Northern Illinois College of Optometry - Focus Yearbook (Chicago, IL)
- Class of 1934
Page 1 of 76
Pages 6 - 7
Pages 10 - 11
Pages 14 - 15
Pages 8 - 9
Pages 12 - 13
Pages 16 - 17
Text from Pages 1 - 76 of the 1934 volume:
RE 956.5 .N6 F6 1934 I 'I f
Northern Illinois College of lx, 'V'
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DR. DAVID ROSE "M"
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T O Y O U
THE SENIOR CLASS
OF NINETEEN HUNDIKED THIRTH"FOUR
WE, THE STAFF, DEDICATE THIS YEAR
BOOK. WE HOPE THAT IN THE YEARS
TO COME THE FOCUS WILL NOT ONLY
BE DEAR TO YOU AS A REMEMBRANCE
OF YOUR COLLEGE DAYS, BUT A VALUf
ABLE ASSET IN YOUR PRACTICE AS A
SUCCESSFUL AND ETHICAL DOCTOR
DEAN A. AM BROSE,
1934 T H Ii F 0 C U S Three
xxqlw 3 N, A md, N l1R.C,S'Y.ANLI:X'M1'1GI'
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Dzrector of C1l7llLk.S
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Ulrvftur of Adnn.xx1m1.s
Miss LIDA E. NEEDLES
Regnstrar and Bursar
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This page is dedicated to Brother Dennison H. Beatty, in memory and with
a love that will live through eternity, by Alpha Chapter of Omega Delta.
Brother Beatty was taken from this life on April 11, 1934, as the result
of an automobile accident.
He was the kind of man of whom everyone was proud to know as his
friend. His memory will live and grow throughout this life and become
one of the richest treasures that man has ever known - that being the love
and friendship of a fellow man.
His academic record was one of which any man would be proud. His
attitude toward the welfare of his class and of the college was one which
will not be equaled for many years.
His passing leaves an irreplaceable void in the life of all those who knew,
and loved, and respected him.
Brother Beatty was born in Austin, Texas, in 1908. After a complete
education in the public schools he was graduated from college and entered
the field of business. In September of 1933 he entered the Sophomore class
of Northern Illinois College. He was pledged to the Alpha Chapter of
Cmega Delta and was initiated into its mysteries in December, 1933.
lt is with a deep, intense feeling of sorrow and solemnity that we attempt
to write this humble epitaph:
"Cf all things that eome to man
There is only one that will enrich him' f
lvlake his heart beat with joy.
And then that is taken away -
Unly the memory lives.
It is the brotherhood of a fellow man."
Mary Cod rest, and be with you - Brother Beatty.
ALPHA CHAPTER OF CMEGA DELTA.
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1934 T H 15 F o 1: tx S EIQVQ11
RALPH M. ABEL Buss F. CoLEMAN
University City, Mo. Cl1iC211l0- Ill-
Omega Delta JAMES L. CIRAXVFORID, EA.
President' 4 Greenville, Texas JAQK ARI-
Panfl-Iellenic Council, 4 T h d K I- Detroit, Mich,
Om an ey
Attended Aslnury College, Mu Sigma I'1
', Wesley College of TexaR
JAMES H. ALBRIQLH'I'
David City, Nehr.
Phi Theta Upsilon
Tomb and Key
SOPHIE FRANCES BARKAN
Attended Chicago College
of Medicine and Ellwoods
School of Optometry
Mu Sigma Pi
and East Texas State
JOHN FLETCHER CoNRAn
PAuL W. CABLE
Attended Ohio University
Pl d at ', 3
Excgsgmsgfl, THOMAS H. COCHR.'XNIi
q ' H Indianapolis, Ind.
Phi Theta Upsilon
I. Reporter, 4
VIRCIL BLAKEMORE, JR. .-
Class Vice President, 2
W1LL1.AM J. CoLL1Nt:s
Phi Theta Upsilon
A. WR1t:i1'1' BLoonwoR'rH
VJ. K. I. CT.. 2
Basket Ball, 1, Z, 3, 4
Attended Southern College,
HERMAN I. BERLIN
Mu Sigma pl
Exchequer, 3, 4
JOHN F. CjR,XXX'1"tJRI5, 11.41,
Tomh and Key
Student Teacher ol' Anatomx'
Attended Vv'eRley College. I
Ashury College, and
East Texas State
Vv7ILLI.XIx1 H. CRLzME.xLJeH
llaxlaet Ball, I, I. 3, 4
ILA M. B.-XYER
Attended State Teachers
College of Vxfhitewater, Wm
RALPH ELL1o'r'r BELLER
La Grange, Ill.
HARRY A. BERNS
Mu Sigma P1
Memher at Large, 4
FRANR J. Bonus. E.s.t:.
Attended De Paul University
Txwlvu T ll I5 F fm fi L' 5 june
Q ' .rv
1934 T H E F O C U S Thirteen
BERNARD R. DAVIS
Liherty, N. Y.
Basket Ball, 1, 2, 3, 4
WILLIAM H. DEARMAN
Attended State Teachers
College of Mississippi
T. A. DE ROUSSE
Phi Theta Upsilon
Attended University of
LEOPOLD E. DEUTSCH
Bronx, N. Y.
Mu Sigma Pi
Attended College ofthe
City of New York
ROBERT J. FEUERSTEEN
Attended Notre Dame
EUGENE FREEMAN, A.Ii.
Mu Sigma Pi
Tomb and Key
Attended University of
EDNA GLISTAFSIIN, AE.
Pi Kappa Rho
Chaplain, 2, 3
Editor of School Activities
Attended University of
DKJRCUTHY D. H.XLL
Pi Kappa Rho
Attended University of
CHARLES HINCZENER, B.SC.
Tomb and Key
Attended University of
ALFRED E. I-limes
Square and Compasses
JAMES G. CUSTIXRD
Basket Ball. l, 13,4
Athletic Editor ol' Focus, -4
FRANK A. DE LA M.-x'rIiR
Tomb and Kev
EDXVARD A. FoRsz'I'
East Chicago, lnd.
Student Manager oli
FRANK M. GIANNANToNIo
Phi Theta Upsilon
Attended Cleveland College
of WesteI'II Reserve
J. MAXWELL GILBERT
slr DSEPH GoLDsTIiIN
VJAYNE L. HINES
Phi Theta Upsilon
KIEITIIIILL M. .I.iu:I4soN
EDWARD T. jENNIsoN
San Antonio, Texas
AIDA T. JUHNSON
Pi Kappa Rho
Fourtccn T H IE F rm 1: U S june
VIVIAN JUNE JEWETT
Pi Kappa Rho
Treasurer, 2, 3
Social Chairman, 4
PanfHellenic Council. 4
Omega Epsilon Phi
LESTER J. KURZON
Mu Sigma Pi
Tomb and Key
PanfHellenic, 2, 3
JOHN CALVIN LOCK,-XRD
Phi Theta Upsilon
Attended Southern Illinois
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Mu Sigma Pi
Transferred from Penn
State College of Optometry.
Attended Long lsland
Tomb and Key
Class Treaiurer, 1, Z
Attended Calvin College,
Grand Rapids, Mich.
ALEX A. MtlRti.'XN
SEYMOUR E. NISSENB.ALlM
DCJRCDTHY GENE NoTBoH M
Pi Kappa Rho
FRANK H. PARDON
HowARo H. MoRE
LESTER W. MELsTRoM
lron River, Mich
Mu Sigma Pi
Tonih and Key
CLARA E. MooA
lVlutt. N. Dali.
THEODORE C. PILLIUI1
Phi Theta Upsilon
AUDREY LoMAx PALMER
Morgantown, N. C.
Phi Theta Upnlon
W.ARREN H. lVllLLliR
Tonih and Key
Square and Conipawex
Prevdent, 2, 3
EDXVARD B. JONES
Phi Theta Upsilon
TH1 F cm ct U S june
, - 1
, N- 4
x .1 + 'N
HERBERT H. LEVINE
Mu Sigma Pi
IDA GHMAN POTTER
Pi Kappa R ho
LAWRENCE S. SCOTT
Phi Theta Upsilon
Tomb and Key
EMERSON B. SLoc:oM
Washiiigtoii, D. C.
Phi Theta Upsilon
Tomh and Key
Attended jackson, Mich.,
junior College and
University of lvlaryland
EDXVIN R. WH1TEs11zE
FRED R. RosE
Mu Sigma Pi
Attended University of
Mu Sigma Pi
Vifashington, D. C.
Phi Theta Upsilon
Pan'HellenlC Attended jackson, Mich.,
President, 4 junior College
Attended Dniyersity of G B WLIRN
mmms Chicago, Ill.
PAUL JAMES SECREST 'rs ORR M SMEDLFY
D-D-S Em Mama, Ill.
b I Attended Augustana College.
Attended UmV?fS1W ef GEoRc:ENiA A. YouMANs Rock Island. Ill.
Illinois College ol Dentistry Flint Mich
Pi Kappa Rho -E
I, Secretary, 2
ViCQ.P,-esidem, 3 HERBIERT T. SUXVERS, AE.
ELLIOTT SHEPPARD , Omega Delta
Orange, N. Y.
Attended Penn State College
PAUL M. ZINKE
Phi Theta Upsilon
Pledge Captain, 4
W. K. I. C., 2
Tomh and Key
Square and Compasses
Attended University ol
MAuR1c:E J. SMITH
MAURICE D. SMIL.-XY, .IR
Mu Sigma Pi
AYLLARIH A. TORINH
Enderlin, N. Dali.
EIJNV.-XRD j. VJEINBERQ:
lwlu Sigma Pi
GEoRoE A. WINTERER
St. Louis, Mo.
Omega Epsilon Phi
Treasurer, 1, 2, 3
Eighteen T H E F 0 ff U S june
ELMER W. Zumlasm' lllllilllflilffli B. WILL1.,xMs C,xRuLYN S.'XLISBl'RY
Cicero, Ill. Culw.1.Ill. Vx'ill'ncrding, Penn,
Urncgq Epqlnn Pln Styl1:n'c.1mlffmllpglxwxfflnulw :Xttcndctl MCKCCNP4II'l
Tminlng Scluml l'4n'Nl11wN
la I! IB
EMIL W.C5N1mRlixtux'1rt14 .ll'I.l.XN C. Tmmxs Sllmm' A. FINKLEMAN
llrwlmwtcnd, PJ. fxlllllhtkl, GJ. NX'1nn1pcg. cl.lI1IlLl.l
CWIIICQLI Dclt.n Omcgxt Delta
A. 1. Buczx, ju. M1'1 f:HuLL S. GwLnsT1a1N .luHN HILL Kumsrat
KL'l'I'Y1llC, Tcxm New Ymk, N. Y. Ft, Vwfuync, lnd.
IKUBERT E. CRUMP, I'H.IJ.
V , H , Atmim' Hltrmxx
Slldwmt' mtl" q31m.w,Q1l1 Louis MKlANIDRI'lXX'
Square and ffuxnpnwcx flllllW l Lnwrcncuvlllc. Ill.
Attw dftl L ll1.'1S 1. Stxt'
Ln L U X H I ll Attcndcd V1IlCCI1I1C5,lI1kl..
Unlvcrslty .md 'H U
flUlllIlll"vl1l UI1lX'CI'5lly' Unwcrxlty
I Rmahm' S. l.,L"I'Z, lm. -E,
B DCCllIlllA, Ill.
LESTER ENUM UNB. cWIllCgilEP5llUIll,l1l Osftm M. MERSM.-xN
, ' VlCC'l,I'CNldCIll, 4 X ,
Llmluatgu. Ill. T by Y H-5" l ll-R-
Hm 'md hcl, Dctrmt Mlclm
Attended Umvclxlty ul lDkiI1'HCllClllCCllillllfll ' '
lllllll,ll5, lvllnrwwtu and Nmtlu Attcndcd l,ln1vcrx1tyul' Attcndcd lvllclulgun Stutc :md
Dzulwtzl State flwllt-gc lllllllhli llnlvcrslty ul Dctrmt
EUUILNE W. BILATTY
Clnrkcalvllrg. VU. Vu.
ALVIN F. L1eMuNTREu
Suutln Bend. Ind.
Mu Sljllllil Pi
Hmwtxu C. 1?-xT'rERsoN
Nurtlx Wilkcslwc+1'mJ. N. C.
Truwlcrrcd lrum Penn State
1934 T H E F o ct U s Nineteen
DR. WM. B. NEEDLES
CAN make no better contribution to
this year's Focus, I believe, than to ref
produce in part a letter I recently received
from Dr. Fay McFadden, a practicing op'
tometrist of Rutland, Vt., who comments
sensibly as well as pungently upon a topic
that is very close to my heart, namely, the
disposition of young graduate optometrists
to gravitate to the large centers of populaf
Insofar as we are able, we here at the
College advise our graduates to begin their
professional practice in smaller communif
tiesg and I do not know of a single case
where that advice has been followed withf
out advantage. Cf course, many of the
young men and women who come to
Northern Illinois College have places wait'
ing for them. They take up practice with
relatives, for the most part, who have an
established clientele. The only influence
we attempt to exert upon these is aimed at
inspiring them to contribute scientific work
and professional ethics to whatever practice
they may enter after their graduation. And
it has been gratifying in the extreme to note
that this influence has had and is having
Dr. McFadden opens his letter by critif
cizing what he calls our Mhabit of thinkingi'
that the reason young graduate optometrists
go into stores and work for their clothes is
because they lack capital to buy instruments
and open a suitable office.
"I attended the Worcester, Mass., Polyf
technic Institute in my early time," writes
Dr. McFadden. "I noticed that the men
came in from all over New England, and
that on graduating they condensed upon
the windows right close to the Institute to
a far too great degree. They were thus in
direct competition with earlier grads and
with those immediately following them.
Those who scattered out- midwest, far
west and worldfwide - were always better
off in the long run . . . and in the short
L'It is wrong psychology and damned poor
practice for graduate optometrists to 'squat'
in the city where they are educated. If they
are going to den up in the big cities, they
would do far better to select cities far away
from pref and postfcompetition with fellow
grads of the same college. You tell your
grads that, and later they will thank you
So I am telling you. And I know you
will thank not me but Dr. lVIcFadden if
you follow this excellent advice. I-Iere is
some more of his idiomatic and forceful
"There is no cussed sense in people
settling down like sediment in the cities.
Professional practice as well as commercial
trade is fierce there. It is all cut to sausage,
and what you get isn't worth the struggle.
Expenses are enormous. The young grad
is poverty poor. I-Ie can't put his knowl'
edge and skill into practice. He sinks into
a mere dollarfchaser, catchfasfcatchfcan.
Soon he loses his vigor, incentive, poise and
selffconiidence, and goes commercial.
"Dentists find that a population of 1,000
will sustain one practitioner in comfort.
Any city of 10,000 is good for ten dentists.
More money is spent per home by rural peof
ple than by bogftrotters in carfshops, spin'
ning towns, weaving places. The rural
people have the best of things. They are
not cramped like the city population.
"There is no reason why a young man
cannot, with the aid of a compass and a
little horsefsense, measure out a place on the
map, either in his own state or in a distant
one, where there is a town of 10,000 to
Twenty T H E
0 it U S June
20,000 population which is located more
miles from a big city than it would pay peof
ple to travel. He will hnd listed from three
to ten licensees: but if he walks around and
visits them he will probably find them with
a loup screwed into their faces, and find
that they would not know a toric lens from
a cup of oolong tea. Such a place is a pic'
nic for a young man to settle down in, cultif
vate, establish himself and become well off.
"ln such a town he will find that most
of the jewelers have paid for their homes,
sent a kid or two to college, have a good car
and are enjoying life.
"On a recent trip through Maine, New
Brunswick and into Nova Scotia, having
my usual catfcuriosity, I stopped in every
town of any size at all, anchored, and visf
ited every registered man on the entire
"Well, you'cl be surprised. There are
places lying fallow - fine chances, plenty
of them, where a young man who is not a
city hound could be rich in a few years,
and go 'round the world after Mary had
"There is room right here in the United
States for twice as many grads as you and
the other colleges of optometry are turning
out. The Canadian country is rich. They
have not begun to scratch it as yet. They
are growing, and will continue to grow for
a long time. They are virile.
"The young grad who selects a smallish
community town need not expend so much
on elaborate equipment initially. He can
buy a small number of adequate instruf
ments many of them used, rent at low ex'
pense, live nicely but not extravagantly and
prosper on a meager income, if need be,
while getting a toefhold. If he likes, he may
stay there. Cr, if he is ambitious, he may
use his Hrst sitting as his interneship, and
move successfully to larger places.
"When we realize that today the motor
car brings people from a 100fmile radius
-approximately 600 square miles of area-
it is not hard at all to pick a county seat or
a tradefdrainage area, set up the best little
oHice in the kingdom, be independent of
cutfthroat stores and competition and bef
come real men instead of counterfjumpers
Thank you, Dr. McFadden, say l. And
if you young people heed this timely advice,
I verily believe you'll say, "Thank you, Dr.
1934 T H ii F o cg u s Twentyfone
Senior l A
First Row, Left to Right: Bernard A. Marcus, Detroit, l-.flichq E. W. Keefer, Evanston, Ill., Harry
Marder, Los Angeles, Calif.3 David Rose, Grand Rapids, Mich., Herbert Levitt, Chicago, Ill., Laurf
ence Yaiia, Detroit, Mich. 1 Bcnj. J. Bloomiield, Chicago, Ill. 3 Gordon A. Bannerinan, Cleveland, Ohio,
Williaiii bl. Garvey, St. Louis. Mo.g Augustus N. Abbott, Chicago, Ill.
Second Row, Left to Right: Edward H. Brown, Flint, Mich.: Charles Rudnick, Sheboygan, Vsfisg
Laura Belle Palmer, Morgantown, N. C., Mildred D. Hanold, Vxfapakoneta, Ohio, Charlotte E. Black,
Detroit, Mich. fTreasurerj 3 Elizabeth T, Kernel, Indianapolis, Ind., Harriett T. Arneson, Minneapolis,
Minn.: Marvin H. Jacobs, Chicago, Ill., Michael V. Karalioif, Detroit, Mich., George L. lacober,
Third Row, Left to Right: Dale W. Braham, North Platte, Nebr.3 Robert D. Brown, Vxfapakoneta,
Ohio, Albert L. Arango, Havana, Cuba, Raymond Rhodes, Los Angeles, Cal.: Francis M. Hasiak.
Detroit, Mich. QSecretaryj Q Eugene Kiefer, St. Louis, Mo., Lorne Holmes, Minneapolis, Minn., Basil
Haddad, Jr., Somerville, Tenn.
Fourth Row, Left to Right: Louis York, Detroit, Mich., Yerger Vxfeldy, Chicago, Ill.: Fred C.
Koch, San Francisco, Cal., Mandel Ashkenaze, Fort Dodge, Ia., Luciano Gonzalez. Bogota. Colombia:
john H. Skilheck, Detroit, Mich., Paul M, Sims, Eagle Grove, la., Richard E. Gruner, Racine, Wis
Fifth Row, Left to Right: Harold Oyster, Ashland, Ohio, Fred O. Espy, jr., Albert Lea, Minn.:
Lee H. jalonack, Chicago, Ill., Albert Maycher, Chicago, Ill., Harry sl. Hanold, Wzipakoiieta, Ohio-
Albert jesilow, Chicago, Ill., Fred F. Behrmann, Racine, Wis.g Edmond L. Butts, Stanton, Tenn.
Sixth Row, Left to Right: Mike Rosenthal, Ann Arbor, Mich.: john bl. Rosch, Chicago, Ill., H.
M. Linton, Chicago, Ill., Aaron Steinborn, Chicago, Ill.: Benj. F. Bratt, Detroit, Mich. QVicefPresif
dent, Q Wzilter L. Haase, Sedalia, Mo. 3 Gene Cajacoh, Lenia, Ohio, Frederick F. Lott, Hammond, lnd.
Twentyftwo T H Ii F o ri ll S june
Senior I B
First Row, Left to Right: joseph E. Maelgicwiez, Detroit, Mich.3 Ben Orenstein, Chicago, Ill.g Nlarf
tha V. Salishury, VVilmerding, Pa. 1 Mary Salishurj, Ysfilmerding, Pa. 1 Elizaheth Byerly, Fredonia, Kan. 1
Goldie Gray, Detroit, Mich., Edward NV. Schwart:, lxflaplcwood, Mo., Clifford Miller, Springfield,
Ill.: Howard D. Blue, Chicago, Ill.
Second Row, Left to Right: Rohert C. Brown, Norwood, Ohio, Glenn W. Patch, Portland, Ure.:
Sol. AI. Ruhenstein, Chicago, Ill., Walter ll. Loari , Chicago, Ill., Samuel C. Lldell, Chicago, Ill., Carl
E. Ehrlich, St. Louis, Mo., Donald N. lVfeLeod, Detroit, Mich.
Third Row, Left to Right: Leonard B. Mayer, Chicago, Ill.: David B. Butteriield, Zanesville, Ohio:
Walter A. Stadler, Peru, Ind., Peter V2lI1De1fC1I, Detroit, lVlich.1 Jesse T. Scott, Bluffton, Ind.g
Edgar O. Huhhard, Richmond. Va., O. H. Eocrster, El Campo, Texas.
Fourth Row, Left to Right: hlames M. Miley, Anderson, Ind. 3 Alhert R. Crist, Danville, Ill., Jerome
Horna, Lyons, Ill. Q Chas. M. Weaver, Conncaut, Ohio, Isador Al. Ereid, Dallas, Texas, John K. Schuler,
Sistersville, W. Va. Qlyrcsidentj 3 Harry B, Sofen, Detroit, Mich., Kenneth E. Thayer, Evanston, Ill.:
Raymond L. Hyde, Cedar Rapids, Ia., Arthur E. Wcscott, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Fifth Row, Left to Right: Jerome Nl. Zack, Detrolt, Mich.: William Michel, Cologne, Germany'
Woodward A. Reusch, Covington, Ky. 3 Leland B. Petersen, Harlan, Ia. 3 Roy E. Stehor, Riverside, Ill. 3
Mgix R. Kemski, St. Paul, Minn.g O. P. M. Squires, Chicago, 111.3 Earle B. Needham, Coleman, Tex.g
Louis E. Raymond, Newark, N. EI., Nickolas W. Bell, Miami Beach, Flag Thomas P. Thompson, Chif
cargo, Ill., E. C. Stilwill, lvlanzanola, Colo., Willam E. Hayes, Vv'heeling, W. Va., William R. Dale,
1934 T H E F o ct U s Twentyfthrec
Optometry Is Wllat You Make It
PRoF. E. CBCCHIENA, Dean
I-IIS I say to you graduating seniors
who are about to go out and begin
practice: QPTOMETRY is WHAT You
You call me "Papa Qkeyf' and you are
to me as comrades as well as students, and
you look upon me as a funny old fellow
who spends all of his time in the classroom
and does not know very much about what
is going on outside in the field of daily
But this I know:
That when you have a patient in your
chair and you stand there taking the his'
tory in your white coat, and your instruf
ments are all about you ready for use,
You ARE GPTOMETRY.
You are not john jones or Richard Smith
or Betty Green or Qld Man Brown's little
boy. No! You are QPTQJMETRY to that
patient. Whatever is practiced in your
office is what that patient will go out and
thenceforward regard as OPToMETRY: and
that patient's concept of optometry will be
something for which you and you alone
will be responsible.
I say to you, therefore, and to each of
you, that optometry is what you make it.
If there are things about optometry which
you do not like, correct them in your own
office and your own practice. If certain
practices have earned the contempt of prof
fessional men generally, correct them in
your own ofhce. If you believe that the
welfare of the patient should supersede
every other consideration in the mind of
the professional man, let the welfare of
your patient supersede every other considf
eration in your mind.
Let the other fellow practice optometry
as he sees fit. You are not responsible for
him. You may fervently hope, as I do, that
he practices ethically, skillfully, scientific'
ally and professionally, so as to reflect credit
upon his profession and win respect for it.
But, after all, your job lies within the walls
of your own oflice and if your patients
go away with respect for optometry, your
full duty will have been performed.
I have never before said this to a graduf
I say it now because a new day is begin'
ning to dawn in our profession. I believe
I can see more clearly than you what lies
ahead. For many years, men have been
cducated in the laws of optics so that they
could go out and fit glasses. Today we
are educating men in the physiological and
psychological phenomena of human vision
so that they can go out and specialize on
that most precious of all our senses.
You are entering practice at a wonderf
ful time. Before you have practiced many
years, you will see all of the old prejudices
under which optometry has suffered in the
past crumble away. You will see your
splendid vocation coming into a new posif
tion among the healing arts, and into a new
and fine relationship with the other prof
It will be a long time, perhaps, before all
of the quacks have been banished from
the indiscriminate peddling of eyeglasses.
Medicine, that old and powerful profesf
sion, with years of tradition behind it, still
suffers from quackery. But the ethical
physician occupies an impregnable position
in human society, and commands universal
respect and affection. And the ethical op'
tometrist will enjoy those same priceless
benefits in direct ratio to the uprightness
and decency of his personal conduct.
And now, a word of warning:
You may think, when you march away
from this College with your sheepskin in
your hand, that you are getting away from
fussy old "Papa Qkeyv and his bossy ways.
But you are not-not a one of you! I shall
Twcntyffour T H Li
F O KI U S Jung
keep my eyes on you. If you practice as
you have been taught, we shall be comrades
forever. But if you practice in such a way
as to bring shame upon your profession and
upon yourself, you will bring shame to
Papa Ckey and he will not be your com'
That would be a terrible thing.
It must not happen! It will not happen
if each one of you will just remember, once
in awhile, that Papa Ckey is standing in
spirit by your side, shaking his finger at
you and saying:
"It is what you make it. It is not what
the other fellow makes it. It is what you
make it - in your office.
"That is what optometry is, Hragazzi
The College Library
HE College Library, thanks to its new
location, has become a pleasant place in
which to spend an hour or so with the
Fathers of Qptomctry and the great writers
on the allied sciences. Its atmosphere is
tranquil and conducive to that state of
mind which we are told is requisite for con'
centration and study.
We have a total of 615 books on thc
shelves, and hundreds of pamphlets and
magazines on file. The latter include a
number of publications sent us each month
by the various State Qptometric Associaf
tions. Since last September, 70 new vol'
umes have been added, 43 of which were
generously donated by members of the facf
ulty, students and interested friends of the
College. The circulation of books and magf
azines per school year is between 25 00 and
3,000, which explains why certain popular
books are always Bout."
I trust it will not be amiss for me to say
at this time that I heartily enjoy my duties
as librarian and the agreeable contacts they
bring me with the student and faculty per'
sonnel. HELEN GROUT, Librarian.
T H li F U If ll S 'Tyygnfyffivc
First Row, Left to Right: Manuel Slllifllfl. Baltimore, Md.: Charles Lytton, Chicago, lll.3 Julius
Richman, Passaic, N. J., Irene Boyd, Chicago, Ill.: Helen Blaszczenski, Chicago, Ill. 3 Loraine Lachman
Detroit, Mich.g Margaret Dowd, Salt Lake City, Utahg Clenn Peck, Monticello, Ill., Austin Pritchard,
jasper, Incl.g Arthur Massey, Chicago, lll.
Second Row, Left to Right: Leon Holfinaii, Memphis, Tenn., l'larry Vxfatson, lr., llackson, lviiclif
Louis Schuman, Louisville, Ky.: joseph Lehrman, Brooklyn, N. Y.: Richard Xkfelling, Lockland, Oliiog
Robert Uswald, Toledo, Ohiog Raymond Bockhorst, SZ.Louis, Min. I Alphonse Asiulcyqicz, Detroit, Mich.
Third Row, Left to Right: Arthur Bender, Cincinnati, Ohiog James Norton, Vxfinehestcr, Tenn:
Ralph Wick, Mitchell, So. Dale.: Bernard Nannings, Lawrence, Kan.: Clifford Minke, Toledo, Ohiog
Vsfoodrow Leach, Caney, Kan. 3 Edward I. Lieherinan,Chicago, lll. 1 Lamar Pendley, Athens, Ca. 3 Clif-
ford Lasker, Hackensack, N. Y., Clifton Owens, St. Louis, Mtv.
Fourth Row, Left to Right: Andrew Dowd. Los Angeles, Cal., Le Roy Sanders, Detroit, Mich.:
Wciidell Willianis, Pittsburg, Kang Jerome Blutnherg, Detroit, Mich., V. Charles Chniielinski. Cluf
cago, Ill., Gordon Taylor, Chicago, Ill.
Fifth Row, Left to Right: Norman Becker, Detroit, Mich.: John O'Bricn, Chicago, Ill,3 Prank Lorf
enz, Calc Park, Ill.g O. P. M. Squires, Chicago, Ill.: Williaiii Pfeifer, West Lehanon, lnd.3 Raymond
Childress, Fowler, lnd.g Gerald Getman, Rock Rapids, lowag Norman Felir, Salt Lake City, Utah,
C. Mack Titus, Cheyenne, Vvfyo.
Twcntyfsix T H lx F o it I1 S Jung
First Row, Left to Right: l'l:rinan Alwcl. Ncwport Ncws, Vaq Mcycr L. Kcatz. Dctroit. Mich. 3 .lack
l'. Vkfooclfill, Ncvatla. IVlo.g Rohcrt Caslacoh, Lima, Ohio, Bcrnarcl Roscn, Chicago, Ill.g lvlax Ahrains,
Second Row, Left to Right: Charlcs W. Blakcslcy, Atlantic, Ia., Hcrhcrt F. Lcnr., Lincoln, Ill.g
Erncst A. Hgnrich, Chicago. 111.3 Pmcnni, Katz, Chicago, lll.g .loscph Niann. Chicago, Ill.3 Lynn From,
David City, Nclwr.
Third Row, Left to Right: Vxfaltcr F. Kirstcn, Paris, Ill., Rohcrt S. Blooclworth, Biloxi, Miss.: David
C. Nclson. Chicago, Ill.g Paul C. Vxfolil. Chcstcr, Ill., Richartl Rohcrtson, Kansas City, Min.
Fourth Row, Left to Right: Alan A. Bard, Ncw York, N.Y. 3 Etlwarcl T. Kcnnctly. Evanston, Ill.:
Bcni. Sinargin, Chicago, Ill.: ,lack Dclassus, Chicago, Ill., Rohcrt W. Hivcly. Miaiiii Bcach. Fla., Arf
nolcl Corsliovv, Dcnvcr, Colo.: Gcorgc E. Phillips. Chicago, Ill.
1934 T H li F o cz 1' s Twentyfseven
W. .lEkoME HEATHER, O. D.
RAOTICE building is never com'
pleted. To a professional man, it not
only is, but should be, a lifetime job. It must
not be considered as a mere business project,
but rather the application of a philosophy.
You have been presented a rigidly profesf
sional concept of Optometry, requiring
you to discard anything and everything
which is not on the highest ethical plane.
However, in order to acknowledge our
awareness of the opposing point of view,
let us state frankly the commercial apf
proach. The optical manufacturing comf
panies have served Optometry well through
the medium of national advertising. They
have made the public eyefconscious, and
Optometry appreciates that. Good busif
ness requires that they be recompensed by
increasing the volume of their business
which is accomplished in direct proportion
to your sale of glasses. Then, too, pracf
tically all of our selffstyled economists who
are presenting their conception of practice
building ideas to Optometry, make their
approach through the channels of pure and
unadulterated commercialism. They tell
you that the consummation of your patient
fcustomerj contact is based upon your
ability to sell more or less of different kinds
of glasses, as well as upon your ability to
sell what they see fit to call "quality."
Furthermore, they exert a subtle influence
on some of our itinerant educators, so that
even these continue the bombardment of
Optometry with commercialism under the
guise of education, in an endeavor to please
the manufacturing interests upon whose
support they rely. All of this is good busif
ness, and we respect its sincerity. This
commercial approach is built entirely upon
"direct" selling as opposed to the profesf
sional approach which aims to accomplish
greater results by "indirect" methods.
In the face of the foregoing, it behooves
you to keep resolutely away from commerf
cialism, and to proceed along the line of
your training to build your practice.
With a confidence based on your splenf
did class attitude, we are certain that you
are going to start practicing ethically. This
practice, of course, can be conducted either
upstairs or downstairs. Remember, how'
ever, that just as it would be very difficult
for you to attempt to practice commercially
hidden away in some obscure office buildf
ingg conversely, it would be equally as hard
to practice professionally on the street
where barter and trade is the order of the
day. But to practice ethically even on tlic
street lias been done, is being done, and
necessary can be done again -that is, if
necessary. It was deliberately said that you
would start to practice ethically because
some of you, due to economic inability, and
others, due to an inherent lack of perseverc
ance, will not be able to carry on. It is to
the remaining members of the class that our
counsel is offered. You now know the naf
ture of a profession in general, and Optomf
etry in particular-its functions, its proper
title, its ethical practices, as well as its
feesg and you have been encouraged to per'
fect yourself culturally. These are all
fundamental in successful practice build'
ing. It remains for this article to suggest
several additional factors which are defif
nitely practical and immediately usable.
You will find it expedient to have, at least
in the beginning, minimum office hours, and
to work by appointment. Remember also
that it will be wise for you to "bunch" the
appointments of the few patients that you
secure when starting to build your practice.
A dentist known to the writer, for ex'
ample, on opening his practice, borrowed
money enough to purchase the finest of
equipment. Then he seated himself, surf
rounded by his fine equipment, and waited
Twenty'eight T H E
1 1: U s june
at first patiently, later impatiently, and at
all times prayerfully, for his 'phone to ring
or for someone to come in. At last his first
patient did come in. After making a pref
liminary examination, he requested his pa'
tient to return, not the next day, but the
following Tuesday at 2:00 o'clock. lt so
happened that on the same day and the
next day he received 'phone calls from
other folks who had received his announce'
ment and who wanted to try his services.
To all these he gave the same answer, after
ostentatious deliberation, "I will be able to
see you next Tuesday at 2:00 o'clock."
Wheii that Tuesday came four or five pa'
tients were clustered in his reception room
at 2:00 o'clockg and all of them then and
there resolved that this man, whose services
were in such demand, must thenceforth be
their doctor. Now for the sequel to the
story. That doctor is Donald Stone,
dental surgeon of Philadelphia, with his
own private hospital, in which patients are
hospitalized after their dental treatments
for a period of hours or days, as the case
may require. Dr. Stone has said that the
building of his practice really started with
that first Tuesday at 2:00 o'cloek.
lvfinimum office hours allow for some'
thing else. They allow you to use the ref
maining hours in making contacts with
clubs and lodges and parentfteacher assof
ciations, thereby offering a form of adverf
tising which is at the same time truly ethf
ical and most effective. Now a word as to
how this contact should be carried out.
These organizations always need new
speakers, and they appreciate scientific
demonstrations and lectures, because they
are interested in the factors which control
effective living. lt follows naturally that
as a professional Qptometrist, numerous
opportunities may be offered to present
yourself as an exponent of the science of
better vision. The details of how better
vision is to be achieved furnishes ample ma'
terial for lecture work even with the com'
plete elimination of the subject of "glasses,"
Then, too, there are lectures to be given on
other subjects of perhaps cultural interest.
An Qptometrist can thus gain the prof
found respect of an audience for his liberal
and scientific knowledge rather than for his
mechanical skill or sales ability. He will
thereby make numerous new friends and
build up his practice. M
Another factor which must be borne in
mind is popularly described as "selling
yourself The term is not the most desirf
able, but its meaning is probably clear to
all of us. "Selling yourself" can never be
accomplished by the methods which are fre'
quently laid down by Nquack psycholof
gistsf' that is, methods which are comparf
able to those used in graphology, phrenolf
ogy, palmfreading, astrology, etc., and
which are equally unscientific. The true
basis for "selling yourself" lies first in self
mastery and its consequent objectivity, that
knowing yourself and adjusting yourself
to others about you. After this has been
accomplished, you must then use a great
and human understanding of your patients.
Every one of you, at different times, has
experienced the realization that words and
actions have either strengthened or weak'
ened your relationships with some other
person. If this person happens to be your
patient, the result may be either very benef
ficial, or very harmful. Therefore, you
must see to it that the things you do and
say will hold your patients for all of their
lives, and will bring even their progeny
There are still other factors necessary in
practice building. Sanitation methods, for
example, must not only be employed, but
the patient must know that they are being
employed. Then, too, it is possible to em'
ploy a certain "finesse" in executing each
step of your examination. When smartly
done, this persuasively advertises your skill
and technique. Sanitation, skill, and tech'
nique are strong selling points which it
pays to advertise. Another important conf
fContinued on page 561
1934 T H If F o cz o s Twenty-nine
Modern Muscle Theory and Practice
THOMAS G. ATKINsoN, M. D.
HE changes that have come over the
field of optometric muscle work in the
last few years can all be summed up in the
basic shift from the optical to the physiof
logical viewpoint. It is no longer sufficient
to cover one's record sheets with lens and
prism quantities, and figure out some sort
of a formula by which these may be brought
into mathematical balance. We must ref
cord our Endings, of course. And we must
have units in which to express them. But
lens and prism dioptries are meaningless
except as they denote neurofmuscular be'
haviors, which are the real objectives of
our investigations and treatments.
For- and here is the real meat in the
cocoanut-cofordination defects always
imply faulty physiology, often actual pa'
thology, and not infrequently perverted
psychology. They are never purely optical
affairs, as errors of refraction are. Refracf
tion is one thing: cofordination quite an'
other thing. And this is true even though
refractive errors be contributory factors
which help to precipitate muscle defects.
We must burn our bridges behind us, abanf
don the last vestige of our old mechanical
doctrines, and give ourselves unreservedly
to physiological and even pathological conf
ceptions, if we are to conquer the problems
of ocular cofordination.
First, we must apply this concept to the
interpretation of our muscle tests. We
must get into the habit of translating our
optical findings into terms of functional
states and behaviors. Especially is this
necessary inasmuch as a given optical find'
ing does not always represent the same
physiological condition. Tonicity tests
must be read in terms of equal or unequal
tonus of the opposing musclesg dissociation
and physiologic exophoria tests in terms of
tonus, associative effect as between ciliaries
and extrinsics, and spasticity or flaccidity of
the musclesg ductions as indicating muscle
efficiency or inefhciencyg recovery points as
denoting mental alertness and muscle eflif
ciencyg blurfout tests as measures of relaf
tive muscle capacity and associative effortg
versions as exploring structural integrity,
early education, and inhibitionsg and so on.
And no one finding can be depended upon
to solve any muscle problem. Not only must
the Endings of all the tests be translated
into terms of physiology, and assembled
into a symptom picture, but this must again
be checked by visual field charts, and by
other than eye tests, to discover the prob'
able cause of the trouble.
ln the matter of treatment the same
physiologic principles must be applied.
These principles are twofold:
1. Discover and treat the underlying
2. Give the coordinating neuromuscuf
lature intelligent training.
Such training may be divided into two
general classes, which may be called, ref
spectively, physical and physiologic. Phys'
ical exercises have for their purpose the
improvement of the circulation and nutrif
tion, including the tonus, and consist in
repeated contractions and relaxations, not
necessarily in any cofordinate groupings or
with any definite objectives. Alternate
positive and negative accommodation, rof
tations, vergences, adductions and abducf
tions are in this group. They have an addif
tional effect beyond the mere improvement
of muscle quality, in that they induce the
use of a greater number of muscle fibers
than the patient is in the habit of employ'
ing, thus promoting one phase of muscle
The number and variety of physical ex'
ercises are necessarily rather limited: and,
Thirty T H E
F o tl u s june
inasmuch as all of the purposes of such exf
crcises are served by physiologic training,
the cases in which they are specifically
indicated are also limited, chiefly to struc'
tural and organic defects.
Physiologic exercises have for their ob'
ject the training of the neurofmuscular
mechanism to the more adequate perform'
ance of cofordinated acts, and can again be
subdivided into two classes, direct and inf
Direct training implies the intensive train'
ing of the neurofmusculature to perform
some definite cofordinated task, with the
conscious cofoperation of the patient's
mind, much as we teach a man to handle
and swing his clubs in playing golf.
Indirect training consists in tricking the
neurofmusculature into coordinated action
by some exercise having no conscious relaf
tion to the real purpose, as when an athlete
is set to playing handball to develop his
wind and timing.
ln a sense, and to a degree, the two
classes of exercises have contradictory and
cven antagonistic features. ln direct train'
ing, the factors of muscle efliciency are for
the time subordinated to the education of
the muscles in taking their proper part in
the cofordinated group. It is an intensive
and attentive process, in which there is at
first necessarily considerable waste of effort
and interference with reciprocity. Howf
ever, as the proper use of the muscles is
learned, and repetition develops prohf
ciency, the factors of muscle efficiency come
into play - the breaking down of synapse
resistance, the establishment of neural pathf
ways, the more and more automatic per'
formance of reciprocity, etc.
ln indirect training, almost the reverse of
these objectives prevails from the start.
The purpose is to take the mind off a musf
cle performance which has already been
learned, to "loosen up" the muscle groups
which for various reasons have become
musclefbound and stale. Qften this is best
accomplished by giving the neurofmusculaf
ture a vacation from the function at fault,
and exercising it by rapid trickery in other
directions, as we take a stale golfer off his
game and set him to playing fennis and
handball. ln this way relaxation of tension
is achieved, and automaticity of action and
reaction, which are then carried over into
the function which was in default.
Each type of exercise has its specific apf
plication and contraindication. It is worse
than useless to give indirect exercises to a
person who has never learned, or who has
misflearned, a cofordinated act. It is
equally irrational to set a stale, muscle'
bound patient to the intensive task of di'
rect training. ln either case the trouble will
only be aggravated. Moreover, muscle
functions are normally learned in a certain
physiologic sequence, and it is illogical, if
not ineffective, to try to teach one muscle
function to a person who has not yet prof
perly learned the preceding one in sequence
-e. g., to attempt to train a child to fuse
who has not properly learned his versions,
or who has lost some of his capacity for
To end as we begin, the main point is
that muscle hndings are nothing more or
less than functional symptoms, indicating
functional pathology, in the same way that
the readings on a blood pressure instrument
are indications of functional pathology in
the vascular system. They are to be dealt
with, not by attempts to balance fractional
dioptrics of lenses and prisms, but by seek'
ing the causes for the defects and removing
them. They are, in short, physiological
data, and, when abnormal, call for physi-
ological interpretation and treatment.
1934 T H E F o cz U s Thirty-one
The Honest Mind
DR. W. D. ZOETHOUT
N complying with the request of the ed'
itors of THE Focus for a short article
of perhaps passing interest to its readers, I
jotted down the heading 'iSuccess.l' After
having written one line and looking at the
caption once more, its mossfeatenfness and
its hackneyed appearance were most ap'
parent. I realize full well that most of us
are merely retailers of secondhand, and
even thirtyfsecondfhand, stuff, but we do
not like to publish this fact too conspicuf
ously. To entice for should I be more modf
ern and say "to intriguenj a few readers
we paste onto the old wares a new and fref
quently flamboyant label. Of course, our
intentions, in so doing are perfectly honor'
able and no deception is attempted.
As a result of this second thought fwhich
is frequently one's best thought, , "Success"
was erased and the above heading substif
tutedg not that this changed the plan of
the story one whit.
The outstanding element in success is
not an inexhaustible supply of resources,
be this money or brains. For the successful
negotiations of any line of business money
is generally requiredg to pursue any profesf
sion at least a modicum of brains is neededg
but given a reasonable amount of either,
and one factor that, in my opinion, exerf
cises a more potent influence in reaching
the desired goal is an honest mind.
An honest mind is, first of all, a mind
that is critical. Like charity, this should
begin at home and, therefore, the possessor
of this sort of a mind will start to criticize
itself. Not that morbid selffexamination
so much in vogue in certain circles until
quite recently, indeed not, but a mind that
takes a true inventory of its own stock.
This inventoryftaking is to most of us not
a pleasant task, for the results are not self
dom far from satisfactory.
Qur mental contents fall into two cate'
gories: knowledge, which always apperf
tains to facts, and, second, our beliefs and
opinions. The sole characteristic which
entitles a belief or opinion to any claim for
recognition is its basis upon facts. When
in this light we examine the faith that is
within us, we hnd most of it is based upon
sand and, perhaps, quickfsand at that. We
believe this or that and disbelieve the other
thing because of our early environment of
home and neighborhood, or because it is
most convenient and along the line of least
resistance. Having entertained these be'
liefs for many years we become attached to
them, like to the furniture we have lived
with for a few decades. lvlost human be'
ings have a goodly share of inertia: but as
our actions are so largely determined by
our beliefs, it is incumbent for an honest
mind to critically examine them. As opinf
ions must be based upon facts, this leads to
the other category of our mental contents
In taking stock of our knowledge we
again frequently suffer grievously. How
often in our studies we think fguessj that
we know and understand the subject under
consideration, only to discover, if we but
properly investigate, that our knowledge is
so extremely hazy and incomplete that it is
of little or no value. This taking of an inf
ventory of one's acquisitions is one of the
great difficulties of the student. Because of
the work it entails and because of its un'
pleasant results, selffexamination is not inf
viting. But this critical inspection of one's
mental equipment may yield rich reward.
Being conscious of deficiencies, the hon'
est mind will be an inquiring mind, seeking
knowledge in all the highways and byways,
in season and out of season. The inquiring
mind is a growing mind and growth is the
Tliirtyftwo T H ii F o cz ii s june
essence of youth. Barring pathological conf
ditions affecting the structure of the ma'
terial machinery which seems to be necesf
sary for mental operations, an inquiring
mind never suffers from old age. Wheii
that spirit of inquiry has taken full possesf
sion, the individual has within him not only
the fountain of perpetual mental youth, but
also an inexhaustible wellfspring of the
An honest mind, being a critical mind,
carefully examines as we stated above the
doctrines and teachings handed down from
father to son during the past ages. He will
be very skeptical of opinions commonly
held by the great majority of people. Hisf
tory has shown such opinions to be nearly
always erroneous. The reason for this is
both simple and natural. It is so much
easier to believe than to think. To think
means to ascertain the facts. lvlost subjects
worthy of an opinion or belief are complex
phenomena and it is no small matter to disf
cover all the facts bearing upon it. For this
the masses of the people have neither the
means, time, nor inclination. And, fre'
quently, having found the facts, they are
incapable of drawing conclusions justified
by the facts. lt is therefore but following
the line of least resistance to accept one's
opinions and beliefs ready made.
The honest mind, however, refuses to
follow such a line of conduct: he breaks
away from herd thinking. And as soon as
this happens to a man, he has attained and
made fast his intellectual salvationg he has
gained his spiritual freedom. Of course,
this has its disadvantages: men and women
have been laughed at and some have been
stoned or crucified for this rebellion against
An honest mind, being critical and inf
quiring, is an open mind, a mind willing
and capable of receiving truth. This mind
meets new ideas without prejudice or bias.
Our personality frequently colors our ideas:
the condition of the liver or the state of the
stomach determines our approach to a new
problem. The more restricted his mental
horizon and the less experience he has in
thinking the more his predetermined an'
tagonism to any new idea or the idea held
by other peopleg no array of cogent facts
can dislodge him. Une of the great aims
of education is to enable us, by the greater
acquisition of facts and by the greater ex'
ercise of our mental powers, to rid our'
selves of narrow and provincial prejudices.
Prejudices, the great earfmark of the un'
educated mind, has throughout the ages of
man's development been the drag in his
progress. No honest mind harbors prejuf
The honest mind must be an open and
receptive mind. Une of the most disheartf
ening features of a teacher's career is not
that he sometimes has to deal with people
who have an insufficient mental background
or have, perhaps, a somewhat lower intel'
ligence quotient. Being honestly minded,
he knows his own limitations and this, let
us hope, engenders a charitable feeling
toward those of, perhaps, slightly less ca'
pacity. Nog the people that get a teacher's
goat fpardon the ultraclassicalj are those
with hermetically closed minds. They
come to school ostensibly to learn some'
thing fnot to acquire an education, but
by their action and attitude they defy the
instructor to pry open their intellectual
skulls and pour in of the fullness of his
knowledge or experience. We meet such
people in almost every walk of life, but to
find them occupying the benches of our
schools is absurdity raised to the n"' degree.
The result of an open mind is the ever
broadening of our mental horizong it prof
vides us with a life companion of which we
never grow weary: it creates for us a ca'
pacity for enjoyment and happiness which
is unequalled in all the various spheres and
activities of human life. This constitutes
one of the greatest factors of success.
1934 T ii 13 F o C u s Thirtyfthree
DR. CARL F. SHEPARD
GU who are now beginning to think
seriously about Practical Qptometry
are liable to be confused by the discouragf
ing questions so frequently raised by the
now practicing optometrists. Une question
is: "Is Qptometry a Profession?" Another
is: "What is wrong with Uptometryf'
And a third is: "Should Cptometrists use
medicines to a limited extent?"
I shall take the privilege of one who has
practiced optometry for twentyfone years
and answer those questions, but I shall pref'
ace my answers with a description of that
field of human service which you are about
In calling optometry a field I use an apt
metaphor. Lenses were Hrst applied to the
aid of human vision about four hundred
years ago. At that time the acreage around
your home was virgin forest. Some Indians
probably lived there, and made their living
by picking berries and hunting small game.
In time, some white men came along
with superior traps and gunpowder, gathf
ered in most of the game and frightened off
the rest of it. The Indians said the field was
ruined, and moved on.
In time, lumber men came along and cut
down all the big trees. The hunters def
cided there was something wrong with the
field and followed the Indiansg but in a
little while the lumber men also decided
that the field was worked out, and they too
Finally some farmers discovered the
partly cleared land, finished clearing it, and
planted this and that. The first crops were
all good because the soil was virgin. The
wise and the ordinary farmers prospered
Right up to this point, only the timid,
the lazy and the downright worthless exf
ploiters of the field failed to find pront in it.
However, in time those farmers who
failed to study the soil, fertilize and rotate
crops, began to think that something was
wrong with the field. Some of them moved
on after the lumber men, the hunters and
the Indians. Some of them kept right on
planting the same crops and howling until
they starved. The professional farmers
own the field now, or will in the near fuf
ture, and they will probably stay right
there and continue to find it a profit yield'
ing Held for many, many generations to
It is worthy of observation that each of
the sequence of workers in this field found
it necessary to continue the practices of his
predecessor. The white hunters followed
the practices of the Indians, but with the
advantage of better equipment. The lumf
ber men probably hunted to have fresh
meat with their meals. The first farmers
cut the small timber left by the lumber
men, and probably found hunting worth'
while. The most modern and successful
farmers plant and harvest the same princif
pal crops that were depended upon by the
unsuccessful farmers, but they employ bet'
ter methods, better equipment, watch the
markets, and sometimes profit considerably
from 'Lside crops."
I know very little of the primitive optif
cians except what I have learned from the
books you have read, or will read. The rovf
ing hunters, some Daniel Boones and some
sharpfshooting poachers, had nearly all
moved on when I came into the field of
optometry. The lumber men had set up
their saw mills before I arrived. But I have
watched the first farmers till the virgin soil,
and I am now getting a great "kick" out of
watching the real farmers, the fellows who
will in time own the field, as they study
their soil, their markets, and try out the
side crops. And the field of optometry is
Thirtyffour T H E
o cz u s June
so vast that many of all those I have def
scribed, even a few of the original primif
tives, are still to be found within it.
Some of the present tenants are seeking
new fields of therapy to enter or to annex.
Some are simply complaining. But some
are learning how to live in the field, and
how to keep it fertile.
Uptometry is, or is not, a profession ac'
cording to the optometrist. The profesf
sional optometrist has come into the field.
He has come to stay, and he will one day
own the field.
Nothing is wrong with Qptometry, but
there is something wrong with the optomf
etrist who does not study the possibilities
of optometry, study the requirements of his
patients and the slight but important
changes constantly accruing in those ref
quirements, brought about by the changes
At the present time, optometrists should
not use medicine. People have learned that
better lens prescriptions can be determined
without medicine than with it, and the
drift of public preference is certainly away
from the "drops" and the "knife" at the
present time. It is my opinion that the
drift will continue in the same direction
until those who use medicine learn how to
prescribe lenses better than those who do
not use medicine. When will come the
turn of that tide depends largely upon how
sincerely individual optometrists strive to
maintain their present advantage of supef
rior ability to perform a necessary service.
The preceding paragraph intimates that
success in optometry depends largely upon
the ability to "fit glasses." Let there be no
doubt as to my opinion in that respect.
The prescribing of lenses to the aid of hu'
man vision is certainly the principle crop
to be harvested from the field of optometry.
Of the persons less than forty'five years
of age, seventy percent either must have
glasses, or would find comfort in wearing
them at least a part of the time. Cf those
between the age "at which life begins" and
the beginning of "Life eternal," ninetyfnine
percent wear glasses.
Threefquarters of those who wear glasses
can be fitted with little difficulty. They
constitute the principal crop, the ubreail
and butter patients." The other quarter
build reputations. A-
One failure through carelessness in pref
scribing for one of the principal crop does
more damage than is undone by five sucf
cessesg unless one is situated in a perpetuf
ally virgin field, such as State and Madison,
and even there it hurts.
Of the bread and butter patients, only
four percent drift into your ofiice. They
are attracted by good reputations.
Good reputations are of two sorts. Une
is the reputation for exceptional ability, the
other is the reputation for fair ability and
low price. Either sort of reputation must
include a reputation for honesty and honor'
able dealing in order to be considered good.
I have no quarrel with the optometrist
who attempts to build his practice on the
"price appeal." It is the strongest appeal
that can be advertised. That is why it is
so universally worked to death by dishonf
est men in every field of human endeavor.
However, I must urge you who are about
to enter the field of optometry better
equipped than any who have entered it be'
fore you, not to use the price appeal. Even
better equipped men are coming along right
behind you, and less well equipped men are
just ahead of you, desperately clinging to
the price appeal because they neglected to
develop a stronger appeal when they had
the chance, and some are using the price
appeal as bait. I would urge you to def
velop and cultivate a reputation for su'
perior ability while you have the chance.
To acquire a reputation for superior abil'
ity you need do only two things. Take
pains with the bread and butter patients
and study the market for side crops when
fC0ntinued on page 4U
1934 H E F 41 rt U Q 'Thirtyffivc
, i if
' C U
, ' gs j
1 W f " Q X
W 1 H
Zi, N .
N -.Ixxx 1 X
,U ,,,,,, il it 1
A fl 1 .'v' V '
- ' "
Thirtyfsix T H E F O C U S June
Phi Theta Upsilon
Founded at Northern Illinois College September 5, 1925
Fraternity Colors: Blue and Gold
Fraternity Flower: Red Rose
OFFICERS OF 1933
RGBERT R. BRADFORD ............. Chancellor
DKUNALD W. CONNOR ......,. VicefCliaricellor
LELAND B. PETERSEN . . . .
ARMIN P. HILLE ....
J. NICK KIEBEL .....
THEODORE C. PILLIUD ....
EDWARD C. TEWS .......
CHARLES A. SToc:KMAN. ..
. . . .Exchequer
. . .Lihrariavi
. . . .Reporter
FRATERS IN FACULTATE
DR. W. JEROME HEATHER
DR. JOHN A. Ross
DR. ALEX S. CAMERON
DR. FRANK N. PARKER
DR. RICHARD FRIED
MR. ALF H. JOHNSEN
OFFICERS OF 1934
ARMIN P. I'IILLE ................. Chancellor
THEODORE C. PILLIOD.
PETER S. VANDusEN .
JEROME HoRNA ....
C. MACK TITUS .....
ALBERT L. ARANGE ......
ALPHIJNSE C. As1iiLEx
. . . . . .VicefClia'ncellor
. . ......... Scribe
. . . .Exchequer
. . . . . .Guard
. . . .Chaplain
LZ . . .... Librarian
. . . ,... Reporter
Alphonse C. Asiulewic:
james H. Alhright
Dean A. Amhrose
Alhert L. Arango
Gordon A. Bannerman, slr.
Eugene W. Beatty
Fred F. Behrmann
Rohert R. Bradford
Thomas I'I. Cochrane
Donald XV. Conner
Theron A. DeRousse
Lynn H. From
Richard E. Cvruner
Theodore S. Heinecken
Armin P. Hille
VVaynnc L. I-Iines
,lerome V. Horna
Edward B. Jones
J. Nicholas Kiehcl
M. LeRoy Knutson
,lohn C. Lockard
J. Edward Mzickewicl
Clifford C. Miller
Auhrey L. Palmer
Leland B. Petersen
Theodore C. Pilliod
G. A. Rasmussen
Raymond S. Rhodes
Herhert W. Ritzman
Edward W. Schwarz
Lawrence S. Scott
Emerson B. Slocum
Huhert E. Slocum
Roy F. Stehor
Charles A. Stockman
Thomas G. Tate
Edward C. Tews
Peter S. VanDusen
Harry A. Watson
Paul M. Zinke
1934 T H ra F ru 4: l Q Thirtyfscvcn
x S X
W. n , Q
ff Q Q
l 5 5 UV fiw Qwwaw,', fu HG'M!ZLEf? R AIFUEGE an fw-No.1 Q.: GTLRJIIF
' gylutu Glpg
, f yin .3L1plIu 0Ilm pt1:1f 11
wx, 1 f , ,143
.3 .' " " ,V fw J 33
.A I i
WM fllfffu U. f1liAHlLLg N
U E LUCNIJFD
REEF' WD I
Thirty tiehr T H Ii F 0 ci U S june
Founded Northern Illinois College, May 21, 1917
Flower: XfVl1ite Carnation Colors: Royal Purple and Gold
FRATERS IN FACULTATE
DR. W. B. NEEIULES
DR. ERNEST Ot:c:H1EN.x
DR. T. G. ATKINSKIN
DR. W. D. ZoETHouT
DR. C. S. MTZGUIRE
DR. W. H. BRAY
DR. B. T. HOFFMANN
DR. R. J. GODIN
DR. J. P. IVI.-XHN
DR. J. W. NEEIWLES
. N. Getrnan
C. F. S1iEP.XRIm
P. N. DEVERE
OFFICERS, SPRING, 1034 OFFICERS, FALL, 1934
R. M. ABEL ..................... President J. K. SCHULLR ................... President
M. J. SMITH ....... .... V 1eefPresi'dent G. M. BANKS. . . .... VicefPresidem
F. HASTAR .......... ......... S crihe C. N. GIiTM.'XN.. ....... Scribe
E. R. WHITESIIUE .... ...... T reasiwer L. E. HoLMES .... ...... 'I' reasurev'
J. K. Sr:HuLER.
E. L. BUTTS..
N. L. FFHR .......
C. N. LBETTVLXN
R. M. Ahel
A. N. Ahhott
R. D. Brown
W. sl. Brown
R. S. Bloodworth
VJ. A. Bloodwortli
. . . ..Cl1dplt117l
. . . . .Libnwuni
. . .Reporter
E. C. HURi3.AxRif. .
C. F. EHRLICH.. .
. A. VIR.-XNT ............. ...
W. H. Crumhaugli
F. A. DeLaMater
C. F. Ehrlich
N. L. Fehr
W. LI. Garvey, ,Ir
B. Haddad, jr.
H. ul. Hanold
A. E. Hicks
R. W. Hively
L. E. Holmes
E. O. Huhhard
E. T. jenison, jr
M. V. Karajoff
E. W. Kcefer
W. F. Kiefer
W. F. Kirsten
J. H. Koegel
H. F. Len:
M. F. McCuirk
D. N. McLeod
B. A. Marcus
-I. M. Miley
W. H. Miller
E. B. Needham
C. E. Owen
F. H. Pardon
. W. Patch
. M. Peck
. .... .... R e
R. Rohertson. jr.
W. A. Reusch
EI. C. Rust
J. T. Scott
1. K. Schuler
Nl. H. Skilheek
M. J. Smith
H. T. Sowers
C. A. Taylor
K. E. Thayer
sl. C. Thomas
A. A. Toring
P. A. Virant
R. D. Weaverling
E. R. Whiteside
P. G. XVOHI'
1934 T H Ii F mm fi U S Thirtyfmnc
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Forty T H In F rm I1 II june
Mu Sigma Pi
Founded Northern Illinois College. 1931
Colors: Red and Blue Flower: Talisman Rose
I-IONORARY MEMBERS ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
S. D. GINSBLIRIQI, OD. ELIQIENE FREEMAN, A.B.
W. A. MENnELsoHN, OD., F.A.A.O. I. M. BORISH. BS., OD.
OFFICERS 1933 OFFICERS 1934
LESTER DI. KIIRzoN ............... Cliarieellm' MAIfRIc.1E H. IVI.-MIK ............... Chancellor
MAIIRIIIE I-I. MACK .... .... V icefCIIImcelIor BENJAMIN T. BR.-ITT. Vle'6'CIId71C6llO7'
SAMIIEL A. I'I.'XL7SER. . ......... Scribe HARRY L. MARDER . . . ........ Scribe
HERMAN I. BERLIN. . . .,.. Exchequer I"IERM.-KN I. BERLIN. . .... Exchequer
ABRAHAM BERESH . . . .... Pledge Master AARoN O. STEINBIIRN .Pledge Master
I-IARRI' A. BERNS. . . ....... Clzaplam SAMUEL A. I'I.-XLYSER . ...... Chaplain
jack M. Art
Herman I. Berlin
Harry A. Berns
Benjamin LI. Bloomfield
Benjamin T. Bratt
Leopold F. Deutsch
Isadore J, Fried
Samuel A. Hauser
George D. Hirsh
Lee H. jalonacla
Meyer L. Keat:
Lester J. Kurzon
Alvin F. Lemontree
Herhert H. Levine
Edward I. Lieherman
MIIIIric: H. Mack
Harry L. Mairdei'
Leonard B. Mayer
George E. Phillips
Sol ul. Ruhinstein
Stanley A. Salasky
Maiurice Smilay, Jr.
Harry B. Sofen
Aaron O. Steinlworn
Sam C. Udell
Edward j. Weiiilwerb
Lawrence I. Yaffa
1934 T H V F o fi li S Fortyfonc
Q Sigma lblflrfzfplyl mmmozf' zmf uw ..
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The Mu Sigma Pi Fraternity was founded in 1931 at the Northern Illinois
College of Qptometry by eight undergraduate students who realized the need
for such an organization among their group.
The basic principles upon which this fraternity was organized arc cducaf
tional extension, idealistic and moralistic elevation, and the inculcation of
ethics in its members' practice of the profession of Optometry.
The usual fraternity social functions are on its program but these are
secondary to the above mentioned purposes.
In the short span of its existence, Mu Sigma Pi has made a phenomenal
growth, not only in its roster, but also in its activities.
It numbers among its honorary members, Drs. Samuel D. Ginsburg and
William A. Mendelsohn, both nationally known in the profession.
The Fraternity is happy to claim as its associate members such men as
Dr. Eugene Freeman, psychologist, and Dr. Irwin M. Borish, highly esf
teemed authority on Dynamic Retinoscopy.
Fortyftwo T H E F o C U S June
Pi Kappa Rho
Founded Northern Illinois College, 1928
gov Bi few
WF QI lf 351 fl fl W
5' E we xxx R I 0 If l
Q -A Nj Q I 'X 4 ' 4'
I I "' 5 I
1 - NN: , , -
Colors: Crclnd and Green ' E X 2 I , 1 I ' Flower: Ins
Q 1 I F A
. - X ffv,' f f,
f' XX lf 5
SORORES IN FACULTATE
MIRIAM WAALKER BEAUUHAMP, O.D.
MRS. E. QTCCHIENA
OFFICERS OF 1933 OFFICERS OF 1934
DoRoTHY CDALHOUN ............... President LEONA CRoFT .................. President
GEoRoEN1.x YooM.ixNs . . . . .Vit-efPresidenc EDNA Gosmrsow ,.... . . .Vue President
GENE YooMANs ...... ...... S ecremfy DoRoTHY NoTBoHM .... . . . Setretavx
VIVl.1XN .IEXVETT .... .... T reasurer Aim JOHNSON ..... . 'Treastwco
Laura Belle Palmer
U34 T I1 I4 F rm ci I H Fu1'ty'th1'Cc
,Epi appu 32110 51.1143 ri tg
ff ff' at 'XX
1933 ' 193-L
A 3,5577 X V' L+ QI, ff! VY7'fK
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1717-'KYXQ byTMIUHNu1,w-,"u..1vr1 -W V.. HT. Nw 11'
Fortvffour T H ii F o fi ii s june
Cmega Epsilon Phi
Founded at Columhia University in 1920
Blue and Vv'lntc
Ciioiusia A. WiNisERi3R .... ....... P rcxidevit DAvin Rosii , ...... Setvczmx
PUJBERT LVTZ ...... ..... N 'icefPrexidem M. J. RoSENTH.xL .... 'Ticasiwer
Marvin H. llacohs
Stanley AI. Kline
Hcrhert P. Levitt
Rohert S. Lutl
Charles M. Lytton
Louis F. Raymond
Alhert S. Majcher
M. J. Rosenthal
George A. hrVIiTtCl'C!
Louis A. York
Elmer W. Zarohsky
James R. Norton, jr
NATIONAL HONORARY MEMBERS
Elmer E. Hotaling
Charles F. Prentice
E. LeRoy Rycr
James P. C. Southall
Frederick A. Wiwll
Omega Epsilon Phi, a national optometric fraternity, was founded for the express pur
pose of further advancing ethical optometry and continuing the progress of the profession.
This ideal, having been carried on in the past hy capable hands, is now being continued
under the supervision of such outstanding leaders as Dr. A. L. Craubart and Dr. William
ALPHA BETA GAMMA
Columhia University University of Rochester Northern Illinois College
New York Rochester, N. Y. Chicago, Ill.
o C U s Fortyffivc
1934 T H E
EALIZING the need for a real profesf
sional optometric fraternity, a group
of men convened at Columbia University
on April 8, 1920, for the first regular meet'
ing of Alpha Chapter of Omega Epsilon
Phi. These men visualized the advantages
that a professional fraternity, in school of
optometry, might offer. Coupled with this
was the ideal of a broadminded brotherf
hood which would stand out above petty
differences of race and creed, leading to the
progress and ultimate success of its mem'
bers. Such a fraternity would not discrimf
inate because of race or religious convicf
tions, its members would be united by a
common bond-the desire for the upbuildf
ing and practice of genuinely ethical optomf
etry. These are the basic ideals of Omega
The credit for the organization of Omega
Epsilon Phi goes to Doctors Broder, Weiss
and Graubart, for it was in their minds that
the project of forming this fraternity had its
The fraternity was successful from the
start. The Columbia group had a national
charter, and was determined to expand. On
October 31, 1924, through the efforts of
the Columbia body, Beta Chapter was or'
ganized by optometric students of the Uni'
versity of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. In
the fall of 1927, through the combined eff
forts of the established chapters and a
group of students at the Northern Illinois
College of Optometry, Gamma Chapter
was founded. Since that time Gamma has
stood foremost in collegiate circles as a
leader fraternally and professionally.
Some of Americais outstanding men in
the profession have been affiliated with this
fraternity as honorary members. A few of
these are: Andrew Cross, james P. C.
Southall, Frederick A. Wrill, Charles P.
Prentice, Charles Sheard, E. LeRoy Ryer
and Elmer E. Hotaling. One of the present
leading figures in optometry, who has ref
cently added fresh laurels to the profession,
Dr. Williani Eeinbloom, is a past member
of Omega Epsilon Phi.
fCO7lfZi'lllLC'Ll from page 3-H
one of the reputation makers enters your
ofhce. You will have more of these repuf
tation makers in your office during the first
two or three years of practice than you will
have again in any equal period of time.
Some of them will become converted to
your way of practicing optometry through
being more carefully examined than they
have ever been examined before. Some of
them through a more carefully measured
interpupillary distanceg and some of them
through the side crop of orthoptics.
Finally, let me give you the most pracf
tical point in Practical Optometry. Optomf
etry differs from some other professions'
radically in that financial success in the
practice of optometry does not come
through "big cases" and occasionally large
fees. Every financially successful optomf
etrist that I know, and I know several, has
become successful through ordinary fees ref
ceived for the most part from ordinary cases.
Let your fees be a nice compromise be'
tween what your wife or your mother
thinks your services are worth and what
the ordinary people in your community
can afford to pay. If you find yourself in
doubt about what your fees should be,
make them somewhat higher than you think
your ordinary patients can pay rather than
below what your services are worth because
once you get started you will find it more
difficult to raise your fees than to raise your
Cm, Q- Shepard Memorial Library
Hi! . . f"
- olleoe of Oofomefrv
FHfIy'SiX T H Ii F o cz ii s june
Tomb and Key
Founded Northern Illinois College of Optometry, 1931
, E -
e. A,' IL'
Colors: Black and Gold c " 5 ke Flower: Red Carnation
G ' P
DR. THoM.xs G. A'I'KlN.5ilN, Faculty Sponsor
JANU.-xRY, 1934 JUNE, 1934
G. M. RoBERTsoN . .. ...... President H. T. SowERS .......... ...... P resident
T. S. HEINECZKEN. . . ....... VicefPresidenz E. H. JENSEN. . . . ..VicefPresident
1. M. BoRlSH .... ..... S ecrett1ryf'Treasnrer M. H. Malik . . . ..... SecretaryfTreasurer
S. C. KRIEQI. .. ...Keeper of the Arcliiires A. P. HILLE . . . .... Keeper of the Archives
I. K.NN.'XRClK. . . ...... Sergeant at Arms bl, MoLiiNfx.'xR. . . ...... Sergeant at Arms
1934 ROSTER Tomb and Key is an honorary fraternity organized in 1931 1935 RQHSTER
sl. H. Albright
D. A. Ambrose
R. R. Bradford
bl. F. Crawford
F. De la Mater
A. P. Hille
E. H. Jensen
R. S. Lut:
M. F. McGuirk
M. H. Mack
W. H. Miller
E. B. Slocum
H. T. Sowers
by a group of sixteen ambitious fraternity men to provide an
incentive for underclassmen to excel in scholarship and citif
:enship as well as various school activities. Feeling also the
necessity for spurring Optometry to its rightful peak among
the other professions, they incorporated in their constitution
and ritual, passages which they felt certain would forever ob'
literate unethical practice from the code of its members.
This organization immediately took its place in the affairs
of the College, sponsoring student activities of an educational
nature. Lectures were provided for the entire student body
by men outstanding in the field of Optometry or its allied prof
fessions. Not forgetting the importance of the social aspect
of student life, Tomb and Key became the sponsors of a semi'
annual school dance.
At a general convocation of the student body held once
each semester, approximately twenty percent of the male stuf
dents about to enter the Senior class, who scholastically stand
among the highest thirty percent of their class, are ushered
through a solemn ritual, and given the token which marks and
rewards them in a humble way for their diligent effort and
As Phi Beta Kappa rewards those outstanding in the pure
suit of cultural subjects, and Sigma Xi rewards students for
original research in scientific endeavors, so Tomb and Key
marks those who are outstanding as students of Optometry.
Cv. M. Banks
F. F. Behrmann
H. D. Blue
B. F. Bratt
W. R. Dale
C. F. Ehrlich
M. R. Kemski
W. F. Kiefer
F. C. Koch
D. N. McLeod
G. W. PHeiderer
M. J. Rosenthal
G. B. Ruby
bl. T. Scott
P. M. Sims
H. B. Sofen
F. C. Stilwill
1934 T H E F 0 C U S Fortyfseven
HE PanfHellenic Council of Northern
Illinois College is an organization com'
posed of three representatives from each
Greek letter fraternity at the college. Its
function is to govern all fraternal activities
concerned with the rushing and pledging
of new members and to settle any controf
versy which might arise among the bodies
represented. For this purpose there is a
constitution, signed and sealed by each fraf
ternity, wherein are contained the various
provisions and stipulations to which the or'
ganizations are pledged, together with penf
alties for their infraction.
Through the Council, which meets on
the Hrst Wednesday of each month, all
Greek letter organizations are able to bring
their problems pertaining to matters of inf
traffraternal relationship before the body,
where they may be settled in a manner fair
to all and most conducive to fraternal har'
mony. By pledging itself on its honor to
support the Council in all its decrees, each
fraternity contributes to a spirit of unity
that would otherwise be impossible.
Pi Kappa Rho
LEON.-K A. CRIJET
VlVl.kN j. JEWETI'
RALPH M. ABEL
HERBERT T. SOWERS
HARRY j. HANoLn
Omega Epsilon Phi
GEIJRCIE A. WINTERER
Phi Theta Upsilon
ARM.'XNlJ P. HlLLIi
ROBERT R. BRADEoRIi
LAWRENIIE S. SuoT'I'
Mu Sigma Pi
MAURICE I-I. MACK
SAMUEL A. HAusER
BENJAMIN T. BRATT
LAWRENCE S. ScoT'r ..... . ......... President
GEoRoE A. WINTERER. . . ..... Vit-efPresident
VIVIAN j. JEWETT ................. Secretary
FRANK N. PARKER
Forty-eight T H E F o C U s june
Square and Compasses Club
Founded at Northern Illinois College of Optometry, September, 1931
'-i, G 'v
JUNE. 1933 JANUARY, 1934
VVARREN H, MILLER' -,.,., 197651516-,lt HERBERT T. SOXVERS. . . ...... President
HERBERT T. Sowiins .......... Vice-President ELDRED H. JENSEN- .- . .... VicefPresident
ELDRED H. JENSEN ....... SecretaryfTrea.surer .IESSE T. SCOTT ..-. . . .Secretaryfreasurer
jorm K, SCHLVLURU ,.,,,,.,,,.,. Tyler joHN K. SUHULEIL . .. ............. Tyler
T. C. Atkinson W. bl. Heather C. S. McGuire
E. Coursen B. T. Hoffmann W. B. Needles
C. A. Dodge A. H. Johnsen -I. A. Ross
"To remind its members constantly of the teachings of Freemasonry: to create a closer friendship
and brotherhood among the Master Masons attending the Collegeg and through its influence to help
promote higher standards of the school." These were the aims and purposes of the club as set forth
in its constitution at its inception as an active organization in the fall of 1931.
These are worthy and sincere purposes, but in themselves perhaps not so much different from those
of other similar organizations: however. the methods and earnestness with which the members have
striven to carry these out during the past year have made the Square and Compasses Club unique
among the organizations of the school.
The teachings of Freemasonry and stimulation of brotherly feeling among the Master Masons at'
tending Northern Illinois was accomplished in the monthly meetings and social functions made sucf
cesses hy stirring talks given hy the cluh's staunch members and friends. The creation of closer friend'
rhip was extended over the entire student body and found expression this year in the "Roundup," an
all school getftogether and entertainment. This was conceived and sponsored by the eluh. aided linanf
cially by the College. Finally, the promotion of higher standards of the school was developed through
the presentation of educational lectures.
The Square and Compasses Club has been adequately described as a club where Master Masons play
and work together in perfect unity.
A. R. Crist
R. E. Crump
WA. H. Fisher
TL. W. Hines
ACTIVE MEMBERS, 1933 AND 1034
TAA. E. Heurich W. H. Miller
E. H. Jensen IRT. H. Riley
Kiefer -I. T. Scott
C. H. Kingon K. Schuler
F. C. Koch H. T. Sowers
F. C. Stilwill
C. M. Weaver
F. B. Willianis
A. E. Hicks
1934 T II If F o 1: U S Fortyfnine
One of the most unique and successful events
on the whole school calendar for 1934 was the
first N.I.C. Roundfup. The idea of the Roundfup
originated with the members of the Square and
Compasses Club who conceived the idea that it
would be a good plan to start a precedent for a
school party for the purpose of welcoming new
freshmen. The plan was presented to Dr. Needles
who approved of it wholefheartedly, and accord'
ingly the wheels were shortly set in motion to
put the idea across.
The gala night arrived. Mr. Sowers, who
acted as Master of Ceremonies, first introduced
Dr. Wm. B. Needles, who in turn introduced
all the members of the faculty. All the faculty
members were thunderously applauded so that
one might well say that the evening started out
with a "bang" Next, the members of the basket
ball squad were presented by their coach, Mr.
Berry-they also were well received. Then came
stunts by the various fraternities and the sorority
of the campus, Mu Sigma Pi Fraternity gave a
royal ragging of our one and only Dr. Zoethout,
and with the Pi Kappa Rho Sorority stunt, Dr.
Heather came in for his share. Possibly no one
enjoyed it quite as much as the two foremenf
tioned parties, 'unless it was the rest of the facf
ulty. CDr. Atkinson please notej
After the program, coffee and doughnuts were
served in the dining room and everyone seemed
agreed that the first Roundfup should by no
means be the last one.
Tomb cmd Key
Cn january 13, 1934, the Tomb and Key Hon'
orary Fraternity gave its semifannual dance at
the Piccadilly Hotel. A Practically thehwhole of
the student body and a great many of our es'
teemed instructors and faculty members ,graced
the party with their presence. Professor and Mrs.
Occhiena, Dr. and Mrs. McGuire, Dr. Ross, Dr.
john Needles, and Dr. and Mrs. Carl F. Shepard
were those faculty members especially noticed.
Dr. and Mrs. Shepard were celebrating their wed'
ding anniversary Qjust which one was not dis'
The music, ranging from a languorous waltz to
a snappy fox trot, kept everyone "on their toes,"
and all were sorry to hear Home Sweet Home.
The high spot, socially, of a successful semes'
ter for Tomb and Key, was the SemifAnnual
Spring Dance held at the Hotel Piccadilly Roof
Garden. This function is traditionally sponsored
by the faculty, and is the time of Auld Lang Sync
before we scatter to every state, pledging to meet
in future years. Dancing to a tenfpiece orchestra
and' the cooling breezes of Lake Michigan, a
crowd of seventyffive couples enjoyed a most
pleasant evening. The success of this dance was
due to the work of M. F. McCuirk, D. N. Mcf
Leod, and Wiii. F. Keifer, who were chairmen.
Two interesting and instructive lectures were
given by Dr. Wolff, the eminent opthalmologist
of our visiting staff. The first dealt with the sub'
ject of cataracts, the lecture being illustrated by
slides showing the different types of cataracts and
the ophthalmoscopic pictures showing the distincf
tion between them. The second lecture by Dr.
Wolff was on the subject of Glaucoma which
was also supplemented by slides which, together
with Dr. Wolff's extensive knowledge and vivid
descriptions, did not fail to impress the student
body with a greater appreciation of the characf
teristics and peculiarities of the disease.
Another important and highly educational lecf
ture was given by Dr. Hoffmann of the clinical
staff. The lecture was given in the evening and
Dr. Hoffmann presented a series of slides, beautif
fully made and colored to give a faithful picture
of each kind and various phases of ocular dis'
eases. This was a rare opportunity and all in
attendance fully appreciated the value of the
slides as well as Dr. Hoffmann's explanations and
Plii Kappa Rlio
A very successful "Hard Times" dance was
given at the Craymont Hotel, January 24, 1934,
by the Phi Kappa Rho Sorority. No conception
of the magnitude of the depression was possible
until the guests arrived and displayed how badly
the clothing business had suffered. As the"'wee"
morning hours arrived, "hard times" were for'
gotten as everyone enjoyed "good times" with the
very best of society.
On April 6th the sorority gave a very interest'
ing and unique dance at the Colosimos. This was
followed, on April 23rd, by a farewell party for
Mrs. Occhiena, who was to accompany "Papa
Ckeyu to the SouthfEastern Optometric Convenf
tion, and also a double shower was given for
Harriet Arneson and Dorothy Hall.
To wind up a brilliant social season, the An-
nual Spring Senior Farewell Dance was held at
the Edgewater Beach Hotel.
Fifty T H E
F o cz U s june
Phi Theta Upsilon
Phi Theta Upsilon endeavors to build its men
in two waysseducationally and socially. In
furtherance of the first purpose, the fraternity
held lectures, bringing to its members outstandf
ing men from the field of Optometry as well as
the allied professions and sciences. One of the
best was given on April 23rd by Dr. T. G. Atkinf
son, whose fine lecture was well received and
drew a great round of applause.
Augmenting this educational program, the fra'
ternity gave numerous social functions. The usual
welcoming party was given the infcoming Fresh'
men to create a friendly feeling between them
and the members of the Fraternity. On the night
of December 8th, the members gathered in the
Walnut Room of the Bismarck Hotel for a Pledge
Dinner Dance given in honor of the new mem'
bers. The new members of the following Spring
were given a similar reception on April 13th at
the Terrace Gardens of the Morrison Hotel.
Aside from the annual dances, the fraternity
sponsors many other dinners, radio parties, and
getftogethers. One of these worthy of particular
note was the occasion of a banquet February 23rd
at the Dorian Hotel, at which Dr. j. C. Copeland
gave a lecture illustrated with motion pictures
giving a complete story of the making of lenses
as well as their effect on light.
Not to be omitted from this resume, is the hard
fought baseball battle in which the P. T. Us
came from behind in the last inning to defeat the
Mu Sig's by an 8 to 6 score. This was staged on
April 14th and was a wellfearned victory for Phi
Theta Upsilon, and stirred a great deal of fra'
ternal as well as intra'fraternal spirit.
Omega Epsilon Phi
The Omega Epsilon Phi Fraternity opened its
social activities for this semester with a getftof
gether dinner at the Chicago Beach Hotel. This
was followed by the traditional bifmonthly din'
ners during the rest of the semester.
The speakers at these dinner meetings included
Dr. T. G. Atkinson, Dr. J. Heather, and Dr. F.
Keefe. These "pillars of optometry" gave most
interesting and inspirational talks, and the men
of "O, E. Phi" wish to insert here a word of
thanks to them for their splendid efforts.
On March 7th, the fraternity gave a "Bridge"
affair at the Bismarck Hotel with all members and
pledges attending. The big event of the season,
however, was the formal initiation held on April
20th, and the final gesture was a "bust" given in
favor of the outgoing seniors.
Mu Sigma Pi
Although the Mu Sigma Pi Fraternity was
not founded solely as a social organization, its
calendar always includes an ample number of so'
The principal event on the calendar of this
semester was the dinner dance given on December
22, at which about thirty couples gathered in the
Pompeian Room of the Bismarck Hotel. The
semifannual Formal Banquet, an allgday affair,
took place Sunday, April 22nd, at the Del Prado
Hotel. Initiation of the new class of members
was the feature of the afternoon, and the evening
was devoted to introducing these men to the hon'
orary members and faculty over the banquet board.
The social calendar also provided for the
"Smoker" given for new arrivals at the beginning
of the semester on February 12, and then followed
a series of regular monthly dinners with popular
and wellfknown men as guests. Among the lat'
ter were Dr. T. G. Atkinson, Dr. W. Heather,
Dr. J. C. Copeland, Dr. Carl F. Shepard, Dr.
Samuel Ginsburg, Dr. Wm. A. Mendelsohn, and
Dr. Irvin Borish.
The "Senior Farewell Dinner" was the final
meeting, at which time the graduating members
were consigned to the ranks of Optometry to help
fight for professional and ethical practice in their
Several months ago a congenial dozen or so,
from assorted classes, decided that their common
interests in current questions were equally as wide
as their professional concern. When such a group
gravitates together, an ideally democratic organ'
ization is evolved. Such is the history of the
Round Table Club which made its appearance in
N. I. C. during the previous semester.
There is no mystery about the knights and
ladies of this "Round Table." The only require'
ment is an insatiable curiosity, and the cabalistic
sign is a question mark.
Sunday afternoon meetings were held, presided
over by Dr. Beauchamp and Messrs. Lutz,
Crump, Skilbeck, and Banks.
Square and Compasses Club
The annual Thanksgiving dinner was given
November 16th, 1933, at the Graymont Hotel.
Besides the regular members, there were nineteen
guests present, including all De Molay members of
the student body. The De Molay were encourf
aged to organize a separate club of their own
under the sponsorship of Square and Compasses.
C. O. Ward of Boulevard Lodge, Chicago, was
the speaker of the evening.
1934 T H E
F o C u s Fiftyfone
The semifannual Senior Farewell Banquet took
place on January 11th, 1934, at the usual meet'
ing place. An impressive ceremony, planned some
years ago and given at each Farewell Banquet by
Dr. T. G. Atkinson, once more sent the graduf
ating members on their way to the four corners
of the earth in true Masonic fashion.
On March 17th, the club sponsored a lecture
given by Dr. J. C. Copeland, in the school audi'
torium. Dr. Copeland presented motion pictures
of the plant of Bausch Ei Lomb Co., showing
various processes of manufacture of their prod'
ucts which provided interesting and instructive
entertainment for the more than one hundred and
fifty students and friends in attendance.
April 19th, the club shared the sponsorship
with Tomb and Key of a lecture on "The Relaf
tion of the Optometric Profession to the Indus'
try," by Col. John R. Glennon of the American
Optical Company. "Okey' introduced Col. Glen'
non, whose lecture contained many practical and
educational aspects which were enthusiastically
received and appreciated by all those who filled
The Michigan Optometric Club
On March 30th, 1934, four students of N. I. C.
from the State of Michigan, conceived the idea
of forming a Michigan Optometric Club, for the
prime purpose of the promotion of ethical and
The club was formed immediately, with Prof
fessor E. Occhiena as faculty advisor and the four
students, M. J. Rosenthal, David Rose, B. T.
Bratt, and L. I. York, as charter members.
The first meeting was called on April ith, 1934,
for membership of every Michigan student in the
college. Fortyffive made application for member'
ship. At the second meeting, the club increased
its membership and permanent officers were
elected as follows:
J. H. Skiuseck . . . ...... President
N. R. BECKER. . . ........ Vit-efPresident
GoLD1E GRAY .. .............. Secretary
DAVID ROSE .... , . .Corresponding Secretary
E. B. SLOCUM ............. Associate Secretary
The organization of this club has been endorsed
by the Michigan State Society of Optometry and
as a result the potentialities of the group look very
It is with the thought in mind that, "In union
there is strength" that the members of the Michif
gan Optometric Club stand banded together to
make Optometry, in the true sense of the word,
a cleaner and more ethical profession.
Omega Delta, the oldest fraternity at N. I. C.,
rounded out another year of activity and good
fellowship. Alpha Chapter swung into its 17th
school year with the same enthusiasm that has
carried it through so many previous years with
The first big event was the Afternoon Tea and
Smoker, Sunday. Sept. 'Z-lth. Following this was
the rush party given for prospective members at
the Terrace Gardens, Sept. 29th. To complete
the rush period, there was a tour of the city on
Sunday morning, Oct. lst, which included most
of the Chicago highfspots. The regular bidf
banquet was held Thursday, Oct. ith, at Cray'
Alpha now began plans for the Eastern Ref
gional Conclave of Omega Delta, held here in
Chicago, Nov. 4th and Sth. All reports showed
a very successful convention, with a large number
of delegates and alumni present.
Omega Delta carried on through the year with
its usual and varied activities. Immediately after
the holidays, election of ofhcers for the second
semester was held and Ralph M. Abel, of St.
Louis, was chosen President, to succeed Geo. M.
Robertson, of Minneapolis.
In late January, Alpha established headquarters
at the Craymont Hotel. All members felt this
was a great step forward because of the dire ne'
cessity of a house for such an organization as
Time marched on and before Alpha realized,
rush period was here again. Two novel and exf
tremely interesting functions were given for pros'
pective members. Sunday evening, Feb. 4th,
about 50 members and guests attended a National
League hockey game between the Chicago Black'
hawks and the Boston Bruins. Following this
on the rush program was a tour of the N. B. C.
Studios in the Merchandise Mart building, on
Wedriesday, Feb. 7th, Vincent Lopez played host
with a program of typical Lopez music. Last. but
not least, was the dinnerfdance for the new men,
held in the Gold Coast Room of the Drake Hotel,
Thursday, Feb. lith.
For the better part of a month, "all was quiet
on the Alpha front." A "bowery" dance on St.
Patrick's Day broke the serenity of pledge period
in a novel fashion.
The last function on the calendar was the din'
nerfdance given for the graduating brothers. This
last big fling was held at the Stevens Hotel, May
Eiftyftwo T H E F 0 C U S Jung
The Season's Record
Nov. 29-Optometry. . . 32
Dec. Y- " . . .20 Chicago Normal College ...... 22
" 11- " ...32 Wheaton College ....... ...S2
" 13-- . . .37 North Park College ........ . .29
" li-- ...4S U. of Ill. Col. of Pharmacy... .15
jan. 10-- ...46 Ill. Col. of Chiropody ........ 13
" 13- ...SS American Col. of Phys. Ed... .29
" 16- . . .50 Ill. Col. of Chiropody ........ 31
18- . . .31 North Park College .... . . .29
" 23- . . .66 Chicago Tech. College .... . . .20
Feh. 3-- . . .27 George Williams College ...... 45
" 10- . . .40 Chicago Normal College .... . .41
" 16- . . .48 American Col. of Phys. Ed.. . . .31
23- , , ,38 Donnelly's Lakeside Press ..... 22
" 27- . . .10 Sappanos Paint fdefaultj . . . . . . 0
Mar. 2- . . .43 Loyola U. fFroshD .......... 20
" 13- . . .33 Rockhurst Col., Kansas City. . .22
14- . . .34 Gridley Chiefs, Wichita, Kan. .40
22- " . . .40 Inland Steel, Ind. Harhor ...., .24
For the past three years athletics have hecome
more and more in the spotflight at Northern Illif
nois College. The primary reason for this was the
remarkahle success of the college haskethall teams.
Therefore we shall devote this space to a summary
of the sudden rise of our major sport.
Two years ago the Northern Illinois College
haskethall team surprised the local sport fans hy
defeating several strong comhinations, principally
hecause of the playing of Rich Needles and Bill
Whitehead, son and nephew of our president.
The following year three more stellar players
were added to the ranks in the persons of jim
Custard and Lennie Mayer, hoth former Chicago
High School stars, and Ben Davis, star of Liherty
High, Liherty, N. Y. The team that year made
the remarkahle record of twelve games won and
six lost against Junior Colleges, Technical Col'
leges, etc., in and around Chicago.
When the call for candidates for the haskethall
team was sounded this year there were thirty'
seven men who answered, each one eager to win
a herth on the squad. Coach Gene Barry drilled
these hoys and little hy little huilt up an unusu-
ally strong, fast team. A hint of what to expect
was given in a practice game with the University
of Chicago varsity squad, which, after two over'
time periods, ended in a deadlock, 32 all.
The season started rather shakily with two def
feats at the hands of Chicago Normal College and
Wheaton College of Wheaton, Ill., although hoth
losses were hy narrow margins. Then the N. I. C.
hoys started a winning rampage which was not
stopped until they had won nine successive games.
The regularly scheduled season ended with a rec-
ord of fifteen wins and five defeats.
As a reward for the splendid showing the
hudding Optometrists had made, Dr. Needles enf
University of Chicago .... . . .32
joHN W. NEEDLES, oP'r.D.
Director of Athletics
tered the team in the National A. A. U. tournaf
ment at Kansas City, Mo. To play in this tournaf
ment is the ambition of every haskethall player,
as the winning team is declared world champions.
The 1933414 squad of Northern Illinois College
has realized that amhition. On March 9th a party
of fourteen, including our President, Dr. W. B.
Needles: Dr. john Needles, director of athletics,
Coach Gene Barry, Manager Ed. Forszt and ten
memhers of the team journeyed to Kansas City.
The first round of the tourney found the Op'
tometrists with a hye. In the second round they
met the fast Rockhurst College team of Kansas
City, one of the favorites to win the tournament.
Under great odds the game little Optometry team
scrapped their way through to a 33 to 22 victory.
Capt. jimmy Custard hore the hrunt of the at'
tack, scoring sixteen of the thirtyfthree points and
playing a heautiful floor game.
The opening of the third round found the
"eye" hoys among the remaining ten teams of the
original fiftyfseven entered. They met the Grid'
ley Chieftons of Wichita, Kan., former title hold'
ers. A Herce struggle resulted with the score see'
sawing hack and forth until the final minute. The
game ended with the Optometrists on the losing
end of a 34 to 40 score. The "kids" went down
lighting to the last minute and they won a tref
mendous round of applause from the 7,000 spec'
tators. The trip was a huge success and we are
proud of these hoys who fought so gamely for
their college and for Optometry.
The team personnel was as follows: Capt.
jimmy Custard, fg Lennie Mayer, gg Gordie
Taylor, fg Ben Davis, cg Chuck Chmielinski, gg
Art Massey, fg Pat Virant, cg Zack, fg Heath
Crumbaugh, gg Austin Prichard, fg Boh Brown,
fg Herh Lenz, f.
1934 T ll Ii F o r' U s Fiftyfthree
Why Uptometry is a Profession
EUGENE FREEMAN, A. B.
0 man ever knowingly commits an act
that is not to his own best interests.
Right or wrong, a man always chooses
what he thinks is best for himself g and the
wise man is the one who is far sighted
enough to forego what appears to be best
for him at the moment if it conflicts with
what is best for him in the long run. The
new graduate who embarks upon a comf
mercial career in optometry believes that
he is choosing what is best for himself, but
he is mistaken. On every count but one,
namely, the amount of money earned dur'
ing the first year or two of practice, it is
more worth while to practice optometry as
a profession than it is to make of it a busif
There is no better way for the young opf
tometrist to convince himself of this fact
than by talking things over with as many
commercial and professional optometrists
as he possibly can, especially if he is able
to see their books. He will discover that
the optometrist whose income is the largest
is the man who has built up a professional
ofhce practice. Furthermore, if he is a keen
observer of human nature, he will discover
that the optometrist who seems to be the
happiest, the one that has the most self ref
spect and pride in his work, the most pres'
tige and social standing, the one fand per'
haps the only onej who is accepted as a
professional man, is the optometrist who
conducts an ethical office practice.
Paradoxically enough, it is the man en'
gaged in commercial or semifprofessional
practice, without the courage or the fore'
sight to accept the full responsibilities of
professionalism, who is protesting most
vigorously that optometry is a profession
and that he is a professional man. He is
partly right. Optometry is a profession but
he does not quite belong to it. The degree
of "Doctor of Qptometryn that is conf
ferred upon an optometric graduate by his
college does not make him a professional
man -it merely grants him the privilege
of making a professional man out of him'
selfg and his doctor's title is meaningless
unless he avails himself of this privilege.
Regardless of what he calls himself, the
commercial optometrist, conducting a high
pressure business in lenses and frames in a
credit jewelry store or in a department
store or in an optical chain store, is not a
The public, however, judges optometry
by the men who call themselves optomef
trists, and the title of optometrist has been
so vividly associated in the public mind
with commercial and semifprofessional pracf
tice, that an increasing number of profesf
sional practitioners of optometry are now
using some more distinguished title, such as
"0ptometric Eye Specialist," "Refractionf
ist," or just plain "Eye Specialist." This is,
perhaps, a mistake. A profession does not
give itself a new name every time it makes
a step forward toward becoming more prof
fessional. Dentistry a generation ago was
for the most part as unprofessional as Up'
tometry has ever been. But it was by drop'
ping its unprofessional practices, and not
its name, that dentistry became recognized
as a profession.
The prestige of the title of "0ptometric
Eye Specialist" is limited by the prestige of
the term "Optometry" from which it is def
rived. The only way that the prestige of
any of the titles derived from the term op'
tometry can be increased is by building up
the prestige of the profession as a whole.
And it is the very man who calls himself an
optometric eye specialist that could further
his own interest and those of his profession
best by calling himself an optometrist. For
he is the man that the public must know
as an optometrist if the profession of op'
Fiftyffour T ll li
F ll KI ll S lung
tometry is to receive the prestige that it
Let us stop at this point to consider what
it is that makes optometry a profession. A
profession may be defined as a limited,
clearly demarcated vocation, requiring both
liberal and technical training, and dedicated
to humanitarian ideals. The most distingf
uishing characteristic of a profession is that
its members place service to their fellow
man above all financial considerations. This
is emphasized in the hrst article of the code
of ethics of the American Medical Associaf
tion, which states that.
"A profession has for its prime object the
service it can render to humanity: reward or
financial gain should be a subordinate conf
An optometrist who conforms to this first
demand of professionalism has gone far
towards making himself a professional man.
Besides this first allfimportant require'
ment, there are five major characteristics of
The hrst is that its members must be conf
trolled by a central organization which pre'
scribes and enforces its ethical standards.
Thus the prestige of a profession, which
depends largely on its ethics, is in the hands
of its central organization. The American
Medical Association, with 90,000 members
out of the 150,000 medical men in the
country, has shown how much a strong or'
ganization can do for a profession in conf
trolling its members, raising its standards,
and gaining the respect of the public.
While there are also 150,000 lawyers in
the country, the American Bar Association
has only 25,000 members, and this fact
seems to be reflected in the prestige of the
legal profession. The American Qptometf
ric Association has been constantly gaining
in strength and it now has 8,000 members
out of the 16,000 optometrists in the counf
try. Membership in this association is the
indispensable prefrequisite to professional
and ethical standing in optometry, and the
rapid growth of the organization reflects
the rapid rise of optometry as a profession.
The second characteristic of a profession
is that its functions must be clearly def
marcated. It is necessary to draw a sharp
line between the activities that belong to a
profession and those that do not. Legally,
the functions of optometry have been very
clearly demarcated from the functions of
medicineg and professionally, they have
been clearly demarcated from the functions
of the semifprofessional business man.
Nevertheless, there still remains one inf
ternal problem of demarcation that has not
been settled, and that is the problem of disf
pensing. There are some optometrists who
declare that optometry to be professional
must pattern itself after the medical prof
fession, and should therefore do no dispens'
ing, but should turn that function over to
the optician. Qthers, however, affirm that
optometry is more analogous to dentistry
than to medicine, and that the optometrist
should therefore do his own dispensing, as
the dentist does. Without entering into
the debate on this question, we may point
out, however, that the primary function of
the optometrist is writing a prescription or
giving treatments, and not selling glasses.
The optometrist who does his own dispensf
ing should never forget this fact, and he
should charge a separate fee for his profesf
Due to the fact that the doctor of opf
tometry at present is not permitted to per'
form any medical or surgical functions,
some misapprehensions have arisen as to
whether or not he is a full fledged doctor.
But the title of doctor is not reserved ex'
clusively for the medical profession. "Doo
tor" is the Latin word meaning Hknower
of-H. A man may be a doctor in any
branch of science or culture. When a man
has a Ph.D. degree in physics, or literature,
or psychology, or physiology, or mathematf
ics, he is called by the title of doctor, which
means simply that he is a uknower of" his
own specialized field. Similarly, a man
with an O.D. degree is called by the title
of doctor because he is a Hknower ofi' opf
tometry. In all these cases, "knower ofi'
1934 T H is
o c U s Fiftyffive
prefsupposes a number of years of special'
ized college training, whose adequacy has
been tested by comprehensive examinations
or by state boards. Thus the doctor of op'
tometry is just as much a full fledged doctor
as a doctor in any other field. Furthermore,
the optometry degrees are the only legally
recognized doctoral degrees conferred for
specialized study of the eye. Such titles as
"oculist" or "ophthalmologist" are self'
conferred and do not necessarily prefsupf
pose any more than the usual sixty hours
of study of the eye offered in the general
The third characteristic of a profession
is that it requires liberal and technical train'
ing. The dictionary definition of a profesf
sion is that it is a specialized vocation char'
acterized by a liberal education. A profesf
sion is judged by the cultural level of its
members, and all the professions require
their members to secure a liberal education.
The new three year course at Northern
Illinois College has been planned with this
requirement in mind. The value of a libf
eral education to an optometrist can be
measured by both practical and cultural
standards. Practically, it brings him more
patients, because it enables him to reach a
much higher type of clientele than he could
without it. Culturally, it enriches his per'
sonality and makes his life fuller and more
enjoyable, by giving him a wide variety of
extrafprofessional interests. An optomef
trist will End it very valuable to carry on
his liberal interests and activities all
through his life.
The technical training of the profesf
sional man is, of course, the most essential
part of his education. An optometrist, es'
pecially one who graduates from Northern
Illinois College, can well be proud of the
technical training and education that he
has received. No professional man receives
a more intensive training in one highly spef
cialized Held than the optometrist. '
The fourth characteristic of a profession
is that it demands a probationary period
with little or no financial returns. The first
year's income in such professions as medif
cine, law, teaching, engineering, etc., is
usually very scanty. Optometry if pracf
ticed as a profession demands a similar sac'
rifice. The first year of an office practice
in optometry should be considered to be a
sort of voluntary internship which is a nec'
essary prefrequisite to a professional career.
The fifth characteristic of a profession is
that a professional man charges a variable
fee instead of a fixed price for his services.
This is one of the most distinctive differ'
ences between the professional and the non'
professional pursuits. The professional
man bases his fee partly upon the imporf
tance of the services he renders to his pa'
tient, and partly upon the difficulty of the
case and the amount of time he spends
upon it. He also adapts his fee to the pa'
tient's ability to pay, for it is only by chargf
ing proportionately higher fees to those
who can afford it that he is able to fulfill
the humanitarian obligations that his prof
fession imposes of treating all worthy pa'
tients regardless of how little they can
The prospects of the new graduate who
enters into ethical ofhce practice today are
extremely bright. The functions of the op'
tometrist are constantly being broadened
by new developments in optometric science.
Various new methods of visual training,
and techniques such as the use of contact
lenses for the correction of conical cornea:
telescopic lenses for the improvement of
subnormal visiong mechanical crutches for
the correction of ptosisg and postfhypnotic
suggestion for the treatment of psychic
squint, have opened up unprecedented op'
portunities for research and practice in prof
fessional optometry, and are gaining for
optometry unreserved acceptance as a prof
fession. It is true that we have our fringe
of racketeersg but there are quacks and
shysters and frauds in every profession.
Both the public and the profession can be
protected from them, however, by outlaw'
Fiftyfsix T ll In F o cz II S Jung
ing them from the professional organizaf
tions. The public is learning to recognize
the membership card in the organization as
a guarantee of ethical and skilled profesf
sional services, and to withdraw its confif
dence from all practitioners who are not
members of their professional organizations.
The optometrist, therefore, who conf
forms to the highest standards of profesf
sional ethics, such as membership in the prof
fessional societies, location in an exclusively
optometric ofiice, preferably upstairsg re'
straining advertising in accordance with
the ethical code of his state society, sub'
ordinating dispensing to a minor roleg
charging professional fees, with a separate
fee for examination: and above all, making
the welfare of his patients his primary conf
cern, will be the only one to reap the rich
harvest of rewards that optometry is rap'
idly bringing as it gains the prestige of
fcontinued from page 281
sideration lies in dispensing. I have seen
numerous Qptometrists who were able to
present a complete eye examination so masf
terfully that when it was completed, they
represented to their patients the very
heights of professionalism. And at this time
they were eligible to any reasonable examf
ination fee and could have collected it. But
instead, they took a toboggan slide down
into a drawer full of assorted uglassesi' and
proceeded forthwith to enter into the bar'
gaining which is associated with commerf
cialized dispensing. Almost instantly, they
proved to their patients that all along they
had really been merchants and not profesf
sional men. From then on any mention of
an examination fee would have been taken
as a joke, and rightly. Limitations of space
prevent repetition of the plans for dispensf
ing which have been offered, as well as any
discussion of the problem. Suflice it to say
that at this point your most careful plan'
ning is imperatively demanded, because you
must separate your professional services
Many other factors may occur to you,
but we shall consider at this time only one
more, namely, "professional correspondf
ence." It is never very difhcult to discover
by whom each patient was referred to you.
Some brief note of appreciation to this perf
son should always go out on the same day,
so that you can say, among other things,
"Thank you for sending Mrs. Brown to me
today." During the examination of each
patient, be sure to select some point of par'
ticular interest, both to the patient and
yourself, about his case. Note it carefully,
and explain its significance to the patient,
promising to consider it again at the next
examination. A letter which you may send
six months or a year later should be cenf
tered about that particular point. A form
letter is practically worthless, because it
rarely appeals to personal interestsg but
your letter, based as it is, entirely on the
patient's own particular interests, will asf
sure his return, or his continued good will.
My closing counsel to you is my most
reiterated teaching- "TI-llNK.', Think
while you are building your practice. You
will never be able to overdo it: and the
more you think in planning your practice,
the firmer you will build. Longfellow has
expressed this same truth in imperishable
"For thc structure that we raise,
Time is with materials filled,
Our todays and yesterdays
Are the blocks with which we build.
Nothing useless is, or low:
Each thing in its place is best:
And what seems but idle show
Strengthens and supports the rest.
Build today, then, strong and sure,
With a firm and ample base:
And ascending and secure
Shall tomorrow find its place."
1934 T H Ii F U fi ll S Fiftyfseven
- -1 - f - 1
Y o u 1-
0 'D '
This rnemorahle erenl will mark lhe day ll'lIf'lI, you .vel up lhe olfiees in, u'hleh you will
praeliee your profession. There on lhe wall, for all lo xee, il will represenl your years of
sludy and hard work lo become profieienl in your profession . . . Nou' eornes lhe laxk of
building your professional repulalion. Here. new far-lors enler inlo llze progrexs of your
eareer: lhe appearance of your olfieex. lhe QM!-l'lPIlf'.X' of your equiprnenl. lhe fll'l'III'lll'-V of your
inslrunzenls. lhe qualify of lhe lenses. nzounlings and franzes you use . . . Hay we eooperale
uvilh you lo make lhe lolal of lhese faelors a worlhy eonzplenzenl lo your edu:-alion and lrainlng.
Our one hundred and one years of oplieal progrexx has filled us lo .s-erre well your erery
requiremenl for building and holding your praeliee.
we 'SB fb
:P A 2
'S - - 7
4 J 5
, 1934 ff
Anlvrican 0ptical Colnpany
Tun Focus june
' .---- ADJUSTMENT
. ron i-ieierm-1
S SPRING '
Manufacturers of FIRIVIFLEX lllountings and
GENEVA.. NEW' YORK
I time enalile you to
jo LOCK I I . -
A,F,,'1LLff,,T ! give your patients tlie
If- are E'-V benefit of a com-
1 . plelely seientilic examination.
I Cenotlialmir' equipment meets all of tlle
I requirements and it can lie purcllaserl liy
tlie 1-onvenient "l'ay-out-of-Profitsm plan.
Write for illustrated liulletins.
SHURON OPTICAL COMPANY. INC.
A ter Graduation
After receiving tlle coveted "sheep-
skin," after passing the "state
boards." you will prepare to practice
your Cll0S6l1 profession.
One ol' the first steps is tlie acqui-
sition of refracting
equipment that will
glorify your profes- I
sion anrl at tlie same
DREXEL STATE BANK
Cottage Grove Ave. and Oakwood Blvd.
CHARLES T. BYRNE ,,.., ,.. .., Manutacturer
MARK A. CRONIN .,,,,.....,..,...........
President, Knickerbocker Rooting 81 Paving Co.
ANDREW J. KOLAR ,Vice-Pres., Drexel State Bank
R. J. NEAL ,,,.,.,,.,, President, Drexel State Bank
DR. WM. B. NEEDLES ,,...,. ....,..........
President, Northern Illinois College ot Optometry
CLARENCE POFFENBERGER ......,. .......,
Cashier, Drexel State Bank
PRED J. WEGG ..,.... ,...,..... L awyer
PICI-IARD W. YERKES ,..Treasurer, Link-Belt Co.
SI.50 Up Single
53.00 Up Double
Drexel Boulevard at 42nd Place
Phone Drexel 3200
J. M. FLANAGAN, Manager
Special on Weekly and Monthly Guests
BARBER SHOP GARAGE TAILOR SHOP
'raduates - -
We extend hearty con-
gratulations and best
M'iS11CS lOl' yOll1' SUCCCSS.
We Pl'Oll1iSC tile Sallie
fr . .
E' lC1CIlt SCFVICC Elf 1'6-
Exclusive Launderers to
N. of Optolnetry
1ltn1ore aun 1'
Phone Oakland 5772
CALL FOR AND DELIVER
I, F o cl U S l:lfty'lllI1C
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2 W Wa 1?
A Z 4 'imlM'lwu,uI,u11
Z' Q iw.MQiQQlltttuuutiwuwniulnwwruyywjwm
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THE P THW Y
Wiith graduation but a milestone passed.
your journey on the pathway of progress
has already begun. At the end of the trail
lies the rainbow-sueeess.
Your travel lnay be slow, or it may be fast.
but regardless the path will not always be
smooth. There will be byways-seeming
short euts to the rainbow: hills-seeming
obstacles diffieult to overeomeg valleys-
depths which quickly pass.
Un this great adventure you are about to
begin. we hope that you'll lake our prof-
fered helping hand-for in all modesty we
believe that we have aided many who have
preeeded you on this pathway of progress.
Riggs offers you a friendly organization,
experienced in every phase of the optical
profession, willing and anxious to devote our
efforts to counsel., guide and help you so
that your progress may be rapid and the
ni gs olniical Colnpanyg
Sixty T H Ii F o cr: LI 5 june
OFFICIAL HEADQUARTERS OF N. I. C. STUDE
A New Fire-
fance of N.I.C.,
and aSI'1or+ Rid
Io 'fI1e WorIcI'
I032 Easi' 46'II1 S+ree+, Chicago
WI-IERE THE FRATERNITIES GATI-IEI2
Delicious Course Meals Available in Our Gwn Dining Room
Every R o
L i g I1 'I', W
Telephone a CI
SPECIAL RATES TO STUDENTS AND THEIR FRIENDS
Maurice Seymour Studios
Hoof Ganlen St. Clair Hotel Chicano
All Phones: Kenwood 6518
C. F. PETERSON COAL COMPANY
Anthracite and Bituminous
C O A L
Oflicc and Yard: 4011-4021 Langley Avenue
1934 T H E F O fl U S Sixtyfqme
NEW ERA INVITES You 1
EW ERA OPTICAL COMPANY cordially inviles all Norfhern Illinois sludenis Io make New Era
Equipmenl Rooms Iheir headquarlers when downtown
in Chicago. Our Equipment Deparlmenl conlains ree L
Iraclion inslrumenls and refraclrion room equipmenl of I'
all makes and Iypes. Come in aI any Iime and Iry our
Ihe various inslrumenls - experimenl wilh Ihem in our TZ: Il,NhIiii.lIIf .
model refraclion rooms-make your seleciion wi'rh care. If IIIII
ill Recenrly New Era has designed and had manulac- 9
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accessories. These are thoroughly modern, in Iune
wilh modern Oplomelry and priced lar below similar
pieces of oiher makers. Before seleclinq your equip-
menI', invesfigale New Era Equipmeni.
Q l Y Ib
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A 41' II
, I Em
N: A V I-Miilr liy'
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N EW E RA oPTi CAL COMPANY I -
I7 North Wabash Avenue Chicago, Illinois
THE OPTOMETRIC WEEKLY
5 North Wallash Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
the magazine delivered 52 times throughout the
year at your door for UNE DOLLAR. It ron-
tains scientific articles by authorities, editorials
that are trutlxful-calling a spade u spadefand
all news from every corner ol' the world in the
interests of optoinetry.
For quick and sure results, use the want
ad columns of The Optometric Weekly
USED BY 'l'Hl'i
Northern Illinois College of Optometry
.IlI1lllllfll!'llll'1'!1 l'i.Yl'IllNll'l'IT by
OTTENHEIMER 81 CO., Inc.
1946-50 VI'cst Madison Street. Chicago
DRUMM'S SERVICE STATION
S. W. Cor. 4Is+ S+. and Drexel Blvd.
VEEDOL, OUAKER STATE AND
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al Lowesl Prices
4064 Ellis Ave. Jusl' a Block from School
Larqe Single and Double Rooms Sludenl Rales
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19 4 T H E F o cz U s Slxtytlmc
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A ter Commencement - what 9
Professional growth depends on reputa-
tion. And reputation depends largely on
how successfully true skill is translated into
practical eye relief for patients.
It is for this reason that Bausch 31 Lomb
lenses, frames and instruments are made to
the highest standards of precision within
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BAUSCH 81 LOMB OPTICAL CO
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
To the seniors and undergraduates, we, the Focus staff,
wish to express our appreciation for the cofoperation
and support they have given us by their subscriptions.
To the faculty, for their articles and advice.
To the publisher, for his comments and help.
DEAN A. AMERosE . . .
ELDRED H. JENSEN..
MAsoN F. Mc:Gu11u4.
ARMIN I-IILLE .....
SAMUEL HAUSER ...A
GENE YoUMANs .....
EDNA M. GUsTAEsoN
JAMES CUST.-XRD .....
M. F. MCGUIRK, Bus. Mgr.
. .Ass't Business
. . .EdiIOT'i71'Clli6f
. . . .Assistant Editor
. . .Business Manager
and Advertising Mgr.
. . . .School Activities
. . .Athletic Editor
' 4 r
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'U' ' 75176
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120 N. KALAMAZOO 41321616 W
KALAMAZQO. MICH. I
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Northern Illinois College of
Suggestions in the Northern Illinois College of Optometry - Focus Yearbook (Chicago, IL) collection:
Are you trying to find old school friends, old classmates, fellow servicemen or shipmates? Do you want to see past girlfriends or boyfriends? Relive homecoming, prom, graduation, and other moments on campus captured in yearbook pictures. Revisit your fraternity or sorority and see familiar places. See members of old school clubs and relive old times. Start your search today!
Looking for old family members and relatives? Do you want to find pictures of parents or grandparents when they were in school? Want to find out what hairstyle was popular in the 1920s? E-Yearbook.com has a wealth of genealogy information spanning over a century for many schools with full text search. Use our online Genealogy Resource to uncover history quickly!
Are you planning a reunion and need assistance? E-Yearbook.com can help you with scanning and providing access to yearbook images for promotional materials and activities. We can provide you with an electronic version of your yearbook that can assist you with reunion planning. E-Yearbook.com will also publish the yearbook images online for people to share and enjoy.
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