finger—or more daringly doing a venipuncture (requiring one student with the courage of an adventurer, another w ith the fortitude of a martyr—Rinehimer had the former. Raw ls the latter, and then Rawls hastened to the accident dispensary to have a rapidly rising hematoma treated).
In a surprisingly short time final exams dealtTHE MAKING OF A DOCTOR .continued)
with us again. The number of our exams was increasing (hut we hadn’t seen anything yet— though we had heard rumors—Junior year with its exams was still ahead and even as we took our Soph exams there were Juniors being slaughtered by an exam that cast the most ominous dark cloud of all over our futures!.
September, 1937—Juniors—.Upper-classmen. Clinical years beginning—hospital and dispensary work. If we felt a little important again, just at first, perhaps the gods forgave us, since as the realization of our ignorance grew, our ill-fitting sense of importance dwindled. We had had introductory clinical material before, but as Juniors we had the real thing, the subject matter of practical medicine; we were greedy for it and eager.-—
Junior year brought a panorama of new faces and personalities: Our large faculty—the opportunity of knowing a few professors well exchanged for knowing more less well individuals developed fierce loyalties to various men (opinion was invariably divided, frequently to heated argument supporting the merits of our respective favorite faculty members).-
Surgery Dr. Babcock awe. Came the first Monday morning—8:00 a. m.—how (relatively ! easy it was to get up that first morning knowing that after a hastily grabbed piece of toast and a gulped cup of coffee we were going to meet with the Seniors and actually have Dr. Babcock himself lecture to us— the moment came, it was a thrill and privilege just to be there and applaud.—As mid-years approached apprehension grew because of the loud reverberations from the Junior surgery exam of the past spring •we were partially paralyzed—sheer terror, as the exam became imminent, our energies were all bent to that great moment of combat—studying progressed feverishly, hollowed Juniors met and invariably conversation was the same: “1 don’t know anything—WHATEVER do you suppose he’ll ask?!"'—the crisis was less than 48 hours away, the combatants had their armour in high polish, nerves were taut, attitudes verv tense, when suddenly: “Surgery exam postponed
one week”—spirits broke loose, bedlam reigned, fine academic purpose was shot to pieces, i. e., Hell—(Censored!, books slammed closed, the armistice was on- recognizing the devastation of academic resolve, we set joyously to a holiday week-end of celebration. A week later, quite calmly, we took the exam, and found it a very pleasant experience compared with the antici-
surgerv classes — Dr. Steel.
Dr. Steel's stocking capped. bringing order and vividly effective demonstration out of potential chaos —
Steel deftly operating.
Steel unerringly making the essential practical point clear to us. Steel with quick humorous strokes making real to us the vital lessons of his great experiences. Meanwhile, Giambalvo tweaking off a gangrenous toe. McDevitt doing six things at once, from holding giant diagrams up for inspection to giving anesthesia and marshalling patients around the amphitheater.
Medicine—lectures, clinics, Junior medical dispensary (and let us never forget the mid-year Medicine exam—suddenly, with no warning of impending doom and dire tragedy, we were plunged into that exam—“cardiac arrhythmias.' words guaranteed to unnerve many Temple '39‘s for years to come!—Dr. Durant and his impeccably outlined lectures bursting with vital information: Dr. Lansbury and his impeccable English (even though respeeratory and gastro-intess-tinai startled our American ears—and we conceded that “episode” was a better word than “attackt”). Dr. Farrar and his welcome way of creating an illusion of our worthiness in medical dispensary. Medical dispensary—something new in our careers—“the patient is yours, gentlemen.” a complete work-up. a tentative diagnosis, and an even more tentative therapeutic suggestion (including our own prescriptions— what aPage 99
gigantic mental effort to compose—practically carve out—those first prescriptions, the effort and uncertainty producing an emotional upset not unlike a mild attack of anxiety hysteria).
0. B.—I)r. Arnold . We had Heard that this course would deal largely with ''time” and “nature"—"time and more time" and “let nature take its course" (advice indelibly impressed on our obstetrical minds as Seniors) when in the far and dark corners of Philadelphia we felt the full impact of these sensible truths by the long experience of waiting.—And Junior 0. B. sections!—any and all hours of the day or night called to the hospital for “Junior ward delivery, hurry’’—mad searching for essentials of dress, trousers yanked over pajamas, hair uncombed, a lean beggarly appearance for need of a shave —sometimes in spite of furious haste arriving only in time to observe placenta-weighing. ( Poor Orpi finally gave up trying to arrive in time by foot and got himself a bicycle only to be stopped by a cop for disregarding a red light.)—And eclampsia and dehydration.
And many more things- the year was full of a wide variety of experiences, and of seemingly endless lectures producing subclinical cases of weaver’s bottom from sitting. Every Wednesday a. m. P. G. H,—in getting there by 8:00 a. m. we approached peaks of downright heroism (especially in the winter when it was icy cold and still dark when the alarm clock rudely roused us). Friday afternoons between Gyne. and Neurology: “Pass him up” and up he came mid cheers and advice from everyone—and the air thick with paper airplanes—discovering Tubby’s hidden hobby (Hi-Yo-Silver Haines)- an un-understanding command from the dean abruptly ended our happy innocent games.— Cowboy as Dr. Savitz' very enthusiastic scribe. Dr. Gilpin making neurology simple I no mean job that).—
All this and much more to make probably the most satisfactory year in medical school. Junior year over—for the third time that tense waiting for grades (from a total of 30 exams!), finally a great wave of relief—Seniors in medical school at long last.
Junior Jnterneships: The thrill of being more or less respectfully addressed as Doctor, of giving orders (and wonder of wonders, their actually being carried out), of performing minor surgical procedures, of riding ambulance—how many times our faces were saved by nurses who
kindly saved us in our need by good advice from a wealth of practical knowledge far beyond ours. —Junior interneships which gave us the beginning of a practical set of working medical values.—
September, 1938—Seniors—. Actually Seniors. Our last year in school. An M.D. degree just at arm’s length to be ours in a short while. However, being a Senior is not an unmixed pleasure. Suddenly we art faced with the realization that the cold, cruel world is very near, that soon we will have to keep the wolf from the door, that t h e pleasant casual aspects of student life are very nearly over, that we re not so important after all (not nearly so as we were as freshmen ).— But it is even more a great pleasure and satisfaction—we are finally near our long sought goal, we are again at the top of one of life’s numerous heaps, and this year we are doing practical things.—
After a few weeks the old refrain, “This summer I had a case that . . . .“ began to bore us and we settled down to the present. Our status is difficult to define. We’re sort of a cross between a sub-interne and a glorified water boy. We write histories and physicals, with foolhardy courage we stick our young necks on the c hopping block by making diagnoses, we are privileged to change bandages in surgical dispensary (deciding proper medication by the color and consistency of goo on the bandage just removed), we do lab work (just a game in effect, since it’s the technician’s report that counts). We are feeling our way under guidance to the point where we can stand on our own two feel and give it (and take it. we hope).
We are Babby’s, or Burnett’s, or Coombs’ nth assistants—it rather terrifies ns at first: soon we learn that even a slap on the knuckles isn’t life’s
(Continued on page 101)Page ICC
IT MIGHT HAPPEN HERE
(Ed. Noth: Far be it from us to delve in things political, but when a political system is crammed, or about to be crammed down our throats, we think a satire is indicated.'
SCENE: A pregnant household.
TIME: Fifteen minutes after rupture of membranes (approximately five years after some person socialized medicine).
Mrs. Para Prima Mr. Papa Prima Mrs. Neighbor
Regent I)r. Korsakoff, Third Assistant. Afternoon Duty, District Z-lTI-c, W ard X-19. Regent Dr. Neur Asthenia, Fifth Assistant. Afternoon Duty. District Z-lll-c, Ward X-20.
Regent Dr. A'Spinia. Fifth Assistant, Evening Duty. District Z-lll-c, Ward X-20.
District Commander Dr. “Porky” Caudae-quina. Commander-in-Chief of District Z-lll-c.
(As the curtain rises, Mr. Papa Prima is seen at left talking with Mrs. Neighbor. Papa is holding a urinal nearly filled with very fresh amniotic fluid.)
Papa (in a delivery room voice): es. I’m
very proud, and I believe justly so, of the vote I cast in behalf of this beautiful, machinelike system, a demonstration of which you are about to witness. Just think—if I had to have a private physician, as under the obsolete system. it would cost me at least fifty dollars. As it is. my additional taxes for this divine system are only forty dollars a year—a baby a year for ten years would be a saving of a hundred dollars!”
Para emits a groan of mid-pelvic position (high “C" of Arnold Classification}. Mrs. Neighbor rushes to bedside and grasps Para's hand. Papa hastens to phone and dials a number he had memorized weeks before.
Papa (after slight pause): “Is this the barracks of District Z-lll-c. Ward X-19? . . . Please
• As in i »»rk barrel politics.
send over to 113 E. Pine Street the regent doctor for afternoon primipara obstetric duty.
. . . No, not multipara obstetrician, the primipara obstetrician. Tell him to hurry!”
For an hour we watch Papa parade up and down the stage in his eagerness to become a father and at the same time to see the fulfillment of his dream—a dream of “free' medicine to all classes, including himself. Then a harsh, militaristic voice booms at the door.
Dr. Korsakoff: "Open in the name of the government! (Papa, fearing court martial, or a worse fate, rushes to open the door. ) “Why did you call me?” (He is answered by a plaintive moan from the bed. still pitch high “C. The peculiar look on his face is not one of amazement- a stagger proves it to be a suppressed burp. He now speaks in an undertone.) “Afraid I'll get all tired out for the military ball tonight. Babies, babies. . . . (Aloud) Oh, why did you call me? I find that if you lived next door you would be in W ard X-19. but here you are in W ard X-20 under Dr. Neur Asthenia ’ (Pulls huge bottle from pocket.) “Here's to the infant." (Gurgles a few ounces, and lurches out.)
Papa (picks up massive “Directory of Regimented Doctors,” and after endless consultation of various charts and maps proceeds to ‘phone l: “I want to speak to Regent Dr. Neur Asthenia, Fifth Assistant, Afternoon Duty. District Z-l l l-c. Ward X-20. . . . Please come to 113 E. Pine Street. . . . W hat? . . . You are taking one day of your sick leave today? But this is a delivery. . . . Hurry then."
Dr. Neur Asthenia: "Open in the name of the Commissar of Medicine!" (Enters, promptly sits down, takes sniff of ammonia, mumbles to self about the weather, babies, inherent Freudian tendencies. Sudden I he becomes aware of the patient.) “Is this your first or have . . . ?" (He is interrupted by clock as it strikes 6:00 o'clock P. M.) “Well, well . . . saved by the gong." (Laughs heartily.)Pog« 101
( Para is now emitting groans of low “C" variety, and is beginning to bulge significanty. Papa's dismay, disgust, and disillusionment are manifest by that famous lip rhythm: “--------------
— ----------------Realizing how gravid the
situation is, he resignedly picks up the directory.)
Papa: “Regent Dr. A’Spinia, Fifth Assistant, Evening Duty, District Z-ll l-c, Ward X-20. . . . Come to 113 E. Pine Street. . . . He's not in? . . . Oh. I see. Drilling medical students at Franklin Field in the use of hand grenades. Please rush him over here in about two hours" (very sarcastically).
ITempus Fugit some two hours.)
Dr. A’Spinia: “Open up. Open the door." (Enters.) “Why was 1 not called earlier?"
Papa: “Many were called, but few chose to deliver her" (in tone of utter despair).
Dr. A'Spinia: "Don't be trite and impertinent in the same breath. And tell the woman not to make so much noise—hand grenade practice is much more peaceful—and 1 like it better, too.”
Para (ha ing give up all hope, she has turned her face to the wall and is muttering scripture I: “Oh Death, where is thy Sting. Oh grave, oh me, oh me, me, me. . . " Sigh, gasp, sigh, sigh, gasp—interspersed with groans even lower than low “C"—head now presenting.)
Dr. A'Spinia (at ’phone): “Give me Dr. ‘Porky Caudaequina, Leader of District Z-lll-c. . . . I have a case here I don't feel capable of doing myself. Also have a tactical0 problem for you to decide. ... 113 E. Pine Street."
(Time goes on apace.)
Dr. Caudaequina: “Open in the name of the Commissar of Medicine!” (Enters as Dr. A'Spinia clicks heels together, comes to attention, and salutes his superior officer. At that moment Mrs. Neighbor and Papa rush to bedside, and as they hover about the bed Nature’s more gentle and more patient order “Open" is heeded. . . .
• Formerly known as “Ethical.
ENTER PR IMA, JR.
(Doctors hover in corner discussing right of Dr. A’Spinia to take case from Dr. Asthenia. Mrs. Neighbor puts down huge mixing spoon she very efficiently used as forceps and ties cord with strings she snipped from doctor's military hat. This snipping business attracts Dr. Caudaequina’s attention. He pulls birth certificate from pocket and begins to write.)
Dr. Caudaequina (holding infant up by legs): “I christen thee. . . . What'll we call him?"
Papa (in surly tones): “Call him ‘Christus’.''
Dr. Caudaequina: “Why ‘Christus’?”
Papa (arises and significantly opens door for exit of “professional men"): “Why? Because you quibbling Pilates washed your hands of him! Now get out while I can still control myself!"
(As curtain is wrung down Para, much lacerated and torn, again groans and turns face to wall.)
THE CHIEF DURING REGIMENTED MEDICINELIFE BEGAN IN 1935
Now this Medical School is called Temple and is seven stories high, and is on the corner of Ontario and Broad Sts., Phi la., Pa., and is only a few years old. and is made of brick, and the reason I know all of these intimate details is because I am one of the one hundred and eighteen young citizens in the class of 1939 A.I), who have come to this spot to learn the art of doctoring.
So. here I am. with one hundred and seventeen other Jacks and Judys fresh from our Penn States. I.afayettes and Yillanovas- At first, we figure that maybe we are pretty important characters to be in this institution; but we learn very soon that this cannot he true and this is what I will try to show you.
Well, it seems that a certain citizen by the name of W illiam A. Parkinson, B.S., M.D.. M.Sc.
I Med. I. LL.D., F.A.C.S., has the job of Dean, which is a job to see what kind of characters are enlisted, and to watch the progress of same as they pass through the hands of the older Artists, which have fashioned their lives to interpret the mysteries of medicine to us, and these older Artists are all M.D.'s too, and are called the faculty which means ‘“capacity,” and also ‘ the professors of a university.”
Personally, I consider the announcement that we must all gather for an introduction to our faculty as a very fine token of friendship between the Dean, these people, my brother citizens and myself, and it appears that the hatchet will be ground dull and buried in a place as hard to find as a burlesque show at a Clergyman’s convention.
At first, everything goes as per expected: “I am." the Dean says, “glad to see such an eager looking group of smiling, ambitious faces. I search everywhere for a face which is not; but find none.’'
Of course, the distance from the Dean to those characters nearest me is probably the reason he cannot tell the beaming faces are caused by a trim looking Judy who turns on the gas jet on the lab. desk in front of her large young neighbor's nose.
“It is always this way every year,” the Dean continues. “It is always eager smiling faces at first. But.” he says, “it worries me constantly to think examinations are anything but a worthy means of pleasant competition between you and my contemporaries.
“■However." he says, “you are a choice group of citizens, for out of nearly twenty-five hundred volunteers you have been chosen as the most worthy."
Now. to be sure, this is a pleasant build-up but it arouses a faint suspicion that maybe if we do not stay on the ball these other eager citizens will be drafted to fill the shoes from which we might be rudely jerked.
“I now introduce to you." he says, “the men who are your guardians this year. I would like you to meet Dr. John A. Kolmer who will be your teacher in Bacteriology."
Now it seems that Bacteriology is the study of nasty little bits of protein which are spherical, rod (rod, in these circles, means like a pencil) or cork-screw shaped, and which we soon learn have no place in our civilization, and. in fact, are to be considered as hard, tough customers without which we would all be 100 better off.
“I have nothing to add to the Dean’s words,” Dr. Kolmer says. “I, too, wish you good luck and am not one given to fancy speeches, time is valuable. ladies and gentlemen, so I lecture to you as soon as you meet the other men."
So there is Dr. Kolmer sitting down without batting an eyelash, much to the disappointment of the Jacks who hold ducats for the day at Shihe Park.
So the Dean commences to introduce another character who is later known to us as one of the “Big Three.” He is John B. Koxby. who is bead of a group which learns by experience that the human body consists of more parts than hands, mouth, stomach, and that, neck, means the part of the bodv on which the head sits, and will soon prove the same.
To tell the truth lie is right, for after I take a quiet citizen apart to see what makes him tick, it is a wonder to me that such a confusion ofPage 103
parts can he hidden under the skin of anything human and still have Jacks and Judvs eyeing each other except as jig-saw puzzle experts.
Now the Dean by way of varying things pauses at this point to introduce the other two members of the "Big Three," Drs. J. Garrett Hickey and Melvin A. Saylor, who wish to see laughing faces, loo, for it seems that laughing faces are, indeed, rare to them since their song and dance comes second term: and, in fact, they have nothing much more than pained, suspicious expressions to look at.
"I am happ to meet you." says Dr. Saylor and sits down.
"It is with mixed feelings that I look upon this occasion." says Dr. Hickey. "I am happy, like you, that school starts again. I am sad because I must wait for you several months; but 1 will wait for you," he says and sits down.
" Now. on hearing this, and on turning these words over to see what is hidden, I lean over to my right hand neighbor and say: “Van, I guess he means he is sure we will study his subject."
“Oh," an says to me, “I see you are a mind reader. In fact." he says, “you may turn out to be the class prophet.”
All this time the Dean is up on the stage. “In conclusion," lie says, “I introduce to you the man who has been before and will he this year your Mom and Pop, Dr. William C. Pritchard."
Now. a stern looking character comes forward and speaks into the microphone which he forgets is there. I know this because several sleepy citizens in the back row almost fall out of their chairs because of the roaring from the loudspeakers, which reminds me I cannot remember my mom sounding exactly like that when she sings me to sleep.
“I like all you boys,” he says, “and girls, too.
I am not one to feed you from silver spoons but I like you just the same. When you are in trouble come to me and I will help." Which I come to learn he really does. “Now, good luck." he says, “work hard and I will have no kick with you." and sits down. Which is maybe a good thing for my ears, and. furthermore, I can see from the expressions around me that he is scarcely a radio announcer by trade.
Now it comes on next Saturday morning and I am in room 603 and Van is telling me that he is greatly surprised to find spirit holding up so good. The citizens are buzzing and laughing, and I tell Van that maybe he is wrong all this time and that the Jacks and Judys appreciate their position even if there is a faculty, hut Van says he thinks not. He says lie thinks it is more likely that the students are just naturally optimistic.
Laughing and buzzing is at its peak when all of a sudden in walks the stern looking character wearing a black coat which is, indeed, rare in our type of work.
Well, it is well known to one and all that 603, nine o’clock Saturday morning is a place where we are to he quizzed on certain subjects as Histology and Embryology, and is no place to finish a much needed sleep, but little do we expect what is to happen.
“What.” Dr. Pritchard asks of a large young character in the first row, “is mitochondria?"
Now I have no kick with anyone who has taken on himself to ask other people questions, hut I am greatly disappointed to hear such a question at 9 o’clock this morning coming from such a worthy citizen; what is more I turn the pages in “Radasch” just the night before, and do not see this word in what I read.
At this point Dr. Pritchard looks at each and every citizen in the room for the answer, but one and all pass. The score at present is 0 to 1. the other side.
Here I sit in the third row, middle, which becomes the center of the Dr.’s attention. “What color,” he asks, “does hemotoxylin stain?”
By this time the character two chairs to my left finds his tongue, and wags the same feebly, and out comes the word. “Red.”
Dr. Pritchard is standing there looking at my neighbor in a sad way, and my neighbor is looking at Dr. Pritchard in even a sadder way, when my neighbor w hispers, “Blue.”
“That’s right . . . tell him." he roars, looking at me. “You will have the right color if you mix the two. What is it?"
“Pink,” I say. Now I admit I get a degree from a liberal arts college hut do not recallLIFE BEGAN IN 1935 (Continued)
mixing pigments, and, futhermore, I can see by his pained look I do not mix them right at this moment.
“Ilo. ho, ho," he says, “pink is it? Well, if it is pink. I do not wish you to paint my house." Nor do I wish to paint it. I only wish I can find a hole to crawl in.
Well, it does not take Dr. Pritchard many more questions to see that our knowledge of the subject is anything but hardy enough to undergo a third degree, especially at 9 o'clock in the morning.
“Gentlemen." he says, “if it is not for the fact that today is your first chance. 1 am disappointed in you. Don't you realize the sacrifices your Pop and your Mom make to send you here? 1 am unhappy to know you do not think of them as doing so, and. also. I am unhappy you do not study for me."
1, too, am unhappy I do not know the answers, and 1 leave the room like this.
Now around comes second semester, and by this time a few of the citizens figure that they may as well give up Medicine once and for all and go to some school that is more hospitable to this and that, and one thing and another, but they are wedged in to pay tuition for a few more months longer, so while they are trying to think what is the best thing to do, they watch the show go on just the same, but omitting this and that, and one thing and another, so as not to offend the faculty in case the faculty comes around looking for offense.
W ell, it seems that Dr. Hickey, who is waiting a long time for us, finds us about as ready to buckle down and pith frogs as a barrel of grease is fixed to stand off fire.
Only a few days pass in his course when Dr. Hickey suggests that one and all meet him at four o'clock in the lecture room. Some of the citizens are still optimistic but the majority doubt that he wishes to serve tea, at all.
Well, to make a long story short. Dr. Hickey walks through the laboratory the day before, and much to his disgust finds that one of our
members accidentally hangs a frog skin on the universal stand and throws the universal stand clamp in the rubbish bucket; another character forgets he puts his coil of wire in the left rear corner of the lower shelf, and locks his kymograph in with his glass beakers in his haste to join the former character, who does not wish to be the last one to leave the laboratory that day.
So I can readily see that Dr. Hickey has no sympathy with this sort of tidiness and. in fact, he regards us as very wishy-washy sort of characters, and by no means suitable to an orderly personality such as his. His speech is short, and he, by no means, minces words.
"You are," he says, “careless. And. carelessness I do not tolerate in my darberoo."
And to emphasize his point he tosses the above mentioned coil of wire over his left shoulder with the significant abandonment of one who suggests, as natural as a six and fne, that he can toss anyone who suffers from further amnesia into a job dealing them off the arm in a Beanery, or some such.
Now in conclusion a word about Dr. Saylor.
A friend of mine, who is in the class ahead of me. tells me that he has no way of putting down in figures, how interesting Dr. Saylor's lectures are. because after all any orator may have the same specifications and still be a fish-peddler. All this friend can do is tell some stories about Dr. Saylor’s lectures; but after you hear of these stories and then hear Dr. Saylor himself you have half a mind to look the friend up and ask him what he means by so gros l underestimating the situation. This is especially brought home in his last lecture.
The house is packed to the doors and Dr. Saylor is speaking:
"It is a sad day," he says, "a sad day. indeed. I'or until next September much water passes under the bridge. Look around you." he says, “it is the last time we are all together. . . . Not that I won't he here. 0 no, I will be here all right; and I hope you will be here all right, too. But I can see the signs."
And so do five other brother citizens who used to be in our class.Paqe 105
LIGHTER SHADES OF LIFE: two strange cases
Mr. Asa Goss. Age 43. White. Bookkeeper. American.
Came to Senior Medical Clinic 8 8 38.
CC. Both legs invisible from the knees down, including both feet (0 yeah!).
HP1. Patient was perfectly well until the day before yesterday (8 6 38) when, while at the shore for a swim, he started to lope from the bath house across the beach toward the water. Several women saw him and screamed, then fainted. Thinking that lie had thoughtlessly neglected to put on his trunks, he stopped for a hast) check-up. Glancing down he found himself legless below the knees yet suspended in mid-air. (A likely story!) Instinctively he peered over his shoulders expecting to see the missing parts lying somewhere along his trail. Then he realized that he could still feel the sand between his toes. Bending over, he placed a hand where his right shin should be. The hand closed around that very familiar, but invisible, outpost of his anatomy. Frightened, he hastened back to the bath house, pushing through the dense crowd that stood about with “mouths agape and eyes shining." as he so aptly put it. He returned home and has stayed in the house ever since, feeling rather unsubstantial and afraid that he might completely evaporate at any moment. At no time did he have any pain or symptomatology of any kind. And the condition has remained unchanged until the present date. 'Jeepers, talk about delusions and hallucinations! i
PMH. . o bearing on PI. Systemic Inquiry. Negative except for near-sightedness, occasional head colds, and pink ants with green stripes that chased him Iasi New Year’s Eve. and facts of HPI.
Family History. Not pertinent.
P.E. MY GOD, his legs ARE invisible!!! (The senior on the case had to be put in a safe place after making the last notation. The patient recovered completely when he accidentally swallowed a small book entitled “Parlor Magic Made Easy.”)
Thaddeus P. Gleet, age 13. admitted 11 15 38, worker in munitions plant. History and physical negative except for:
1. Strong odor on breath suggesting ingestion of alcoholic beverages.
2. Definite lurching, staggering gait.
I. Hallucinations and delusions of grandeur.
5. Strange “bumps” moving through the retinal vessels at irregular and infrequent intervals.
When asked why he had come to the hospital, Thaddeus said, “What hoshpitul? Thish ish Gran Shentral Shtashun, you dopesh." i Note dysarthria.)
Held for observation and diagnosis, his laboratory work was negative. Progress notes w ere likewise except that, on the third day after admission about an hour and a half before he died, he showed early signs of casting off his neurologic manifestations. No diagnosis yet. He died with a series of most unusual jerks, mufiled internal detonations, and thin blue smoke drifting from his nose and mouth following the expulsion of a frank smoke ring from each nostril.
At autopsy, scattered scorched ruptures were found in the capillary beds of the right forearm. right leg, left kidney, liver, and both lungs. Small nodules were found embedded in the capillaries elsewhere. These were carefully removed. but exploded when dropped. Chemical analysis revealed them to be small granules of dynamite. Thus, cause of death was at last established as dynamitemia with terminal explosive exacerbations.LIGHTER SHADES OF LIFE: hip hip Hippocrates
Hippocrates just can't get used to the fact that modern medicine is as it is. He was telling me that these new twentieth century doctors look through a laryngoscope and esophagoscope to see how things go down, then look in a proctoscope to see how things are coming out.
« i i
He was boasting of the medical terms named after him. I had described to me the original Hippocratic facies by old Hip himself. He emphasized the point that the word was facies, not feces. He made it clear that he was no stool.
In the delivery room, the dear old scoofer couldn't adjust himself to the stiff routine. He thought there was a waste of energy in much preliminary examination in trying to tell the position before delivery. We argued that the knowledge ahead of time enabled us to anticipate complications and accordingly be ready for them. To this he replied that when men debate over a woman or a question concerning her, it's useless, for the woman always comes out ahead in 96c c of the cases.
We were strolling down a corridor toward the O.R. when I thought I’d try discussing literature with him and so asked him if he had read the Iliad or Odyssey. He said that that w’as first grade stuff for him. Quite boldly T put the question to him concerning his opinion of Achilles. He seemed to think that Achilles was a jerk.
On reaching the O.R., there was much talk and explanations about the technique, routine procedures and apparatus. Suddenly there was a lull —nurses were quiet, internes were at attention, assistants in anticipatory preparedness. The Chief was in the room. Old Hippocrates asked why
the noticeable change in atmosphere of the O.R. He was promptly told, "Quiet—that’s Babcock!" “Well,” said Hip, “and who might Babcock be?"
The gray haired be-whiskered old man cautiously asked me whether or not we had considered labor from a standpoint other than that of the three stages. To this I proudly informed dear Hip that there were four factors in labor, namely—powers, passage, passenger, and
While continuing our inspection of the hospital, 1 thought I’d find out what Hippy, old sock, knewr about cirrhosis of the liver and its relation to alcohol. So I asked him why teetotalers usually had a longer span of life than those individuals who drank excessively. Casually he replied, “Because he’s a better liver."
As we were waiting for the patient to be prepared in Rectal Clinic, Hip wanted to know why medicine wasn’t taught by way of aphorisms in our modern medicine. I told him that some things were, and recited in my best Hippocratic style the noble adage—“Be wise, digitalize."
There was much activity in Pediatric Clinic as Hippy and I looked on. We were watching the interne examine quite a young male. Suddenly and without a word of warning there was that golden stream that indicates good bladder tone. At this Hippocrates remarked, “Behold, the fountain of youth at which no one drinks."
Having finished touring the hospital, we journeyed through the laboratories in the medical school. Hippoc was much taken with the kymo-graphic records in the Pharmacology lab. When asking his opinion, he ventured that most of the tracings were going to the dogs.Page 107
There is something so pathetic About the far advanced luetic,
Who when a lad wild oats did sow
And now with age must watch them grow.
Long ago a chancre hidden,
And a rash passed by unbidden
Then later crops of bumps and patches
Were passed off with some hasty scratches.
A year or so caused little change And it wasn't thought at all so strange When little knobs were easily felt,
In groin and axilla, beneath the pelt.
The years flew by on winged feet And the wily twisting spirochaete,
Was boring through the man's insides,
As sure as rhythm of the tides.
And one fine day when he was greying.
The cork-screw bugs on nerve cells preying, Found choice morsels in the C. S.
And Gosh. lhe made an awful mess.
Soon his pupils, small, irregular Reacted not to light—“A-R."
He heard the student doctor say,
"There's no Achilles or K-J.''
His gait was wobbly, he could not feel The floor come up and push his heel.
And when they asked him where's his toe?.
He had to say he didn't know.
The W assermann is still 1 plus.
Colloidal Gold curve is tabetic.
Treatment is anti-luetic.
The moral of this gloomy rhyme,
Is—always try to bide your time.
Until you're sure that oats you sow Won't answer back and bring you woe.
10:15 A.M.—Called to assist in surgery.
10:16 to 10:35—Scrubbed and repaired nails.
10:36 to 10:11 Went through oxycyanide of mercury, 70( c alcohol, and 95 alcohol.
10:11.30—Chief entered operating room and began to scrub.
10:15—Selected sterile gown, opened it. and dropped it on floor. Received mild scowl from chief.
10:16- Pulled self together, selected and donned second gown.
10:47—Selected gloves, powdered hands, pulled on gloves. The cuff of the left glove tore off in the fingers of my right hand as I tugged at it! Accident seen by chief, who made an uncomplimentary remark. New pair of gloves carefully put on.
10:48- -Tried to become very small and harmless in a corner.
11:15—Operation began. Assigned a position behind and to the right of the chief.
11:23—Left leg asleep. Attempted to shift left foot to gel relief, therein kicking the chief in the back of the leg. Received explosive warning for clumsiness. Everyone glared at me.
11:28—Couldn't tell chief the name of the nerve that he had picked up. Acidly advised to return to freshman year and study anatomy.
11:35- Left leg dead from toes to hip.
11:35.17—Leaned over to see a structure pointed out by the chief. Anesthetic left leg buckled. Collapsed on chief's right shoulder, causing him to apply his anterior aspect to the operative field.
11:35.49 Fell off chief’s shoulder to the floor, knocking over operating spot-light en route. Sprawled at full length, on back, among the ruins on the floor as the chief straightened up and turned toward me.
11:35.50—1 awakened THANK GOD!Through the interest and financial support of the following faculty members, a yearbook of (he calibre of the 1939 Skull has been made possible.
J. Marsh Alesbury, M.D.
Jesse 0. Arnold, M.D.
Y. Wayne Babcock, M.D.
Harry E. Bacon, M.D.
Charles R. Barr, M.D.
Nathan Blumberg, M.D.
John 0. Bower, M.D.
Charles L. Brown, M.D.
W. Emory Burnett. M.D.
W. Edward Chamberlain, M.D. J. Norman Coombs, M.D. Charles Q. DeLuca, M.D. Joseph C. Doane. M.D.
Harry A. Duncan, M.D. Thomas M. Durant, M.D.
John P. Emieh, M.D.
0. Spurgeon English, M.D. Matthew S. Ersner. M.D. Temple Fay. M.D.
Isadore Forman. M.D.
Edwin S. Gault. M.D.
Giacchino P. Giambalvo. M.D. Glen G. Gibson. M.D.
Sherman F. Gilpin. Jr., M.D. Samuel Goldberg. M.D.
Joseph N. Grossman, M.D. Benjamin (buskin, M.D. Jacques Guequierrc, M.D. Frank C. Hammond. M.D. Harriet L Hartley, M.D.
Harry Z. Hibshman, M.D. John F. Huber, M.D. Chevalier Jackson, M.D. Chevalier L. Jackson, M.D. James Kay, M.D.
Thomas Klein, M.D.
John A. Kolmer, M.D.
Frank V. Konzelmann, M.D. Roy L, Langdon, M.D.
John Lansbury, M.D.
Walter 1. Lillie, M.D.
Alfred E. Livingston. Ph.I). Pascal F. Lucchesi, M.D.
C. Howard McDevitt, M.D. C. Kenneth Miller. M.D.
John Royal Moore, M.D.
A. C. Morgan, M.D.
T. F. McNair Scott. M.D. William N. Parkinson. M.D. William C. Pritchard. M.D. Robert F. Ridpath, M.D. Victor Robinson. M.D. Samuel A. Savitz. M.D. William A. Swalm. M.D. Floyd W. Uhler, M.D. Michael G. Wohl, M.D. Joseph B. Wolffe, M.D. Carroll S. Wright, M.D. Barton R. Young, M.D.Pace 109
PICTURES TO THE EDITOR
Dear Mr. Editor:
Knowing that you are concerned about information relating to junior internships. I thought you might find interest in this photograph illustrating the technic I used in intravenous autotherapy, considered a standard method, where I was stationed. The operation is performed with the use of gas.
Very 1 nil yours.
T. A. GARRETT.
Dear Mr. Editor:
Philadelphia is some place! And do you know what. Mr. Editor. I see something new every time I go out. But coming in here on the train from my home town in Four Oak'. N. C.. population 8% souls (mostly lost one?I. the only thing I could say to myself was “My. what a town.”
What in the world do all those -igns “E-S-C-A-L-A-T-O-R" mean. I wondered. Too much for me. anyway, so much else to look at. 1 soon stopped wondering.
I sed to North Carolina. Mr. Editor. I did the only thing 1 knew to keep from getting lost in such a big city for the first time—look a taxi to my room which proved to be only about three blocks away.
“Veil. I’m going to freeze in ibis town if il's only September and it’ already shivering temperature. That’s
tolle ge Inn
(OPP. TEMPLE I . HOSPITAL)
Full Course Dinners Served Daily
He's always ivilling to oblige
3340 , . BROAD Sag. 9979“Pierre” Hospital Apparel
Manufacturers and Designers of
224-226 S. 11th Street
Pictures to the Editor
wliat I pci for coming to Philadelphia to medical school! Might as well lake down the old dictionary and sec what ‘ESCALATOR means, while getting adjusted to the gloom of this room.”
‘‘Let’s see. ‘a movable hand of stairs'—whoever heard of stairs moving; I'm sure I never did—must he some mistake.”
I'll tell you. Mr. Editor. I started to get real homesick so I up and got out of my room to see what the streets looked like. Colly, I’d walked only a block down Broad .Street when some old codger stopped me and said. “Don’t you ever get married, young feller, women are the bane of the world.”
“What kind of a place is this—I’m not interested in his married life.”
Well, Mr. Editor. I got on down the street a ways more and scented to be kinda getting citified in my stroll when all at once it came to my attention a train was approaching.
“Pretty good," I thought, "this will be just like home for several trains go through Four Oaks every few days.”
But upon nonchalantly looking around, and not seeing hide nor hair of any train and hearing the noise of its coming getting louder all the time. I plumb forgot about my new city composure and strolling technique, grabbed
i arm aceu irals iiiolof icals
STUDENT HEP. PAUL E. CORDON
“For the Conservation of Life"Page III
Pictures to the Editor
my hat and started jumping around trying to get out of the way of that bloomin' train.
“But lemme tell you what happened- that train turned out to he running along under the street, a subway, of all places for trains to run—ain’t this some town!”
After this pretty shaky episode, I got hack and elevated my heels in the relatively safe hut lonesome atmosphere of my room to think over all those strange sights.
“I'll do it.” I said to myself. “I'll go ride one of those bloomin’ subways.’’
And so 1 did, getting off at City Hall. After walking around in those tunnels awhile, lo and behold, before me was really one of the heatenist sights yet. i stairway, and rolling along from bottom to top.
"Land sakes. this must be an Escalator, and the dictionary must be right after all.”
Well, to say I was flabbergasted, expressed it mildly. 1 Stepped on the first step and started ridin’ right along to the top.
"Whoopee, if the folks down home in Four Oaks could see me now! Hiding Escalators, subways and hobnobbing with city folks!”
You won't think I got too much for my money, Mr. Editor, if I tell you 1 walked down and rode the Escalator back up a few times- -just to kinda get used to it. you know. Ell let you in on something though— if you ever want to go escalator ridin’ with me. I’ve discovered a store downtown where the stairs run up and back down also, so you don’t lose time walking back down again.
1 was just thinking about my Aunt Maggie Tart back in Four Oaks. If she’d put in one of those escalators, people would come from all over Johnston county to ride on it. What she could do would be keep all her merchandise on the second floor and not let anybody ride up the escalator without making a purchase, man. she'd make a killin'.
What I’m really writing you about, Mr. Editor, is the picture you will find with this letter. It’s of me and my family. I hear you have a picture contest on
"ALWAYS KIND TO YOUR CLOTHES”
FRENCH CLEANERS AND DYERS
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Pictures to the Editor
and while I’m naturally a modest feller, me and my family are such a fine lot that this picture will certainly win a prize.
Before you find out and start wondering. Mr. Editor. I better explain to you about this picture. You see. my wife is a graduate nurse at Abington Hospital where she works so’s I can have a weekly allowance. Nice of her. don’t you think! Well, she doesn’t have time to come down and live with me. so I just used a picture of her instead to represent her in the family picture. This is more nearly right anyway, for the picture is all I ever have except now and then on week-ends anyway.
Oh yes. and the baby in the picture is a victim of circumstances along with me. We always thought every family should have a baby. Mr. Editor, so since we don’t have time to really have one, this rubber baby will just have to do.
I might add that my wife is the best wife anybody ever had by telephone and on account of how we are so happy and get along so well (by telephone) and make up such a good family picture, even if part of the family actually isn’t there you really ought to consider it in your picture contest.
Well, that’s about all, I reckon except maybe I ought to tell you that I hope if you ever get married, you can do it some other way than by telephone. If you ask me. it's a heck of a way of being a husband. Even with the extra time you can’t study "Babcock" any better—
I know for I’ve tried. So you have your wife make enough so’s you can live with her too.
All the advice is free, excuse me for telling you about my first impressions upon arriving here from my home in Four Oaks, North Carolina, ’cause all the time I really meant to try to enter my picture in your contest.
B. I. TAKT. Jr.
C. D. WILLIAMS COMPANY
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246 S. 11th STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA.COMPLIMENTS
Medical Alumni Association
Temple University Medical School
First Vice-President Second V ice-President Secretary-Trcasu rer
Dr. W. B. Forman Dr. H. Tuttle Stull Dr. Simon Ball Dr. S. P. Savitz Dr. M. S. Ersner Dr. I. Forman Dr. H. S. Raines Dr. G. P. Giambalvo
Dr. John C. Burns Dr. C. (). DeLuca Dr. E. F. Me Dade Dr. Reuben Friedman
Dr. H. E. Bacon Dr. W. N. Parkinson Dr. C. H. McDevitt Dr. John 11. Frick Dr. S. B. Greenway Dr. J. M. Alesbury Dr. S. F. MadonnaPage IM
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They told us what they expected and we gave it to them.
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Could you offer any suggestion as to the diagnosis of the strange contortions of these hoys’ physiognomies? I hope it isn't contagious.
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THE MAKING OF A DOCTOR
worst tragedy. We have babies within I he comforting security of the hospital’s four walls, then all on our own we venture out into homes where we have no choice but to “let nature lake its course" and permit “time and more time”—for these times we A HE the doctor—it is our first experience of real independent responsibility. We go each week to a glorious battle waged between clinical and pathologic medicine, the lesson we learn here (that you can’t always tell the depth of the well by the length of the handle on the pump) is a bit unsettling—we therefore make a prompt resolve to take nothing for granted (may this, please, be kept better than most resolves).—
We are eager for practical information—exactly what to do. w hen and how. We definitely feel the urgent pressure of near responsibility. As Seniors our immediate problem is to get our interneship—but once settled it pales beside the more essential problem of actually getting that degree. When we feel small compared to the size of the job we are pri ileged to look back at ourselves as Freshmen and realize how we have matured—and then we find ourselves looking up to the physicians who have arrived- and we don’t quite know—maybe we haven't matured so much after all. So we are settled down to finishing this year at Temple University Medical School—this year at least is our year—when it ends may we have eked the last drop of profit— and of fun—out of it.
II II O S. 3300 NORTH 17tii ST.
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Skull's Photographer, Ken Christcnberry, has enthusiastically pursued his hobby for photography for many years. He has spent much time and effort both with candid and graphic cameras to reproduce interesting scenes and people. During the summers of 1937 and 1938 his ability was recognized by professional photographers and he was placed on the staff of a Birmingham and later a Knoxville newspaper; a few weeks of employment were given by the Pan-American Lines, as well. Ken did a large number of last year's photographs and most of those in this edition. We are indeed fortunate and grateful in having his services for the 1939 Skull.
The following lisa, page l»y page, shows the source from which most of the pictures in this issue were gathered. Those submitted by SKULL’S photographer. Ken Christenberry. and SKI LL’S portrait photographer. Sarony Studio?, are not credited in this list as well as a very few whose source is not known.
8 —DR. FRANKLIN B. WILKIN
13 -IACK EVANS
14 — HENRY HACKETT J5 —FEDRO ORE I
15 -ROBERT RECK LEY
19—ALE Kill V.AONER
47— JACK EVANS
88—DR. I.OWRAIN E. MC CRT.A 90--DR. LOWRAIN B. MC CREAPage 116
OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERS TO THE 1939 SKULL
PHOTOGRAPHS, if taken properly are valuable keepsakes.
KNOWLEDGE, through study enable us to give you the best.■
Timm Urttvensiry hospital
CONSUL TA TtON HI Ql IBS T
biPifT+ ttan da w 4
H i» •' (Viwfc-fA MESSAGE FROM DR. STEEL
It is the average doctor's lot to work hard, live well and die poor. Forty years of medical teaching and practice seem an apt time for a pause and a check-up. What did one get out of it? A lifetime of fascinating, congenial work. If given the choice, would one do it over again? Emphatically yes. What is the most pleasing memory of the years of practice? Not the brilliant diagnosis or expert operation; but the fine relationship which exists between the doctor and his practice: the good will, confidence and trust of the thousands of patients whom you have been permitted to aid mentally or physically through their hour of suffering.
Today's graduate student has a broad scientific training and diagnostic ability far beyond the dreams of the doctors of forty years ago. Small group practical teaching has replaced the stilted lectures given en masse to my class of over four hundred students. But some of the old anachronisms still persist. What you still learn in the major surgical clinic is negligible. It is really a rest period for the student. All you see are the huddled heads and the backs of the professor and his assistants; but at times the nurses may be well worth looking at. Why, at the final examinations, you are asked the details of a complete gastrectomy or hysterectomy while the reasons for not squeezing a boil on the upper lip is passed over, still remains a paradox of today's school curriculum.
Your periods of interneship are the true white bread and butter years of life. At last comes the opportunity of converting the student years of theory and science into the practical art of treating the sick. As a hospital graduate you will have a true gauge of the meaning of pain. When to wait and when to act quickly. As Hertzler aptly puts it, "To give sedatives and rub the tummy of a lady who is mad at Papa is one thing; to rub the same region in a case of perforated appendix is another."
As a young practitioner you will learn that what the patient wants is action. Your chief function is the saving of life, but what chiefly interests the patient is the relief of his pain. Diagnosis and relief of suffering should go hand in hand. If you would hold your practice, realize that the former need not be neglected in order to achieve the latter.
Because of your premedical course, today's graduate should be a cultured gentleman. Never lose sight of this personal attribute or debase your profession into a mere business. A noted New England educator states, "Trade is occupation for a livelihood, profession is occupation for the service of the world. Trade is occupation for the joy of the result, profession is occupation where only those who are prepared may enter. Trade is occupation taken up temporarily until something better offers, profession is occupation with which one is identified for life. Trade makes one the rival of every other trader, profession makes one a co-operator with all his colleagues. Trade knows only the ethics of success, profession is bound by lasting ties of sacred honor."
That the Class of 1939 may all emerge as professional gentlemen is the wish of your friend and teacher.
248ONE GETS TO BE SEVENTY
(Editor's Note: This poem was writton by Doctor Arnold in anticipation of a "surprise" dinner given in his honor on his seventieth birthday. December 28. 1938.)
One gets to be seventy almost overnight.
Never thought it could happen in that way to me!
Just look at me now, and you'll, see I'm a sight,—
Decrepid, and crooked and old as can be!
Don't laugh at me please, as I hobble around,
And try to keep up with the pace you have set.
You youngsters, of course, can cover more ground,
But you've never been seventy already yet!
'Twas only last Christmas—or maybe 'twas longer.
I looked far ahead to my three score and ten.
And wondered if then I'd be weaker or stronger,
Or just an old ''has been” among the old men!
Today there's no reason to question or doubt.
You've all kindly told me—I'm sure it is true—
Old Time has me down,—I'm taking the count.
And now,—well of course, I must know I am through.
At last I've lived out my allotment of years,
I've quaffed my last draught from the fountain of youth,
There's nothing more now, than to weep briny tears,
And accept in good grace, the full force of the truth.
But out of it all comes this one consolation,
And I seize on it now, with a glimmer of hope,
So many M.D.'s in such grave consultation.
Sometimes are known to be wrong in their dope!
So burn your old record, and blot out the date;
Forget all that nonsense, 'bout ten and three score,
To live long enough to be seventy's great,—
And I'm starting in now, to live seventy more!
In appreciation of a cherished friendship,
J. O. ARNOLD. M.D.The Effect of Morphine on Intestinal Motility
Arthur E. Herlzler, M.D.
("The Horse and Buggy Doctor")
Director. The Hertzler Clinic. Halstead. Kansas
I HAVE been repeatedly asked in recent years whether morphine is a stimulant or a parlyzant to intestinal peristalsis. I am reminded of what I have observed at alumni banquets as to the action of alcohol. Early in the evening it appears to be a stimulant but later on it undoubtedly is a paralyzant. It is a matter of dosage.
Likewise the action of morphine on peristalsis is a matter of dosage and duration of action. Also v e must recognize that the action is different on the normal and on diseased intestine. Therefore dosage, duration, normal or inflamed are the factors we must keep constantly in mind.
In the kitchen surgery days after one made a diagnosis he gave the patient a quarter of a grain of morphine and then leisurely proceeded to the kitchen to put on the instruments. Experience taught that unless one gave the morphine at least an hour, preferably two, before beginning the operation one had better not give it at all. If one began the operation before an hour the patient was in a more excitable state than if no morphine was given. There was a preliminary stage of excitement which was made evident if one started to operate before it had passed. When morphine was given for the control of pain, as for kidney or gallstone colic, if there was no response in twenty minutes one considered the advisability of giving a second dose.
My study on the action of morphine on peristalsis was made by sewing a glass window in the abdominal wall of guinea pigs and other animals. By this means I was able to observe the action direct of various agents on peristalsis. The immediate effect of sewing in the window was of course to excite peristalsis by irritation. This was soon lessened as the tissues reacted to the injury. After a day the presence of the foreign body became tolerated and one could begin his observation. I do not remember the guinea pig dosage of morphine that would increase peristalsis but it was very small and even at that it was but temporary and ceased after an hour or two. If one extraneates a loop of gut the action may be studied on the isolated loop. This method has the advantage in that the protruding loop is accessible for direct stimulation. The disadvantage of this method is that the act of stitching the loop into the incision tends to paralyze the loop.
Large doses of morphine of course paralyzes peristalsis completely after perhaps a short period of stimulation. Just what doses destroys peristalsis varies and the duration required for its action but for most adults it begins in an hour. One can observe this in doing abdominal operations under local anesthesia. Generally speaking there will be no peristalsis if one waits an hour after giving a quarter of a grain. This varies of course as to the. nature of the stimulus. If one stretches a hollow viscus such as stretching the walls of the appendix
250during the old operation of appendicostomy or trying to slide a scoop over a stone in a cystic duct, pain will always be elicited and commonly with it a definite peristalsis, even vomiting.
1 was able to make an interesting observation myself. In the days when it was sometimes necessary for me to perform operations while in the siege of a migraine I sometimes found it necessary to take a quarter of a grain of morphine. Quite regularly within twenty minutes after the injection of the morphine I would be seized by a very annoying diarrhea so that it was necessary to postpone the beginning of the operation until this period of hyper peristalsis was passed. The following day invariably there would be a definite constipation.
In the old days when surgeons thought milk was the proper postoperative diet the patients became enormously distended with gas about the third day. Because of the old through-and-through sutures commonly employed in that day to close the abdomen, large and repeated injections of morphine were required for the control of the pain. The result was invariably a highly distended abdomen which only time would remedy.
AS every surgeon knows the gut wall when inflamed peristalsis ceases unless there is an obstruction which dominates the picture.
The answer to the question therefore as to whether morphine paralyzes or stimulates peristalsis depends on the dosage and the duration of the action. Small doses soon after injection stimulate, large doses after say an hour invariably paralyze peristalsis.
More interesting than the relation of morphine to peristalsis is its effect on absorption. Whether the fluid in the abdomen is an exudate, induced by the injection of a chemical, or a solution injected into the peritoneal cavity absorption is definitely slowed. The action naturally is greater in the case of an exudate than on fluids introduced from without but it more closely simulates pathologic conditions.
Opium more definitely slows absorption and is more pronouncedly a paralyzant than morphine. The effect of opium on animals is more difficult to observe because it is difficult to introduce repeated doses of opium. Undoubtedly the effect of opium is to lessen absorption from the gastro-intestinal mucosa. In no other way can one explain the tolerance of the enormous doses which some of these patients receive. I observed one patient, being treated by an old time doctor, who received 776 grains of powdered opium in ten days, and recovered from both the disease and the treatment.
Obviously a renewed study, by competent physiologists, of the action of opiates on the gastro-intestinal tracts should be instituted. Even the study of laboratory experts might well consider the results of clinical observations.
Careful laboratory and clinical studies might result in a revival of the now forgotten opium treatment for diffuse peritonitis. No doubt this treatment saved many patients and is now preferable to operation in cases marked by severe distention. In these cases if surgeons would trade their scalpels for a dollar's worth of opium the patients would profit by the transaction.
231The Relationship Between Doctor and Patient
John Lansbury, M.D.
THE matter of a doctor's relationship to his patients is, needless to say, a very complex one. In its full consideration, a great deal of the science and art of medicine as well as the fields of ethics, of finance and of psychology deserve to enter. Such a weighty discussion would, I am sure, take up much too great a space in the Year Book of Med.'s '39, and I shall therefore deal with the subject by setting down only a few thoughts which come more or less at random to me.
The doctor-patient relationship should, like all successful human relationships, involve a mutual exchange of benefits. The doctor on the one hand, should shoulder the full responsibility of seeing that the best is done for the patient. What he actually does, — whether he merely relieves pain, or whether he performs a life-saving operation, or even if he only assures the family that nothing more can be done—these things, though important, are still of secondary importance from the patient's viewpoint to the fact that the doctor, and not the patient or his family, is from now on responsible for seeing that the best is being done.
On the other hand, the patient should rightly be expected to complete his side of the transaction by payment of a fee according to his means, and, if these be lacking, then at least by gratitude or perhaps permission for the doctor to increase his knowledge by a thorough study of the illness.
Such an ideal relationship does not, of course, always prevail. The doctor may be too willing to accept a fee without giving his very best in return, or. he may be too willing to serve and thus permit his patients to take advantage of him.
The doctor who is starting in practice will naturally want to please all his patients—the doctors who have been in practice for many years still have the same desire. It will, I think, save us many heartaches if we admit at the beginning that no one doctor can possibly please everybody, and if we have the lesser ambition of expecting to please the majority of our patients. There is a great variation in the ability of all of us to attract patients and to inspire them with confidence. Few of us are "naturals" in this respect, and we are therefore faced with the problem of developing some sort of satisfactory approach to a patient. This is commonly called the professional or bed-side manner.
It is my earnest belief that such a manner should never be copied or assumed, but that it should develop spontaneously through the continued experience of dealing with sick people in as sincere, honest and pleasant a manner as our personalities will permit.
There are, however, certain attitudes which one should avoid in dealing with most patients. One should, for instance, avoid being a bully such men
252are apt to be over-fond of all violent methods of therapy. They are prone to administer eviscerating doses of cathartics, to regard two honest post-prandial belches as an indication for immediate cholecystectomy, to prescribe medicines which are so expensive that the patient may have to go into debt to buy them (there are few drugs so valuable), to insist on bed-rest when it is only questionably indicated and to overlook the fact that this may cause the patient to lose his job, or, perhaps, to hastily command the patient to abstain from marriage or to avoid further pregnancies without taking into account the psychological trauma which such advice may cause.
On the other hand, one must be able id enforce a certain amount of discipline. One must make it clear that if one assumes responsibility for the outcome of a case then orders are orders. The patient must never be allowed to dictate his treatment, since obviously he is in no position to do so.
One of the most important things to avoid is an attitude of indecision. In trying to arrive at a diagnosis one may unconsciously communicate one's feeling of perplexity to the patient who, in many instances, will attribute it to ignorance or stupidity on the part of the doctor. Indecision is, of course, unavoidable. It should be dealt with by frankly telling the patient that the diagnosis is not clear and that further study and thought will be necessary before his case can be thoroughly understood. Many patients, like some junior medical students, have the erroneous idea that a diagnosis should be arrived at instantly by the mere proximity of the doctor and patient. Do not permit anyone to rush you into giving an opinion until you have had time to make up your mind.
When a diagnosis has been made, what and how much should a doctor tell his patient? This is a vitally important question, and its answer varied greatly in different cases. All patients expect some sort of explanation as to the nature of their illness, but to very few can the doctor hope to convey a full understanding of the derangement as he sees it. Remember that although the patient may speak glibly of the more common medical terms, these do not mean the same to him as they do to the doctor. To illustrate this, let me remind you of the patient who had "gas pains" in her teeth, of another lady who complained of "prostate trouble” and of innumerable others who believe that their kidneys are situated in the sacral region, and who, with some justification therefore, complain that their kidneys are "on the bum." Remember that the average patient has only a very vague idea as to the location and structure of his gall-bladder, stomach and colon. Much less does he understand the rudiments of their normal physiology, and still much less is he capable of picturing the nature of pathological states in these organs.
TN general, I believe it best to avoid long technical explanations, and advise that one allude briefly to the nature of the disease and emphasize rather what it portends in terms of treatment and adjustment in manner of living.
When an incurable disease or one that will be rapidly fatal is diagnosed, a somewhat different situation presents itself. What should one tell a patient who has an incurable cancer? In such cases, unless the patient demands point-blank whether or not he has a cancer, I believe it best to avoid discussing the
253diagnosis and to speak rather in terms of treatment. Naturally a responsible relative should be informed as to the true state of affairs. If a patient demands to know the truth. I believe he should be told, but here again, it is best to avoid the word "cancer" since to the patient this always means a protracted period of horrible suffering, whereas in truth, a great many cancers cause little or no pain even until the end, and may entail much less suffering than such diseases as asthma or essential hypertension.
From the patient's viewpoint, relief of symptoms is more important than a correct diagnosis. Do not therefore be disappointed at his lack of appreciation when you triumphantly announce that he is suffering from some such disease as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, even though this may represent a great deal of keen diagnostic thinking on your part for which you feel the need of commendation. Do not let the lack of appreciation on the part of the patient dampen your diagnostic ardor, for once you "let down" on your effort to diagnose even hopeless conditions, you run the risk of degenerating into a third-rate "pill pusher." One seldom recovers from this lowly state. Remember that in the last decade a dozen or more "incurable" diseases have become curable, and in the next decade an even greater number may be amenable to treatment. Medicine moves rapidly. You must move with it or quickly become obsolete.
WHATEVER may be wrong with your patient, he is sure to need sympathy, encouragement and relief of symptoms. Do not fail to give him all of these. Remember that illness comes unwanted and therefore carries with it a feeling of resentment which may be unwittingly transferred to the doctor. Sick people have a right to a certain amount of peevishness, and, before we judge them too harshly, let us remember that doctors themselves often make the most difficult patients. By all means avoid belittling a patient's symptoms. Whatever their origin whether organic or functional, they are real to the patient.
The neurotic patient presents a somewhat different problem. What I have said hitherto refers mainly to the handling of patients who have organic disease. Probably between thirty and forty percent of all your patients will suffer from sort of functional disease. It is impossible here to even begin to discuss the problems of dealing successfully with these unfortunate people—to do so would be to offer an outline of psychiatry in a few paragraphs—a feat which no psychiatrist would attempt. I will, however, permit myself to offer the following rules:—Don't try to get a "transference" unless you have some idea of what you are going; to do with it after you have got it. Don't let thei patient communicate his anxiety to you—(he is, remember, a supreme artist at making others feel concerned about him). Don't give any more advice than you have to—let the patient talk his problem out, and. in so doing, he may solve it himself.
In conclusion, I must say that I could have written much more authoritatively on this subject at the time of my graduation. I wish you all much happiness in the practice of medicine, and I know that you will not forget the high nature of your calling, nor the fundamental virtues of honesty, understanding and kindliness in dealing with your patients.PATHOLOGY AS A CAREER
Lawrence Weld Smith. M.D.
Professor of Pathology Temple University School of Medicine
THE selection of a career in medicine is even more of a problem today than it was in the past. Not only is the medical student faced with the question of whether he wants to become a general practitioner or shall devote himself to one of the many specialties, but he is confronted with a wholly new social order in medicine as well. Times have changed a great deal within a single generation. Life and living have become much more complex, and the future development of medicine will be materially influenced by these many social changes as well as by the rapid strides which science has made, particularly in the fields of biologic chemistry and physics. The opportunity to indulge in idle armchair philosophy in discussing these matters is a temptation which it will be impossible to wholly forego. A frank discussion of the problem, and of the opportunities which the field of pathology offers, however, will be adhered to so far as possible.
In perhaps no specialty of medicine during the last quarter of a century have more spectacular changes occurred than in the place which the laboratory occupies in the modern practice of medicine. The pathologist of the early part of the century was imbued with the comparatively limited concepts of Virchow's cellular pathology. The science of pathology was a basic science, an academic subject comparable in general to the preclinical courses in anatomy, physiology and elementary chemistry. It was a "dead subject" devoted almost entirely to the autopsy, with the objects in mind of finding the cause of death of a patient, and in tracing the course of disease by purely morphologic means. Gradually, pathology has emerged from this chrysalis and has taken wings with the correlated study of pathologic function as well as altered form in disease. Today, the pathologist must know not only histo-pathology in its much more elaborate ramifications, but must likewise be thoroughly trained in physiology and chemistry, as these factors enter into the interpretive aspects of diagnosis by means of laboratory methods.
Perhaps a more adequate concept of the part which the pathologist needs must play in modern medicine can best be illustrated by the following diagram.7V S can be seen at a glance, the laboratory must of necessity stand in the center of all the branches of medicine and surgery if the practice of these arts is to be carried out with the greatest efficiency. In the article by Dr. Poole in last year's "Skull," he commented upon the fact that he felt that the labora-
256tory should not only be placed in a central position from the theoretical and philosophical standpoints, but that it should occupy physically a similar position in the planning of any major hospital and teaching unit, with the idea of having the laboratory placed where the clinician might conveniently drop in on his way from his medical school class to the hospital, or from the operating room on his way to his office or home.—a place where he might drop in and, through mere propinquity and contact, become imbued with some of the ideas which are slowly developing in any such laboratory.
The more one encounters hospital laboratories that are inadequate, the more one is impressed by these comments of Dr. Poole's, for a hospital, like any chain, is certainly no stronger than its weakest link; and if the weak link in any hospital is the laboratory, then the entire structure of that hospital organization is found invariably to be of a similarly defective character. That this is true is seen by the efforts of the Council on Hospitals of the American Medical Association to establish minimum laboratory requirements which go so far as to demand a given percentage of autopsies in order that the hospital may maintain its rating with the Council. Hospital staff meetings with the introduction of clinicopathological conferences to discuss the deaths each month in the hospital are again prerequisites for recognition. These requirements imply the role of the pathologist and the laboratory in maintaining the standards of diagnosis and therapy through the following of cases, even to the autopsy table. In general, it is a truism that the higher the percentage of autopsies in a given institution, the higher the calibre of the medical and surgical work done in that hospital. There are no stimuli so great, as either the fear of being found out on the one hand, or the opportunity to find out on the other, to develop an accuracy in diagnosis and extreme care in treatment. Such a plan is not restricted to the study of those cases which are unfortunate enough to die, but should be extended, obviously, to the living patient in the examination of operative material removed surgically, or in the recommendation and performance of laboratory examinations designed to aid in the differential diagnosis of the more obscure medical problems. In this capacity, the pathologist is the friend and consultant of every clinical member of the staff, and his services should be freely available, and utilized to their utmost.
Thus, it appears that the pathologist is not, or at all events should not be, a man or a woman of limited vision and narrow interests. It becomes obvious that a pathologist must have unusually wide training in the entire field of medicine. It is not enough that a pathologist should remain isolated in his laboratory and not come directly in contact with patients. He should make ward rounds with the medical and surgical staff members and be familiar with the clinical aspects of disease if he is to be able to contribute as much as he should by
257such consultation in the interpretation and correlation of the various laboratory procedures in relation to the clinical signs and symptoms which the case presents. The pathologist must maintain a strictly scientific attitude in order that he may weigh impartially the evidence as it pertains to the individual patient. There is no short cut to such a position. Like the surgeon, it represents many years of training with the emphasis, in the case of the pathologist, being placed upon laboratory procedures and the daily use of the microscope instead, as in the case of the surgeon, of acquiring technical operative ability while he is likewise absorbing the clinical requisites of diagnosis, surgical judgment and the care of patients.
Certainly the choice of pathology as a career should be restricted to a comparatively few individuals who possess the somewhat unusual qualifications for success in that field. This is perhaps even more true than in many of the other specialties, and particularly as exemplified by surgery. Like the surgeon, the pathologist is the product of certain inherent qualities and ambitions which can be developed to a large extent by adequate and prolonged training. Perhaps even more true than in the case of the surgeon, the pathologist must have certain inborn qualifications or he would never choose to enter that field. In this connection, it is interesting to refer to a recent survey in the Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin of the Members of the Class of 1916: 27 % planned on surgery as a career in their senior year; only 5% are engaged exclusively in surgical practice today. Similarly, 18% planned on specialization in internal medicine; only 10% attained their ambition. Of particular interest are the figures relating to general practice: 15%' of the class had based their entire course in medical school with this in mind; over 30% of the class, now twenty-three years later, are actually engaged in general practice. Three to eight percent limit their practice to the several other specialties. One man alone from that class is a pathologist. Radiology, physical therapy, anesthesia and physiology likewise each have a single representative.
THESE figures bring out several interesting facts. It seems probable that they are quite comparable to the usual figures at the end of twenty years in almost any medical class and represent a fair cross section of the medical profession in respect to the distribution of their interests and activities. Outstanding from these observations is the fact that the great majority of students start off with the idea that they would prefer to practice surgery as a specialty. The reasons for this undoubtedly are manifold. In the first place, there is but little question that the financial rewards in a successful surgical practice far exceed those in any other branch of medicine. In addition, the dramatic side of medicine is likev ise most fully exemplified in surgery. Such self-dramatiza-tion in medicine is easy to understand, for it reflects a fundamental psychologicsatisfaction which is inherent in almost everyone. Perhaps another cogent reason for choosing surgery as a career is the very general belief that more good can be accomplished by surgical means than in any other form of medical service. These same reasons, too, in a less exaggerated form, probably explain the general tendency toward specialization in the other fields. The recognition that it is obviously impossible to do more than very average work in the whole field of medical practice today is another strong factor in this tendency to specialize. But, I state regretfully that it is my firm conviction that with comparatively few exceptions, and among those exceptions must be listed the leaders in medical education and practice throughout the world, the primary object of specialization is the presumptive greater financial return at the least expenditure of time and effort.
It is the general practitioner still who comes nearer fulfilling the tenets of Christianity in attempting to apply the golden rule in the practice of medicine. It is the general practitioner who knows the art of medicine, who is the confidant and confessor of all the members of the family, who aids in the bringing into the world of their babies and makes death a much less dreaded ordeal. It is he who carries the real load of medicine, who knows its problems and helps in finding the answers. That is one of the results of our more complex civilization. It is particularly found in the urban communities where opportunity for a closely knit social life and contact with one's neighbors within the community is difficult to maintain. Fundamentally the problem which confronts the average patient is quite as often one of fear as it is of actual organic disease. The fear may be well-recognized by the patient himself, or it may be entirely subconscious and need the skillful hand of the physician to uncover the basic difficulty from which the patient is suffering. In the more marked of such cases, the problem becomes one for the psychiatrist, but the successful physician must, himself, be able to recognize the minor maladjustments of this type in his care of a patient. This is one of the great advantages which the family physician and general practitioner enjoys, due to his familiarity with the problems of his patients.
And it is this aspect of the practice of medicine which is being overlooked today in the scramble to change the whole social order in the care of the patient through State and Federal intervention. It is undoubtedly true that we are living in a scientific age, and it is true that we are living in an age in v hich every individual should be entitled to the best possible medical care, but the solution does not lie in political domination of the field. We, the People, still exist under the American Constitution with its concomitant Bill of Rights, and should be permitted the free selection of our own physicians in the same way in which we are permitted to worship in whatever way we
please. With the elimination of the personal relationship between physician and patient, which is being even more seriously threatened by proposed health regulations, than already exists in this age of specialization, the entire object of federalized regimentation of medical practice is defeated. It is trite to remark that, as has been variously estimated, from seventy to ninety per cent of human ailments have as the largest factor an emotional, psychologic, psychic, functional aspect regardless of whether or not there is any underlying organic disease. The true physician, particularly the family doctor, recognizes this fundamental point in his care of his patients. It makes no great difference how skilled a surgeon may be in removing some particular part of one's anatomy. In the great majority of cases, unless he has that added indefinable thing which we speak of as personality or understanding so that his patient has confidence and faith and belief in him. that patient's convalescence will be immeasurably retarded.
One cannot regiment an entire Nation in matters pertaining to their health in the same way that one can regiment a group of soldiers or sailors in time of war. The object in this instance is designed to keep the greatest number of men in the line of duty with the least possible loss of time. It is impossible, except on paper, to apply this same principle to the regimentation of the health of labor, and certainly not to us as a Nation. Several thoughts intrude themselves in this connection. In the first place, one difficulty which is encountered very early in one's experience is the fact that actually medical practice is still far in advance of the demands of the population. Were this not so, then the thousand and one cults could not survive. Ignorance lies behind this situation- -ignorance of the most elementary physiology. And curiously enough, this ignorance is not restricted to the uneducated masses, but applies to many, many individuals with university degrees after their names. Life, health, disease are all mysteries which should not be pried into by the lay person according to their expressed opinions. Medicine is still closely linked to superstition in the average individual's mind.
TTME and time again, it has been shown, even existing medical facilities are not utilized to the utmost by the public. Again, ignorance of how to secure such service, fear of hospitals, stupidity, red tape and similar inadequate excuses are stumbling blocks. Granted that the country is still inadequately provided with hospital beds, clinics and dispensaries, the fact remains that frequently even the present opportunities are not appreciated or taken advantage of as they might. There is no particular point in building additional hospitals until the public is educated to use them. Civilization must be evolutional in its development. Wherever this normal process has been pushed too rapidly, invariably there has been the collapse of that particular
2G0civilization. The law of the survival of the fittest applies to nations as well as to individuals. Where a nation gets too pampered, too soft, too accustomed to the luxuries of that age, its civilization disintegrates. We can push this pampering of a people too far, just as an only child can be spoiled- -and instead of improving the health of mankind as certain idealists would have us believe we can do by regimentation, it will not be surprising to find that actually we develop a nation of neurasthenic hypochondriacs, whose physical morale will be more likely undermined than benefited by all this solicitude for their well being.
The answer to the problem of medical care for an entire people is one which can be solved on a practical basis by the medical profession in conjunction with the various local health organizations. Two major courses would seem comparatively readily charted, which would take care of the great majority of the people. In the upper income bracket groups, there is probably actually no need of changing the present system of individual selection of a physician by a patient. If such a change is indicated, then a voluntary nonprofit insurance plan operated by physicians, designed after the pattern of the current hospitalization insurance schemes, could easily be established, which would take care of all medical services necessary in the care and treatment of that particular patient. In the lower income groups, the so-called white collar workers, such an insurance plan could well be made near compulsory through example and precedent, and if, after a reasonable trial period on such a voluntary basis, it was not adequate, then made truly compulsory through local, not Federal, government control. Such a plan would similarly apply to labor, but in this instance would probably need partial support from the employer. If carried out with any degree of thoroughness, this should easily take care of the medical needs of the community at large. In the case of the actually impoverished, and the unemployed, again the same system as is currently the custom would seem to adequately provide the best of care without expense to the individual. Even with the present admittedly imperfections in the organization of medical practice, there is no reason why any patient need ever go without necessary medical care.
To carry out such a program might require perhaps some slight increase in the present state or municipal aid to a community's hospitals and public health program, but with hospitalization expenses taken care of through group hospitalization insurance, with medical services similarly provided for at a minimum per capita cost, then such state aid should show but very little, if any, actual added expense to the taxpayers. Such is one course which could be followed and which is somewhat in keeping with the apparent thoughts
261of the present Administration in its plea for compulsory health insurance. The less compulsion, the more successful such a plan will be.
The other course which suggests itself as a logical development in the providing of adequate medical service to persons of all means, ages, creeds and color, is in the development of group practice. This is no new thought, and has been shown to work effectively in many communities to the advantage of both patient and physician alike. One sees this type of practice in every university teaching hospital where the staff is comparatively large, and its interests sufficiently diverse so that the various specialties are represented. The free ward patient in such an endorsed or non-profit, voluntary hospital obtains the benefit of the experience of these many specialists, as many as are needed to secure the proper diagnosis, and to carry out the recommended treatment. Similarly, such opportunities are offered the free patient in every municipal or state hospital.
TN smaller groups in local communities, several physicians representing the major specialties have similarly banded themselves together as a clinic. The patient is interviewed on admission by the clinic business representative, his financial status established, and a flat percentage fee arranged for, based on his income. In this way the physicians of the clinic actually do not know whether any particular patient is paying one dollar or one thousand dollars, and no possible difference in their interest, efforts or treatment can enter the picture, which is one of the criticisms commonly intimated in any lay debate on the subject of medical economics. Other groups of a similar nature charge a flat fee for diagnosis, such groups and fees varying in the economic group of patients with whom they deal. Perhaps no one of these methods of group practice is applicable in every community, but some such form of group practice is a solution which renders the cost of medical care much less a burden to the patient, especially those of modest income, than is likely to be the case under the present methods of rugged individualism in practice. It further provides the best efforts in diagnosis and treatment available in the light of our present rapid scientific advances for the millionaire and the hundred-dollar-a-month-clerk alike. Perhaps some combination of these two types of organization for medical treatment of the community can be worked out successfully dependent upon the nature of the local requirements. In this field of medicine as in perhaps no other, does the problem of individual rights, whether as a single human being, as a town, a city or a state, in contradistinction to Federal jurisdiction, seem more paramount.
These few paragraphs concerning the problems of medical diagnosis and treatment may seem somewhat far afield in our consideration of the choice
262of pathology as a career. Actually, as our thesis develops, their importance will become apparent, for with this transition in our whole medical economic plan comes the possibility of fulfillment for the pathologist of the wish to provide all indicated laboratory methods of diagnosis at his disposal to every case. This service, under existing circumstances, is altogether disproportionate in its cost to the average individual's income.
It must be recognized from the outset that any physician who wishes to enter the field of pathology as his life's work must recognize the necessity of a prolonged training and face the fact squarely that the income from such a practice will probably never be proportionate to that of men in the clinical field, particularly in certain of the specialties. From the ideal standpoint it would seem essential for the prospective pathologist to spend at least two years in a rotating internship covering the various clinical fields. If the pathologist is to be able to be of value as a consultant, he must be familiar with disease clinically. Following this initial two-year internship, various schemes suggest themselves for the further training of such a man. It would probably be well for him to devote a year as an intern in pathology and then follow this by a residency in pathology. The residency plan, as seen most effectively in force today, is in the form of a fellowship. This implies a minimum of three years devoted to the specialty in addition to the regular clinical hospital internship and is comparable to the fellowships in the clinical specialties. During this period at least one-third of his time is devoted to an intensive postgraduate review of the basic sciences, especially chemistry, physics, anatomy and physiology. That such requirements are minimum in character is evidenced by the fact that the various specialty boards, including the American Board of Pathology, will not qualify a man in this field who has had less than three calendar years, exclusive of internship, devoted to the study of his specialty, followed by at least one year of further training or practice in that field.
One advantage may be found in the selection of this field in that it is not as overcrowded as is true of most of the other specialties. It is possible, with this amount of training, for the man who cannot afford to spend more time in further training to almost immediately secure a responsible position with a living income. Such opportunities are much more available than is true in the case of most of the clinical specialties, and precludes the long apprentice period as an assistant.
With the requirements of the Council on Hospitals, every hospital, to be acceptable, must have the services of a pathologist. When this ruling went into effect there was a great dearth of men to fill these positions, and many of them v ere given to men with inadequate training in the past. This condition is gradually correcting itself as the importance of the laboratory in the hos-pital economy is appreciated. Men with more thorough qualifications are constantly being sought, even among the smaller institutions in the lesser populated areas, and at a definitely higher income level than was formerly the case. One can be assured, after such a five or six year period of training, of a reasonably satisfactory professional opportunity. Many institutions establish such positions on a strictly salary basis. Others merely provide facilities for laboratory diagnostic work in return for certain services rendered the hospital, and the physician runs his own laboratory just as he would practice any other specialty.
THE big stumbling block in the development of clinical pathology in the field of medicine has been the relatively disproportionate cost to the average patient's income. There is a very heavy initial capital investment for equipment. There is a constant outlay for supplies and chemicals. It is physically impossible to carry on such a laboratory diagnostic service without the assistance of one or more technicians, all of which increases the total investment in the laboratory, and which has to be pro-rated on the laboratory fee schedule.
With the institution of group practice or with the development of the medical service insurance plan, this financial burden becomes much less of a problem. With the insurance plan, a basic fee rate can be established which would work out to the advantage of the patient, the physician and the institution. With the group practice plan, a flat fee either of an arbitrary amount or based on a percentage of the patient's income, can be put into effect which would again cut the cost to the patient, while the income of the group as a whole is merely redistributed somewhat more equitably than by the system at present very largely in vogue. It is to that future where every individual may feel free to go to his physician or his hospital for complete diagnostic studies and the finest type of treatment that we look forward. It does not matter particularly by which road we travel in the reorganization of medical practice. The end result will be better medicine and greater satisfaction for patient and physician alike. In no other branch of medicine will the effect of this new social order be seen to a greater degree than in the field of pathology and its close ally, clinical pathology.
It is to be hoped that this brief discussion of the opportunities which pathology offers as a career may perhaps serve to emphasize the place of the laboratory trained man in the whole scheme of modern, scientific medicine. It is not a road which everyone should choose. It means great self-denial, prolonged training and relatively meagre financial reward. But it is the high road, a road full of adventure at every turn, a road often seemingly impassable, but along which the trail to the conquest of disease is being blazed. In personal satisfaction, in service to mankind through teaching and investigation, it is doubtful if any other career in medicine can offer as much.
264A Method for the Determination of Specific Gravity Using a Small Amount of Fluid
Benjamin Gruskin, M.D.
Director. Department cf Oncology and Experimental Pathology
Harrison R. Hines, B.S.
IN 1933. a method for the determination of specific gravity of a drop of fluid was described by Dr. Gruskin.
This method had the advantage over similar procedures in that it is easier to perform and is to a certain extent more applicable to routine laboratory procedures. However, there was a slight disadvantage in that the results obtained were relatively accurate, but were not calculated to the exact point of absolute correctness. As it was, the slight difference involved did not play a great role in the determination of the specific gravity. In order to make this test scientifically accurate, further work has been done by the writers. This consisted in modifying the calculations to more accurately conform to Stokes' Law. The original procedure as described by Dr. Gruskin, along with the revised calculations are herein described.
The necessity of determining specific gravity in physiological and pathological fluids as well as in chemical solutions, is well established, but owing to the fact that some solutions are brought to the laboratory for examination in small quantities, it is impossible to determine the specific gravity of such fluids by ordinary methods. Hammerschlag and Barbour have devised a technique for determining the specific gravity of such fluids with a single drop. Owing to the rigidity of the technique and the time required to perform, their method is seldom used. With this in mind, the following method was planned,
2G5which requires little time, calls for no special materials and will to all purposes be useful and practical as an aid in laboratory technique.
Replacing the chloroform-benzol solution of Hammerschlag, there is used a carbon tetrachloride-petrolatum mixture which does not evaporate as readily. This oil mixture is adjusted to a specific gravity of about 1.010 with an ordinary urinometer. This oil mixture is placed in a wide burette so that the upper meniscus is fully one inch above the zero marking.
Procedure for Taking Specific Gravity
The solutions should all be at room temperature. All drops must be of the same size to insure accurate results in specific gravity determinations. An ordinary pipette used for counting white blood cells was adopted as the best means of obtaining an accurate drop.
The solution to be examined is drawn up to the division marked "1" and is blown out to the last division. The amount of liquid going into the drop is therefore determined exactly. A little practice is necessary to control the drop, but skill is easily achieved. One drop of standard H2SO, (adjusted to sp.g. = 1.020) is dropped into the burette, and the time of fall of this drop between the zero mark and any other mark on the burette is recorded. The time of fall may be conveniently registered with a metronome set at 96, or with a stop watch graded in tenths of a second. This is repeated for the unknown fluid.
According to Stokes' Law, which determines the velocity of a drop of fluid falling through a viscous non-miscible medium:
2 g a- (d., — d,)
V =--------------------; where g is gravity, a is the radius of the drop,
d2 — d, is the difference in specific gravity between the known and unknown fluids, i.e., between the oil mixture and the drop of fluid which falls through it. h is the coefficient of viscosity of the- oil mixture. Substituting a time element, setting up a proportion and solving, v ith the elimination of constants, the following equation obtains:
T, (d, - d.) = T8 (d;i — d, .
T, and T2 are the time of fall of known and unknown drops, d, is the density of the oil mixture, d2 is the density of the unknown fluid and d. is the density of the known H2SO drop. The equations are then easily solved for d2. (If the metronome is used, T is the number of metronome beats.)
From a consideration of the procedure it may be seen that no correction is made for acceleration of fall or for a tailing off of fall at higher specific gravity due to the viscosity of the oil mixture. This correction is avoided by working only within near ranges of the specific gravity of the oil mixture, where the curve is practically straight. A few precautions to be observed are: the oil mixture should be kept fresh and clean and should not be left standing for any length of time as evaporation will slowly take place; the metronome, if used, must be consistently kept wound; at least three consistent readings should be obtained before making calculations, and the drop must be placed in the center of the tube to obtain an even fall.D E D I
EFFIE DINKELACKER. R.N.
In deep and honest admiration of her outstanding qualities as an incomparable nurse, of her ability to teach the art of nursing to others, and of her relentless and challenging demands that the utmost in nursing care be given to every patient in our charge, we, the Senior Class, gladly dedicate our section of the "1939 Skull" to Miss Effie Dinkelacker, R. N.
TO THE CLASS OF 1939:
To be successful is a universal desire, I think of each one of you—as standing on the threshold of adventure equipped with sufficient material to accomplish, with success, that to which you will bend your energies.
What paths you will choose will depend on where you place your values of prominence in public life and what appeals to you, for that you will strive; if making money is your ambition, that is where you will place the emphasis; if helping to alleviate human suffering is your consuming desire, there is where you will give your talents and find the field wide in people.
All these are worthy ambitions, but 1 like to feel that the greatest success comes to him who is so interested in people, so kind and sympathetic, so tolerant and understanding, that the memory of such a one is like a golden thread which runs through the fibre of their lives and gives to them courage and cheer down through the years.
BEATRICE RITTER, R.N., M.A. Dean of School of Nursing
270T I O N
EFFiE DINKELACKER, R.N. Assistant Director of Night Service
ANNA SUVITSKY, R.N. Acting Nursing Arts Instructor
E. LOUISE GRANT. R.N.. M.A.
Director of Nursing. Temple University Hospital
LaVERNE THOMPSON, R.N., M.A. Educational Director
RUTH CLEMENTS. R.N., M.A. Assistant Director of Nursing Service
ELEANOR DOWD. R.N., M.A............................................... Pediatrics
HARRIET EBERSOLE. R.N. Assistant Night Supervisor
MURIEL GROFF. R.N., B.S................................................. Surgical
MRS. FRANCES PLATT. R.N................................. Out-Patient Department
AGNES POWERS. R.N............ Bronchoscopic Clinic
Front Row (left to right): Miss Mary Sliker, Miss Ruth Keyser, Miss Etta Parr. Miss Helen Ritter. Miss Evelyn Groneck.
Back Row (left to right): Miss Cecllle Hamblin. Miss Madeline Hammor. Mrs. Eleanor Schuler. Miss Loretta Ulshaffer, Miss Ruth Curley. Miss Martha May.
Others Net in Picture: Miss Lillian Doggett, Mrs. Holon Ott. Mrs. Dizabeth Smailer. Miss Mary Docktor, Miss Mary Pagnotta. Miss Anna Polir.ka.HELEN RITTER. R.N. Class Advisor
JOHANNA KRAUSS MARGARET OLSON
President of Class Editor of Nurses' Record
MARJORIE McFADDEN ROBERTA ANDERSON ANNA LOWERY
Secretary Vice-President Treasurer
Forty Fort, Pennsylvania
ROBERTA D. ANDERSON
Presque Isle, Maine
BETTY M. BAILEY
Riverton, New Jersey
PATRICIA ANN BARTHOLOMEW
Penn Argyl, Pennsylvania
EMILY ANN BRYANT
BERNADINE I. FRANKHAUSER
MARY C. GREEN
28 1939 SKULL
281MILDRED V. HERDMAN
Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania
Millville, New Jersey
MARY EVELYN KEENER
JEANNE G. KELLER
DOROTHY D. KRAUSER
NURSES' RECORD ___
JOHANNA A. KRAUSS
Hagerstov n, Maryland
2 SoMARGARET LOCH
Summit Hill, Pennsylvania
28 ;1939 SKULL
REBECCA JEAN LUPHER
287GRACE LAIRD MATHEWSON
NURSES' RECORD ___
288_ 1939 SKULL
MILDRED I. McCARTY
281 MARY E. McFADDEN
ALYS R. MOORE
291WILENA M. MORRISON
NAOMI J. MURPHY
292- 1 9 3 9 SKULL
MARGARET J. OLSON
EMMA MARTHA OLSSON
Trenton, New Jersey
293JOSEPHINE N. PANZARELLO
FAYE A. REINER
Tower City, Pennsylvania
— NURSES' RECORD
HELEN C. ROSCOE
Upper Darby, Pennsylvania
FRANCES C. SATKOWSKI
Upper Darby, Pennsylvania
BARBARA RHEA SMITH
JUANITA C. SMITH
ETHEL JANE SNEBOLD
Tarentum, PennsylvaniaELIZABETH STAHL
JOSEPHINE T. STARRY
Summit Hill. Pennsylvania
_ NURSES' RECORD
2981939 SKULL —
ELIZABETH M. TURNER
Clayton, New Jersey
THE FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE PLEDGE
I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to elevate the standard of my profession, and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping, and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I endeavor to aid the physician in his work and devote myself to the welfare of those committed to my care.
300MY IDEAL NURSE
As I ponder waiting for her to come into view again, I wonder if we are really acquainted. We have met a number of times in the hallways of my mind, but until recently I have never paused to consider her as an individual. It seems our pathways cross more often now. She stands out as white against black making one quite aware of her presence, each encounter revealing in her more charming, human, womanly traits.
I was awed at our first real contact, seeing an approaching figure with a sheer beauty of cleanliness, simplicity and poise. I mutely gazed at her on passing, expecting to see an image made of marble—as ideals and figures on pedestals usually are—but was surprised to find her really alive, having plain features, not beautiful in the classic way but far more so in an intangible way which drew one to her.
The contour of her is vague but I can remember that her eyes and mouth were expressive, portraying kindness, sympathy- -yet determination which seemed to me to reveal that which v as within; and as I gaped I'm sure they twitched with humor.
A patient was with her at our next encounter. The patient was a morbid, sullen soul, yet this "friend" of mine went stoically on disregarding his ugliness, trying to remove this mood with tactfully applied attention, cheerfulness and sympathy.
As she left the gentleman for a moment I approached offering condolence because of his irritability—an act I do not regret for she rebuked me constructively and kindly. I v as told my reaction was of the average but incorrect. Being a nurse it was her chosen vocation to aid him and others to mental as well as physical health, the two being inseparable. Her v holesomeness and loyalty showed in contrast to the littleness of myself which I must overcome. I bowed instinctively to the human greatness in her; her eager desire to serve and serve well. The patient called—with a smile and goodbye she v as gone.
The sun was shining brightly, begging everyone to come out one day. I responded and was pleasantly surprised to find my "friend” had also. She came up to me gaily; I hardly recognized this carefree, girlish person as the same one I had been meeting. As we conversed I found her speech enviable, her knowledge and interest on general topics enlightening.
As we walked along our conversation leaned toward recreation. She not only enjoyed literature but indulged in sports, tennis, hiking, and swimming. And wonder of all, music enraptured her—but I should have known that no one could be so vitally alive and not feel the stirrings of Wagner and Strauss— whose music is the exquisite portrayal of all human emotionalism. She urged me to know them and to feel their music more deeply.
It was in chapel that I saw her last, before her God. I could feel Him smiling serenely on her, and I prayed for the will and courage to liken myself to her.
Front Row (left to right): R. Fromme, J. Maguire, L. Wambold. J. Opfar, E. Beck, L. Dostor, R. Wright, M. Costello.
Second Row, Sitting (left to right): T. Hershey, E. Kear. J. Gething. M. Tholey. M. Grenoble, M. Bowers, H. Minick, F. Wilson, J. Frey, M. Maloy.
Third Row, Standing Geft to right): A. Smith. A. Lineawever, P. Tarby, G. Sontag, H. Hertzog, H. Seely. E. Ray. D. Drozdowski, E. Barclay, H. Hoxie, L. Potonski, D. Erickson, A. Evancho, R. George.
CAPPING Exercises for the Junior Class were on March 9, 1939.
President T. Hankee
Vice President H. Vuckovich
Secretary N. Reiley
Treasurer M. Ramin
Front Row (left to right): H. Rowe, M. Richard. E. Babyok, H. Rupert. D. Andrews, B. McBride. D. Diehl, E. Buckley, M. Heofner.
Second Row, Silting (left to right): C. Guano, R. Schroeder. A. Eck, L. Arnold, A. Stocker, M. Harris, D. Miller, A. Blumberg, P. Spowart. M. Elick, F. Brode, T. Hankee.
Third Row, Standing (left to right): N. Reiley, R. Leeds. G. Enterlino, E. Bartlett. F. Plocicki, B. Blattenberger, K. Ccmly, S. Blacka. R. Keller. A. Madison. H. Vuckovich. M. Ramin.
Standing in Rear (left to right): A. Knepp, L. Everilt, E. Saurman, D. Foreman.
Others Not in Picture: S. Cortellini. M. ErteJ, E. Fosslor, E. Groller, K. Heron, N. Kardibin, J. Keller, F. Kelley. A. Klett, M. Lewis. I Miller, R. Ryco, F. Tomasello.
303OUR INFORMAL MOMENTS
304A LIST OF ABSOLUTE NECESSITIES FOR A NURSE COMING TO TEMPLE
Twelve tooth brushes—on the average of two a week disappear mysteriously, only to turn up after a session of cleaning someone's shoes.
• ■ • •
Several fountain pens—the number depends on the individual's tenacity for holding on to her property. People do walk off with them. Internes are the worst offenders.
• • • «
One oil lamp —especially for use in 1421 where the lights go out on the slightest excuse.
One fur coat—for wearing to bed in the winter in 1423 or the end rooms of Brown Memorial.
A host of friends with retentive memories to keep your telephone number straight as you are moved about from nurses' home to nurses' home.
Two dozen pairs of stockings—enough for you, your roommate and the rest of the floor.
A good alarm clock which tips the bed over when it goes off so that you are sure to get to chapel on time.
• '• v •
One small cannon to blast escorts away from parties early enough to get you home under the dead line.
Several homing pigeons to attach to books when you lend them.
A reserve fund of postage stamps to resort to in that desperate moment when you discover you are absolutely broke and must call on the family exchequer.
♦ ♦ . yi
A portable bathtub similar to those used by explorers in the heart of Africa to be set up during rush hour in the bathroom.
One set of ear plugs for use during lectures to prevent interruption of the train of thought about your date that evening.
It was way back in the dawn of our nursing history, when shy, Willina Morrison, aiming always to give her patients the best attention, conscientiously massaged one unfortunate patient's back with mouth wash.
Martha Hansberry, equally conscientious soul, prepares her Caesarian Sections for ”B D” exams.
« • •
We won't look into the cause of Emma Olsson's reveries, all we know is that caught by a traffic light in the middle of Broad Street, she patiently waited for the green light. So patiently in fact that after several minutes the "Foot Traffic Officer" had to lean over toward her and say "Lady that light ain't going to get any greener."
• ♦ •
Any student who has not had lectures in Obstetrics, who wishes first hand information on deliveries in bed, see Peg Mann, who well remembers the night in 3C when she had to stop fussing with the Oxygen tents to figure out what to do with an umbilical cord.
They tell us now that the administration has driven Nan Bryant to wearing garters. But we all remember the busy afternoon when in the lobby, one stocking sank weakly and visited about her ankles. We wonder whether they stayed up the night when she excused herself from simmering 3B to assist in a "Stork Race” to 4M?
At least one patient should have fond memories of Dot Krauser, although she is no doubt still puzzled about the "liquid refreshments" served at Temple University Hospital. Dottie set an M M enema on the bed side table and left the room for a moment. When she returned, the patient had taken the enema- by mouth. They say she had excellent results.
There is nothing like "lemonade" to cool you off after Basketball, is there, Nancy Aulenbach?
Then there was the man in 2B whose laboratory slips (Jane Kuhn's signature) bore the diagnosis "fractured uterus."
It was a sweltering day in May. Dr. Burnett, intent on his work at the Operating Room table, commands- "mop!” Always obedient Gracie Mathew-son left the room to return with the oversized floor mop from the utility closet. Meanwhile a gauze sponge had done the trick, as far as Dr. Burnett's brow was concerned.
Muriel Moore can tell us, we are sure, which drug is preferred, "Sodium
Citrate or Procaine" when taking blood from a donor.
It's a shame to have to pay for false teeth, especially when they aren't yours. But why do patients take them out and leave them on their trays? What are your sentiments, Eleanor Stich?
J. Starry advocates logical deduction, even if it doesn't always work. She was taught that all gall bladder patients receive skim milk. So wasn't it logical to answer milk in reply to the question "What is stored in the gall bladder?"
• • •
Reward. I wonder if M. Loch and G. Hopman would care to repeat the punishment received for talking to certain Med. Students on 4th M?
• t • t •
"Why doesn't somebody tell me these things," crooned E. J. Snebold, for silk catheters just cannot be boiled—not even special types, in fact the only existing type in Philadelphia.
• if- • + »
Then there was the morning that Helen Beall was told to get the "crank" out of Room 301 OB and proceeded to do so with a wheel chair.
In cooking arts, Mary McFadden turned out the nicest cookies in the class, so we wrapped them neatly and gave them to our Instructress, Miss E. Moore. How were we to know that she put Soda Bicarbonate in accidently instead
of baking powder? We refer you to this combination for a weird experience.
• • • •
Marjorie McFadden, not to be outdone by her sister, created her niche in
history by brushing a patient's false teeth with talcum powder.
Dignity is a Virtue—but what is virtuous about being on your hands and knees, cleaning up 17,000 fragments of liquid glasses with an admiring circle of helpers and by special request of Miss McMahon? For special data on this
subject see our president, lo Krauss.
Last time N. Murphy went home, she went home C.O.D. Who else could get such whole-hearted support from the P.R.R. when they found themselves at the station without funds?
If you ever come up on the fourth floor and a savory aroma of burning rubber slaps you on the olfactory nerve, we lay you ten to one it is R. Anderson burning the Brecht Feeders again tell us, Roberta, what was the final bill for them?
Everybody knows Harold Everett as a man about town, judging from the ferns that visit the switchboard, but it takes Fran Satkowski to get caught and be campused.
Even a good nurse slips up on sterile technique, but not everyone gets slapped for it by Miss Polinka. It was G. Gullick who reached over and tickled
the foot of a "footling presentation."
Then there was the day that Dr. Steigman inquired whether there were any circumcisions to be done. Jane Means blithely replied in the negative. So the mother was told the circumcision was healing very nicely by the chief and the baby went home without a circumcision.
It was by barest chance one of our classmates missed treatment by the famous Jackson Bronchoscopic Clinic. For if the peach stone Alys Moore swallowed hadn’t done the natural thing, it would have involved treatment. All of which goes to prove it is bad business to lie in bed, eat peaches, and tell jokes.
It is a thrill to see the worm turn, and anyone in Children's Ward, one November day, would have seen Rita Boutot, do the nicest piece of turning in these parts for a long day.
Pat Bartholomew always complains about not being able to lose weight, and everyone knows it isn't because she doesn't try. For she is trying three diets right now.
We hear Dr. Ersner wishes to recommend Miss Laura Mae Gemberling for a position at Alcatraz. He surely was ready to send her there in the middle of a Mastoidectomy one day.
"Hope springs eternal in the Human Breast." Every day since Helen Chomyak came to Children's Ward, she has been expecting to find "nits." Here's to success, for it is trying to see her happy disappointment each night.
"I am never well—I can't say why,” said the patient. ”1 get a sort of pain. I don't know exactly where, and it leaves me kind of—I don't know how."
"This is a prescription for I don't know what," said the doctor. "Take it, I don't know how many times a day for I can't think how long, and you will possibly feel better, I don't know when."
Nurse: "Well, how are you today?"
Patient: "I'm better than I was, but I ain't as good as I was before I got as bad as I am now."
308EVERY NURSES' EXPERIENCE
On some things Time lays gentle hands. Improves the ’'footprints in the sands”— Or something. My own mind could use ''Rose-coloring'' by some kind muse For memories of the nurses' home Where no one's property's her own: Where sometime one's best toothbrush is Devoted to some "all-white” fizz And used on Mamie Zilch's shoes.
Or the home papers' latest news Gives forth its best to line the drawer Of the bureau of the girl next door:
And you discover your best hat Jammed where it shouldn't have been at. Minus the feathers pert and daft That made spend the better half Of last month's check to buy the thing. Feathered enough to fly and sing;
And have you ever known your stamps To vanish like a tribe of tramps With wanderlust?
Or find your ink without the bottle (Where did you think?)
Upon the middle of your bed And Mrs. Piper's playing head-Hunter at your meek expense.
With no faith in your innocence?
The SKULL Dance date appears and so Do eager faces row on row To watch you dress and make you late. And make remarks about your date.
And size him up and trim him down And pan remarks about your gown.
Ah these are just a tiny part Of woes that dwell within the heart Of those who have the luck to be Inmates of girls' "dormitory”
Where studying is pure fine art
Devoted to the later part
Of night when tired roommate snores,
And nothing squeaks but mice and doors And the only difficulty lies In propping up your sleepy eyes!
Oh, who cannot recall the shock
300EVERY NURSES' EXPERIENCE
Of glancing finally at the clock To learn you have ten minutes flat To grab a taxi and your hat.
And reach the nurses' home before There's "No admittance" at the door?
Or maybe your friends come to town And call you up to ask you down To dinner on a day when you Are lucky to get off at two.
Do they stare at your hair That's worn a net so long it looks As if you hung it up on hooks Each night, for every sprightly curl Is at a less-than-half-mask furl?
And have you ever tried to sneak First bathtub; then find someone's "cheek” Was greater still and they're at home In your tub and a blessfui foam?
Or have you trusted over much A friend providing you with such A topping "blind date" just to find A half a man with a one-third mind And feet Fate never meant to dance?
That night you swore, "No more free-lance!" And did you ever get a kit From home and find not one small bit Of chocolate remained to coat The lining of your hungry throat?
And all the fudge had faded out In one delicious, luscious bout With five svelte nurses, just the ones Who never have to watch their "figgur"
A.nd worry about it getting bigger Sweet memory—sweet headache too Of nurses' home we've had from you!
Still I propose We may well give Three cheers for the way we used to live And hope the future way may be As pleasant in its propriety.
.tinA NURSE'S PSALM
These are my patients,
They shall not want,
I maketh them to lie down in warm blankets.
I feedeth them with a glass tube,
I restoreth their health,
I teacheth them the way of our hospital For my sake.
Yea, though they sleep in plasters and splints,
They shall feel no pain.
My smile and my hope they comforteth them.
I prepare my hypos in the presence of the supervisor,
I anoint their skin with oil,
Their kidney basins run over.
Surely bed-pans and groaning will follow me all the days of my life.
And I shall dwell in a uniform forever.
THE END IS THE BEGINNING—
As you have seen by perusing these pages our lives these last four years have been pleasant ones.
The wisdom gained at the feet of the learned, the complacency of companionship and competition, the study of the rudiments of a great art associated with the complexities of a great science have gained us the right to begin . . .
THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE
1939, copy 2
1939, copy 2
Library University health Scieaoea Ctutftr”
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