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Page 10 text:
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Motion Picture of ltlducationeCozzfzkmea'
when it is wanted. The commercially operated distribut-
ing point will not meet the conditions because the fees
while not unreasonable from the dist ributor's standpoint,
when added to express and insurartce make it impossible
l'or our schools to use the material with the limited
l'unds at hand. The only solution to this question, as l
see it, is to establish a State Bureau ol' Visual Instruc-
tion where thousands ol' Iilins and slides, all catalogued
like hooks in a library. are available. Then. a local Bu-
reau should lie established in every city in connection
with the public schools consisting ot' lilms and slides
owned by the lioard til' l'lducation. There may be other
ways ol' solving this dilliculty but this is my personal
view as l'ormed l'rom my experience with the moving
picture as a part ol' our school equipment.
l should say here that we do not experience in the
lligh School any other difliculties because our Board of
liducation has provided a splendid lantern and has au-
thorized the Superintendent to secure lilms ol' an edu-
cational and religious nature, or any other lilms which
he considers ol' value to the school. The Board of Educa-
tion will take care ol' the expense il' it can not be cared
t'or out ol' the liecture t'ourse Fund, or any other avail-
Now, it remains to point out the possibilities, or the
application til' the motion picture to school work.
lilo the practical teacher the subject ot' geography
presents itsell'. 'l'he motion picture can show not only the
physical characteristics ol' the various parts ol' the world
but also the activities ol' the people. Undoubtedly it
opens a tield in this subject so broad and comprehensive
that we can not see its limits. The picture which we se-
cured t'roni the l"ruit Dispatch Company, New York City.
through the courtesy ol' Mr. li. A. Schumacher, an alum-
nus ol' our lligh School, showed the growing and market-
ing ol' bananas and presented points along those lines
which we never get from the mere study ol' the text.
lt is possible to show a trip to South America which
takes a form ol' a climb in the Andes, a visit to some of
the great volcanoes, and a trip to Quito, the city ot' the
equator, 5l,2l5ti feet up in the air. Also, students may be
taken to Argentine showing the harvest lields, and fa-
mous cattle ol' that region.
lt is possible lor the pupil to see Niagara l"alls just
as the observer who stands on the bank sees them. The
students in the great agricultural regions ol' our country
can witness the great steamship leaving the seaports ot'
our country and also see the activity ol' our large cities,
whereas the child in our large cities, who is familiar
with these scenes, can in turn view the waving wheat
lields and the giant harvest and threshing machines
which are so common a sight to the children ol' the great
ln history much can be done in adding interest and
reality to the study ol' great historical events, Many im-
portant incidents can be and are being reproduced, as:
the Landing til' the l'ilgrims, the Boston Tea Party, the
lylidnight Ride ol' Paul Revere, the Slave Auction, the
liattle til' tlettysliurg, t'hickamauga, and Chattanooga,
The "Winners ol' the West" composed of eighteen episodes
ol' two reels each is an accurate historical picture et
great value. The subject matter is the famous expedi-
tion ol' .l. C. l"remoi.t in the days of the gold rush.
'there is practically no limit to what can be done in
iature study. All that the biologist, hotanist, or chemist
sees under the microscope can be thrown on the screen
and thus the child is enabled to see all that the special-
ist sees even though he can not understand the full
ineanirg ol' all that he sees. .
ln Physics and Chemistry, there is also practically
no limit. Lessons in liquid air, asphyxiating gases, car-
bonic g'as, electrolysis ol' metals, etc., can be given by the
inoviitg picture with as great a degree of accuracy as in
the laboratory. There is not much doubt either that the
student with sufticient previous knowledge can derive
Many industrial lilms are available and many are in
the process ol' preparation. Here is another means ot'
broadening and enriching the child's fund of knowledge,
for a personal visit to all of these various institutions is
practically impossible. By means ol' the moving picture
the activities of these institutions are brought to the
Civics otl'ers another tield. The operations ot' tire de-
partments, police departments, street-cleaning depart-
ments, and other divisions of the city organization are
easily shown. Many of the activities of the national gov-
ernment such as the post-oflice department, the mint,
etc.. can be easily represented.
Physiology and hygiene offer inviting possibilities,
lVledical colleges are using the motion picture to a great
extent. It would seem that lifty or one hundred tilms
might accomplish more than mere text book work could
ever hope to do.
For literature, there are a good many tilms available.
Nlany ot' the masterpieces of literature studied in our
High Schools have been dramatized and acted by eminent
artists for the moving picture camera and may be se-
cured for use in our schools.
For moral and religious development there is a large
and important lield, ln
more towards uplifting
could do in many talks
one picture we are able to do
and transforming life than we
or classroom lessons. To secure
the right kind ot p'ctures is our problem. Many so classi-
lied do not tend in that direction strong enough to
amount to much. The Stream ol' l,it'e, By their Fruits,
and A lVlodern Ruth, are no doubt the best pictures which
we have shown. Under the head ol' history and literature
we are able to secure pictures which have a wholesome
The possibilities ot' the moving picture can not be
ineasured. I have only pointed out a few of the things
which can be done provided, ot' course, that the tilms are
properly catalogued at a central bureau.
Let me say this in conclusion that "seeing is believ-
ing" and since we trust the evidence furnished our mind
hy our eyes, the moving picture has made it possible to
utilize this confidence in an educational vrav to the
greatest possible extent.
Page 9 text:
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Iinrrn SMITH, SiicRE1'AP.r. J. J. PHILLIPS, SUPERINTENDENT.
The Moving Picture ot Education
The school work of every generation has developed
apparatus, or equipment of some sort considered more or
less essential to the successful carrying-on of the work.
In the earlier days this apparatus was exceedingly sim-
ple, or even crude in form. Nevertheless, it was import-
ant. Modern methods have produced a wealth of school
equipment of a more complicated and also of a more
essential character. The phonograph is delivering such a
great service in teaching music in the form of listening
lessons that it has already gained a permanent and most
useful place in every school room. In physical training
it gives the commands as clear and plain as any physical
director. It delivers to classes the best examples in
reading and elocution. So, the phonograph has gained
its place and is being used as a practical adjunct in
school work. The stereopticon and the stereoscope are
also gaining a place in education but it is the moving
picture to which I wish to direct your attention and dis-
cuss in a general way its possibilities and advantages in
The motion picture has already entered the educa-
tional field to remain and to develop into one of the
most important aids that superintendents and teachers
have ever enlisted in their work. The pedagogical value
of the motion picture needs no discussion: it is self--
evident. The American people are "eye-minded people'
to a very great extent. It is truly said. "It often goes
in one ear and out the other, but never in one eye and
out the other." Only twenty per-cent of what you hear is
remembered. but eighty percent of what you see remains
in your memory. No one will deny that visualization is
an important factor in most educative processes. The
presence of a blackboard in every school room suggests
the general acceptance which this idea has won in the
past and also suggests the great possibilities which the
future holds along the lines of visualization work, car-
ried on under sound educational principles and arranged
to supplement and aid almost every department of school
While the motion picture is not in any sense a nov-
elty at the present time, its use has been largely monop-
olized by the motion picture theatre, for reasons which
are quite obvious. Many educators have for a long time
recognized the value of the moving picture as an educa-
tional facility but until recent years films of strictly an
educational nature have not been available. From the
University of Illinois, and the International Church Film
Company we have been able to secure several splendid
pictures of an educational and religious nature and at a
very reasonabl rate. By paying a small membership fee
in the Cleveland Educational Museum which is under
the direction of Prof. Gregory, teacher of Geography in
the Cleveland schools, we are able to secure a number
of moving picture films, and other visual aids. Of course,
a few educational pictures may be secured from each of
the picture show corporations but at almost prohibitive
prices for the schools. The problem of source is still a
perplexing one. It naturally divides itself into two parts,
i. e., production and distribution. The question of pro-
duction is practically settled. Within reasonable limits,
of course, when the visual user knows what he wants. it
can be produced. The matter of distribution is far from
being satisfactory. We need and must have a distribut-
ing system which is able to supply what is wanted just
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