Framingham State University - Dial Yearbook (Framingham, MA)
- Class of 1908
Page 1 of 112
Pages 6 - 7
Pages 10 - 11
Pages 14 - 15
Pages 8 - 9
Pages 12 - 13
Pages 16 - 17
Text from Pages 1 - 112 of the 1908 volume:
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THE SENIOR QUILL
ISSUED ANNUALLY IN JUNE
BY THE SENIOR CLASS OF
THE FRAMINGHAM NORMAL
SCHOOL FRAMINGHAM MASS
NUMBER 1 JUNE 1908
9 7 '
Lf jix 46
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R KN! 54
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Glo Bile. Ehitteinore, the kino frieno tnhose
heartp encouragement ano neher failing help
has been outs throughout the pears me have
spent in the Jframingharn normal School,
this hook is atfettionatelp oehicateo.
To ME. WHITTEMOREQ TO THE TEACHERS OF THE ACADEMIC DE-
PARTMENT AND OF THE PRACTISE SCHOOL.
We, the members of the Senior Class, feel that at last, an
opportunity, which we have long desired, has come. An oppor-
tunity to express as best we can, our thanks and our gratitude
to those whose friendship and guidance have meant so much to
us since we first entered this school.
To Mr. Whittemore and the Teachers, in both the Academic
Department and the Practise School, we are indebted for more
than we can every repay. E
We thank you all for the kindly interest that you have taken
in each one of us, for the many hours of pleasure which you have
given us in our school work and in our life outside of school.
And most of all we thank you for the never failing patience you
have had with our failures and the inspiration you have given us
to make our lives as broad and as noble as is within our power.
In our future life the days spent here will be an incentive
for us to do our best, feeling that we have much to accomplish in
deeds and much to attain in character before we can ever reach
the example set us by our Principal and by each teacher whose
friendship has so greatly enriched our lives.
May each of us, in our future life, prove to you, the grati-
tude and devotion which we will always feel and may we have given
to us the power and nobility of character to influence the little
children who may come into our lives, as you have influenced ours.
There is at least one thing more diflicult than attempting
to express in cold black and white the gratitude and love which
one individual feels for another. That one thing is the effort
to convey in adequate terms the feeling of a senior class in any
school toward an instructor who has levelled for them many "hills
of Difficulty," pointed out the path through the deepest usloughs
of Despondv and helped them patiently and thoughtfully all along
the way. But it is our wish that the first Framingham class-book
shall contain our tribute of sincere thanks and heartfelt love to
Miss Davis, who is never too busy to help us in times of struggle
nor too tired to smile a welcome when We enter her roomg a teacher
Whose gentle influence will follow us far beyond the confines of any
school-room, a constant incentive to more earnest endeavor and
more temperate living.
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CHRISTINE MosEs, SUSAN SOMMERMAN.
ASSISTANT B USINESS MANAGER.
PAULINE V. CASEY.
HE class of 1908 has this year taken the initiative and created
a class book, "The Senior Quill? In consideration of the
fact that this is a new venture, we have been very anxious
that it should be a successful one. We hope that the idea will so
commend itself to the coming Senior classes that they will follow
it up and improve on it, year by year.
THE members of the Senior class have been doing research work
in special lines of interest, chiefly in the manufacturing line.
They studied the subjects at first hand and wrote the results, a
few of which are published in this book. Read them-they are
worth while. '
WE are as a school unusually fortunate in possessing many
pictures and pieces of statuary. Strange to say, we complain
that we are so busy that we do not have time to look at them. This
ought not to be so. Why would it not be a good plan for a group
of next year's Seniors to form themselves into a volunteer com-
mittee to take groups of newly arrived Juniors over the building
and introduce them to our pictures. This ought to be planned
before the close of school so as to be done within the first week.
Our principal hopes some day to have a printed catalog of these
FOR her platform exercise, one Junior spoke upon the power
plant connected with the school. That is right. Don't ignore
the things nearby. A description and history of some of our
pictures and statues would make a good subject for a group of
girls to take.
XNZE have our current events, our platform exercises, our dra-
matics and our glee club. Why is it that there are no
debates, no mock trials, no model town meetings?
WE almost completely ignore the school art pictures that come
to us. It is hard to find time for everything, but we should
not allow this condition of things. The chief reason for it is,
probably, that the subjects are in no way connected with anything
that we happen to be studying at the time. If you can't find a.
connection, make one. Let us take them for theme subjects, for
platform exercises, let us write about them and discuss them with
each other. We are wasting golden opportunities.
MANUAL training is to be the coming necessity. We already
have our sewing and sloyd. The time is surely coming when
cooking and school gardening must be added. We must get in
the van or be left behind. It looks as though one of two things
must come and come speedily, a lengthening of the course, or
special grade training.
THE phrase "Busy as a Senior" has become proverbial. Anyone
who dares to suggest any addition to the work is looked upon
as an enemy to the class. Nevertheless there are many things
that we need. For one thing, we ought to have a period a week
which should be a combination of impromptu platform exercises
and current events. There should be more opportunity for open
discussion of matters of public interest and our school life.
WHAT kind of books are taken out of the library most fre-
quently? Works of elementary science and novels. YVe need
more of both.
Many of us depend wholly upon the library for our science
books. They are too few and antiquated. VVhy not have dupli-
cate copies of some of the new ones?
In spite of the fact that modern fiction is taken out so gener-
ally the books are very few. This, however, is partly due to the
fact that few acceptable books are written. VVhy not have a
suggestion box and have some of the books suggested discussed
in the English class?
SOON we will be alumnae. Let us prove our vaunted ,08 spirit
by keeping in touch with our class. Our strength must be
in our union. The alumnae association is not as active as it
should be. Let ours prove the most faithful of any class. To
accomplish this we must do at least three things: Keep our
secretary informed of our whereabouts, attend alumnae meetingsg
and respond to and proffer suggestions in regard to the school.
A Round Robin is one of the most effectual methods of making
class loyalty personal.
CULTIVATE school spirit and class spirit. There is always
room for improvement. Show your spirit by being loyal. It
can be done in more ways than one.
SOME people are of the opinion that education is merely going
to school and learning lessons. This is the limited sense of
the Word. It has a more enlarged meaning. It means the develop-
ment of all our faculties, the broadening of our minds, the forma-
tion of character. VVe should learn not for school but for life.
Education is something We must acquire by ourselves and it can
only be gained by Work. These are some of the truths we may
carry away with us from the Framingham Normal School.
Chronology of the Framingham Normal School
Dec. 28, 1838. Voted by Board of Education to establish a Normal School
Sept., 1839. First Normal School in America opened by Mr. Peirce.
Oct., 1839. Model school opened.
1842. Resignation of Mr. Peirce. Succeeded by Rev. Samuel J. May.
Legislature appropriates to Normal Schools 86,000 a year for three years.
1844. Mr. Peirce returns. School removed to Fuller Academy, West
Rev. Eben S. Stearns succeeds Mr. Peirce. Three years' course
School removed to Framingham Center. Practice school discontinued.
Mr. Geo. M. Bigelow succeeds Mr. Stearns.
Mr. Stearns succeeded by Miss Annie E. Johnson. School building
Normal Hall dormitory built. Practice school re-established.
Miss Johnson succeeded by Miss Ellen Hyde.
Crocker Hall built.
Crocker Hall partially destroyed by fire.
May Hall built.
Semi-centennial of school celebrated.
Mr. Henry Whittemore succeeds Miss Hyde. Household Arts
Framingham Normal School
THE FIRST STATE NORMAL SCHOOL IN AMERICA.
ROM 1820 to 1830 was the gloomiest period in the history
of our public school education. Some great men at the end
of this period saw that, although there were other evils, the
greatest evil in the public school system Was the inexperience and
lack of knowledge of the teachers. They decided to establish
schools for the training of men and Women Who were to be teachers,
and the papers, journals, and legislatorial reports of this period
were full of their speeches and Writings. The result of this agita-
tion was an appropriation December 28, 1838 to establish three
Normal Schools in the state. One of these Was for female teachers,
and Was established at Lexington. This was the beginning of'
our Normal School.
y A good school building and boarding house was procured
at Lexington and in June, 1839, Reverend Cyrus Pierce was
engaged to teach the school. He was just the man for the posi-
tion, as subsequent events proved, for as a result of his training
the early Normal school pupils were invariably distinguished by
their conscientiousness and exactness.
School commenced on Wednesday, July 3, in the midst of a
rain storm. Before the board of visitors and the new principal,
there came but three timid girls who were examined and enrolled,
the first pupils of the first State Normal School in America.
In spite of the fewness in numbers, school began and continued
through the year in such a Way as to be a great encouragement
to the men Who Watched its progress so anxiously. During the
year a model or practice school was established which contained
thirty-three pupils at the end of the vear and at this time there
were twenty-five Normal pupils.
In 1842, at the end of three years of unselfish devotion in
every part of the school, Mr. Pierce was obliged to resign because
of the too great mental and physical strain upon him. He was
succeeded by Reverend Samuel J. May, whose success in the school
In July, 18441, Mr. May resigned to give place to Mr. Pierce
who was able to take up his duties again.
The first graduates of the Normal School were very successful
as teachers, not only because of their ability, but because of their
earnestness and zeal in the work which had marked their labors
in the Normal School.
By this time, the school had outgrown the buildings in Lex-
ington and the Fuller Academy in 'West Newton was bought for
its better accommodation. It was fitted up by contributions from
the citizens of West Newton, Mr. Mann, the Secretary of the
Board of Education, Mr. Pierce, and some of their friends. Here,
the school was set upon a strong basis, not however without some
attacks being made upon it, one of which, the most violent, in 1847,
called forth a reply' from both Mr. Pierce and some of his pupils.
Mr. Pierce again resigned April, 18419, and at this time a
reception was given in his honor at West Newton, testifying the
love which the people had for him. He was succeeded by Reverend
Eben S. Stearns in September, 1849. He was a fit successor
to ,the men who preceded him and soon won the love and cordial
cooperation of his teachers and pupils. He was very earnest and
under him the school increased so much in popularity that to keep
the numbers within bounds the entrance examinations were made
more rigid and for the first time a three-years' course was adopted.
The first written diplomas were given in 1850.
Again, the school outgrew its accommodations and new ones
were decided upon in Framingham May 13, 1852. Appropria-
tions were made by the legislature, by the town, and by the presi-
dent of the Boston and Albany Railroad. The inhabitants of
Framingham gave five and three-quarters acres of land for the
site. There is no need to speak of the beauty of the place chosen,
it still speaks for itself.
Mr. Stearns resigned in September, 1855 and Mr. George
Bigelow was his successor. He was a very capable man whose
ideas were 'fadvanced and progressivef' Nothing unusual hap-
pened while he was principal, but at this time the demand for
teachers began to be larger than the supply.
Miss Annie F.. Johnson, the first woman principal of the
Normal School succeeded Mr. Bigelow in 1866. During her suc-
cessful administration the school building was enlarged, a boarding
house was established, and the practice school, which had been
discontinued since the removal of the Normal School to Fram-
ingham, was reestablished.
Miss Hyde took charge of the school in 1875. She made the
practice school a requisite of the Normal training and its numbers
increased until it occupied a large part of the first floor of the
Crocker Hall, named for a former teacher, was built in 1866,
but was partly destroyed by fire in 1887 and was rebuilt. May
Hall Was also built during this administration and named in honor
of Miss Abby W. May, at that time a member of the State Board
Miss Hyde was succeeded by Mr. Henry Whittemore in 1898.
In this year the heirs of Mrs. Augustus Hemenway, desiring to
give up the Hemenway School of Household Arts, offered it on
liberal terms to the state. The Board of Education accepted and
installed it at Framingham where it has since been a valued part
of the school. Wells Hall, in honor of Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells,
was built in 1889.
Of our present principal, Mr. Whittemore, there are no words
to express the love, honor, and respect which We have for him as
he, in his great unselfishness and love for his school and for us,
follows in the very footsteps of the first great principals, who made
our Normal School.
It is good for us to contemplate the struggle of those first
pupils Whose success was so great, that we, with the advantage
of modern buildings and apparatus may try to make ourselves
what they Were, Worthy graduates of the First State Normal
School of America.
M. C. N.
Some Anecdotes of the First Class
"How pleasantly within those walls
We lived-a group of merry girls."
-L. E. H arris.
IXTY-NINE years ago the 3rd of next July, three girls went
to Lexington, lNLIassachusetts, to take examinations. Going
off' to take examinations is not a very unusual proceeding for
us-We have all done it-but it was different for them. They were
going to take examinations for entrance to a school which up to
that time had never existed, a school unlike any that had ever been
seen on this side of the Atlantic. Word had gone forth that the
examiners Were to be grave learned meng and it' was with fear and
trembling that they faced them. They were examined in turn in
reading, writing, English, grammar, geography and arithmeticg
and in their intense desire to do their best they forgot the beating
They were all admitted. This was Wednesday. By Saturday
their number was increased to five. They boarded in neighboring
families. Sunday, Mr. Pierce told the five girls that he would
call for them to go to church with him. They went to the church
on the common and were shown to a pew not far from Mr. and
lNIrs. Pierce. It was a square pew with a door in one side and
with high-backed, uncushioned, wooden seats around the other
three. The girls entered it feeling that, as pupils of the new
Normal School, they were the observed of all beholders. They felt
anxious to do just what was right in this strange church so, when
the congregation stood during the long opening prayer, they
also arose. The seats 'projected far out into the pew and, as
the girls did not know that they could be turned up, there was not
much room. Nevertheless they accommodated themselves as best
they could and composed themselves into a properly reverential
frame of mind. This was rudely broken, however, when, just as the
minister said "Amen,,' every seat in the church came down with a
bang. They jumped, looked at each other and-sad to relate-
laughed. And thus it was that the pupils of the Normal School
were first introduced to the public.
The next Monday, school was opened in the sitting room with
lessons in reading, grammar and arithmetic. By Thursday they
had moved upstairs and their number was increased to eight.
By the end of the year the class consisted of twenty-five. This
was surely rapid growth--an increase of SZLW.
Their class room was furnished with green-topped double
desks. All around the room was a formidable blackboard which
in after years suggested trials to their minds to which we of the
present day have only two equals-our "special topics" and uplat-
form exercises." Fortunately, however, there were also pleasant
associations with this blackboard. We hear tales of one guileless
looking equation which extended up and down three lengths of
the blackboard only to come to the wonderful conclusion that
Many were the graphic delineations of square roots, and one
ambitious young lady is even rumored to have attempted to bound
fthink of that Miss O-J the State of Single Blessedness. Oh,
she was a true daughter of normality.
They were as ready to argue for the sake of hearing them-
selves talk as we are today. One sweltering day the subject came
up for discussion, "Does hot tea or ice cream make one the cooler ?"
QAsk Miss B--.Q
One restless study hour a certain young lady tied her neighbor
so securely to the rope of the bell in the tower that every time
she stirred it jingled. From that time on Miss B-- was
known as the "Belle of the School." But the indignity did not go
unrevenged, for, soon after, the tormentor was tied by the hair to
the back of her chair and held long in durance vile as a punishment
for her annoying conduct.
Speaking of their restless study hours reminds me of the
necessity of saying that although they had their jokes and their
good times, these formed only a small part of their life. The
work was even more exacting than it is now and a thorough
comprehension of each subject was as much insisted upon. They
were constantly inspired to do their best and then-a little more.
It seems almost inconceivable that such a tireless worker as Horace
Mann should have been forced to remonstrate with the principal
for overworking the girls. Yet such was the case.
It is their good times and their mishaps, however, which inter-
est us most. So just one more anecdote.
It seems a common failing of humanity that we think well
of ourselves and enjoy our laurels in anticipation. A certain
young miss who boarded in a nearby family had a rather trying
experience because of this. She tells the story as follows :-
f'By a combination of circumstances which will sometimes
occur in the best-regulated of families, household duties once
devolved upon me in the family of Mrs. Wi- Where I boarded.
I bustled around like a person of no small consequence, conscious
of little brief authority and resolved to exercise it most becom-
c'Noon arrived, the Rubicon, I thought, was passed, and my
fame established on a foundation that would endure, and I was
already reposing in imagination beneath the laurels that I had won.
"I had baked some beans for dinner-of course felt very
proud of the achievement and everything was ready but removing
the beans from the oven.
"One can hardly conceive the sweet satisfaction I felt as I
seized the beanpot, when alas, it slipped my grasp, transferred
itself from a perpendicular to a horizontal position. Alarmed and
horror-struck lest my beans should be numbered among the things
that were, I thrust my hands into the steaming oven but sent them
out at the opposite door on to the hearth, when, true to the laws
which governed earthern beanpots, it broke.
"A' few of the beans were rescued uninjured but the feeling
of chagrin and mortification it produced will, I fear, be a lifelong
companion. I told Mrs. VV--- on her return that the beans were
so very delicious they had eaten the beanpot, too. The story was
so very reasonable that of course she believed it."
S. L. S.
The Trials of a Train-Girl
NE morning I dreamed that I had experienced the keenest
mortification by failing in every class that I had attended
that day. From this pleasant dream, I was awakened with
a start by hearing that familiar ring-the alarm clock. I am
so light a sleeper that I generally need only an alarm clock to wake
me, but occasionally I do sleep rather soundly so that even that
does not succeed.
I looked at the clock, and, after a long intent stare to see if
my eyes were deceiving me, I cleared the middle of the bed with
one leap, and, luckily landed on the floor. Usually, when I intend
to land at a certain place, I never do, especially if I am in the gym-
nasium. The clock said as plain as day "twenty minutes past
six gn and that exasperating alarm had gone off late. I ought to
have been up and dressed by that time.
The whole household was awakened by this time and each one
was doing her best to help me out, but, as we are a large family,
we only succeeded in getting in each other,s way so many times
that, if I had not been so nervous and in such a hurry, I would
have laughed until I cried.
After someone handed me my rubbers and someone else put
on my coat and hat and I had found my bag, I rushed out of
the house. My mother's last words were: "Remember, I told you
to wait and take the later trainf' I have found out by bitter
experience that whenever I get that injunction and take no notice
of it, something is bound to happen.
VVhen I got to the bottom of the street my car was no where
in sight, so I decided to walk or rather run, to the station. I ran.
My hair coming out in strands and flying in my eyes did its level
best to blind me and prevent me from making much headway.
The wind blew very strongly and my eyes filled with tears. But
the climax came when I got so blinded that I fell. Of course
everyone was looking and a friend of mine who had been behind
me all the time, although I had not known it, offered his assistance.
I was so embarrassed, mortified, and angry that I declined it with
After I recovered my equilibrium I started out to finish my
race. I was so out-and-out, Anglo-Saxon mad, that I decided
I would get to the depot if I died in the attempt.
I think it took me about a minute more to get to the station.
Running across the tracks I just stood stock still, for, to my
horror, my train was just moving out of the station. I could
have put my hand on that train and I stood there impotent. My
hands unconsciously clenched and if I had been a man instead of
a feeble woman I would have expressed my feelings in suitable
I had to wait a whole hour in that station for the next train,
so I had gained nothing by not following my mother's injunction.
Furthermore I could have slept another half hour if I had known
that I was going to miss that train. I turned wearily back to
the station to compose myself and to ask kind Providence for
patience that I might not think harsh thoughts about the Boston
and Albany, when my sense of humor came to my, assistance in
my hour of trial, and I laughed-yes, laughed, until the tears
came, and then I felt better.
Well, I waited an hour in the station, and fifteen minutes for
good measure, for the next train was late. What do you think
of that? If the first train had only been late, I would have got
itg but out of the large fund of my traveling experience, you can
believe this that I tell you. When you are late for a train, the
train is always on time.
I got into the ,train and after stopping at every little station,
the train stopped at South Framingham at twenty-five minutes
of nine, just five minutes too late to get the half past eight car
I thought ironically to myself, "Well if I had succeeded in
getting that half past eight car, it would have been a miraclef'
I waited ten minutes in the freezing cold and at last, I got into
the quarter of nine car.
To make a long story short, I arrived at school just two
minutes too late for opening exercises and I was tardy. How I
got through the day I don,t know, but I took the two forty-eight
train home, was stalled an hour, arrived home about half past
four, resolving in my heart that the next day I would start for
my train half an hour before it started, or my name wouldn't be
Julia Fleming. i
J. F.. F.
VER since earliest childhood I had heard of that most fearful
of all storms, the hurricane, and wished away down in my
heart, as I listened open-mouthed to the wondrous and marvel-
ous tales, that I, too, might taste of that experience.
It was not until the year 1906, however, that I had this
fantastic wish Cas it mav seem to some who feel not the joy in
the dash and plunge of the wavej granted.
In September of that year I took a trip to one of the West
India islands. The weather on the downward trip was perfect
and the sea as smooth as glass. One of our number, Mr. Blank,
had a camera with which he was wont to take pictures of most
anything he could take a picture of, but his one crowning ambi-
tion was to secure a picture of a wave, "a great big wavef, and
at no time had he ever had an opportunitv.
As I said, all went well on the downward tripg and all was
going well on the return trip until the third day. It was on the
said third day, about three hundred miles to the north of Cuba,
that the waves suddenly changed their peaceful nature, and one
by one the passengers went crawling to their rooms with that
weak, wan, smile and the old so often repeated remark, "I think
I shall lie down awhile," until only a few remained in their chairs
upon the deck.
As the wind rose and the waves grew higher the steamer
naturally began to roll, and still more naturally, by the force of
gravity, our chairs began to slide on the inclined plane. Things
at last grew so bad that we had to have our chairs ,lashed to the
railing that ran around the house. All went well for awhile,
especially when the ship rolled low on the other side, -but when
she rolled on our side it was hang on for "dear life" and many
times we slipped half out of our chairs.
While we sat there watching the waves, which were perfectly
marvelous with their emerald colouring and snowy breaking tops,
we noticed two birds flying close to the ship. They were about
the size of a crow and of a rich brown colour, from their beaks
I knew them to be birds that fed on fish. At last they succeeded
in making a landing and one of them alighted almost at our feet,
this at the time surprised me very much, as birds of that kind are
usually of a wild nature and when touched will attack one fiercely
and digging their beaks into one's hand will tear the flesh off
in strips. The passengers were greatly pleased with the birds,
but I quickly interposed and gave them a very bad reputation.
What was my amazement when the one near us allowed the first
officer to take it in his hand and to all appearances was as meek
and as gentle as a lamb! Indeed I think some thought I had
slandered the bird most unjustly, and all the sympathy was with
ihe poor pretty bird which I still looked upon with distrust and
ept my distance.
Meanwhile the captain, upon whose face for the past hour
had been a look of grave concern, passed by, and the look, not
readable to all, deepened when he saw the birds, the other one of
which had also made a landing. And oh cruel and heartless man!
he saw not the beauty in the pretty birds, but scowled in a dreadful
manner. He had but to look at the birds and know, what all
of us did not know, that those birds are never, except in great
stress of weather, found more than fifty miles off the coast. He
reasoned that bad weather and heavy winds must have driven these
birds from their course, and they stupified and frightened, were
suffering themselves to be handled without the slightest resistance.
His glass and the increasing volume of the waves were fast prov-
ing the correctness of his judgment.
Soon the waves began to break in over the lower deck, and
in one of the sudden lurches an exceedingly fat man fell out of
his steamer chair and rolled down over the deck and only his
excessive bulk saved him from rolling out through the rails. After
that protesting was of no avail and we were ordered in, and, as
the captain,s orders are law, in we had to go. The waves at this
time, as they rose like huge mountains and shook their shaggy
heads at us threateningly, were the most beautiful things I have
When we went in I found Mr. Blank huddled disconsolately
on a settee in a corner of the social hall. As he had always been
one to protest that he was not seasick, no, not he, and remember-
ing his desire to get a photo of a wave, I thought it no more than
kind to tell him of the fine specimens outside and suggest that he
go to the door and take advantage of this opportunity which he
robabl would never have again. Some men are the most
Iingrateiiul, unappreciating, creatures that ever lived, for all the
answer I received was a low grumble from which I barely made out
-his camera wasfnft working.
Things began to grow worse until at last we could neither
sit up nor stand up, and as it was not very pleasant holding on
to the floor every one sought his room and lay upon his berth.
Soon the waves began to wash over the upper decks, and the
water poured in through the ports until it became necessary to
close all ports and doors and the air was stifling. As it came on
towards night the waves and wind were in a perfect riot, ports
were dashed in as if they were match wood, heavy glass skylights
as if paper.
As I lay upon my berth listening to it all, I was startled by
a heavy crash directly underneath my stateroom and a ripping
noise outside. The ship trembled like a leaf but soon we could
feel her gradually rising on the waves again. The crash and
tremble had been caused by the shipping of a wave which had
smashed in the stateroom below me, and ripped a part of the
upper deck up, just outside of my room. The whole saloon was
now afloat with this inrush of water, and clothes and suit cases
and steamer trunks began to wander around at their own sweet will,
their owners little caring whither they went, so busy were they
trying to keep in their berths.
Some of them managed to roll right over their bunk boards
out into the water, and if you have once rolled out of a top berth I
think you will agree with me, that itls a performance not to be
indulged in too often. But after you have gone to sea and have
become accustomed to its ways you learn how to stay in your
berth and balance yourself on the end of nothing and still hang on.
Between nine and twelve o,clock the storm was at its worst,
a real live hurricane was upon us, the engines unable to battle
against such a sea were stopped. Now was the anxious time for
captain and officers, and the helmsman at the wheel, how much
rested upon him! One single false turn meant the bringing down
of thousands of tons of water upon the ship, from out of which
she would never rise again. Trembling like a frightened steed
she would ride on the top of a wave, then drop as the sea dropped.
Imagine yourself tossed as a ball into the air and then coming
down again. The jerk with which she landed was tremendous
and we were black and blue from pounding on our berths.
The force of the hurricane lasted for about three hours
but for three days the storm raged and for three days no sky was
seen, nothing but mountains of water. Un the fourth day the
sun shone forth and the waves went down and we were allowed
to breath the fresh air once more.
Such a curious sight as we presented! Everyones, clothes
had been soaked, some were not fit to put on, but all helped his
brother in the common cause and we made no unkind remarks
when we saw the fat man's suit walking off with the slim youth.
As for myself, I appeared in a dress that had once been white,
but now, alas, was fancifully streaked with red! from the dripping
curtains, but red stripes seemed to be the prevailing fashion
with the ladies on. deck, so I felt no ways out of place.
Then began the work of drying, every available place was
hung with garments. And the saloon! Where was its glitter and
grandeur of a few days ago? Gone! VVindows broken, canvas
over the' holes, Brussels carpets all torn from the floor, and really
all that could be recognized were the staunch oak tables and
The captain, when he appeared from the pilot house, was
greeted with cries of welcome and one of the company shouted
"Hello captain, I prayed on that fearful night, first for myself
and, then, for you-3'
We were now many miles off our course, for as you all know,
hurricanes travel in circles, and it was necessary to run the ship
off her course to avoid getting back into that fated circle again.
So, when we arrived in Boston two days behind scheduled
time, in a battered ship, although our clothes had lost some style,
we were thankful to be able to walk ashore in any kind, and it was
a happy band that packed their still damp belongings and placed
their foot on "Mother Earth" once more.
Let me say in conclusion that I have had my wish, I am
satisfied, and if any of you wish for a hurricane just keep on
wishing, you may some day have the good fortune to have it
N. S. D.
O me the forest has always been a source of great delight.
My first real acquaintance began when I spent a year on the
edge of a dense pine woods. I was! a very little girl at that
time but I shall never forget the beauty of that playground.
Just picture a tract of land covered with massive pines under
which is a thick carpet of brown pine needles. The air was full
of piney perfume while the wind whistling through the treetops
was truly music. However, in a hard storm the music became a
At this time I began my study of trees. My first lesson as
to their great weight and the power of the wind was well learned
when an immense Balm of Gilead was blown across the house I
lived in, nearly crushing it. This only intensified my wonder.
In a few years I had a chance to add to my knowledge of the
production of lumber. Perhaps it was an unusual experience so
I will give you a brief sketch of it. In the early summer of '92
mother and I were invited to go to Sherburne, Vermont, to stay
a few weeks. This was a lumbering town twelve miles northeast
of Rutland. Several mills were scattered about, one of which
was on the summit of Sherburne mountain. It was there we were
going. The woman in charge of the boarding house was ill,
and, as she was acquainted with mother, asked her to oversee the
work for a few weeks until she got rested.
VVe went by train from our home, twelve miles northwest of
Bellows Falls, to Rutland. The trip was continued by coach to
Sherburne Hollow where we changed our capacious vehicle for a
single team. Alternately riding and walking we at last reached
our destination nearly four miles up the mountain. Some of the
time I rode at an angle of forty-five degrees although the idea
of angles was quite remote from me then. All I remember of the
first part of the journey was my excitement. This was followed
by a feeling of bewilderment and weariness as I took my drive
through a rather wild country. The roads were rough and the
brooks and swampy places were corduroyedg that is, small logs
were laid flat across the driveway, a great many of them, until
horses and vehicles could pass with nothing worse than a shaking
If you could have seen our destination as it was the night
we arrived I fear you would have said, "How lonely P' But why
should it be? Our nearest neighbor was only three miles away
and such an expanse of forest! Why I felt like a bird! It was
at this time that I really began my nature study. I must confess
however that my love for rocks and bugs came at a later date.
Trees, flowers, and larger animals were my specialty then.
The boarding house was quite a large building but not
burdened with paint within or without. The walls were made of
single, unmatched boards, the roof, shingleless, and I can even now
see the irregular eaves. As I recall the interior, the second floor
was composed of sleeping rooms which were reached by an open
flight of stairs leading from the side of a large room below.
On the first floor was a dining room and kitchen combinedg
a room for the men to sit in, which I think they called the bar
room, a large pantry, and two or three sleeping rooms.
All that I can recall of the furnishing of the house is that
it was very simple. The old fashioned box stove was a prominent
feature. The table service has completely faded from my memory.
I have a very distinct image of the back door, because the
house was built on a steep side hill making this door very high
from the ground. A few rods away was a well constructed barn
in which they kept horses, oxen, hay and g'rain. Several rods
beyond this was a large sawmillg and this completed the settlement.
As mother and I were strangers we had to be introduced to
our new surroundings, a duty all were anxious to perform. By
the time I had taken in the details I have just described, it was
supper time. Soon it was dark and the play was about to begin.
One of the men stepped just out of doors and gave a most agoniz-
ing shriek. I thought it was about time to get frightened and
began to prepare, but, instead, I was taken to the door to hear the
result of the apparent distress. Soon in the distance came an
answer in about the same tone. This continued until the answering
object came comparatively near. Much to my surprise I was
informed that this was a bear. From then on I used to hear them
quite often, see their tracks, and find the remains of rabbits
which they had killed. One of the best games I had was to go
out in the morning and see how many of these I could find.
Before very late we were glad to go to bed and get a chance
to rest. During the night we were awakened by a loud, gnawing
and lighting on the roof. In the midst of the excitement the
lady of the house called to us saying: "Do you hear that noise?
Don't be alarmed, it is only hedgehogs. They come every night.
I intended to tell you before you went to bed but I forgot it."
Her duty was done so she returned to slumberland. I recall a
slight trembling, a chill I suppose, but sleepiness soon overcame
it. As time went on I found our visitors were very constant. We
were often awakened in the morning by the tapping of the wood-
Although there were nearly all kinds of the common trees
to be found on the mountain, the forest was chiefly composed of
spruce. I remember well the large pieces of the gum which the
men used to chop off of the trees and bring to the house.
I will now attempt to give you an idea of how they conducted
the lumbering business there. Of course on my arrival the build-
ings were up, the roads made, and the work in progress, so I
can not explain the beginning. Several horses were used about
the mill but oxen did the work in the woods. To be definite, we
will choose one tree in the woods and follow its different stages.
Early in the morning a man, sometimes two men, approached
and chopped down the tree. Then they limbed it outg that is,
cut OH' the branches. After this, oxen were hitched to the tree
and, if it was a large one, it was drawn directly, to the millg
otherwise it was left until they could get three or four and then
they were drawn to the lumber yard by fastening one end of the
trees to a sled and permitting the other end to drag. After this
they waited their turn to be rolled in on the carriage on which
they were run into the mill to be sawed by the large circular saw.
If it was an average sized log a slab was removed and then two or
three boards were sawed off. Then the log was turned over and
a slab was taken from the other side. Then boards were sawed
out until the log was used up. The slab or bark pieces were taken
to a small circular saw and there sawed into short lengths.
As each board was sawed olf a man placed it on a series of
rollers and gave it a push sending it to a man outside. Here
was a sled on which the boards were piled and drawn away to
be piled or stacked. This was an interesting piece of work.
First two poles were laid on the ground about ten or twelve
feet apart. Across these the first layer of boards was placed.
On this, about a foot and a half from the end, small strips or
narrow boards were placed, running in the same direction as the
poles and so on' until the pile was several feet high. All this care
is taken to let the air have a chance to circulate through to dry
the boards and season them. ,
Later these boards were drawn down the mountain and sent
away for building purposes. Large derricks were also con-
Now all this sawing, the running of the carriage, and so on,
required power, which was furnished by an engine run by steam
power. The water in the boiler was heated by the fire in the
fire box underneathg this caused steam which went through a large
pipe to the steam chest. This pressure caused the engine to work,
turning large wheels over which were run large leather belts con-
necting with other wheels, until all the machinery was in motion.
The power is gauged by a brake.
VVhen wood is sawed there is always sawdust. This could
not remain beneath the saw as in hand sawing because it would
soon be in the way. To prevent this it fell into a trough-like
receiver called a blower. In this was an arrangement called a
fan which was run by a belt causing a rush of air strong enough
to blowl the sawdust far out from the mill.
A point of especial interest to me was a regular track built
for the dump car. This car was really a three-foot square on
wheels. Child fashion I soon began to get acquainted with it.
I found that I could easily push it down the track from the mill
and even ride on it when I got it to going well. I might say that
this sport took place fifteen feet above ground and was very
enjoyableg but the thing absolutely refused to be pushed back.
Now all I had to do was to run off and soon some of the
help would want the car and so they would go after it. VVhen
they were through with my plaything they would leave it at the
mill. As soon as the men were out of sight I participated in
This afforded me much amusement for some time, but one day
I met with a surprise. Now some surprises are very acceptable
but I will let you be the judge of this one. I was just completing
one of my car trips when suddenly I was seized by some one back
of me and lightly tossed into the sawdust piles several feet below.
I got up, taking a load with me, and, although unharmed, I de-
cided that my friendship with the car must come to an end.
In this manner the summer passed with very little excitement
until one day mother and I went for a walk to a charming spot,
two miles distant, on an old wood road. Late in the afternoon
we began retracing our steps when mother became aware of the
presence of a panther which was calmly watching us. I was quite
ignorant of the fact at the time and, by the way, continued to
be for several years.
As we proceeded, our unwelcome companion did likewise.
From reports, I suppose I was a very troublesome child that day.
My desire for flowers grew more intense every moment and I
insisted on rushing into the bushes directly in front of the terrible
beast. It seemed that our spectator was not very hungry because
he did not give any signs of attack and, when we were about a
quarter of a mile from the mill, he coolly made his departure.
None of these seekers of prey came very near the buildings as they
were afraid of the mill whistle. Thus ended a most delightful
afternoon for me and an experience quite to the contrary to my
It was now nearly fall and the woman who had charge of the
boarding house had so far recovered as to take up the work again.
Consequently mother and I returned home. For the next few
years, I failed to make any advance in my study of lumbering.
About twelve years ago I went to a new home situated in the
Connecticut valley, sixty-five miles north of my former dwelling.
From this place I had a fine chance to watch the proceedings on
and along the river. During the winter, men cut a great many
logs and piled them along the water course. In the spring, when
the water was high, the logs were rolled down the bank and they
drifted down the current to lumber dealers, saw mills, or paper
mills. Men were often seen out on the logs prying them apart
when they got lodged. When big drives were sent they were
gauged and directed by means of booms, that is a lone of logs
the ends of which are fastened together. In this way bridge abut-
ments, rocks, certain mills, and shallow water were shut off.
Vermont has a great many portable mills. I know of a
man who has six or eight of these. One was put up in the immedi-
ate neighborhood of my home last winter. Of course I improved
my first opportunity to visit it. I found the settlement to be
quite a village in itself. All it lacked was a church and a post
office. There were live buildings, mess house, sleeping house, store,
blacksmith shop and a barn. About forty Scotch Canadians,
were in the camp.
Two men, cook and cookee, prepared the meals. The mess
house was of great interest to me because everything was neat
and orderly. It was a one-room building about twenty by forty
feet. In the middle of the north end were two large cooking
stoves, while there was a door at each end, one opening into a
store room, the other out of doors.
In the northeast corner was an entrance to the cook's sleeping
apartment. This was- single boarded but covered within and
without with red building paper. A small sheet iron stove made
it very warm and cozy. The furniture consisted of three chairs,
two stands, and a bed made of rough boards. Two or three rugs
adorned the rough board floor. Two small windows furnished
plenty of light. Now we will return to the eating apartment.
Four windows furnished the light here showing an unpainted
and much stained but thoroughly swept floor. In the northwest
corner was a sink, while along the rest of that side was a wide
shelf under which were attached drawers. Some of these con-
tained. dishes and others food. The other side of the room had a
row of barrels, holding flour, sugar, and potatoes. Large boxes
of tea, spices, etc., were also visible.
Two tables ran parallel to the length of the room. These
were unpainted boards covered with white oilcloth. This top
rested on boards that were nailed together in the form of the
letter X. These served as legs. Long unpainted benches took
the place of chairs.
One end of a board, four inches by two and one-half feet,
was nailed to a beam over each end of each table. On the lower
end of this was nailed a board five inches square, a strip three
inches wide and one foot long was cut out of the lower end of the
perpendicular board. This, as a whole served as a lamp bracket
and by having the open space in the long board, the light could
shine both ways. I noticed how spotless the lamps were. Tin cups,
white crockery and steel knives and forks made up the table
While making my investigation atthe mill, the midday meal
was served. During the shut down of the machinery I had a
good chance to look around. VVhen the men returned my com-
panions and I accepted an urgent invitation to dine. This was
Boiled beef, boiled potatoes, wheat bread, graham bread,
butter, apple sauce, doughnuts, ginger cookies, cake, lemon pie,
tea and coffee.
Really I began to think I was on a picnic.
After this we returned to the mill. I found the work in this
like the one I have previously described, but I want to tell you
about the sleeping house.
This was twenty-feet by thirtyfeet. The entrance was in
the north end. A window was on each side of the room, near
the door. Another was in the center of the south wall. Near
the north end of the apartment was a large box stove. At the
right of the door was a cupboard. Three beds were built against
the west wall. These were like a box four feet by six feet by two
feet, except that the ends were prolonged upward about four feet.
In this receptable were placed a straw bed and several blankets.
This completed the place of repose. Individuals sometimes fur-
nished something for a pillow. Along the front of these berths
was placed a board reminding one of a shelf. This was to sit on.
Above these beds and on the extended ends of which I have spoken,
were built three other beds like the ones below. In the southeast
corner were two other tiers of four berths each, like the first
except, that they ran parallel with the end of the room. A sink
and several shelves at the left of the entrance completed the fur-
Harmonicas, singing, clog dancing, story telling and the
daily paper helped to pass away the long evening hours. Drinking
and card playing were absolutely forbidden. On Saturdays the
mill closed at half past four and then was the time that a great
many of the men did their washing. This was a feature highly
entertaining to the passersby. The cordiality and kindness of
these men was felt throughout the neighborhood. p
Another of my recent excursions of investigation was to a
finishing mill. This is where lumber is sent to be made into
furniture, boxes, or house finishing, as baseboards, chair railings,
banisters and mouldings.
These are some of the kinds of wood used in finishing a house
or for furniture. For mouldings, oak, black walnut, North Caro-
lina pine, chestnut, sycamore and white wood, baseboards, bass
wood, chair railings, quartered oak and Georgia pineg flooring,
pine and maple, mahogany, rosewood, cherry, chestnut, birch,
maple, black walnut and sumac are used to make the highest
WVhen I looked at the big planing machine and another
machine which sandpapered the boards, I hastened away as soon
as possible for fear I should loose my fondness for that line of
work in sloyd. They also had some remarkable machines which
would make several cuts and grooves at once.
The room for the drying of the lumber was quite interesting
with its big steam pipes over the floor and about the walls. Cleats
were over them and the boards were piled in the manner I have
previously described. The room could be shut up and then the
drying process was quite rapid. After receiving a great deal of
much repeated information, and several specimens of wood, I
began to recognize some of the wood without its bark.
I wish more people might become aware of the grandeur of
the trees, the contrast of their bark and the beautiful grain some
of them have. Too many of us have only a dim idea of the gen-
eral shape of different trees and their leaves.
E. F. S.
T was my turn to sweep the floor, and this Monday, I didn't
want to do it. I never liked sweeping the floor, in fact as I
have rather strong likes and dislikes, I hated it. But there
was no way out of it. I had to sweep, and as grumbling out loud
isn't allowed in our house, I grumbled inwardly. I swept the
floor, and I had the dust in a little pile, ready to pick up with the
dustpan and brush. I took the brush up in my hand, and was
looking down at it, when the thought occurred to me, "Well, I
wonder how that little brush was made, and what it was before
it became a brush? The brush was rather old, and the bristles
were loose, so I pulled out a few, and discovered that the bristles
were bound in a bundle, a sticky substance placed on the end of
the bundle, and then it was placed in a hole bored in the under
side of the body of the brush. This seemed very wonderful to
me, and still so wonderfully simple.
The brush was in my hand all this time, and I was standing
in the middle of the floor, when I came to myself with a start
on hearing my sister exclaimz "Julia Fleming, will you please come
out of that trance, and kindly ftone very sarcasticj take that dirt
up. Ilve been talking to you for the last five minutes, and my
voice wasn't weak either."
My, if she had only known what I was thinking of, and how
valuable I thought it was, I think she would have brushed the
dirt up, herself, but I never told her, and at last the sweeping of
the floor was completed.
From that day to this, I rather liked sweeping the floor,
and I grew to love that little brush. Brushes of any kind exer-
cised a sort of fascination over me, and one day, I had a very
unpleasant experience. The street sweeper's brush was different
from the brushes I had seen, and I wanted very much to see what
kind of bristles or fibers it had. I saw a street sweeper, one day,
sweeping one of the streets of Worcester, and I was so eager to
investigate, that I got too near the brush, and soon I was envel-
oped in a great cloud of dust. The sweeper was very much
agitated, and in his nervousness, I think he begged my pardon
five different ways. When I could see, I told him it was all my
fault, and that he was in no way to blame, and I hurried away
quickly to brush my clothes. But who would mind a little thing
like that, when one had found out that the street sweeper's brush
was made of' stiff yellowish white reeds?
I was certainly, if I ever got the chance, going to find out
all I could about brushes, and the chance came when Miss Ordway
said we could investigate a topic for geography.
One Saturday, accordingly, I visited the brush shop, and
such entertainment I never had. It was thoroughly enjoyable,
and if I kept a diary, it would certainly go down as a red-letter
day in my life. The owner of the shop was acquainted with me,
and he took me into the room where the supplies were kept,
and gave me the samples of bristles and fibers, which I have. These
bristles were very interesting to me, after their history which I
will now tell to you, had been recounted to me.
Bristles are stiff hairs which grow upon the back of the hog,
and are used to a great extent in the manufacture of brushes.
Sometimes bristles are used by saddlers in place of needles. There
are several varieties of bristles, grey, black, yellow and white bris-
tles, and lilies. The lilies are very soft valuable bristles, being
preferred for tooth and shaving brushes. The demand is so great
for the manufacture of the different kinds of brushes, that bristles
are an important article of commerce. Russia and Germany are
the chief sources of supply, but bristles are also obtained from
France and Belgium, and large quantities of inferior bristles from
China. The quality of the bristles depends on length, stiffness,
straightness, and color, white being the most valuable. The
best bristles belong to the hog which inhabits cold countries. The
Russian hog is a long spare animal, and the thinner the hog the
longer and stiffer are the bristles. When sent south, the warmer
,climate loosens the bristles on the hog, makes them less strong,
and consequently the value of the bristle is depreciated. In sum-
mer, the hogs are driven in herds through the forests by serfs,
and allowed to feed on soft roots. The hogs shed their bristles
by rubbing their bodies against trees. The bristles are then col-
lected, sewed up in horse and ox hides, sent to fairs, where through
agents they find their way to other countries and to us.
Whenever I think of all this it seems to me as if I could see
it as scenes represented upon the biograph. The first scene is
.a large forest, and numerous long, not prepossessing but inter-
esting hogs, are roaming about, shedding their bristles. The
second scene is the gathering of the bristles by the peasants in
their rough dress, and the sewing of the bristles, in the long horse
and ox hides. The last scene is one in which I always allow my
imagination full play. That scene is the fair. I can see the
peasants in their bright holiday attire with their happy faces.
I can hear them talk over their little affairs, their good natured
raillery, and last of all I can see them selling the bristles which
are displayed on the long stalls.
Among the samples which were given to me were fibers, and
these were just as entertaining to me, as were the bristles. During
the recent war with Russia, the source of most of the supply of
bristles, the bristles became scarce, and men who were interested in
brush manufacturing .set about finding a substitute. As "neces-
sity is the mother of inventionf' the fibrous roots of trees were
tried, and found to be of use in brush making and consequently
fibers, being more accessible and cheaper, are displacing the bristle
in certain kinds of brushes.
Up to now, in this shop, brushes have been made by hand,
but now machines are being introduced. The owner took me up-
stairs to a room in which the machines were in operation. This
shop is small and the machines are few. The first machine I
looked at was a circular saw. This was used to cut the wood used
for the dust brush into the right size. The wood used was wood
-of the bass tree, and it came from Brewer, Maine. This machine
was horribly fascinating to me, for all I could think of was what
would happen if the man who operated the machine ever got his
lingers on the edge of the saw. The noise of the saw when the
wood went through it and was split, was something terrific, and
to tell you the truth I was glad to move out of its vicinity.
No-t far from this machine was another which seemed to me
to be easy to run for it was operated by a boy of about eighteen
years. It made the little gun brush, unfinished of course, which
the boy gave to me. The operator took a handful of black bris-
tles, placed them between a wire which he made into a loop,
adjusted and spread the bristles out until they reached from the
end of the wire half way, then by a treadle movement of the
machine the wire wound around the bristles and held them firm.
If you will examine the gun brush, you will see that the
handle is nothing but two strands of wire twisted together. I
took my gun brush to another machine, and by the same treadle
movement, a wheel of what seemed to me to be littld knives was set
in motion, the gun brush placed inside the wheel, and the bristles
Another machine operated by pulleys, separated the bristles
into even sizes. The bristles were fed into the machine from one
side in a tangled mass, and appeared on the other side of the
trough evenly sorted.
The fourth machine in this room was the Woodbury machine.
This machine made a scrub brush for me, but alas, I didn't keep
it very long, for the manager said the machine was just being
introduced, and the articles made were not to be placed on the
market. I told him, he ought not to consider me the market, but
he took the brush nevertheless.
The YVoodbury machine extensively used in America, consists
of a comb with an arrangement for filling its divisions with
bristles, and a shaft to run the mechanism by which the bristles
are fed in tufts to plungers that double them, bind them with wire,
and introduce them into the back of the brush. It also has an
arrangement by which the wire is fed to and through the bristles
after doubling, and a mechanism sending the brush back under
the two plungers concerned in preparing and inserting the tuft.
Downstairs, where we went after seeing the IVoodbury
machine operated, was the real workroom of the brush factory.
This room contained from twenty to thirty girls and six men. A
small factory surely, but a busy one.
The first process I saw was the sorting of bristles according
to color, black, grey, yellow, white, and lillies. Each kind of
bristles was then sorted according to size. This process was
performed by passing a bunch of bristles held in the hand through
a row of steel points like the teeth of a comb, which catch the
coarser bristles. Care is taken in this process to keep the bristles
evenly arranged. By using a succession of these combs of in-
creasing fineness, the bristles were separated into as many heaps
The black bristles were, after being sorted, given to girls
who were seated at benches. The girls were making compound
brushes. Simple brushes are brushes like the artists? These are
usually made of soft camel's hair. The hairs are made into a
bundle and the points temporarily protected. They are inserted
in a quill until the points project sufficiently bevond the small
end. The quill or tube has been previously softened by water and
as it dries it contracts, and the bundle of hairs is held fast. The
simple brushes were not made in this shop.
On the benches of the girls were placed large balls of twine,
and a bowl of tar over a fire. These girls were making dust
brushes, the brushes in which I was most interested. The bristles
were separated into bundles by the deft hands of the girls, tied at
the ends with twine, and the bundles were dipped in the heated tar
and inserted in a hole which was bored in the under side of the
body of the brush. There were about sixty holes bored in the
brush, and these had to be filled before the brush was completed.
The boring of the brushes was done by the men with' a borer.
VVhile I was watching the process, the brushes were fast
developing, and I stayed until I saw one dust brush begun and
finished. This brush was brought to the clipping machine and
the bristles evenly cut. Then the brush was coated with a veneer
to hide the roughness, and the dust brush was ready to be placed
upon the market. 0ne fact which interested me greatly was that
the girls were paid so much a hundred holes, and girls whose
hands worked with great deftness could make from six to eight
dollars a week. This is considered good pay for inexperienced
My attention was now drawn to the girls who were considered
experienced in their work. They were making drawn in brushes.
The girls had long pieces of wood, hollowed out in the middle and
bored with live or six rows of holes, with about three hundred
holes in a row. The girls were supplied with black bristles and
copper wire. They separated the bristles into a bundle, made a
loop of the copper wire, placed the loop about the middle of the
bundle, and drew the bundle through the hole by means of the
wire, so that the bundle of bristles was separated into two tufts
instead of one.
This process was repeated until all the holes were filled, and
they were being filled with wonderful dexterity. When the brush
is to be subjected to acid liquor, such as the stopping brush of the
hat maker, a cord is substituted for the copper wire to prevent
corrosion. The drawn in brush which I saw made was to be used
in the mills instead of teasels for raising the wool from cloth.
Another brush which was used in the mill, and which I saw
being made was the revolving brush. This was a circular piece
of wood like a fence post. This was bored all around with holes.
Soft yellowish white brushes, called Tampico, were separated into
bundles, the same way as the dust brushes. These bundles were
tied with twine, and dipped in white paint. Then the bundle was
placed in the hole and a short peg about an inch long was placed
in the middle of the tuft and hammered into the hole. This peg
held the tuft firmly. Of all the brushes I saw, this was the
softest and the prettiest.
These brushes which I have tried to explain were the only
ones I saw being made, for the factory closed at five o'clock.
Butoh, were they not interesting to watch! I could have stayed
in that factory all day, and just watched.
When I got home, I was interested to find out how far back
in years brushes were invented, and I found an old record of
Edward Henning's brush. In 1699, he petitioned 'ffor a new
engine for sweeping the streets of London for aye they sorely
needed." No specificationr was enrolled but the invention included
the loading and removal of refuse 'fwith great ease and quickness."
A long interval elapsed before anything further was done
in, this direction. Then I found that whalebone fibers were intro-
duced into brush making in England in 1808, and in 1810, twigs
of broom, mallow and other plants and shrubs. Before this in
1879 John Elin invented a brush for the sweeping of chimneys.
This was done mostly by children, and a cruelty to them it was
as Charles Kingsley portrays it in his "Water Babiesf' Machines
coming into existence on account of certain acts which were
passed forbidding children to sweep chimneys, put an end to
John Elinis brush. I found out that revolving brushes for clean-
ing rooms were invented in 1811. In 1824 revolving brushes
for mills were invented. In 1824, also, William Ranyard invented
a number of brushes mounted upon two rims or placed upon an
axis which was raised upon a vehicle or barrow. Boase and
Smith made in 1828, an improvement upon the street sweeper's
machine, which included scraping, sweeping, and watering streets.
Many inventions of street sweeping brushes include removal
of refuse as well as sweeping, and some, watering in addition.
I was interested to find that the one which threw so much dirt on
me, was the simplest, most easily managed, and most commonly
The last brush I found was Mr. Ketsonis in 1875, and this
scraped refuse and mud from paving stones. House and dust
brushes were invented the latest, but when, I could not find out.
When I look back upon what I have written the thought
occurs to me, "probably this won't be as interesting to everybody
as it is to you," but then I say to myself that you must be inter-
ested, for when I think of brushes and the good time I have had
studying about them, I think anyone would be fascinated by this
subject. Brushes will, I think, always f ascinate me, and that some
day you may have the pleasure of visiting a brush factory, is the
best wish I can have for you.
J. E. F.
Baker 8: Co.'s Chocolate
EARLY HISTORY OF THE CHOCOLATE PLANT.
HEN Columbus discovered America he found that the
natives around the Caribbean sea possessed two luxuries,
tobacco and chocolate. Since that time, tobacco has been
transplanted to many parts of the globe, but, as chocolate cannot
bear a low temperature, it has been confined to the warmer regions
of the world.
The explorers described the peculiar tree, and the best
account which we have is by Bontekoe. He speaks of the large
fruits, or pods, borne on the main stem, for the pods are always
formed on the older parts of the plant. Another feature to be
noticed is that the chocolate tree is always sheltered by a larger
tree of some other kind near it. This is necessary for a successful
The natives of tropical America roasted the large seeds, then
ground them. To do this, they used the flat on curved surface of
the sort of stone used to grind their Indian corn or maize. The
roller was a short, thick stone, cylindrical in shape, similar to our
rolling pins. When the seeds were crushed, various ingredients
not known to us, were added, among which were various kinds of
The drinks made from this were complex but chocolate itself
was the chief constituent. It was customary to beat the mixture
into a froth by means of stirrers. Some writers say that the
word "chocolate" is derived from the native word, indicating noise
made by the stirring of the beverage. Thomas Gage in "The New
Survey of the West Indies" says: "The name chocolate is an
Indian word, a compound of atte, meaning water, and the sound
which the water makes Qwherein is put the chocolatej as choco,
choco, choco, when it is stirred in a cup by an instrument called fa
'molinet' until it bubbles and rises into a f roth."
There is good reason to believe that, at the discovery of
America, tea and coffee were but vaguely known to travelers in
the Orient. Therefore, when the explorers introduced chocolate
into Europe, it was the first of the three beverages to attract
attention. The other beverages soon followed and after a while
they were associated together in popular regard.
The Europeans manufactured chocolate with the same appli-
ances as the natives of tropical countries. The Spaniards gained
a knowledge of the fruit and the manner of preparing it. For
many years they kept the secret, selling their products to the
wealthy classes of Europe. The Spanish ladies were so devoted
to their chocolate that they not only drank it several times a day,
but had it carried after them to church.
Chocolate was introduced into England in 1657 but it was
scarce and expensive on account of the high duties, so until 1832
it gained but little headway.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE PLANT.
The chocolate plant is known as the Theobroma Camo-
meaning "Food of the Gods? This genus contains six species,
only one of which is generally cultivated.
The seeds are borne in pods, which are irregular and angular,
much like some forms of cucumbers, but more pointed at the lower
extremity and more distinctly grooved. Its length is about nine
inches or even a foot, and half that in diameter. The color when
young is green, later becoming dark yellow or yellowish brown.
The rind is thick and tough. The pods are filled with closely
packed "beans" or seeds, imbedded in a mass of tissue. The seeds
are about the size of ordinary almonds, whitish when fresh, and of
a very bitter taste, when dried they become brown.
The fruits are about four months in ripening, but they
appear and mature the whole year through. The chief harvests
are usually in early spring, but they differ in different countries.
The tree grows about thirteen feet tall, is from five to eight
inches in diameter, and of spreading habit and healthy growth.
Although it needs more care than the coffee tree, yet it requires
less labor to prepare the seed for market.
The tree needs an average temperature of eighty degrees,
hence the area of the cocoa belt is comparatively restricted and the
cocoa planter has no fear of competition. Besides, a moist soil
and humid atmosphere is' necessary. Because of these conditions
the lands along the coast of the Caribbean sea, sloping from the
mountain tops to the shore, "bedewed with exhalations of the sea,
and irrigated by numerous rivulets that course down the valleys,"
are found to be well adapted to the cultivation of cocoa.
The trees are set out similar to apple orchards, except that
the young stalks may be transplanted from the nursery after two
months' growth. No preparation of the soil or manure is neces-
The young trees are fifteen feet apart, and between the rows
are planted rows of Bucare, a tree which grows rapidly and serves
as a shade for the soil, as well as to shield the young trees from
the hot sun. Small trenches are maintained from tree to tree
throughout the entire length of the rows, so that the mountain
stream will bring the necessary moisture to the trees and soil.
Not until the plantation is five years old does it bear fruit,
then annually it yields two crops. It will yield for forty years
under proper care, and such an orchard will yield five or six hun-
dred pounds to the acre at every harvest.
VVhen the Workman gathers the pods, he is careful to cut only
the ripe ones, which he does by means of a long pole armed with
a knife at its extremity. For twenty-four hours the pods are
left in a heap on the ground, then they are cut open and the
seeds are carried in baskets to places where they are cured. There
the acid juice which accompanies the seed is drained off, after
which they are placed in a sweating box, in which they are enclosed
and allowed to ferment for some time. This process of "sweat-
ingv has to be carried on most carefully as on it, to a certain
extent, depend the flavor of the seeds and the fitness for preserva-
tion. Now the seeds are exposed to the sun and dried, and if
they are of fine quality, they assume a warm, reddish tint. Then
the beans are ready for shipment.
IVIANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE AND COCOA.
The first chocolate mill in the British province of North
America was erected on the Neponset river, in Dorchester, Mass.,
in 1765. It was connected with a saw mill, operated by water
power and was erected only as an experiment.
The new industry prospered in a small way, and on the
death of Hannon, the owner of the establishment, Dr. James Baker
bought the mill.
On this same spot his heirs founded the great house of VValter
Baker 8z Co., an establishment whose name is known the world over,
and whose prosperity promotes the welfare of the men who labor
under a tropical sun, in the cultivation of one of the choicest
fruits of the earth.
The cocoa beans are given the name of the locality where
they are grown. Every place produces a different kind of bean
with distinguishing color and appearance. The most esteemed
brand in the Walter Baker house is the Caracas cocoa, from Vene-
The constituent upon which thepvalue of cocoa depends is
theobromine, an alkaloid substance closely allied to the theine of
tea and coffee. Fat or cocoa butter composes about fifty-two per
cent. of the cocoa bean. It is a firm, white, solid substance with
an agreeable taste and odor. It consists of stearin with a little
olein, and is used in surgical practice, and in France as a material
for soap and pomade. Starch grains are present in raw cocoa,
so peculiar in character that they are easily distinguished from
any other starch granules.
Not long ago I had the pleasure of visiting Walter Baker's
factory and I followed the process of chocolate making from the
raw cocoa to the finish product. We first visited a large store-
room where we saw hundreds of bags of cocoa beans. Now,
instead of having these bags carried to the floor below, large bins
on the floor receive the beans and gradually allow them to pass
into large revolving cylinders below. These cylinders are made
of wire, and the beans revolving rapidly lose all the dust and for-
eign matters which have come from various sources during the
fermentation of the seeds. The beans which stick together, that
is "double beans," drop out at one end by an ingenious device, for
the beans are next to be roasted, and where two are together,
the roasting would not be evenly done.
The beans pass through openings in the floor to the floor
below, preparatory to being roasted. Before they are roasted,
however, they are picked over by hand. They lie upon a belt run-
ning continually through a room, a girl sits on either side, and
picks out any little stone or foreign matter which was not removed
by the machine. In this same room the double beans are cut apart.
The girls are skilled when they can pick over or cut apart so many
hand-cars of beans a day. It is very clean, pretty work.
Now the beans are ready for roasting, this takes place also
in large revolving cylinders, which hold 2,240 pounds each. Four-
inch steam pipes are coiled in each vat with 180 pounds pressure.
The seeds are roasted by being tossed about on the revolving cylin-
ders. It takes about four hours for the roasting to be completed.
During this time, the seeds change color and become more or less
modified in taste. The aromatic substance is formed during this
proceeding and the starch changes to dextrin. In unroasted seeds
the Havor is not fully developed, while in over-roasted seeds the
pleasant taste is likely to become greatly impaired, so this part of
the manufacture is one of the most delicate processes from begin-
ning to end.
By roasting, the shell becomes more readily detachable, and
its complete removal is the next step. This is done by drawing
off the beans in cars when cool and emptying them into a machine
which crushes, but does not powder them. This is followed by a
'cwinnowingv process which separates the kernels, or 6'nibs,,' from
the lighter shells. It is accomplished by the action of a powerful
fan blast, which fans the light shells or husks out at the back
portion of the cylinder where they are gathered up, and the clean
shells are placed in packages. They make a wholesome and very
low priced drink.
The co-coa nibs, which are now cleaned, are used in foreign
countries for a simple decoction, but they require to be boiled so
long' that it is better to treat them further, and then too, by long
boiling a part of the more delicate aroma peculiar to chocolate
seeds is lost.
The nibs, now, are ground by a complicated machine until
they form a perfectly homogenous mass or paste. This grinding
is done by a cylinder machine, with an outer fixed casing within
which a drum revolves. The nibs are fed in by a hopper on the
upper part of the machine, they are carried around the circum-
ference by the revolution of the drum, and then given up as a thin,
uniform, pasty mass. I asked what was added to the nibs to form
paste and the guide said: "I was waiting for you to ask that ques-
tion, everyone does. The reason is this: the heat developed by
friction within the cylinder is sufficient to liquify the cocoa oil
and make the paste which you see."
Every kind of chocolate, whether bitter or sweet, is in this
form First. From this machine the chocolate is drawn off in pipes,
which lead through the floor into large vats on the floor below.
There were eighteen machines or mills in one room, and twenty in
another, so on the floor below we saw thirty-eight vats. I was
surprised to see the different shades of chocolate, and the guide
told me that they used twenty-seven different kinds of cocoa beans
each with characteristic color and flavor. He said if there was one
secret in chocolate making it was in the blending of these varieties
to make the richest and best colored product.
This chocolate in the vat is drawn off into twenty-five and
ten pound pans, and put out in the cooling room. The cooling
room has no walls, but only shutters in the sides to allow the cold
air to circulate freely through the racks, on which the pans rest.
This is the bitter chocolate used by confectioners and for cooking
The chocolate for drinking purposes is made in the same way
as the cooking chocolate. It is made in another building, and
here forty-two mills make the nibs into a paste. When it is drawn
off, it is put into one and five pound pans, instead of the ten and
twenty-five pound cakes for cooking use. A large pan with all
the sections of the same size passes under a roller, a lever is raised
and the openings in the roller deposits an even amount in each
pan. Now the chocolate is ready to be cooled. In summer a large
cooling room is used with a temperature of fourteen degrees below
zero. In winter, the open room, with the shutters, is sufHcient to
cool the cakes.
Now, when the cakes are fully hardened and removed from
the pans, if perfect, they are sent directly to the polishing room,
where each cake is dipped into a preparation which gives it the
glossy appearance. If the corners of the cakes are broken they
are sent back and remelted.
The next step is the Wrapping and packing room. This room
is very interesting and I enjoyed watching the girls rapidly wrap
each cake, while men carried them to another side of the room and
packed them in wooden boxes. The shipping-room was near this
room, and here we saw hundreds of boxes of chocolate being loaded
into freight cars. .,
We made a short visit to the building where breakfast cocoa
is made. The principal factors of the process are, the removal
of a definite portion of the cocoa oil from the roasted seeds, sec-
ondly, increasing the utility of the powdered seeds by obtaining
the greatest practicable degree of fineness..
The oil of the chocolate seed is perfectly wholesome, but many
people find it hard to digest. So a part of this is removed by a
machine, which subjects the roasted seeds to pressure, varying
according to the amount of oil one wishes to remove.
The pressed mass treated mechanically is divided and sub-
divided, until the minute particles are capable of passing through
a sieve having several thousand meshes to the square inch. Such
pulverization as this, would under ordinary circumstances, make
the mass a dull and unattractive powder. In the firm of Walter
Baker Co., this degree of fineness is secured without any loss
of brilliancy in the powder, the color being very bright red, attrac-
tive in appearance and united with the natural chocolate odor and
flavor, we have a pure cocoa of the highest grade.
I saw a complex machine which does nothing but fill the cans
with cocoa. It has a shelf on which are a number of little cans.
The cocoa is fed down through the top of the machine and when
the even pound has passed through one can, a lid quickly covers
it and the contents drop into the regular cocoa can. Then the
shelf revolves and another can is filled in the same way, so thou-
sands of cans are filled daily. The machine is so accurate that
only one-fourth of an ounce is allowed, over and above, for every
twelve cans. We saw a large packing room where nothing is done
but labeling and packing the cans of breakfast cocoa.
Last of all, I visited the machine which sweetens the choco-
late paste. It is a large wonderful machine, around which is a
huge circular basin, into which the chocolate paste runs, a hopper
feeds in a definite amount of pure sugar every second. Then the
paste and sugar pass several times over and under horizontal
rollers, and finally a thoroughly homogeneous mixture is secured.
This machine has a capacity of five tons of chocolate daily. There
is only one other machine like it in the world.
The sweetened chocolate now is drawn off into small vats and
mixed with cocoa oil, for the paste has become dry. Then it is
drawn off, cooled and stamped, and packed for shipment.
The process of making the chocolate bean into chocolate and
cocoa is extremely interesting and not very difficult to follow.
Everything is done by machinery. I was surprised to find so few
workmen except in the packing rooms.
Cocoa has been found to be of great value as a food. It
differs from both tea and coffee in that only an infusion of these
substances is used, leaving much of their weight unconsumed, while
the entire substance of cocoa is prepared as an emulsion for drink-
ing. Tea and coffee are really, only a stimulant, while cocoa well
prepared is very nourishing, for in addition to the value of the
theobromine it contains, it brings into the system no small' amount
of valuable nitrogenous and oleagenous elements.
That cocoa and chocolate have advanced in American favor
during recent years is shown by these figures. In 1860 the amount
retained for home consumption was 1,181,054 pounds, that is
about three-fifths of an ounce for each inhabitant. The amount
retained for home consumption in 1906 was 77,660,345 pounds,
or about fourteen ounces for each inhabitant.
Although the consumption of tea and coffee. also increased in
this period, yet the ratio of increase fell far below that of cocoa.
So it is evident that the coming American is to be less of a tea
and coffee drinker, and more of a cocoa and chocolate drinker.
"This is the natural result of a better knowledge of the laws of
health, and of the food value of a beverage which nourishes the
body while it also stimulates the brain."
M. M. M.
Advice to the Class of 1910
Upon entering this learned school
On the thirteenth of Septemberg
There are a few important rules,
Which you really must remember.
For absence you must be excused,
A written one,-on slipsg
These papers must not be misused,
And the janitor takes no tips.
Prepare yourself for a five-minute talk,
On a walk, a sail, or a pranceg
Now girls, it's really quite useless to balk,
For everyone must take her chance.
And girls,-on Monday afternoon,
Don't dare to come in late.
Because one day we met our doom,
So profit by our fate.
Don't fail to visit our subway,
It will save you a great deal of time,
If you find it crowded about noon each day,
Please pass through in a single line.
But let every one work with will and zest,
Both student and professor,
To keep the standard the very best
Of our Alma Mater, may God bless her.
Should English History Be Studied in the
HE question with which my paper is headed may seem to
some like agitating the question of putting another High
School subject into the already crowded grammar schools.
Such agitation, however, is not my purpose.
The college demands on the High School graduate have forced
the crowding into the grammar school of some subjects which
seem properly to belong to the High School. Teachers of eighth
and ninth grades are now often required to teach Algebra, Geom-
etry, Latin and French,-one or more of these subjects being
offered in most of our grammar schools. To add more appears
But can we not find a place for English History, Without
causing "The Three R,s', to suffer? I think it can be done.
There are many reasons for favoring an early study of Eng-
lish History. Let us consider some of them.
English History is, up to the time of the Revolution of 1776,
our history-American History. Should we not, in order to
understand our own land-its settlement, its people, its laws, its
customs,-study the history of the mother country?
English History, especially the earlier epochs, is of immense
value in the study of the English language. Rather, I suppose,
the language has helped in the sources and proofs of our knowl-
edge of English History. But, knowing something of the history,
we are better able to appreciate the language of the race.
In the grades, though not so much as in the High School,
we take up the study of England9s literature. For some of this
Work, a background of English History is indispensable. 'Even if
this literature is not studied in the grammar school, in' the High
School it is usually begun before the English History.
Then, too, many-perhaps most-High Schools offer English
History as an elective, say, in place of a language. Many who
are not going to higher schools elect the language, and so have
no school course in English history. Of my own class in High
School, hardly a third studied English History.
There are a great many pupils, Who, for various reasons,
do not go beyond the ninth grade. VVould not the history of a
great nation like England add to their stock of general informa-
tion, to their general culture, as much as does the smattering of
French or Latin?
It is not my intention to advocate the study of English His-
tory at the expense of any grammar school subject. Rather
would I seek to make a place for it. Nearly every school has
some hobby, which is impressed upon the minds of the pupils at
whatever cost. Often this is the analysis of English sentences.
The pupil must learn a carefully tabulated form, by means of
which to pick to pieces nearly every sentence he meets. Of course,
this has its value, chiefly, perhaps, in cultivating logical and
orderly habits of mind.
Could not some of the time, now given to such specialties,
be most profitably spent in reading history stories? Every child
knows the "Cherry Tree Story,',-Why not "King Alfred and the
Cakesf' and "The Legends of King Arthur ?,'
If English History stories were familiar, England would seem
more closely allied to us, by reason of our long, common history.
It is true that my arguments are all for the affirmative, but
how could it be otherwise? For I firmly believe that English. His-
tory! can and should be studied in the grades.
STRONOMY is the science which has to do with heavenly
bodies, their appearances, their nature, and the laws govern-
ing their real and their apparent motions. It is the most
ancient of the sciences depending upon observation and has always
been the basis of geography, navigation, mathematics, and the
group of sciences We call physics. Astronomy in the early days
Was so mixed up With all the affairs of life and contributed so much
to religion, that we find in it the origin of several of our ideas and
habits, which seem now to have no connection with the science.
Students have found astronomy a most fascinating study,
full of mystery, of interest, and delight. Children find it so,
too. They are bubbling over with questions about the sun, the
moon, and those far off dots of light called stars. "VVhat is the
sun made of? What is the moon and what makes it shine? VVhy
do we see the stars only when night comes P" They like to say,
"Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky."
VVhat is better in the winter time, when the birds, the leaves,
and flowers are all gone, than to turn their attention to the vast
field of sky-flowers overhead, "the forget-me-nots of the angels,"
Longfellow calls them, that "blossom silently, one by one, in the
infinite meadows of Heavenf'
Children in the lower grades know the Big Dipper. Have
them watch it night by night and see if they find it in the same
place all through the year. They will be interested in the pointers,
in finding the pole star, and learning how the Dipper swings about
it. Then draw the big bear on the board putting the stars in
for them, and tell them of the little bear and how the pole star
is on the tip of his tail. They will want you to tell them about
the bears and when they hear the story, Ursa Major and Ursa
Minor will bef old friends whom they never tire of looking at. Of
course they will want to find other pictures in the sky and hear
Just what constellations to take up in the different grades
depends upon the difliculty in finding them, whether they stand out
clearly in the sky and what time at night they may be found,
little folks go to bed early we must remember. The older children
will ask why you cannot see the constellations until a certain time,
why the stars seem to be moving night after night toward the
west, why they appear to rise and set like the sun, if they are
really little suns, what makes them twinkle, and why they some-
times shoot out of their places. The teacher must take the place
of a book and by merely answering their questions and explaining
the phenomena which have aroused their curiosity and interest,
she teaches them astronomy.
Perhaps before the children begin to wonder about the stars
they watch the moon. They are interested in the face of the
full moon, in the horns of the crescent moon, and in the fact that
they sometimes see the moon in the east, sometimes in the west,
that it, too, seems to rise and set. Have them observe the moon
until they know in what part of the sky to look for the full moon,
for the new crescent, and the old crescent. Tell them about the
old moon in the new moon's arms, about the Harvest moon and the
Hunter's moon, and why they are so called. They will be sur-
prised to know that there are mountains on the moon just as there
are on the earth, and that they form the moon's "face"
We can see that astronomy will train the children to use
their eyes. It should raise in their minds an improved state of
moral sentiment and moral feeling. The more they find out about
the heavens, the more they will want to know of its mysteries.
"Astronomy! Parent of Devotion, engage my midnight vigils,
Elevate my thought to contemplate thy vast realities,
Warm my soul with adoration pure, and fervent praise
To Him, whose finger fashioned you revolving worlds."
E. C. K.
The Lady of the Portrait
DLY turning the leaves of a magazine, I came upon a picture
which arrested my attention, perhaps because it was so dark
in coloring, but more, I think, because of the thoughts which
the face of the portrait called up. It was the representation of
a picture, taken probably in the seventeenth century, and por-
trayed a woman of great beauty. , One could easily see, in looking
at her dress, that she was a woman of wealth and her haughty
attitude bespoke social position of no- mean standing. But what
attracted me most was the proud, arrogant look which marred the
beautiful features of the picture. Haughtily, as if disdaining
her present surroundings, she looked down on the every day world,
her face sharply outlined against a coal-black background, par-
tially formed by her large hat with its long waving plume. I
pitied her, in spite of her attractiveness and evident power, and
became so interested in the lady that I gradually lost my own
surroundings and was in the world of the picture.
I found myself standing in a long picture gallery. Portraits
looked down at me from both walls, haughty dames in rich dresses,
proud gentlemen, who, in spite of their finery, looked ill at ease.
All had the same stamp of breeding and arrogance which had
marked the first picture I had seen, and before which I now was.
As I stood looking at her, I thought, that, if these marks could
be removed, what a lovable person she might have been.
Just then, I heard a door open at the end of the gallery, and
a terror of being seen and summarily ejected seized me. I flat-
tened myself against the wall as she came toward me, the lady
of my picture. She did not seem to notice me, however, and, with
long train sweeping the floor behind her and almost brushing
me, was about to go by, when some fancy caused her to pause
before her own portrait. How like her it was! Every feature and
trick of expression was pictured so vividly, when the comparison
was made, that I almost gasped with wonder.
The lady seemed tired, though, a feeling not shown in the
portrait, but this expression did not, for an instant, obliterate
the harsh lines pride had traced in that otherwise handsome coun-
tenance. Again, a feeling of pity overcame me, but, just at that
moment, a child's voice rang out somewhere beyond us, and, for a
second time the door at the end of the gallery opened. Now, it
admitted a tiny golden haired child, whom one could love at first
"Mother," she called as she ran down the long room.
I glanced at the woman, and my eyes rested upon her, so
changed was she. The hard eyes were lighted by the divine light
of mother love, every deep line carved by time and power was
entirely softened, as the lady knelt with arms outstretched, all
her being speaking with her tremulous lips, the whisper, "My
Gradually, my own surroundings came back to me, but, as
if from afar, I heard the old words:
"And a little child shall lead them."
M. C. N.
Framingham Normal School
VVHAT IT MAY DO Fon ITS STUDENTS.
" HA'T a fine view you have from this hill P, This is what
the visitors to the Normal School say. Water, hills,
woods, fields, houses, all these can be seen. It seems to
be like the "city set on a hill that cannot be hid." No matter
where we go for a walk we are sure to be able to see that green
standpipe and many times it has saved us from being lost. But
what can situation do toward bettering or lowering the school?
It can do a great deal. We are where we' can live near to nature.
Mornings Cusually in the winterj we can see the sun rise and, in
the evening, see the wonderful sunsets. We can see the trees
just leaiing out in numberless shades of green in the spring, and
in the fall the wonderful foliage. All this should make us love
nature if we never have before and when we can love nature, we
can see beauty and good in other things.
We learn in the Normal School that we must not teach just
for the renumeration we are to receive and usually teachers with
that purpose do not make a success of their work. VVe should
love the work and be willing to sacrifice other pleasures during
the' school term for it. We have a fine example of this self-sacri-
lice in the faculty. It is very easy to see that their hearts are in
their work and that their work with the girls is the first conse-
quence. If one-tenth of the valuable advice and suggestions
given by them were put in practise in our schools next year, those
schools would be better for our having taught there. It is not
an interest in the school and its standing alone, but it is in the
individual student. Great help comes from knowing such broad-
minded men and women who aim at high ideals.
Each year we are in the school we come in contact with per-
haps a hundred and fifty new girls. These girls have come from
cities and towns and small villages in and out of Massachusetts.
We do not become intimately acquainted with many outside of our
own class perhaps. But among these girls there is a wide variety
of interests and opinions. They have read a certain book and
enjoyed it. Have you read that book? They have heard a new
piece of music and are sure you would like it. Do try it? YVe
must know something about the stories recently published, the
new style dress and what is going on in order to understand what
they are talking about.
We have the chance to attend so many line lectures. Une
lecture helps one person where it might not another. VVe are
becoming acquainted in this way with persons who are widely
known and some day we may be glad to sav we have heard such
a one speak even if we remember only a point or two made in the
Father Pierce chose this motto for the school at its opening,
"Live to the Truthf, Truth involves so much that if we keep
this motto, together with the strengthened character we have
received here, with us as we go out into the world, we shall feel
and others will know what Framingham Normal can do for its
E. C. A.
Uur Platform Exercises
AM acquainted with a girl who is a student at the Worcester
Normal School. Once, in my Junior year, when we were dis-
cussing and comparing our respective schools, she told me
about exercises which they held there once a week in which the
students, in turn, took part. She called these exercises "platform
exercises." She pictured them so attractively that I began to
wish that we, too, might have platform exercises, for naturally
I wished our school to possess all the excellences of other Normal
Schools,-and perhaps a few more. So when, at the end of the
year, Miss Anna Moore announced to us that we were to hold
similar exercises the following year I was greatly pleased.
We, as Seniors, were to be the first to take part, and the
names of those who wo-uld speak on the first and second occasions
were given out. Friday afternoons from five minutes of one to
twenty-five minutes past was the time chosen for these exercises
to take place, five were to take part each time, each one speaking
five minutes. ,
We were allowed great freedom in the choice of subjects, the
privilege to 'ftalk about anything" being granted us. All through
the long summer which intervened between our Junior and Senior
years, I was constantly on the lookout for something interesting
about which I might talk when my turn came. This purpose, I
imagine, was also in the minds of the greater portion of my class-
Since I was in the A Division of the Senior, class and conse-
quently among the first to go out into practice school, for the
first three months I was merely a visitor at these much talked of
exercises. To say that I enjoyed them greatly does not exagger-
ate my feeling in regard to them, and I attended every Friday
afternoon that it was possible. Each time there was the wonder-
ing what the different ones would talk about, the enjoyment of
listening to them, and then the thinking, and sometimes the talking
of them over afterward. I think all the girls did nobly, some
whose subjects were not so interesting as others, made up for it
by the manner of presentation. Such a variety of subjects as
there were. Some told of places they had visited during the sum-
mer, some of industries they had visited, some of the girls visited
other Normal Schools on purpose to tell us about them. In fact,
all the subjects seemed chosen with reference to what would inter-
est us the most.
While we, the A Division, were in practice school the B and C
Divisions had each taken part, so when we came back into the
Normal Department it was our turn. We didn't all have a chance,
however,-only as many as there was time for before Christmas,
as it was decided that the Juniors should begin to take part when
we came back from our Christmas vacation, beginning with the
Household Art section. So ever since then we have been listening
to them, and they have given us some very interesting as well as
To an outside observer the value of these platform exercises
is not so apparent as it is to us. Almost every girl is diflident
about addressing an audience, even if they are her own classmates,
and each time she does go through this ordeal, she gains in self-
confidence which is a necessary trait in one who intends to be a
school teacher. '
As yet, of course, we have only seen, the beginning of what I
hope will be many years of this kind of exercises. But I think
I may safely say it is a very good beginning, and we have all
learned the value of that. I hope to be able to revisit our school
in a few years to compare the platform exercises then with our
own efforts, and I hope, for the good of the school, to find that
we are far outshone. For I do not think it will be to our discredit
if such is the case. It was from crude beginnings that our nation
has developed into what seems to us so near perfection.
A. A. D.
In the Realms of Music
OR the past few years it has been the custom, in the musical
period on Monday afternoons, to take up the lives and some
of the most important works of our greatest composers.
Last year we devoted four weeks to the study of each of the fol-
lowing composers :-Schubert, ltiendelssohn, Schumann.
Both vocal and instrumental selections were given. The
vocal selections included solos, duets, and choruses by the Glee
Club. On several occasions violin pieces were played and the
piano and pianola were used constantly. Each piece was played
over several times, so that the students might become familiar
with the principal themes.
This year, practically the same idea has been followed. A
musical committee was chosen from the Seniors and Middle Jun-
iors, which took charge of these Monday afternoon musicals.
Mendelssohn was chosen as the first composer to be studied. This
program covered four weeks. The first Monday, November eigh-
teenth, was taken up by the reading of a paper on the life of
Mendelssohn and the playing of some of his songs without words.
The program was as follows:
PAPER ON MENDELSSOHN,
Miss LOUISE on'roN.
PIANO Sonos-"Consolation," "Funeral March,"
miss HELEN WALLACE.
mxss FANNIE HALL.
PIANO Dum'-"Ruy Blas,"
MISSES CATHERINE KINGSLIY AND EDNA PARKER.
The paper on the life of Mendelssohn was written in a very
interesting manner and very well rendered. It gave a short
account of his life from a musical standpoint, mentioning the
greatest works and giving a few explanatory words regarding
each. This, in a way, prepared us for the selections following.
To those who are familiar with the songs without words, each ren-
dering is more enjoyable than the preceding one, as the hearer
is better acquainted with the music, and it takes very little imag-
ination to picture the scenes which accompany the songs.
The second program of Mendelssohn's music, on November
twenty-fifth, consisted mostly of vocal selections with one violin
VOCAL MUs1c-"I Would That My Love,
"Oh, for the Wings of a Dove,"
miss LAURA runnin.
"The First Violet,"
Miss BEATRICE UNDEBWOOD.
miss HARBIET cou.1Ns.
XVIOLIN SoLo-Andante, from Concerto in E Minor,
The above pieces strengthened our impressions as to the
sweetness of Mendelssohn's melodies.
The program of December ninth was wholly pianola music,
giving parts from his greater works.
Pmxom-Prelude and Fugue in E Minor,
"Noctune," "Scherzo," "Wedding March," from Mid-Surmmer Nightkv
These being written on a much grander scale, are considerably
more difficult to follow than the songs.
On December sixteenth, the final program on Mendelssohn
was given. On this date we were fortunate in having Mrs. Bart-
lett with us to play some of the songs without words. Some of
the preceding pieces were also repeated. Added to these were
selections from the oratorios of "S't. Paul" and "Elij ah."
Soares W1'rHoU'r Wonns--"Song No. I," "Spinning Song,"
ORATORIOS-uJCl'l1S3.lCII1,,, from St. Paul,
"The Lord is Mindful of His Own," from Elijah,
Selections from "St, Paul" and "Elij ah,"
"How Lovely are Thy Messengers," from Elijah,
"Lift Thine Eyes," from St. Paul,
The program on Mendelssohn, it is hoped, accomplished its
object, namely, to give the school a chance to hear and become
partially familiar with Mendelssohn's music in all its different
forms and to create or increase a fondness for his music.
The next composer studied was Beethoven. As his work was
on such a grand scale and most of his compositions are quite
diflicult, the pianola was made use of to quite an extent. The
few piano solos and the violin solo were very good indeed and
showed a great deal of study on the part of the player. On
January thirteenth the following program was given:
Puma ox Bnmnovnn,
miss 1-:nrrn calms.
Srmrnoiw No. 2,
The paper on Beethoven was remarkably well written, giving a
broad and comprehensive view of his life and most important
On January thirtieth, the second symphony was repeated
on the pianola, in order that we might become better acquainted
with the different movements. The pianola was made use of again
on the next Monday when the Sonata Pathetique in C-sharp Minor
The final Beethoven program on February third was! as
Pnmo Soros-"Farewell to the Piano,"
Miss CATHERINE comm.
Sonata, Opus 14-, No. 2,
miss cxrnnnrxz xmosnzx.
VIOLIN Soros-Sonato O us 24- No. 5, "Scherzo," "Rondo"
9 P 9 9
The beautiful 'Tarewell to the Piano," so very pathetic, was
played with a great deal of feeling.
The Beethoven programs have caused the school to feel as
never before. the grandeur and scope of Beethoven's music.
At the present time the school is making a study of Schu-
mann. One program has been presented. A paper od the life of
Schumann was read by Miss Jennie Washburn and one selection
was played by Miss Catherine Gould. The next Schumann pro-
gram is to consist of several selections by Mrs. Bartlett and solos
by Mr. Archibald.
After the Schumann program, are to come a few lessons on
Wagner. In this study a paper is to be read telling the story
of the Rhein Gold, the Ring, the Valkyries, Siegfried, Briinnhilde
and many others. After each part of the story has been read,
the motif for that part will be played. In this way it is hoped
that the students can get a better idea of the different ways of
expressing emotions in music by means of different motives.
For the rest of the year, the musical course will be pursued
as before. After a few more of the earlier and standard com-
posers have been taken up, we are to have a few lessons on the
It might be said in conclusion that the musical course has
helped us to know the composers more intimately than we could
otherwise have hoped to know them. The school feels that it
owes hearty thanks to Mr. Archibald for the pleasure and instruc-
tion which he has given us in the musical course of which he is the
The Glee Club
The Glee Club of this school is an organization composed of
twenty-four girls, who assemble once a week on Monday after-
noons to sing for the enjoyment and the benefit of it. Under
our faithful leader, Mr. Archibald, we could not help enjoying
these afternoons, besides the great help they are to us. We take
up songs from the very best composers, and we find that the sing-
ing of good music is very inspiring. Last year the Glee Club
gave one concert, at which the principal number on the program
was the cantata, "The Birth of the Opal."
This year the Club has been working on the Cantata, "King
Rene's Daughter," which it intends to give in the afternoon of
the ninth of March. At this concert they will also sing, '4The
Miller's VVooing,,' and "Birds in the Night."
The members of the Glee Club are as follows: Mr. Archibald,
leaderg Catherine Kingston, pianistg Martha Tower, secretary
and treasurer gp Jessica Haviland, conductorg Miss Bodwell, Miss
Brown, Miss Burke, Miss Childs, Miss Claflin, Miss Corey, Miss
Hall, Miss Hunt, Miss Huntington, Miss Littlefield, Miss Moses,
Miss Edna Parker, Miss Laura Parker, Miss Patten, Miss Rear-
don, Miss Reed, Miss Richards, Miss Ritch, Miss Rourke, Miss
Tillson, Miss Tracy, Miss Underwood.
School Life 1906-1907
October 12, 1906, the faculty of the Framingham Normal School gave the
pupils an informal reception in May Hall from three until five o'c1ock. During
the afternoon musical selections were rendered by Mr. Archibald, the music
teacher of the school, and by Miss Isabel McNamara, a graduate of the
school. There were also readings by Miss Pooler. A very enjoyable time was
On the afternoon of November 22, promptly at three o'clock, a bevy
of Juniors were gathered in the corridor outside of May Hall, anxiously
waiting for some Senior to usher them into "Fairy1and," for truly, May Hall
was a fairyland in comparison to its usual studious aspect. Not a single
object in sight to remind one of work, and even the platform had been con-
verted into a delightful resting place for the teachers. After each Junior
was received she was quickly captured by some Senior for the grand march.
It was at this dance that the Juniors were initiated for the first time into
the "real" Virginia Reel and any girls who had been accustomed to reel
slowly soon had to do otherwise. The time passed very rapidly and it was
only too soon that we had to say "Good night," and thank the Seniors for
the pleasant reception they had given us.
After several months of eager anticipation the longed-for day had at
last arrived when the Juniors were to be hostesses for the first time. We had
tried so hard to overlook no little detail in order that the event might be a
successful one. Such a splendid time as we did have decorating the ha.lL
Promptly at three o'clock all of the Juniors came in the south door of May
Hall. Mr. and Mrs. W'hittemore, Miss Ordway, Miss Anna Moore, Miss Lam-
son and Miss Phillips received. Miss Bullard was the chairman of the ushers.
Following are the list of ushers:
Miss Young, Miss Vibberts, Miss Walker, Miss Mainini, Miss Shepard,
Miss Preble, Miss Loring, Miss Kehoe, Miss Cousens, Miss Lyman, Miss
Bemis, Miss Fiske, Miss Noel, Miss Tuthill, Miss Saunders, Miss Morton,
Miss Brown, Miss Ritch.
Oct. 22, 1906. Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, chairman of the Board of
Visitors, addressed the school.
Nov. 7, 1906. Miss A. Theodora Wall, class of 1883, talked on Life
Nov. 12, 1906. Miss Lyman of Chicago, told stories to the school as
they should be told to children.
Nov. 14, 1906. An entertainment was given to the school imder the
management of Miss 'Stella Smith, a member of the Senior class. The
following programme was given:
Selection from "Capt, J anuary" Mabel Smith
Song Miss Sladen and Miss Cary
Piano selection Miss Brown
Piano selection Miss Fiske
Mandolin Dorothy Tuthill
Nov. 91, 1906. Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells addressed the school.
Jan. Q5, 1907. Mr. Herbert Luce, Superintendent of schools in Newport,
R. I., talked on Appreciation of the Teacher.
Jan. 30, 1907. Mr. F. L. Burnham addressed the school.
Feb. 13, 1907. Dr. C. D. Tenney talked on Educational Reform in China.
Feb. 20, 1907. Dr. Johnstone of the School for Feeble Minded in Vineland,
N. J., spoke on Training of Feeble Minded Children.g
Feb. 27, 1907. The C Seniors, assisted by some members of H. A. Dept.,
gave "The Masque of Pandora," in celebration of Longfellow's 100th birthday.
After the play the Glee Club sang "Psalm of Life."
March 6, 1907. Mr. George T. Fletcher, former agent of Board of Educa-
tion, spoke on the Rural School.
March 20, 1907. Miss Helen Chandler, of India, spoke on the Educational
System in India.
May 1, 1907. Rev. Thos. I. Gasson, president of Boston College, lectured
on Joan of Arc.
May 15, 1907. Mr. A. J. Leach, of American Humane Society, addressed
May 92, 1907. Miss Virginia E. Graeif spoke on relation of kindergarten
to elementary schools.
The faculty entertained the students on Friday afternoon, October 11,
1907, at 3 o'clock. May Hall was daintily decorated for the occasion. The
platform was covered with ferns and plants, and cosy seats were arranged
about the hall.
Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells was present and assisted in receiving with
Mr. and Mrs. Whittemore, Miss Davis, Miss Nicholass, Miss Dale and Mr.
Music was furnished by an Italian trio, consisting of cello, violin and
harp. The music was very fine and the trio made a picturesque' group among
the ferns and plants.
Coffee was poured by Miss Mary Moore, and Miss Emerson. Miss Malloy
and Miss WVinslow, Miss Ordway and Miss Stevens presided over the ice
The faculty receptions are always much enjoyed. This year was no
exception, for a pleasant afternoon was spent by all and everyone appreciated
the efforts of the faculty.
On November 8, 1907, a reception was given the Juniors by the
Seniors. The hall was prettily decorated. Mr. and Mrs. VVhittemore, Miss
French, Dr. and Mrs. Lambert, Miss Ordway and the class oiiicers, Miss
Lamson and Miss Phillips, received. The following ushers assisted: Jessica
Haviland, chairman, Mabel Morton, Maud Tillson, Margaret Loring, Helen
Young, Mabel Ritch, Eleanor Preble, Helen Lyman, Alice Bemis, Marion
Bryant, Dorothy Clarke, Dorothy Tuthill, Martha Tower, Christine Moses,
Edith Kendrick, Hazel Walker, Florine Vibberts, Claire Mainini, Theresa
Killelea, Jennie Washburn, Louise Kingsbury, Marion Bullard and Glennah
Shepherd. After the reception dancing was enjoyed until half past five.
It is a favorite joke of Mr. VVhittemore's that each party is the very
best we ever had. When, however, we come to a discussion of the Junior
Reception everybody surely echoes his statement. We were invited to a Jap-
anese tea and dance to be held January 28, 1908. May Hall was beautifully
decorated with cherry blossoms and Japanese lanterns and fans. The design
of the dance orders was Japanese in its simplicity and many of the Juniors
were in Japanese costume. The receiving line consisted of Mr. and Mrs.
Whittemore, Miss Bennett, Mr. Howe, Miss Blickhahn and Miss Lee. For
refreshments cold tea and rice cakes were served.
It was all delightful but the most original thing about it was the unique
form of entertainment which was given at intermission. The central part
of the platform had been arranged as a Japanese interior. Here a Japanese
wedding was acted out to the accompaniment of soft music. The first to
enter were the groom's parents, then the bride's and then the bride and groom
accompanied by the ofiicial matchmaker. These were followed by four' brides-
maids. The ceremony is that of the acceptance of the bride into the groom's
family. The preliminaries are somewhat lengthy, and it is not until the
groom's mother offers the bride tea and she throws back her veil that the
ceremony is completed. Then they have a very ceremonious tea drinking and
the guests depart.
The whole scene was marked by exquisite grace and harmony of action.
On January 13 the school was invited to one of the much-enjoyed pianola
parties. The party, which is an informal affair, commenced at 2.45 P. M.
with dancing, which was enjoyed by all and lasted until 5 o'clock.
On Friday, February 7th, Mr. Whittemore gave the school a "Pianola
Party." These parties are always informal and very pleasant. When the
invitation to this particular party was read there was a great deal of specula-
tion as to what it would be. The invitation read that we were invited to a
"Peanut Pianola Party." Of course we all suspected and hoped that, peanuts
would be present in some form. Our curiosity was not satisfied until Friday
afternoon at a quarter after three when we arrived at the Assembly Hall.
There were dishes of peanuts on the platform and we were inivted to help our-
selves. Mr. VVhittemore played the pianola and we danced. At the inter-
mission Mr. Vtfhittemore announced that we would find bags of "sweets" in
several of the rooms on the floor below. There was a rush downstairs by all
the girls and some returned with one bag, others with two on three, and some
even with four or five. These bags were filled with peanut taffy. W'e ate and
talked for a while and then danced until five o'clock. Everyone enjoyed the
afternoon and left with the wish that there might be another party soon.
The most brilliant affair of the Senior class was held Friday evening,
February twenty-first, nineteen hundred and eight. The hall was decorated
very prettily by the Junior class in orange which gave a pleasing effect.
At seven-thirty, the Ladies' Orchestra of four pieces from the Bostonian
Orchestra, began to play. The guests were received by Mr. and Mrs. Whitte-
more, Miss Ireson, Miss Lamson, president of the class and Miss Phillips,
The ushers were: Glennah Shepard, chairman, Helen Lyman, Helen
Young, Evelyn Cousins, Alice Bemis, Marion Bullard, Louise Kingsbury,
Mabel Ritch, Eleanor Preble, Maud Tillson, Mabel VVhite, Pauline Bodwell,
Helen Cushman, Julia King, Claire Mainini, Elizabeth McClean, Mabel Mor-
ton, Anna Reed, Dorothy Tuthill, Hazel Walker, Caroline Dennis, Jennie
Wheeler, Margaret Loring, Julia Fisher, Laura Arentzen. The reception
lasted until eight o'clock, when dancing was enjoyed until eleven-thirty.
Intermission was at ten o'clock, during which ices, punch and cake were
served in Room 30. This was invitingly fitted with screens and drew the
attention of many. There were cosy corners which belonged to Harvard,
Yale, Dartmouth, Crocker and others. These were patronized very much, for
they looked very inviting.
One of the most attractive rooms was number eighteen in which games,
especially whist, was played. Also the reading room had games. These were
certainly enjoyed and added greatly to the pleasure of the evening.
The class can be congratulated on the success of the party, for everyone
seemed to appreciate the work of the committees and all had a "good time."
Oct. 2, 1907. Mr. F. L. Burnham addressed the school.
Oct. 21, 1907. Mr. George H. Martin, secretary of the State Board of
Education, spoke to the school on methods.
January 14th. Mr. Kempton gave a stereopticon lecture upon "Hiawatha"
to the Normal and Practice Schools. The pictures had been taken of members
of a camp of Objibway on Lake Michigan. The poem as interpreted by the
slides was given a new meaning and interest to all of us. The children
seemed to enjoy it with especial keenness. The slides were unusually good.
The coloring of some of the sunrises and sunsets was wonderful.
December 11th, Miss Emily Poullson spoke to us upon "The Limitations
of the Child." She dwelt particularly upon the physical limitations of the
normal child living in a world fitted for adults. The whole lecture was an
exposition of one phase of our familiar modern watchwords "Give the child
a chance," and "The world is made up of individuals: therefore, we must
reach individuals." We as school teachers of the future cannot fill our
minds and hearts too full of such thoughts and aims as she expressed.
WHITTIEB'S DAY, DECEDIBER 17, 1907. -
One day in November, in the C Division, English class, a chance reference
was made to Whittier. The question arose as to the date of his birthg and
when the fact that it was just one hundred years ago the following month
was disclosed, it was proposed to celebrate the centennial. An executive
committee was elected. After much thought and work the following program
was prepared and given to the school. The division was assisted by Miss
Florence Lucey of the Junior Regularsg Miss Phyllis Swasey of the H. A.
Middle J uniorsg and a small boy from the practice school.
Whittier's Life Miss Olive Phillips
Whittier Land Miss Elizabeth Colman
Loaned by Miss Julia Sprague
Autograph Letter of Whittie'-:r's Written to Mrs. Edna D. Cheney
Read by Miss Susie Sommerman
Passage from "Snowb0und" MiSS Agnes Shamwfl
"Telling the Bees" Miss Jane XVheeler
"Abraham Davenport" Miss Edith Smith
Bgrefggt Bgy Pl'3.Cl1iCC school boy
In School Days Misses Tuthill and Swasey
Mgry Garvin Farmer: Miss Moynihan
Dame: Miss Ruth Richardson
Strangers: Miss Frances Way, Miss Mary Noel
Mgud Muller Miss ADDR
The Huskers The C Division
Solo: Miss Florence Lucey.
Chorus: Miss Lucey, Miss Claiiin, Miss Moses, Miss Reed.
Brown of Ossawatomie
The Rendition Miss Christine Moses
My Psalm Miss Ruth Sherman
Slides showing the Whittier Country explained by Miss Catherine Gould
Centennial Hymn School
Accompanist Miss Olive Phillips
Director Miss Eva Smith
January 30, Miss Jane Brownlee addressed the school upon "Systematic
Moral Training in the Schools."
Miss Brownlee is a great example of what we may do for ourselves and
others by simply taking thought. Ten years ago she was an inconspicuous
grammar school teacher in Toledo, Ohio. Now she is one of the prominent
educators of the country.
As a teacher she became interested in psychology. She thought much
about the relation of the school to the development of the child. Mental
trining has been the aim of the school for centuries, and physical training
within the last few years, but there is no provision for moral training. Miss
Brownlee has tried to fill in the gap.
Her method is this:-Five minutes a day are devoted to a discussion of
the subjects for the month. The topic is developed by the skillful question-
ing of the teacher. The actual talking is done as far as possible by the pupils.
They first learn of their body and its careg then of their mind and its trainingg
and then of their real or moral life. One subject a month is taken-each
week being devoted to some particular phase of the subject, for instance,
obedience in the home, in the school, to the laws of health, to moral law.
They are led to see the necessity and beauty of obedience and self control.
Of course, in any such system the teacher is the great factor.
Life at the Halls
The girls of the halls have both enjoyed and appreciated the receptions
given by the churches.
In 1906 and 1907 the ladies of the Plymouth church gave many pleasant
receptions, to which the girls were invited and which proved to be very
pleasant gatherings. Some of these socials were given in the parlors of the
church while others were held at the homes of some of the ladies.
During both of these years the ladies of the St. J ohn's Guild of the
Episcopal church have given in the Guild room, receptions and teas which
the girls have taken a great deal of pleasure in attending.
These functions have meant much to the girls who are away from home.
The kindness of the ladies in remembering us in this way is highly appreciated.
LAWN PARTY TO SENIORS.
Just before graduation, last June, our class gave the Seniors a farewell
lawn party. The campus was effectively decorated with strings of Japanese
lanterns. Near the upper tennis court, a stage was constructed. At the
ringing of Miss Stanley's huge dinner bell, the Seniors and guests flocked
to a place reserved for them, in front of the stage.
Then Miss Gertrude Brown extended a hearty welcome to those present
and explained to them that, owing to Mrs. J arley's absence, she would endeavor
to take her place. Miss Brown also explained to us, how Mrs. Jarley was
formerly a Crocker Hall girl, and so she was doubly disappointed at not being
able to be present.
Then followed some fun for all. Miss Brown introduced Mrs. Jarley's
wax figures and described them in a most entertaining way. Considerable
mirth prevailed when such figures as "Late for breakfast," "Country school-
marmj' "Child of the street," were brought in. The beautiful automatic war-
bling of the "Prima Donna" created great admiration. "The Twins" were
well received and who could have found a better "Napoleon?" The two
mighty attendants who brought these figures in on the truck, and lifted them
off, so carefully, deserve a great deal of praise and commendation. There
was great consternation when the "French Doll" and "The Mermaid" proved
not to be entirely unwound and proceeded to dance at the wrong time.
Everyone could not help but hold their breath when the trim little maid
-Hannah-began to dust the ferocious Blue Beard. After the exciting scene
of the saving of John Smith by Pocahontus, the figures were carefully removed.
Then ices and light refreshments were served. After this everyone went
to May Hall and enjoyed a pleasant pianola party.
' All good times end--so did this one, but the Seniors had a "splendid time,"
so we Juniors were happy.
Remembering our experiences as Juniors, naturally, as Seniors, we wished
to have some fun at another's expense, so shortly after school opened we
planned to initiate the Juniors. Sharply on the strike of the nine o'elock bell,
two or three of us, as the case needed, rushed into a J unior's room, quickly
blindfolded the occupants, then rushed them out, and down into the Crocker
basement. We took them into the laundry. What Junior does not remember
trying to step over a pail of water without getting wet. Question: Was
there a pail of water? Then we rushed them through the subway. Have you
ever tried to hurry through a narrow passage in pitchy darkness? Any
Junior will tell you how it feels. What fun it was to make our poor victim
climb imaginary stairs, and bump into posts where no posts were. After
we had rushed them up and down corridors, and had introduced them in
"blind" haste to Normal school life, we brought them back to Crocker. There
we let them remove their bandages, and treated them to "light" refreshments,
for were they not soon to retire for a night's rest?
Did you know that remarkable talent has been shown in the present
Junior class. We Seniors unearthed several ambitious characters the night
of their initiation. Each Junior was led blindfolded over the gymnasium.
There each one entertained us with some feat, still with a bandage tightly
folded over her eyes. There were two of remarkable artistic ability, several
who, I am sure, have made the Glee Club. Do you remember that cake walk?
Then the speeches! NVho will ever forget the oration on "Woman in con-
junction with the evolution of man." After each member of the class had
fulfilled their duty, each was led back to Crocker, where bandages were
removed, and refreshments served.
CHRISTMAS A'l' CKOCKER
The Christmas entertainments of nineteen hundred and six and nineteen
hundred and seven were much alike.
In nineteen hundred and six "Santa Claus" was unable to be present so
he sent his only daughter, "Miss Margaret Santa Claus," to distribute the
In nineteen hundred and seven the girls chose a committee to have charge
of the entertainment.
About two weeks before Christmas a bag was passed around at breakfast.
Each girl and teacher drew some one's name. Then began the fun of buying
"joke" presents for the person whose name you had drawn.
On the appointed day the doors of the front parlor were closed and the
following sign was placed on the outside, "No Admittancef'
At quarter of eight in the evening, the doors were thrown open and
there in the corner stood the tree loaded with packages of all sizes and
shapes. The door bell rang and "Miss Santa Claus" came in. She was
cordially greeted by the girls and teachers. As her time was limited she
had to begin at once to distribute the presents, all of which were good "hits"
on the girls who received them. "Miss Santa Claus" had just finished when
her father called for her. He shook hands with all present and after bidding
them "Good night," escorted his daughter to his team that waited outside.
All were then invited to the third floor to a progressive spread where they
were served with sandwiches, dates, candy and lime juice from tables in
front of various rooms.
HALLOWEEN OCTOBER 31, 1906
On the night of October 31, 1906, the girls of Crocker Hall, gave a very
pretty Masquerade Hallowe'en Party, to which the girls of Normal Hall were
invited. The party was held in the basement of Crocker Hall. A mystic
maze, full of imps and ghosts, was formed from the south basement door to
the laundry, through which the guests entered. At the end of the maze was
a ghastly spectacle-the heads of three of Bluebeard's wives shown bv a
pale blue-green light. The victims were Mabel Turner, Olive Livermore 'and
Marie Fiske. The next attraction was "The Witches' Cauldronj' Margaret
Loring fmaking as frightful a witch as ever terrorized old Salemj, handed
plain scraps of paper to the guests from her boiling cauldron, on which the
possessor's fate would appear when the paper was held to the fire. Everything
was done to make the party as weird as possible. In a gypsy tent fortunes
were told by Carolyn Dennis. Everywhere the guests walked flames would
spring up under their feet, the result of nitrogen iodide purposely put on the
floor. Then regular Hallowe'en games were played. After the sports pro-
vided in the basement were exhausted, the party wen't over to the gymnasium
where refreshments were served. The rest of the evening was spent in
dancing. Everyone agreed that it was a most enjoyable party.
SATURDAY EVENING ENTERTAINMENTS IN CROCKER
About March 1st, 1907, the Crocker girls were all divided into five com-
mittees, to arrange for entertainments to be given on alternate Saturday
The principal feature of' the first one, on March 16th, was an album con-
taining twenty-three characteristic scenes of Crocker Hall life in the form
of tableaux. Between the scenes an orchestra composed of three combs, two
curtain rods and a "kazoo," accompanied by the piano, rendered "Our
Director," and other familiar tunes.
On April 13th, the entertainment took the form of a dramatic attempt,
"The Blind Attachment" being successfully given. The various parts were
taken by members of the committee.
A lively crowd of peanut hunters swarmed Crocker parlors on the evening
of April 27th. After this violent exercise, instead of cooling down with a
march as we do in the "Gym," everyone calmly studied numerous advertise-
ments, two prizes being given for both contests. After this frappe and wafers
were served in the dining room, which had been decorated for the occasion.
On May 11th, another play was given, entitled "Hiring Help," the cos-
tumes and language of the "maids" being exceedingly funny. This was
followed by tableaux and readings and punch was served.
The gymnasium was the scene of the last entertainment, on May 25th,
when "A Japanese Tragedy" was enacted by several young ladies, daintily
gowned in flowered kimonas. The eHect was emphasized by their mincing
steps and coquettish fans. During the play one could hear the strains of a
mandolin behind the scenes. Following this a Japanese Fan Drill was given
and the evening ended with dancing.
It was the night of April 18, 1907. The "Senior Man Dance !" Confusion
reigned in Crocker until the last Senior and her guest were safely over in
May Hall. Then down the stairs came the restless Juniors. The house was
ours and we were determined to do something, but as yet no action had been
fully decided upon. After much thought and search the array of derby hats
appealed to our cultivated taste. A bit of ribbon, a feather, a knot of red
or yellow cheesecloth, with a scarf effect transformed those solemn hats into
the most novel looking affairs and for once men's headgear was every bit as
gay as ours. Oh, if we could only have seen our creations, with the waving
plumes and coquettish bows, upon their owners. But alas! that was a sight
of which only our elder sisters had the privilege!
Before we returned upstairs, a young lady manufactured from a broom
stick, with her name, Geraldine Farrah, pinned upon her, was the envy of
all. She stood near the door gowned for a journey. A large hat covered
her face and a long brown coat hid the slight figure.
Geraldine appeared to be waiting for her escort Chauncy Oilcloth, who
had, evidently become weary. He was seated in a chair large enough to hold
two ordinary persons comfortably, but Chauncy filled it. He wore a long
ulster with the collar turned up about his neck and a checkered cap trimmed
with bands of red cheesecloth.
This pair seemed to have been enjoyed by the Seniors and their guests,
if we may judge by the shouts of laughter which we heard later.
After playing a few more pranks upon the Seniors we went to sleep and
dreamed of the time when we should have our party, and, it may seem strange,
the Juniors were paragons! E
One of the pleasant events of last year was an afternoon tea given by
Miss Stanley to the girls of both Normal and Crocker Hall, on Vlfednesday,
April eleventh. Miss Stanley and Miss Brush poured, assisted by the Misses
Bassett, Tillson and Gerald.
OUR FIRST SPREAD.
It was our first night at "Old Normal" and every room was the scene
of natural confusion, attendant upon unpacking. The inmates of one room
were making an especial effort to get their trunks emptied and out of the
way. These two were not newcomers and they had posted, on the usual
bulletin board, a notice which read like this:-
"Everyone is invited to Room 8 tonight at eight o'clock. Each bring a
This was a very pleasing summons to all, especially the Juniors, of whom
there was a large number. It took away any chance for a touch of homel
sickness they might feel at spending the evening separately in their, as yet,
unadorned rooms. Promptly at eight o'clock Room 8 began to fill. Two
couches, several chairs and many pillows on the floor were placed at the
disposal of the guests as seats, and in a few minutes the room seemed crowded
to those to whom most of the faces were unfamiliar. Some of the first impres-
sions gained that night might be amusing if they could be recalled.
The hostesses were Gertrude Snow, then a very awe-inspiring Senior,
clad in a fan-covered kimona, and Miss Leonard Qlater Florencej a Middle
Junior, duly anxious for the welfare of the newcomers. Surely we all re-
member those pretty red stripes which we saw her wear then for the first,
but not the last time.
The appearance, from some unseen place, of an immense white pitcher
was the signal for all glasses to be held right side up. Following the pitcher
frapidly emptied of its lemonadej came plates piled high with all sorts of
good things to eat, from sandwiches to candy and often back again.
Under such a stimulus tongues began to loosen and the first stages of
getting acquainted were well advanced before goodnights were said at the
command of the half-past nine bell, which, before long became so tiresome
to us all.
It was getting well along towards late fall and we Juniors were beginning
to congratulate ourselves on being exempt from that vaguely dreaded, but
always expected, ordeal-initiation. We must have neglected to rap om wood,
however, for we were soon undeceived, being one day informed from the
bulletin board that the Juniors were to be initiated the next night.
"All Juniors must be in their own rooms at seven o'clock sharp. Dress
warmly." Such were the instructions given in that notice and many were
the remarks they called forth. VVhy "dress warmly?" "They must be going
to take us out of doors. Sure enough, we may have to cross 'Wigglyl We'd
better wear our 'gym' suits and sneakers." ,This advice was acted upon by
many, and Seniors with Junior roommates were much amused at the precau-
tions taken by the latter against all sorts of possibilities.
Finally the eventful hour arrived and those Seniors with Junior room-
mates left their cherished charges alone. When the seven o'clock bell rang
there came a soft knock at each door and one or two Seniors Caccording
to the number of Juniors in the roomy entered. Each Junior was silently
and, swiftly blindfolded. Some Seniors were obliged to take two Juniors and
they were sorely tried. Soon began a procession down both flights of stairs,
of blindfolded Juniors, each guided by a Senior. As we camei within sight of
the lower hall we could feel Mrs. Whittemore, Miss Ruggles, Miss Dawson and
Miss Winslow laughing at us. We felt foolish and bewildered. A few more
steps and we were out on the piazza, our faces turned toward the nor'th
steps. Then, before we realized it, the blindfolds were off and we beheld,
backed up to the steps, a great hay rack full of hay. It was intimated to us
that we were expected to board this conveyance and we were not slow in
doing so. There was not room enough for us all in one, but when this was
filled another took its place. Miss Dawson in one hayrack acted as chaperon.
When both were filled we started out past Crocker and down the hill.
Now it was dark and we were not, as yet, very familiar with the locality
so we were not sure where we were going, but we were no longer fearful
of consequences. The first thing we remembered afterward was the event
of being weighed, horses and all, at the railroad crossing. This was quite
interesting at the time, but we promptly forgot our weight. VVe rode in hap-
piness for perhaps a half or three-quarters of an hour, during which time
peanuts and fancy crackers were produced from somewhere among the
At the end of this time we came to a sudden stop in front of what
appeared to be a large white barn. The driver announced: "All out." There
was nothing to do but obey and we, rather unwillingly, climbed down from
our seats on the hay. Much wonderment was expressed as to what was coming
next. Some few surmised that the Seniors were going to make us walk back
from there, doing stunts on the way. We saw, however, that the walk home
was to be at least deferred, for we were told to follow one of the drivers,
who proved to be the occupant of the house, which stood near the barn, as
well as our host for the evening. When we came behind the house, We were
introduced to some people who were waiting for us there, our leader's sister,
a friend of hers, and two or three men. Conducted by this party, we pro-
ceeded to walk away from the house, through what looked like an apple
orchard. lVe were full of curiosity, as we pushed aside the branches that
came in our way, and it increased at every step. The lanterns, carried by
the men, did not throw a very strong light and so we were surprised when
we suddenly found ourselves on the edge of a large clearing. Proceeding a.
little further, we saw a large, rounded object, which loomed up against the
sky. VVhen we were near enough we knew that we were going to have a bon-
fire. Great was our joy, for who does not love a bonfire at night? It took
but a moment for one of the men to kindle the pile in several places and in
a short time the flames began to creep up the sides and the fire was well
started. While we stood watching, some long rugs were produced and? spread
on the ground at a safe distance, for us to sit on. VVe watched the lively
mass of flames, fascinated by the weird effect they produced against the black-
ness of the night. There was comparative silence for a time and then our host
asked the chaperon for at number ,of girls to take part in a race. The girls were
selected fsupposedly good runnersl and were instructed to travel to a stone-
wall, not far away, and back again as fast as they could, without dropping
the potato which they were to carry in a spoon. The winning girl was
rewarded with a large, juicy pear. This was followed by other contests,
which kept us laughing merrily. Meanwhile, great baskets of apples and
pears were passed from one to another, adding to the general enjoyment.
At last, however, the brilliancy of the fire disappeared, and before long
there was left only a black heap of cinders. Then we were told that it was
time to leave this site and we were led back by the way we had come. Instead
of getting at once into our chariots, as we expected to do, we were ushered
into the barn, before which our, horses had stopped. A large fioor space was
covered with rugs and we were invited to be seated thereon. We were then
entertained by selections of poetry, recited with much feeling by our host.
One selection in particular, interested us greatly. The name of it was "Mabel
Martin" and it was partially dramatized with, the help of one of our number,
whose name and hair Qgoldenj answered the, requirements of the heroine.
After singing in concert, some familiar songs, we said "goodnight" to
our kind entertainers and mounted to our lofty seats once more.
The horses' noses were turned homeward and on our way back we sang
and star-gazed. VVe recognized the constellations which we knew, and admired
the moon, which had risen high in the heavens. As we approached the Hall
we quieted down, in consideration for the Crocker people, whose darkened
windows spoke of peaceful slumberers within. The two hayracks were soon
emptied and we all prepared to say "goodnight," when another surprise
presented itself. Miss Dawson invited us all into the dining room to have a
cup of hot cocoa to prevent any colds from our chilly ride. The assembled
company looked rather out of place, with their caps and sweaters and wraps
of all sorts, which they had not stopped to remove. After washing our owr.
cups and spoons, we said our final goodnights and separated.
The Juniors all decided that their initiation was a great improvement
on the usual common methods of procedure. The event will prove to be one
of the pleasantest memories of our life at Normal Hall.
HALLOWE'EN AT NORMAL.
As Hallowe'en, 1906, came in the middle of the week and we were expected
to observe study hour, our regular celebration had to come a few days later.
To our great surprise, however, Hallowe'en did not pass unnoticed. On the
door of Room 19 all the evening there hung an "Engaged" sign and everybody
wondered, for Louise and Pauline were not in the habit of hanging out an
"engaged" sign. We all kept study hour peacefully but when the recreation
bell rang the customary opening of doors was accompanied by bursts of
laughter. Pauline and Louise, attired in negro costume were starting down
the stairs with a huge bag between them.
After they had gathered all the inmates of the house, which was not very
hard to do, we all assembled in Grace's room where Louise and Pauline dis-
tributed bags containing doughnuts, peanuts, dates and candy. On the pea-
nuts, a piece of paper was tied containing the fortune of the receiver. XVhen
everybody had received a bag the merry company proceeded to Room 15, where
Polly and Edith had also prepared a pleasant surprise. Games were played
during which refreshments of candy, nuts, and fancy crackers were served,
and the Hall yells given in all their glory. At 9.30 the fun stopped and we
departed to our own rooms in the best of spirits.
EVENINGS BEFORE CHRISTMAS.
The last few Saturday evenings before Christmas, 1906, were spent by the
girls sewing, making Christmas gifts. The last Saturday evening Mrs. lVhitte-
more very kindly offered us the use of her parlor to sew in. A large roaring
fire was burning in the fireplace making everyone comfortable and a large
basket of rosy red apples was placed in the centre of the room for everyone
to partake of. Miss Dawson read to the girls some very interesting Christmas
stories, and just before retiring Mrs. Whittemore served us hot chocolate.
A CHRISTMAS, TREE AT NORMAL HALL.
It was Thursday, December Q0, 1906, the night before we went away for
the Christmas vacation. At eight o'clock a bell rang loudly through the hall
and a moment later there was a line of girls descending the stairs on either.
Soon they were all seated around the room in front of a Christmas tree.
The tree was decorated with popcorn and laden with curiously shaped bundles
large and small and red apples hanging from every branch.
Mr. VVhittemore acted as Santa Claus and gave out the packages all of
which contained a joke on the receiver.
Then came the apples labeled with a quotation. The quotations when
read, proved to be a characteristic expression of some member of the family
who was then obliged to come forward to claim her own.
After partaking of light refreshments the party dispersed.
After the New Year, 1907, began, a number of Saturday evenings were
spent by the girls in a social way. One evening we had a candy pull in the
laundry and who was there who did not have a blister the next day? The good
time was Worth the blister.
Another evening we made popcorn ballsg and everybody loves popcorn
And another evening we had a peanut hunt. VVe have always wondered
who found the greatest number of peanuts.
On Thursday afternoon, February fourteenth, in our Junior year, Normal
gave a Valentine Tea to the teachers and girls of Crocker.
Festoons of different sized red hearts, and red carnations decorated the
parlors and hall of Normal.
Tea was served by Mrs. VVhittemore in the reception parlor, by Miss
Dawson in the hall, and by Grace Blood, then a Middle Junior, in the stu-
dents' parlor. Crackers and bonbons were also passed with the tea, by several
of the girls who acted as waitresses.
After the Crocker Hall family had all arrived, a large "mail box" was
opened in the hall, and found to contain missives for each member of the
family, and amid much laughter, the contents were distributed to their various
destined owners, opened and found to be valentines with appropriate verses.
During the afternoon, Catherine Kingsley, our pianist, played and Laura
Arentzen sang a solo.
VVe spent a very pleasant afternoon with our friends from Crocker and
were sorry when gradually they put on their wraps and left us alone. V
After our last guest had departed we found there was yet some time
before dinner and all joined in singing college songs, until the bell called us
to the dining room.
One Saturday evening, Louise Kingsbury and Pauline Vernon gave a
dance in the gymnasium in honor of a visiting friend. Very pretty dance
orders had been made and all had an enjoyable time. After the dance we
were all invited to Louise's and Pauline's room, where everybody was given
a stick of candy and a lemon to enjoy. One of the girls took a picture of
the party and we were sorry to find out that it was not a good picture.
THE JUNIOR SIDE OF THE "MAN-DANCE."
The "man-dancev-so all important to the Seniors-was no less an import-
ant event to us as Juniors. The interest began when every room was made
bare and desolate of pillows, ferns, couch-covers, banners, and other accessories
which make life comfortable, that the dance hall might be adorned in a
manner befitting the great occasion. One room was especially bereft, for,
along with its quota of other things, the mirror had been spirited away that
the train girls might have opportunity to arrange their hair and fasten their
This early interest, however, was nothing in comparison with the whirl
of excitement which prevailed immediately after dinner. The different Seniors
must be robed before half-past seven, and downstairs two Juniors disguised
as maids waited for the bell to ring. What emotion did they feel when the
expected peal came at last and the door opened to admit-not one but three
-young gentlemen. In a short time the fair Seniors had all departed and
Juniors reigned supreme in Normal Hall. The parlor became the scene of a
gay carnival. A suitcase was put out of sight, coats were turned wrong-side
out, and derby hats were so placed as to escape the glances of the owners
later in the evening. The corridor on the second floor now became the stage
of action and Miss Dawson produced a gas stove upon which fudge was soon
in the process of making. This finished and partly disposed of, the hour was
already late and we were warned that lights should be out. Nearly all con-
gregated a little later, however, in a room looking toward the school and
stage whispers were in order until the first signs were seen of returning
dancers. Instantly all was confusion again. Smothered ejaculations were
heard below from owners of hidden wearing apparel, and then hurried foot-
steps were heard outside as the belated unfortunate tried to get the last car
for South Framingham and the Kendall. After the dance had been talked
over and pronounced the finest affair of its kind in the history of the school,
order began to resolve itself from chaos, and once more quiet reigned supreme.
On September 97, 1907, the Seniors initiated the Juniors, twenty-three
Seniors to seven Juniors. The odds were great, and the Juniors submitted
meekly, all but the valiant secretary of the Junior class. First the victims
were blindfolded and led by devious ways into the laundry. Here their
protesting fingers were dipped first into molasses and then into feathers. It
was a sticky mess, especially when the valiant secretary began to wave her
bedaubed hands in air, and the alarmed Seniors began to sidestep. Next
everybody went upstairs and a spread was in order. Then the Juniors
were called upon for speeches, the subjects being supplied, as "My Senior
Crush," "Baled Hay and Sour Milk," "Musical Instruments," "The Truth
About My Roommate," etc. It was very interesting to see the Juniors loom
up, one by one, on the table and try to think of something to say. It was
still more interesting to see Mabel Ritch loom up,-she had zealously initiated
and had not expected to be initiated in her turn. When it was over. the
Juniors said they enjoyed it,-we trust they did.
N the spring, the Juniors decided to give some kind of a party
for the Seniors. After some discussion, a serenade was deter-
mined upon. For each of the eight Seniors and three Middle
Juniors, an appropriate song was composed and set to some famil-
On the evening of June thirteenth, just before nine, the
Juniors, arrayed in all sorts of grotesque costumes, assembled on
the lawn in front of the house. When the bell rang, the musical
instruments,-combs and funnels, and a Washboard violin,--were
tuned, and led by Mabel VVhite the "orchestra" played 'Tait'
Harvard." Then the orchestra became a chorus and sang "F air
Fair Seniors, we Juniors regard through our tears
Your departure to south and to north,
But before the last whistle of engine we hear,
Let us tell of. our love of your worth.
We'll see you no more, no doubt you don't mind,-
But, consider, in old Normal Hall,
No longer your voices with ours will combine,
No more will you hear when we call.
No longer, in dread at the thought of your might,
Will we tremble, and haste to obey,
But in brave imitation we'l1 seek to aifright
The Juniors we'll see every day.
Then here's to '07 of old Normal Hall,
You're happy, your honors are won, A
So come out this evening at our urgent call,
'08 girls will give you some fun.
When the Seniors had assembled on the veranda, the songs
were sung. The Whole party was much amused at some of the hits.
Orange sherbet and fancy crackers were served on the ver-
anda, after which the party adjourned to the parlor. There, by
special request, the songs were repeated.
The party was in charge of a committee of which Louise
Kingsbury was chairman.
A few evenings, the girls have formed parties and have attended a, num-
ber of plays at the Gorman Theatre, South Framingham. VVe have seen
very enjoyable plays and have had very pleasant times.
On the night of November 1, 1907, a very delightful Hallowe'en Party
was given to Crocker by the Normal Hall girls in May Hall. The first part
of the evening was taken up by a scene, "Pyramus and Thisbe," from "A Mid-
summer Night's Dream." After this came a ghost walk, in which " The Battle
of Blenheim" and "John Brown's Body," were adapted to give a truly ghostly
The remainder of the evening was spent in dancing, through the kindness
of Mr. Whittemore and his son, who played the pianola.
During the evening appropriate cards were given as favors. Corn cakes
and cider were served as refreshments.
The cast in "Pyramus and Thisbe" was as follows:-
Prologue .... ..... A lice Bemis
Pyramus ..... ...... M abel Ritch
Thisbe .... ..... E velyn Cousens
The Wall .... ..... li Iarion Jones
Lion ........ ...... A nnie Lee
Moonshine .......................... Grace Caverly
HARVARD AND YALE NORMAL DINNER PARTIES.
The enthusiasm which attended the Yale-Harvard football game at the
Stadium Was reflected at the Yale-Harvard dinner parties given at Normal
Hall on the evening of November 23, 1907.
The tables were appropriately decked in crimson and blue with banners
and streamers, making a very pretty appearance. After the score was learned
the Yale dinner party cheered for the victorious team.
The parlors of the Hall were trimmed with Yale and Harvard posters,
banners and pillows.
In the evening, Normal and Crocker Halls united in a very enjoyable
dance given in May Hall.
SANTA CLAUS VISITS NORMAL HALL.
In the year 1907 Santa Claus was obliged to come to Normal Hall on
December 19th. The girls were expecting Christmas to begin early that year,
and on the evening of December 19th, they gathered in the parlor. They
found a tree decorated and laden to overflowing with presents. After they
were all seated there was a look of inquiry on every faceg for Mr. VVhittemore
was unable to be there and every one wondered who would give out the
The suspense was not long, however, for "Santa Claus" came running in
with a merry greeting to all. The room was scanned to see who was missing
and as Louise Kingsbury could not be seen anywhere, everybody agreed that
she must be assisting Santa Claus that evening.
Then came the presents and the merriment following the opening of each
package, for each one recalled some unfortunate mistake or joke on the
One, so called unsympathetic member received a large red heart which
was warranted to work wonders. This same young lady, owing to her fondness
for children, was the happy possessor of several dolls at the end of the evening.
Two ladies blushingly received solitaires which they immediately put on to
show the less fortunate young ladies.
You will all remember a certain Junior and Senior who received duplicates,
mostly household articles, as spoons and lemons.
Two veterans of oversleeping were given clocks as as gentle reminder that
breakfast was at 7.15 A. M.
There were goats and a donkey as well as a cart, all of which brought
forth peals of laughter when the point was explained.
Miss Dawson was presented with a small blue shoe in which stood several
small dolls. VVho would not feel like the "Old Woman who lived in the Shoe"
if she had thirty girls?
After the presents had been opened and examined everybody received
apples and corn cakes for refreshments.
During the evening Santa Claus' daughter, alias Margaret Loring, paid
a short call to "Santa Claus" and the assembled party.
One Saturday evening the girls who did not go home that week held a
card party in the parlor. Hearts and whist were played. A few of the girls
were hypnotized by the other girls, and a very pleasant evening was spent
A WEEK OF MYSTERIES.
The week of February 3rd, 1908, will be remembered by the Normal
girls as a "Week of Mysteries." Between the hour of 9 and 9.30 on Monday,
evening, all were summoned to Edna's and Clara's room, where they, with
Florine and Helen Welch had arranged many "stunts" for the girls. We
will not forget how Grace Blood threaded the needle, nor how Florence and
Dorothy, after much diiiiculty, lit the candle, nor how Helen White was
"bitten" trying to get the quarter which was pinned on the wall.
Tuesday evening all were invited to Room 19, where Grace Caverly and
Polly, with Ruth and Teresa had arranged "stunts" for that evening's half
hour. Avis had her fortune toldg and how strange she looked when she found
out how many years it was her fate to teach school. Then we remember
how ugracefuli' some of the girls looked, who had to pick a pin off the back
of a chair with their teeth. ,
Wednesday evening, "stunts" were performed in Catherine's and Vesta's
room. Avis and Edith helped them. Two of the girls had to "bob" for
apples. The apples looked so rosy and juicy that one girl took a large bite
and behold, the apples had been highly seasoned with pepper. Then everybody
enjoyed the whistle game, especially as the others could hit the poor victims.
The next evening Mabel VVhite, Alice, Evelyn and Eleanor were the
hostesses in Room 20. Their "stunts" were mostly with peanuts. A peanut
race was held where the "choosing ones" had to push the peanuts along the
floor with their noses. We also found out who was the quickest at eating
A VALENTINE PARTY.
On Friday evening, February 14th, 1908, from. 7.45-9.30 o'clock, a valen-
tine party was given in the nursery fcorridor on second floor, by Dorothea.
Edythe Smythe CFlorence Leonard, to the children UQ of Normal Hall.
All the children were called for by the nurse QGrace Porter, and Cupid
CGrace Caverly, with Cupid's little cart. Among those present were the
twins, Florabel QEleanorQ and Adabel fMabel Ritchj, Hans QLouisej and his
sister, Gretchen QGrace Bloodj, Johnny Jones and his sister Sue QTeresa and
Ruth, with the peach of emerald hue, and Kornelia Korn Kinks QHelen
Whitey with two sisters and others.
Games suitable for children were played the entire evening and just
before it was time to go home, refreshments were served in Dorothea Edythe's
room. The refreshments were appropriate, corn cakes, pickles with sticks
of candy in then, and little hearts with nice verses on them. Also everybody
received a very pretty valentine. Soon it was time to go and all thanked
Dorothea for the pleasant time they had had.
An A, B, C of Athletics
A stands for athletics, the main topic of all,
B is for base, basket and all kinds of ball.
C stands for contests, in everything friendly,
D the defeat, to some, the sad ending.
E is for everyone, stout, slim, fair orl pale,
F is for the fame we all seek without fail.
' G means the girls who help with their cheering,
- H is the heat, which at times seems most jeering.
I is the importance we should attach to our play,
J is the joy we should get in this way.
K stands for the kodak, oft seen on the field,
L the laughter when the shots are revealed.
M are the mistakes which all of us make,
N in N. B., tells the course the games take.
O an ejaculation sometimes heard at a game,
P the play which is the cause of the same.
are the qualms on some points in these tests,
is for the referee, who must set these at rest.
S are the seasons determining the sports,
T is the tennis, the most popular in its course.
U is the uncertainty of conquest for our side,
V is the victory, to whom it goes, Time decides.
W is the weather which may hinder our plans,
X is the exercise then lost on all hands.
Y is youth that gives us love for it all,
Z stands for zeal, the result of youth's call.
The gymnasium is a place in which we Juniors went to drown our
sorrows. Here, in the long, high room, well lighted by windows, and fitted
up with various kinds of apparatus, we worked under Miss Bennett's instruc-
tion. Our first work, when the cold weather prevented outdoor sports, con-
sisted entirely of floor exercises. They were simple, but many of us found
them diilicult enough until we learned that the order "right face" meant right
and not left and vice versa. When we failed to respond to the orders and
were questioned on account of such feelings, the reasons were "Physics', or
After some time we were introduced to more complicated exercises and
also to apparatus work. This meant work with the boom, and climbing and
swinging on the ropes, jumping, crawling through the horizontal and vertical
ladder, walking on balance beams, and other equally interesting exercises.
Some of us, on account of our weight, could only hang in mid-air from the
boom and gasp while our lighter classmates swung across and gave a "perfect
landing." We heard of the wonderful escapes that were made from buildings
by people who could slide down ropes and it was said that everyone must
perform the feat before the end of the Junior year, but it is known that one
girl never did it.
Toward the end of our Junior year, we began our troubles. To teach
gymnastics! Who had ever dreamed that there was a reason for "heels
raise" coming before "left forward-fall out" and from that day we watched
all commands carefully. Only a few had the privilege of teaching but it was
said one had a queer feeling when she forgot the order "about march" and
the class came nearer and nearer.
In our Senior year we began about where we left off in June. The teach-
ing lessons grew more diflicult when we were told that no day's orders could
be repeated. Then we began our work in fancy dancing. This was to give
us grace and poise. As if we needed it!
Part of the time in the latter half of the academic course was devoted
to emergencies which we hope we may put into practice without reference
to our note books.
May all the classes that follow us have as much pleasure and fun in
this department as we Seniors have had.
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V EW N GROUNDS-LUCRETIA CROCKER HALL
Perhaps the most popular of our sports at Framingham is tennis. The
school is equipped with two very good courts-one back of Normal Hall and
the other across the street.
If anyone should happen down in the basement on nearly any morning,
when tennis is in vogue, it is no uncommon sight to see girls "fifteen deep"
waiting in line for half-past eight to come so that they may engage a court.
Then, too, early in the morning, the Crocker and Normal girls are often seen
with tennis rackets over their shoulders wending their way through the dewy
grass for a game before breakfast. Some. think that it is the best thing
to give an appetite.
It is one of the duties of the Seniors to enlighten the Juniors who have
not played, as to the mysteries of the game. As a rule it does not take
them long to learn that the object of the game is to get the ball over the
net and' that love means nothing. After a time they cease giving sky rockets
which land either in the forest or in the corn field, perhaps never to be found
again, and standing firmly behind the tape serve balls which just skim the
net. When they reach this stage, they are indeed a joy to their instructors.
As an incentive to tennis, playing, there is a tournament each year which
many enter, both for singles and doubles, with equal enthusiasm.
The hockey field is south of the school buliding on the opposite side of
the road. This field does not belong to the school but the owner kindly allows
the school to use it. .
Field hockey was one of the favorite autumn sports of the present Senior
class in the autumn of 1906. A majority of the class entered into this
with a great deal of enthusiasm and as soon as the weather permitted practice
was carried on two or three afternoons a week.
On October 16, all the Juniors interested in hockey met and elected
Ruth Richardson as Captain, with Helen Cushman and Mary Noel as her
Four match' games were played before the season ended. The Junior
regulars played against the Seniors and were defeated. The A division of
the Junior regulars played against the C Junior regulars and then the winners.
which were the A division, played against the B division. Again the A's
were victorious and prepared for a final game with the Household Arts
Juniors. This game was played on, Tuesday, November 27th, and was a very
even game, the score being 3-3.
The regular Junior team was as follows: Margaret Connors, centre for-
ward, Mary Noel, left inside fforwardj, Helen Moynihan, left wing Qfor-
wardy, Frances Way, right inside Cforwardj, Teresa Costello, right wing
fforwardj, Ruth Richardson, centre half back, Clara Emerson, right half
back, Susie Sommoman, left half back, Sylvia Claflin, left full back, Joseph-
ine Fisher, right full back, Elizabeth Creedan, goal.
In 1907, Margaret Loring was appointed Captain, with Clara Emerson
as her assistant, but as the Senior class was so divided, one division being
in the practice school, it was impossible to have a team. The Juniors however
enjoyed this sport very much and played three or four, match games.
BASKET BALL OF 1906-1907.
When' we were Juniors and could no longer get out of doors for hockey,
tennis, tether ball, we hailed basket ball with delight. There were some star
players from high schools and some who quickly proved to be stars. There
were practice games in the gymnasium periods and in the afternoons, but the
special feature was evening practice games by the girls of Crocker and
Normal Halls. These were from nine to half-past, after study hour. What
a relief to throw down the "Walter method" or the Hcircumpolar whirl" and
to go over to the "gym" and have a good rousing game of basketball!
The captain of the Junior team was elected in Normal Hall and Teresa.
Costello held this position for the year.
There were many games in this year which the girls entered into with
great zeal. First of all, early, in the fall, was the Harvard-Yale game. This
was participated in by a few of our members but mostly by Seniors as you
must remember we were only Juniors, then. The Yale side was victorious.
This game gave us a good idea of how basket ball should be played in Fram-
ingham Normal, as we come from high schools with varied and sundry ways
of playing the game.
The next game was between the B division of our class and the second
team of the high school. The Normalites won the game by eight points.
Elated by success, another game was arranged between the B Seniors and
the first team of the high school. The result was a tie.
Fat and slim game. Anyone who witnessed this game will appreciate a
mention of it. Imagine a lineup composed of our fattest and leanest. I
can see in my mind's eye Martha Tower and Gertrude Brown standing or
jumping together. The girls were chosen more according to their build than
to their prowess in basket ball, but this made it all the more amusing. Recol-
lections of the points made are rather hazy, but who' could think of the score
when G. Brown was the hero of the hour as jumping center? G. certainly
found her vocation that day.
The game was exciting-yes to the risibilities, and the thins won, to be
sure, but the fats were not far behind. Then, you know, they had somewhat
the disadvantage on account of their rotundity.
Senior-Junior Game, 21-4. Lineup.
E. Brewster, Capt. F. T. Costello, Capt.
C. Dennis F. M. XVhite
F. Thorn G. O. Phillips
M. O'Brien G. H. Lyman
M. Whitney J. C. A. Reed
E. Glover C. Julia Fisher
This was the grand finale of the basket ball season. A short time before
the game, the Junior team was chosen by vote by the basket ball playing girls
of Normal and Crocker. It was with much fear and trembling that we
looked forward to this game. No one can say that the Juniors did not make
a good fight but nevertheless the score piled up for the Seniors and when
the first whistle blew the score read 21-4 in favor of the Seniors.
The game was very exciting and drew a large crowd. There was much
enthusiasm which was shown by the songs and cheers of both Seniors and
A short time before school closed Ethel Brewster, captain, called a
meeting of the Crocker Hall girls together to choose a captain for the follow-
ing year. Olive Phillips was elected and to her, Miss Brewster turned over
the large Crocker banner which the captain of the hall holds during the
year. This banner now graces Olive's room.
A special feature of the outdoor games was the "tag team," organized
by the three most promising athletes of the C division.
Their abilities were better shown in running than in' playing baseball.
They were often seen practicing on the track around Crocker Hall or
on the road to the hockey field.
Owing to a slight ailment of the vice president they could not take part
in the exercises on field day, to the great disappointment of many.
The otiicers were: Catherine Gould, presidentg Frances Way, vice presi-
dent, Dorothy Tuthill, secretary and treasurer.
Before the fall of 1907, Boston ball was one of the chief autumn sports
of the school. This game is much like baseball minus the bat. The ballg
however, would make three of a baseball and is quite soft especially when the
game is played after a rain.
The fall of 1907 found the faculty converted to the game of baseball
for girls. Oh what joy !-a real bat and a ball the same size, if not as
hard as a baseball. The field near the tennis court, behind Normal Hall was
used as the baseball diamond. There were revealed the mysteries of the
game. It took some time for the girls to understand just when, and when
not to run and when to "steal a base." There was enthusiasm from the
first. It was such fun to wield the bat and if one could only catch a foul
on the fiy! Miss Bennett became much interested in the game and was often
seen on the field as a player.
A great factor in the success of the game was the aid which Mr. Donald
McCormick gave us by acting as coach.
When the girls understood the game and what a "home run" meant for
the score, the B and C Regulars chose their captains and nines from the
divisions. Claire Mainini was captain for the B's and Olive Phillips for the
C's. The teams were:
Julia Fleming, catcher, Capt. Claire Mainini, pitcher, Elizabeth McLean,
first base, Julia King, second base, Cora Morse, short stop, Edith Lamont,
third base, Josephine Fisher, left field, Julia Lewis, centre field, Rose King,
Helen Moynihan, catcher, Anna Reed, pitcher, Capt. Olive Phillips, first
base, Glennah Shepard, second base, Christine Moses, short stop, Jennie
Wheeler, third base, Mary Noel, left field, Eva Smith, centre field, Sylvia
Clafiin, right field. '
There was a match game between the B and C divisions in which both
nines showed good training. The B division was victorious and later played
the Household Artists Middle Juniors on field day.
It was one of those cold October days of 1907, but nevertheless it was
Field Day at the Framingham Normal.
Preparations had been going on since early in September for this occasion.
There was practice in field hockey for weeks by the divisions of both classes.
There were tennis tournaments from sunrise to sunset by those who could
and couldn't play well. Finally, Clara Emerson, Marion Kingsbury and
Anna Reed and Louise Kingsbury were left to play together. The result
was that Anna and Marion played the finals on field day.
There was baseball practice in all the gymnasium periods. One after-
noon the C Seniors played the B. Seniors and were defeated so the Middle
Juniors were to play the B Seniors on field day. Baseball being the sport
latest introduced at Framingham, was of course the most interesting and
exciting, so everyone was impatient to see what would happen.
Field hockey was the first thing on the program. The H. A. Juniors
played well but were defeated by the Junior Regulars who played better.
This happened just in time to save the spectators from freezing, as the hockey
field is not heated.
The audience then proceeded to the baseball field, ready to see some great
runs made. The girls were as professional as possible, they were even
obliged to chew gum in order to keep their nerves in proper condition. The
comical smiles which came on the faces of the men of the faculty as they
watched the home-runs, which of course were seldom, did not appear to
frighten the girls to any great extent. Sally Kehoe had assured us for some
weeks that she would surely slide a base and we watched with eager eyes for
Sally to appear armed with a bat. And she slid the base gloriously but
in spite of her attempt to cover the H. A.'s with glory the game was won
by the B Seniors.
The Regulars were by this time getting puffed up with pride at their
girls. The last feature was the tennis tournament. It was very interesting
but very cold. The umpire was brilliantly arrayed in all sorts of garments
to keep out the cold. About sunset Anna succeeded in gaining the victory
and the girls of the Regular Department were justly gratified.
BASKET BALL OF 1907-1908.
Harvard-Yale Game, 16-3.
Great were the surmises and expectations as to the outcome of the foot-
ball game between Harvard and Yale which was scheduled for Saturday,
November 23rd. What could we do to show our appreciation of this contest?
It was decided to have a basket ball game on Tuesday afternoon, November
19th. Miss Bennett appointed two girls from the B division as captains.
They were "Joe" Fisher and Claire Mainini. Then such a scramble for the
best players of the school by both captains. The lineup proved to be:
C. Mainini, Capt. F. Joe Fisher, Capt.
H. Moynihan F. A. Reed
M. Connors G. O. Phillips
E. Lamont G. M. Brooks
C. Moses J. C. T. Costello
Julia King S. C. S. Robbins
The scene of the fray was the "Gym" and the ladder, the stall-bars and
baskets presented a fine show of blue and crimson. Banners, posters and
pillows were much in evidence-each side trying to outdo the other. Altitude
seemed to be desired, so someone conceived the brilliant idea of tying a Yale
poster to the window curtain and lo! when the curtain went up, there was a
Yale man swinging high above one of the baskets.
The game attracted a large audience and perhaps none were so vitally
interested as the small practice school boys who were invited to come. Per-
haps, who knows, they had dreams of sometime participating in a real
The teams were evenly matched and showed some pretty playing. Who
would win? that was the question. For a time it looked doubtful. The
onlookers cheered and clapped as some one distinguished herself on either
side and the "Gym" rang with "Fair Harvard" and "Yale Boola's." After
the first half there was little doubt as to the result. Perhaps it was prophetic
of the varsity game-however, the score at the end of the game was 16-3
in favor of Yale.
There was much rejoicing among the wearers of the blue and the Harvard
girls said that Yale would not always win.
On the day of' the football game between Harvard and Yale, the Crocker
girls spent most of the morning in decorating the parlors. The front parlor
was very effective in red while the back parlor presented a brave show of
Yaleis emblems. On that evening there were two dinner parties-one by
Yale's admirers and the other by Harvard's. By this time the score of the
game was known and the "Yale" girls said: "We decided that last Tuesday."
Thus ended the Harvard-Yale game.
First A-C Game. 8-6. Lineup.
A Division C Division
T. Costello F. A. Reed
S. Arentzen F. M. Noel
E. Curran G. O. Phillips
P. Casey G. F. Way
G. Conway J. C. S. Claflin
A. Drawbridge S. C. R. Sherman
The A division of the Senior Regulars challenged the C division to a
match game of basket ball, to be played inthe gymnasium on the afternoon
of January Qst. Although the game abounded in fouls, it was very close, the
C's winning by only two points-the score being 8 to 6.
Second A-C Game. E29-16. Lineup.
A Division C Division
T. Costello F. A. Reed
S. Arentzen F. H. Moynihan
C. Dennis G. O. Phillips
M. Callahan G. F. VVay
G. Conway J. C. C. Moses
P. Bodwell S. C. M. Noel
After some practice, the A division, feeling in better trim, again chal-
lenged the C's for a game on February 10th. This game was well attended
and was exceedingly close at the start. One of the features of the game was
Helen Moynihan's slanting throws. The score ran quite high and at the
end, the score was Q9 to 16, in favor of the C division.
SYNOPSIS OP MINERALOGY COURSE.
The minerals lie within the ground.
Water action makes them roundg
Heat action makes them brown:
Pressure action makes them sound,
Volcanic action makes them bound.
By Dr. Lambert they are found:
Tneir history he doth expound
To all the eager damsels 'round.
By all his words their witsare drowned,
'Till all they do is say "Confound!"
as exe an
Frances Was never much of a runner, but she was always a
ae as are
Miss Sherman: "I have an announcement to make."
ae axe we
Where on this 'cterrestrial sphere" did you ever get such a
as ek as
B Senior: "What is an isotherm?
Thoughtful pupil: "An isotherm shows how far the ice comes
down from the North Pole."
ee an as
In the Geography class: Not upturned faces at sea, but .1
"sea of upturned faces."
an as as
To the Juniors: "There's a gude time coming"-next year.
as as an
In a B Senior conference: Miss Lamson: "I
'Katydids were birds P'
an an an
When those checks come in for substituting,
ber your friends and don't speculate in stocks.
Miss Stanleyis troches for colds: I find the medicine worse
than the malady.
an an an
Special topics: Thereis nothing like being used to a thing-
" ,Tis nothing when you are used to it."
as an an
Miss Mary Bioore explaining Rosettiis '4Annunciationg"
"You see the aureole around the Virgin's head, and over here is
the dove. Do you see the dove, Miss Brown ?,' "Yes, but where's
that other bird you spoke of-the oriole Pi'
an an as
Student teacher: "VVhat is syntax P"
Pupil: '6Syntax? Syntax! Tax on sin. Some people have
syntax in their heads, some in their pockets."
BK' il- il-
A few of us have escorts coming back to school on Sunday
evenings, but only one of us comes with an escort on Monday
an as an
Susie: "A prodigy of learning."
an as we
The district school we cannot see, because-it is not yet in
an as as
Dear little Juniors, don't you cry,
You'll be Seniors, by and by.
-I -I I'
Seniors, in platform exercises:
"You'd scarce expect one of our age
To speak in public on the stage:
And if we chance to fall below
Demosthenes or Cicero,
Don't view us with a critic's eye,
But pass our imperfections by.
Large streams from little fountains How,
Tall oaks from little acorns grow."
il- il' ik-
Miss Travers :
"Her blue eyes sought the west afar,
For lovers love the western star."
Quotation from a dear, familiar figure: "You should supple-
ment your lunch with something hot."
as as or
It is usually considered saucy to stick onels tongue out, but
Glennah doesn't consider it so when reciting.
ae as an
A Waban King:
"And ne'er did Grecian chisel trace
A Nymph, a Naiad, or a Grace
Of finer form or lovelier face."
SIE SIP -BK-
"Of all sad words of tongue or pen,
The saddest are these: 'I've flunked again?
'PK' BK- ik-
High tide: 9 P. M. at CrockeriHall.
Low tide: 6.30 A. M. at Crocker Hall.
SIG -JK -JK
To the H. A. Middle Juniors:
We've wandered east, we've wandered west,
Through many a weary play:
But never, never can forget
Your baseball on Field Day.
as ae ae
A morning meditation: For my part, getting up seems not
so easy by half as lying.
an as as
Wanted: Appropriations for a hymn book for Miss Tillson.
See the point, Maud?
as an ae
Our president :
"She doeth little kindnesses
Which most leave undone, or despise."
ae as an
Tessie: Laugh and be fat.
as ue ae
The shadows: Catherine and Christine.
ae ue ae
Mr. Howe: What kind of materials dissolve?
Miss Morse: Soluble materials.
Clara: '6Alas for those that never sing, but die with all their
music in them P'
ee as as
A noise was heard in the lower hall the other day, we won-
dered if one of the H. A. girls dropped a loaf of bread.
an an as
Too bad that red runs, Julie. '
an as an
"As the shadow of a g'reat rock in a weary land," Miss Anna
an an as
Conundrum: What adverbs are most commonly used in chem-
istry? H. A. Student: How fej and why.
as as as
Miss O'Malley: A bunch of goodness done up in a very
as as at
How often do we hear Mary Fury say: "Cheer up! The
worst is yet to come! Sewing tomorrow P,
ae se ue
Tired student's cry:
When, O when, shall my labors end,
Or when shall my troubles cease,
We have to grind from nine 'til two,
With but forty-five minutes release.
ue an an
Polly, that squealing is entirely unnecessary.
se as an
It is reported in the select society of Crocker Hall, that Miss
Josephine Fisher is making a collection of fraternity pins.
an as an
Grace Conway: The bell has rang, Miss Ireson.
an as as
VVe wonder if Edna gets any letters with movable postmarks
as as as
We're sorry to learn that our scrapper in basketball is losing
We expect soon to have the pleasure of hearing an essay on
"Friendship" by Miss Jennie Washburn.
iii if SK
Miss E. Smith may recite.
Chorus: VVhich one?
as an as
The Annual Story:
They stood beneath the spreading tree,
And talked as lovers should,
And then to seal the compact, he
Cut "May" on the wood.
Now back to the town they both have strayed,
One day they chanced to meet,
And then and there the self-same maid
Cut "Jack" on the street.-QPuck.j
we ae ue
It is rumored that Miss Dermon is making rapid progress
in sewing. lVe imagine that she is laying aside these articles
for future use in '4The Westland."
as as as
Sylvia believes in having two strings to her "beau."
ee are as
"A joy forever P' For the Regulars to see the H. Afs work
as as as
Mabel filled up a big bag of vacancy in Cochituate about
the year 1887. Just mention the 9th grade to her!
ae as an
Marion K. last juggled the elusive tennis ball on Field Day.
ue as an
A crowd of Juniors: "My! what is all that noise?"
One of the bright Juniors: "Why, the Seniors have just re-
ceived their assignments for practice school."
ae an as
Who was it that had reserve power but didn't know she had
it until she gave that most delightful talk, 66011 Shipboard" in the
5th grade? Nita Davison.
as is as
The last of poor dog Tray. Hash at Crocker.
"They shout for joy, they seldom sing." Glee Club.
as an an
"Chollie, bah J ove." Catherine G.
an an as
' "It has power to render us happy or unhappy? The Faculty.
an an an
Junior pudding-all of a tremble.
an an an
"Please go 'way and let me sleep." Poor Maud!
an an as
One of The Gold Dust Twins. Helen Cushman.
as er an
"All Gaul is divided into three parts." Morse, Noel, Moses.
an as as
"Multum in parvo." Olive French.
an an as
The Lord helps those who help themselves. The pantry at
Crocker, Sunday, P. M.
ae as ae
He who enters here leaves hope behind. Dr. Lambert's oflice.
as an are
Elsie Bixby: VVas becalmed in Woodville, Mass., about the
year 1888, and the wind hasnit risen yet.
il- ill- il!-
VVe soon expect to see Martha moving toward Utah with her
three wives and seventeen children.
as as an
Hamilton suddenly awoke one Easter Sunday. She has worn
that wide awake expression ever since.
an as an
We are always sure of good cake when Elsie is in the kitchen.
an an an
Anna Reed says it takes from seven to eight Saturdays to
find the right shade of green.
as ae an
Jane: "Her sweet smile haunts us stillf,
.5 5'-' . .
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:b ' .I-1
NORMAL CLASS OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS
CLASS or 1908.
N September eleventh, 1906, we entered Framingham Normal
School. We numbered. one hundred and eight, our average
age was eighteen years and eight months, we represented
eight counties of Massachusetts, four other states, and another
As only Juniors," we tried desperately to look and act as
if we were used to the place, and to find our way through May
and Wells Halls, upstairs and down, without having to ask a
Senior for directions. 'Tis said that if one only thinks long
enough that a thing is true, that thing will come to pass. VVell,
we just tried to think we knew all the mysteries of traveling from
Dr. Lambert's laboratory to the gymnasium and other diflicult
journeys, and suddenly, we did know-we felt just as if we had
always known those things.
The receptions helped us to get acquainted with the F aculty,
the Seniors, and each other. On the afternoon of October twelfth,
the Faculty gave a reception to the school. We spent a delight-
ful afternoon, listening to the entertainment and making friends.
At half-past two, on November twenty-first, Mr. VVhittemore
called us together for our first class meeting. May Lamson was
elected president and Olive Phillips was chosen secretary and
treasurer. During our two years here, we have met many timesg
and our meetings have always been most pleasant.
The Senior Reception to the Juniors took place on Friday
afternoon, November twenty-third. It was a most enjoyable danc-
ing party, at which we came to know more of our schoolmates.
On the afternoon of February eighth, 1907, we were the
hostesses at a dancing party, the Junior Reception to the Faculty
and the Seniors. Each Junior invited a Senior, so that all took
part in the grand march which followed the reception. Mr. and
Mrs. Whittemore, Miss Ordway, Miss Anna Moore, Miss Lamson,
and Miss Phillips received.
It was our great pleasure to decorate the Assembly Hall
and other parts of May Hall for the Senior party, April eigh-
teenth. The work was done by a committee whose chairman was
As the middle of February approached, some of us began
to shake in our shoes at the notion of getting reports. A very
silly thing to do, but probably every Junior has that shaky feeling
as the time for her first report draws near. However, reports
came, and most of us survived. Those who received great blows
concealed it well, and were able to be about, with smiling faces,
the next day. One thing we learned as to the value of reports,
-an idea new to many of us-was that they are, or should be,
a great incentive to improvement next time. The June worry as
to whether or not we were promoted was not half so serious as
the February anxiety about Kpassingf'
During the year, each division of the class had two weeks for
visiting schools. The first weeks followed closely after the open-
ing of the second half-year, the A division going the third week
in February and the B's and C's the following Weeks. The last
of April, the A's went again, the Bls and C's going the first
weeks in May. During this time, each student visited the first
eight grades. Reports of the visits were written for Mr. Whitte-
During the winter of 1906-7, we had the pleasure of listening
to many delightful and helpful lectures, given by men and women
who are filling important places in the world. They came from
different parts of our own country, and also from China, India,
and other foreign lands.
We were pleasantly entertained during one afternoon by the
Glee Club, assisted by the Myra Winslow Trio. Another day, we
listened to a recital by Mr. Louis Eaton and Mrs. Jessie Downer
Eaton. In the winter months, our general singing periods on
Mondays were occupied by the study of the lives and works of
several famous composers.
There were several interesting athletic events during the year.
Field hockey was played in the fall, the A's winning from the B's
and C's, and being defeated by the H. A.'s. The H. A. Juniors
were in turn defeated by the regular Seniors.
In basket ball, the Juniors played by sections, and also
against the girls of the Framingham High School. The final
game was between the Hall Seniors and the Hall Juniors, result-
ing in defeat for the Juniors. At this game, appropriate songs
were sung by each side.
On June 2-ith, graduation day for "our Seniors" brought an
end to our Junior year. The graduating exercises were held in
May Hall, the whole school taking part in the singing.
Then we separated for the summer, to return in September
as Seniors. Our numbers were lessened by the departure of sev-
, :Aa-' ynhzhfii
eral members of the class, so that in September we numbered
about sixty Regular Seniors, and eight Seniors and thirty Middle
Juniors of the Household Arts Department.
A very large Junior class filled most of the seats in the
Assembly Hall, and nearly fifty of the Seniors were given seats
at the back and sides of the room. New hymn books, toward the
purchase of which the members of the school contributed in the
spring, found their way into our desks and are in constant use.
The first social event of the year was the Faculty Reception,
on Friday, October eleventh. Here, to the pleasing accompani-
ment of coffee and ice cream served by members of the Faculty,
we learned to know better the names and faces of the new members
of the school. Since the Hall was cleared, Mr. VVhittemore gave
in the evening a pianola party for the Hall girls. Many of the
train girls also stayed to enjoy it.
On the afternoon of November eighth, we gave a reception
and dance in honor of the Juniors. Mr. and Mrs. Whittemore,
Dr. and Mrs. Lambert, Miss Ordway, Miss French, Miss Lamson,
and Miss Phillips, formed the receiving party.
Mr. Whittemore has given us several pianola parties this
winter. We had a New Yearis party the third of January, at
which tea was served in Room 15 and in the teachers' room. On
February seventh, we had a peanut pianola party, given as a
sort of farewell to the Juniors, who began visiting schools the
following week. Salted peanuts were placed in convenient spots,
and at intermission everyone was given a bag of peanut candy.
The Junior reception to the Seniors, in the form of a Jap-
anese tea, took place late in January. The hall was decorated
with Japanese lanterns and parasols, and cherry blossoms. Dur-
ing intermission, a representation of a Japanese wedding was
given. Tea and rice wafers were served, the waitresses being in
Japanese costume. The novel features of the party were received
with great delight.
The most important social event of the year is the Senior
party, popularly known as the "Blau Dancef, to which each Senior
may invite a friend. This year the date set for the dance was
February 21st. A dance order of twelve numbers was enjoyed.
Game rooms were provided for those who did not care to dance.
The receiving party consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Yvhittemore,
Miss Ireson, Bliss Lamson and Miss Phillips.
The hundredth anniversary of the birth of John Greenleaf
Whittier coming on December 17, 1907, the C division of the
class, at the suggestion and with the help of Miss Mary Moore,
prepared a celebration of the event. The affair was in charge
of a committee headed bv Miss Christine Moses. The exercises
were held in the Hall, the upper grades of the Practice School
being invited. The program consisted of papers on Whittier and
the region where he lived, tableaux representing some of his poems,
readings from his works, stereopticon views of VVhittier-land, and
the singing of his Centennial Hymn.
As Seniors, we had the pleasure of conducting hymns from
the platform, during general singing on Mondays. Terrible as
this appeared, we all managed to live through it. Our general
singing periods during the winter were occupied with the study
of the works of several composers.
During the spring of our Junior year, Miss Anna Moore
suggested to us the plan she has put into practice-platform exer-
cises. Soon after school began, dates were assigned to the Sen-
iors, and the platform exercises began to be given during the
general exercise period on Fridays. We did our duty bravely, I
am sure. With cheerful faces hiding our fear and trembling, we
stepped to the desk and addressed the school upon a variety of
subj ects. Somehow, points of interest, especially of historic inter-
est, were preeminent topics. One Friday, all the speakers told
something about our own school. This was especially interesting,
both because it made us better acquainted with our history, and
because it suggested the thought that on special occasions, all the
exercises should center round a special point. The exercises on
February 21st were devoted tow the consideration of the life of
After Christmas, the exercises were given by the Juniors.
Let them and their successors have the credit for carrying on
the work, to us, and to us only, belongs the honor of being the
pioneers in the work of platform exercises at the Framingham
Another experiment of which we, the class of 1908, are the
first subjects, is sewing for the Senior regulars. ,Twas reported,
Junior Year, that we were to have sewing, but it was not until
fall that we really knew it was true. When we did know, some of
us were the victims of various emotions. As we progressed, and
especially when we reached the point where we worked red button-
holes in white cloth, many and loud were the wails of protest. The
general sentiment, however, seems to be that, on the whole, we
are not likely to be seriously handicapped by our lessons in the
art of sewing.
Athletics were a prominent feature of the Senior year, base-
ball being added to the sports usually indulged in.
A trial change was made in our vacations. We had the
Monday after Thanksgiving, in addition to the usual days. Then
We had a ten-days' vacation at Christmas, which indicates a longer
Since We returned after Christmas before most of the public
schools were reopened, many of our graduates, especially of the
class of 1907, took the opportunity of visiting the schools, during
the first week in January.
When the last of June brings our graduation day, there will
be about sixty of us to join the ranks of the teaching profession,
after our preparation during two happy years of good work and
If there be any that are inclined to scoff at our simple history,
let that one rather rejoice in our joy, remembering that "Happy
are the people whose annals are uninteresting."
R. R. S.
State Normal School, Framingham
Mr. Henry Whittemore ...... . . ....................... Framingham
Mr. Frederick W. Archibald ...................... Greenwood Ave., Waltham
Miss Mary Bennett ...... Framingham or Westport, Conn. Qsummer address.j
Miss Amelia Davis .............................. 25 River St., West Newton
Lucile French ......
Mr. Frederic W. Howe..
Jane E. Ireson .....
Mr. Edmund Ketchum. ..
Dr. Avery E. Lambert..
Miss Louisa A. Nicholass.
Miss Lillian A. Ordway..
Miss Annie B. Penniman
Miss Anna L. Moore ....
Miss Mary C. Moore ....
Mary H. Stevens...
. ..... 43 'Electric Ave., West Somerville
.. ................ Elm St., Framingham
. . . . .185 West Canton St., Boston
....100 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Roxbury
.... 5 Melrose St., South Framingham
. . . ....................... Framingham
.. ...Linden St., South Framingham
. . . . . . . . . . . .488 Broadway, Lawrence
.. .................. Framingham
....109 Union Ave., South Framingham
QNote:-This includes all who have been enrolled in the class of 1908
and have not been enrolled in any other class.Q
Allen, Emma Clara ......
Arantzen, Laura Virginia .... . . . . . . ..... . . .
Baker, Leah Sayles-Mrs.
Bemis, Fanny ...........
Bixby, Elsie Velma ............
Blake, Elsie Hallas ......
Blodgett, Ethel Spooner.
Blood, Grace P. ........ .
Bodwell, Alice Pauline M
Brown, Gertrude Gale ....
Bulger, Mary Josephine..
Burke, Mary Elizabeth...
Callahan, Mary Elizabeth.
Casey, Pauline Veronica. .
Clailin, Sylvia Martha. .
Clarke, Dorothy Prentiss .....
Conway, Grace Eugenia..
. . . . . . . .121 West St., Hyde Park
William P. Bearce .................... Foxborough
...83 Thompson St., Springfield
..360 Austin St., West Newton
. . . . . . . . . .Pleasant St., Medfield
n u o o u o o o a n o 1
a o u e
. .... .... Q 21 West River St., Hyde Park
. . .... Wiley's Corner, St. George, Me.
. . .22 East Pond St., Cochituate
. . . . . .109 River St., Waltham
. . . . .11 A Byard St., Allston
. .. .8 Newcomb St., Haverhill
Summit St., Hopkinton
Coolidge, Elizabeth Dowse .... . ...................... Sherborn
Corning, Claire Alva ........ .... 2 2 Maple St., Marlborough
Costello, Teresa Morna .... .... 3 36 King St., Northampton
Curran, Evelyn Christine .... ....... 5 9 High St., Milford
Cushman, Helen ..........
Davison, Nita Seville ......
. . . . .20 Newton St., Waltham
. . . . . . . . . . Hansport, Nova Scotia
Dermon, Laura May ........................... 39 Riverside St., Watertown
Drawbridge, Amy Ainslee .......................... 6 Park St., Hopkinton
Dunakin, Beatrice Elzetta-Mrs. Winifred LeRoy Larry
Emerson, Clara ........
Fisher, Josephine ........
Fleming, Julia Eleanor ....
Foss, Ethel Louise .......
French, Olive Lucy ........
Fury, Mary Sophia ...........
Gould, Catherine Elizabeth ....
Hamilton, Easter Irving...
.. ............. Q74 Tremont St., Newton
Hanson, Abbie Bothilda ....
Hastings, Delia Cecilia ....
Kendrick, Edith Congdon. .
King, Julia Elizabeth ......
King, Rose Etta ..........
Kingsbury, Alice Marian ....
Kingsley, Lotta Catherine.
Lamont, Edith Austin .....
Lamson, Elsie May ........
Leonard, Florence Louise.
Lewis, Julia Sarah ..........
Mainini, Claire Evelyn ......
McLean, Elizabeth Burnett
Morse, Cora Estelle .......
Moses, Christine Leland...
Moynihan, Helen Frances. ..
Niven, Eilie Gladys .......
Noel, Mary Celeste ......
O'Malley, Mary Agnes .....
Parker, Edna Frances .....
Phillips, Annie Viola .....
Phillips, Alice Olive .......
Reed, Anna Frances ......
Richardson, Ruth Augusta.
Saunders, Eflie Chandler. .
124' Huntington Ave., Boston
....Lexington St., R. F. D., VValtham
. . ..... 25 Barclay St., Worcester
. . . . . . . .Water St., Saxonville
....93 Summer St., Clinton
.Boston Rd., R. F. D., Marlborough
Beacon St., Clinton
. . . .468 No. Main St., Fairhaven
. . . . . . .1317 Beacon St., lVaban
. . . .15 Sawin St., Natick
. . . . ...Greenville, N. H.
. . . .39 Staniford St., Auburndale
. . . . .111 Temple St., XVest Newton
.. ...l73 California St., Newton
.. . . ... . . . . . . . . . .Hastings St., Wellesley
.. .... 18 South Central Ave., XVollaston
Morton, Mabel Margaret ....
.....44r West Plain St., Cochituate
.....14 Prospect St., VVestborough
....4-19 Main St., Concord Junction
German Hill St., Cochituate
16 Waverley Ct., South Framingham
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Robins St., lValtham
. . . . . . . . . . .South Milford
Court St., Dedham
. . . . . . . . . . . . .Trapelo Rd., VValtham
10 Raymond St., South Framingham
Sennott, Florentia Harding ..... ...... J efferson St.. Milf0l'd
Shannon, Agnes ............... ..... 6 Sherman St.. Natick
Shaw, Lillian Harlow ....... ..... 3 38 Pine St.. Fall River
Shepard, Glennah Margaret .... ' --------.--- 501131 Lincoln
Sherman, Ruth Russell ....
Smith, Edith Florence .....
Smith, Eva Marion ........
Steeleg Mrs. Eva Pratt .....
Tillson, Maud Rose ........
Tower, Martha ..........
Travers, Grace Esther ....
Tuthill, Dorothy Carolyn. .
Walker, Hazel ............
WaH, Mary Bernedetta. . .
Warner, Lelia Esther-Mrs.
Way, Frances Damon .....
Washburn, Jennie Allen. . .
. . .... 382 Grove St., Fall River
Wheeler, Jennie Alberta ....
. . . . . .... 28 Borden St., New Bedford
. ............. South Fairlee, Vt.
. . . ........... 141 Elm St., Marlborough
. . . ..... 5 Alexander St., South Framingham
. ............ 354- Linden St., Fall River
. . ..69 Houghton St., Hudson
163 Brown St., Waltham
. . . . . . . . . .437 North Main Street, Natick
W. S. Rodiman. . .18 Hubbard Ave., Northampton
16 Hilton St., Hyde Park
PAULINE If CASEY
The Committee on Advertisements 'wish to express
their thanks to Mr. Travis and Mr. Cunningham
of South Framingham, fwho so kindly assisted them
in obtaining their ads.
I I1 1 in 1 1
fllflehinines, Ulinilet Zlrtinles,
Zire Qiream, str.
TRAVIS fa CUNNINGI-IAM
SOUTH FRAMINGHAM. MASS.
They dff7'8C1.dt8 our tracfe.
COMPLIMEN T 5
Girnllep gil' line
Boston E99 W orcester Street
jllllinarhk liniment jlltlfg. Qin
lamsun 8: Ziauhharh
H zz fiery and F umfierf
Men and Women
90 to 94 Bedford St. CCor. Kingstonj
173 Washington St.
A Pure Cocoa of Undoubted
Quality and Excellence of
A distmguished London physrcran in giv
ing some hrnts concerning the
proper preparation of cocoa.
Start with a pure cocoa
'if' of undoubted quahty and
excellence of manufacture
, A of a. respectable firm Thls
Q pomt is important for
'A ' t there are many cocoas on
p . Vrrf 1 the market wh1ch have
. ' A A been doctored by the ad
R 1 drtxon of alkali starch
U ggpgt. Od malt kola hops etc
HIGHEST AWARDS In
Europe and Amerlca
Walter Baker 8a Co ltd
E t bl h d 1780
WHEN PU HHH
.. wa-1 1-JL--1
my ' l f
0 v H I
p 'l ff . f
and which bears the name
, a j, 5: . ' t
I s e ed . ' , , , ' .19 '
N L 'ZX VITK 'ZFX f 43
Sa is 6 llllll
Cgmplzmgnfj 0 Je
r mhz- Cut FlofwersandFa11eral
Fancy Carnations a
South Framingham Framingham, Mass
Cold. sparkling, fruity, delicious
drinks, drawn by neat and adept
dispensers, from a modern fountain,
under the most sanitary conditions.
Our list of fountain drinks com-
prises all the old stand-lays and the
best of the new conceits. Your
favorite at our fountain.
We carry a full line of Pure Drugs.
Special and careful attention to our
RCJBBINS Ed RICE
South Framingham, Mass.
F. B. HCJRNE.
Normal Sciroof Pafer,
35c. a Lax.
E. J. BROWN
Jlileats, Jfish ann
Market in Central Square
F. R. Glover Ed So
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