Emerson College - Emersonian Yearbook (Boston, MA)

 - Class of 1905

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Emerson College - Emersonian Yearbook (Boston, MA) online yearbook collection, 1905 Edition, Cover

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Text from Pages 1 - 252 of the 1905 volume:

5 , fa -ff? ',,' n :f i ii - , i X ar , .V ge is fin V , il 27 f iii gx if ',, Ii. 7 -.5 A Ei 'xl 4: vi E! V I tr. E , 0 . 'ia is V . .y .1 -' 1 3 1 iv E 4 , 4? fr . 1 I '- -A 9 df '+ 1 '25 Q .ik A-5 if 5 VE 2 1 GH,- Fff if " fil- H' T: ' 13 5 Q 3' 44, il 'Tj E MEL 5 , . A, .. Jung Q ii , ,,, , .,., ,,.,.. ,U W-- --.--f nf- f-1--1-I y --A-W . -"" "-:" " ' Y 'Y " "" ' W- , - 4 F --'W " , ' . ..,' ,I - M , . , H,- -. U-5 - .' W .L -,-- 4 1' , . ,sy A A, ::. x I , lk V. t ' ' , ,P . - - ' z Z E96 6, P 4 K I f 0-cfL:JL?07 5 E , E - ' P i ! x i 5 i : 5 L 4 1 13 Q 5 - 5 , , 5 5 5 - 1 f fi 5 ' . i lg 5. qi 'P . 3E ix if 2 2 Q . 2? 3 ? r i , . Y me f yr' ' I F 1 ? 1 i Q v 7 i a I I 5 f Q I I 1 .-,,.,f,, 5' 1 1 X m 2 K !'!' F , A 'f I nv.. . w -e -w -A -'V' Q... -"flax e-'-vi -mg., fy 1 PHYSICAL CULT RE BY CHARLES WESLEY EMERSON FOUNDER OF Y'HE EMERSON COLLEGE OF ORA TOR? BOSTON, ZVIA ss. GgSSARQ Q: - K .O F4 i.QQN.w TENTH ' 3 EDITION Efffifg x, 'I S9 Q pRo"'eQ109' 'ma wb g72fQg. . A :T-1-gg' 23'-A 2 ' 2 4' m -- -1- ll- O F' 19 fsS1:2:5:1.. 5 C ELL 1z2a2a2s2s2z2f1,.. .. 1 - QEMERSON COLLEGE PUBLHHHNG DEPARTMENT CHICKERING HALL, HUNTINGTON AVE. BOSTON 1905 COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY CHARLES XVESLE1' EMERSON INDEX A. .Esthetic value of our exercises, 43, 44, 47, 48, 50, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 71, 75-79, 80, 82, 83, 93 to 104 Alcohol ......... 146 Altitude of the vital organs A . . ' . 8-10' Arm movements in curves . . . 84-88- Arms and legs in relation to torso . 63, 64 Arteries, relation of exercise to . . . 25 Articulations, exercise for ...... 19, 20 Attitudes in harmony With the law of gravitation . 21, 41-45 Attitudes of the mind, healthy . . 4 . . 149-154 Attributes of the soul .... . 33, 34, 36 B. Balance between the energy that supplies and the energy that Wastes .... ' . . . 13-15 Bathing . . 122, 123' Beauty and health . . 24-301 Beauty in unity . . . . 27-30- Beauty, what is included in . . 29, 30' Bellows, Dr .... 139' Bending exercises .... . 71-731 Beverages ........ 145-148 Body is the Temple of the Holy Ghost, the ,... 1 Body, relationship of mind to . . - 32-39, 149-154 Brain forcing in schools . . - . . . 18'- t v Bread . Blueathing . 13, 49-53, 65-71 Carpenter, Wm. B., M. D., F. R. S., F. G. S. Carter, Dr. Centres, exercises for strengthening the . Chemical elements in food . . . Chest exercises . . Chocolate and cocoa . . Circulation, how to equalize the .. Clark, J. WV. . Climate Climax to repose in exercise, from Clothing Coffee . Coffee, preparation of . Cold drinks Confectionery . . . . . . Conservation of force developed by exercise Consumption . . . . . . . . 140 151-153 152, 1:33 14, Sl, 82 133-142 49-54,5c . 146 75 . 146 115-117 '31 129-135 . 140 . 140 146,147 144,145 . S9-.935 cc,o0,7o Correlation of forces and conservation of energy . . 92, S153 Corsets . . 54, 55 Criticism of methods of education S Curves, movements in . . . . S1-93 Gutter, Dr. 70 Delsarte , QS ' Diet .... , . 135-144 Directions for exercises, three general ..,, 31 Direction for practising exercises in fourth division, further ........ 103 104 7 Divisions of exercises,- First division . . . 40-45 Second division . . 46-62 Third division . 63-83 Fourth division . 84-104 Drink . . . 145-148 Drink, quantity of . 147, 148 Drink, temperature of . 147 , 148 E. Ease vs. friction . . . . 29, 30 Elongating exercises .... . 76-78 Energy that supplies and energy that Wastes . 13-15 Equilibrium and muscular sense . . '44, 100, 101 Exercise and voice .... . . 55, 56 Exercise, beautiful vs. ugly movements . 25-27, 30 Exercise for articulations joining parts . 19, 20 Exercise, three directions for . 31 Exercise, its effect upon the arteries . . 25 Exercise, permanence in ....,. 18, 19 Exercise, when and how much .... 123,124 Exercises authorized and required by the laws of the human economy .n . . . . 8 Exercises, directions and descriptions . . 40-104, 123, 124 Exercises for development of harmony in muscular movements ....... 84, 104 Exercises, proper order for taking . 31 F. Fitch, Dr. S. S. . . 10 Food ....o 135-144 Food, flavor of . . . 143, 144 Food, most nutritious kinds of . 138-142 Food, quantity of .... 142, 143 vii Laws to be obeyed in bodily education, physiological and psychological .... . . 1-39 Lifting the vital organs . . . 8-10 Longevity . . . 108-115 Lungs . . . 66, 68-71 M. Maximum result With minimum eiort . . 21 Medicine, use of ..... . 145 Mind, healthy attitudes of the . . . 149-154 Mind, its relationship to bodily education . . 32-39 Movements, harmony in . . . . 20, 21 Movements in curves ....... 84-S8 Muscles involved in our exercises, 45, 49, 51, 56, 59, 61, 62, 67, Muscles, relationship between groups of Muscles that surround the vital organs . Muscular sense and equilibrium . . Music as an accompaniment to exercise Mussey, Dr. ..... . N. Neck, exercise for the .... Nervous sympathy throughout the system Nervous system, relation of exercise to the Nervous tension ..... , o. Opposing muscles . . . Opposition, the laW of . Organs, lifting of the . 0 rx 68,75,81,104 22-24,84-104 . .11,12 44,100,101 . 32,104 111,137,138 . 60 . 100 . 24 . 101,102 .93,09 . 9,10 P. Pastry ..... Permanence in exercise 4' Philosophy of Eating " . Physical culture in Greece . . . Physical energy and psychological force Physical exercise, music and . . 138, 139 .13,19 . 139 . 2 .92,93 . 32 Physiological and psychological laws to be obeyed in bodily education .... Physiology of the relationship of parts Pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves Poise . . . . . . . Poise, exercise for securing . Preface .... Presence . . . Psycho-physical culture . R. Reaching exercises . . . ' . Relationship between groups of muscles Relationship of parts to each other . Repetitionlin education, value of . . Resistance, stimulation of muscles through Respiration and the vocal cords . . Respiration, physiology of correct . Rest to climax in exercise, from . Results of our exercises . Rhythm, the law of . Rotary arm movement . Rotary Waist movement . S. Self command and beauty . Sides, exercise for . Sleep, best time for . , Sleep, number of hours required ,X . 1-39 96,103 . 15-17 .21,29 . 41-45 . 1 . 43 . 32-39 . 70-73 . 22-24,84-104 923-104 . O-I 101,102 . 39-71 . 33-71 . 31 4 . S9 .35,33 .56,57 . 30 . 49 127-129 125-127 Soul, educating the body with reference to the . . 32-39 Spinal cord and spinal nerves ..... 15-17 Stimulation of opposing muscles through resistance 101, 102 Stoop, exercise for overcoming . . . . 40-45 Stretching exercises ..... . 76-78 Strong centres and free surfaces .... 14, 81, 82 Suggestions for securing health and longevity 105-154 Surfaces, exercises for freeing the . . 14, 81, 82 Symmetry ...... . 79, 80 Sympathetic and pneumogastric nerves . 15-17 T. Test of health . . . 1 Tissue, undue Waste of . . . . 24 Tobacco . ' ...' . . 149 Torso, arms and legs in relation to . 63, 64 U. Ugly movements .... 25-27, 30 Unity, its relation to beauty . . 27 -30 Unique system of exercises . . 7, 8 Upward movements in curves . . 84-87 ' V. Variety of repetition . . . . 5, 6 Vegetarianism ..... 135-138 Ventilation .' ..... 117-120 Vital organs, muscles that surround the . 11, 12 Vital organs, proper altitude of . . . 8, 9 Vital supply for the entire organism . . 8 Vocal cords, their function in breathing . 69-71 Voice, relation of physical exercises to . . 55, 56 W. Waist, exercise for . . . . 56, 57 Winship, Dr. . . . . 14 - xi x 1 ? i I Z 3 1 o N l E 1 I 1 ! 2 11 ll . i W E I W 5 fl Y l .5 IE! I1 ' 2 1 :Q J li ' .lik , 13 ii M ffl wi ill , I 1 J w 1 K 5: 3 5 5 5 1 v l 5 In 'm w i l S ,yr F 1 2 ii E PREFACE. THE origin of this bool: is as follows. During the past fevv years the author has given public lectures upon a system. of physical culture arranged by himself and consisting of exercises, many of which he origin- ated, While others were adapted from suggestions received from other systems. By means of this system, together with voice culture, the writer restored himself to health at a time when he ha.d become a confirmed dyspeptic and was a victim of consumption in an incipient stage, and by means of this system he has since developed a most abundant vitality and great muscular power. The system became a part of the curriculum of the Monroe, novv the Emerson College of Oratory, where it has been, the means of restoring the sick to health, and of harmonious bodily education for the strong. The public lectures upon this system of physical culture and the original principles underlying it, have been received with a degree of favor that has en- xiii couraged the author to yield to the requests of students and alumni that the thoughts suggested in the lectures he placed in a more permanent form. The Writer has striven to present the system in a teachable form, to avoid technical phraseology so far as may he, and, at the same time, to present a Work which shall he suggestive rather than exhaustive. The exercises herein described and illustrated, con- stituting the original system of physical culture of the Emerson College of Oratory, are now being taught by graduates of this institution in universities, colleges, state normal and high schools in all Darts of the J. United States and in Canada. C.W'.E. PHYSICAL CULTURE. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL LAWS TO BE OBEYED IN BODILY EDUCATION. H Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost . . therefore glorify God in your body." -I. COR. vi., 19-20. NE of the encouraging signs of these times is that people are coming to recognize that there is no virtue in being sick. The time has been when life was considered unholy, but Vitality is as precious in the sight of God as is intelligence. Soundness of brain depends upon soundness of body. There is no such thing as a sound mind in an unsound body. The unsoundness of mind may not be Very apparent, but it is actual. xgThe test of the health of the body is happy sensation continuous. tgy, y lVe are responsible to God for our bodies. The appearance of men and Women as We see them on the street, in the counting-room, and in the parlor, as Well as the testimony brought in from every source in regard to public schools, and the time allowed for physical exercises therein, are sufficient to show us that, as a nation, we have little conception of what physical education requires. It is astonishing, in view of the past, and in view of the future, that inen do not see that, in a republican government, we must depend upon the strength and the power of the inen and the women who carry it forward,-- that nothing is attained without the rounding of the whole nian. I scarcely need refer to the Greeks, and yet, so far as education is concerned, they have been the despair of all suc- ceeding ages. YV e have had in no other age schools to be compared in results with the Greek schools. Nowhere else has there been such personal education. Wliat did they lay as the basis '? Physical culture. ln that is the secret of their success. Greece has given us representative inen in every department. VVe point to Greece for the greatest orator, for the greatest creative poet, for the greatest sculptor, for the first nian in what we consider the highest mental philosophy. Plato intellectually stands at the head of all the philosophers of the world. We inust reineinber, then, that that which made the Greeks what they were about four or five hundred years before Christ, was the natural evolution from physical culture. For nearly two thousand years the subject of 0 A o , . physical education lay dormant. The modern gymna- sium has revived it. The enthusiasm for bodily training thus created, will be of inestimable value, for, as a public, we are lethargic upon this all-impor- tant subject. In setting forth and describing in some detail, exer- cises, many of Which are original with me, and all of Which are practised according to principles that have not heretofore entered prominently into the theory and practice of other instructors in physical education, I Write in no spirit of criticism of systems or methods. I recognize no antagonism. A great bank- of darkness envelops the world. Every true teacher is a torch- bearer, advancing into that darkness. We cannot add to the general illumination of the World by extinguish- ing the torches of others. No great artist ever spent his time in criticism of other artists. Michael Angelo Was once asked to criti- cise some of Raffaelas frescoing. I-Ie said nothing, but he took a crayon and drew a figure --the best he could, and then replied: HI criticise by example." Michael Angelo emphasized a gospel principle. Criticise your neighbor by example, by living better, if you can. As much of truth as is in your Work will be immortal 5 the rest you do not Wish should live. Mendelssohn once Said: 44 I do not Want to hear so much criticism of music. i I Want the critic to compose some music." But I may say a Word in a fraternal spirit to the effect that I believe there is something good in nearly every system of physical culture. I never felt like discouraging any. All teachers and students of physical culture, if they but understood these spiritual fraternities, would consider themselves brothers and sisters, and not be ready to say, L4 My system is all right, and yours is all Wrongf' V Let us say in the new light, H Come, let us reason together." Let us openly contribute all we may, for when We are advocating any system of culture, be it mental or physical, it is the Welfare of the race that is involved. In presenting exercises which, in the principles involved, and in the arrangement and in the methods of practice constitute a unique system of bodily educa- tion, I' shall speak, first, of results. ffrllhe true test of the merit of a method is its results? Now, ten years of experience, ten years of watching effects has shown that the results of practising this method of physical culture are simply Wonderful, more marvel- lous than I should like even to state. I can only allude in passing to the great cures that have been Wrought in those Who have followed it faithfully, -- to the many who have been restored from dyspepsia, from - 4 lung troubles, from nervous prostration, from general debility. Emerson College system of physical culture comprises about three hundred movementsii Some of these movements are repetitions. These are not a great number of movements, when We consider that some systems advertise several thousands. One of the merits of having as fevv movements as possible is, that one may be allowed to repeat, gr it is in repetition that good comes in any method of edueottionfi, The one great fault of modern systems of education is, that they do not provide sufficiently for repetition. I say 4'II1OCle1'1177 - I might say American, but it would not be true of America o11ly. It is a fault which is as common in European methods of education as it is in American methods. There are leading scholars in Germany, Who, as individuals, follow out the old classic idea of repetition as a method of culture, to a greater extent, perhaps, than do eminent American scholars. But the prevailing tendency is to dissipation 5 for desultory study leads to dissipation of thought and thought power. HBy dividing his time among too many objects, a man of genius often becomes diamond dust instead of a diamond. Many a person misses of being a great man by splitting into tvvo middling ones." We must never lose sight of the educational value of con, i 5 centration and repetition. One of the things that are held up as commendations of some systems of physical culture, I look upon as a serious objection to them, namely, the very great variety which they advertise. In such systems there can be but little chance for repetition. It is said H the child wants something new, it does not want to go over the same thing. lt loses heart, it loses interest, and we must have a system which will command the interest of the child, because We are looking not merely to the restoration of adults, but to the improvement of children, and so we must have novelty in all forms of education." Let this be the novelty'-'seeing something new in the old. YVhen the feeling is fresh the story is new! Xvhy do we all rise up and declare for the Greeks? lVhy do we give them the laurel, as the best educated people that ever graced the earth? YVe do not pretend-no one Will pretend- to attain to the level of the Greeks, circumstances will not admit of it. Men try to ind reasons for Greek superiority in nationality, and in the times in which they lived. The reason is, simply, that educators have not so arranged our different studies as to make suitable provision for repetition. is repeti- tion that develops power in the boclyf' Hence, 1ny object has been, While formulating a method of physical culture, to have just as few exercises as possible and 6 reach the results, so that we may have a chance to repeat those exercises. Each exercise is so arranged as to attain the sum of the results of several exercises. According to observations, it will take a close student about four years of daily study and practice to attain perfection in execution of the movements required by the system. One need not divide it up and say, H I will stay so long on one part, and I will stay so long on another 3" but if he practises faithfully, in a reasonable length of time valuable results will appear in his person 3 for increasing health and beauty will continue to reward his perseverance. His endurance of hard- ship and fatigue will be correspondingly augmented. This system of physical culture provides always for an ideal, therefore, there is no such thing as reaching the end, because the exercises are in their nature with- out limitation. Something better can be done each day as long as they are practisedg that is, they are ever leading out and leading onward rather than coming to any point of limitation. There is always the possibility of education toward something beyond what we have attained. This system of exercises is entirely unique- entirely unlike as a system and in its methods, any other in the world. Be it a right one or a wrong one, it stands upon its own merits, and not upon the merits 7 should be taken until the organs are given their proper position. Any exercise taken when the vital organs are not in a proper position is harmful to those organs. The normal positions of the vital organs are secured by the proper contractions of the muscles that sustain these organs. The greater the altitude of the vital organs, other things being equal, the greater is their vigor. The heart beats with a more perfect rhythm when lifted high in the. chest than when it is low. Wlien the vital organs are high, the lungs consume more air, the stomach properly secretes gastric juice, the liver secretes bile from the blood, the alimentary canal is healthy in the production of what are called the peristaltic waves. The moment these vital organs are lowered from their normal altitude, thatmoment their tone of power is lowered. There is no physical defect so general as this, - that the vital organs are from one to four inches too low among adults, and among chil- dren down to the age of five or six years. Before this time the vital organs are high. As to the consequences, all physiologists will agree that no vital organ below its normal altitude can per- form its functions properly. It is a requirement and a provision of our method of physical culture that these vital organs should be kept in position. This Zvfting of the organs does not necessarily consist in throwing the 9 . chest out. The lungs are not on the outside, they are in the trunk of the body, and, as they are lifted, the shoulders are thrown apart and the back is broadened as much as the chest is expanded. Too much is said about H holding the shoulders back," as if they were ,given us to put behind us. The shoulders belong on the sides, and in raising the lungs it is not necessary to throw the shoulders back. To bend the back and bulge the front of the body is to sacrifice the bacfli to a protuberance in front. It is an injury to the lungs, and especially an injury to the stomach. I have known more cases than I have recorded, of pei-sons cured of dyspepsia by muscular cxcrcisc. Ilui' thc iirst step in effecting such a cure was to lil't1 the vital organs sufficiently high in the body, for I liavc IIIQYOI' known a case of chronic dyspepsia where the stoinacli was as high as it ought to be while, at thc same time. thc person ha.d proper nourishment. A clcrgymzin c-:unc in mc the other day saying that he had dyspcpsia, -- wliich some believe to be a H semi-clerical discasof' The stomach proved to be two and one-half imflxus below its normal altitude. I told him that if he could bring the stomach up to its proper position, and his parish did not starve him with a small salary, he might become healthy and rotund. Dr. S, S. Fitch invented machines for sustaining the 10 vital organs, but their effect was disappointing. But the Creator of the body has given man a machine, with- out money and Without price. Man must be taught to use it. These facts, gathering in my mind, have resulted in this conclusion: that there is no such thing as a chronic disease of any vital organ, so long as that organ maintains its normal altitude. If there is such a case, I have yet to find it, and I have examined many hundreds of persons in regard to that one point. The next method by which the vital organs are developed is, by exercising the Qnuseles that surround the vital organs. The organs themselves do not possess voluntary muscles, nor are they connected directly with voluntary muscles, but they are surrounded and held in place by voluntary muscles. These muscles exercise over those organs a certain quickening power. lt may be asked how this can be, When these muscles are not connected directly With the vital organs. The muscles have a certain mechanical effect, they bring 'a definite mechanical pressure to bear upon the organs. The muscles that surround the body are not to rest, but Were destined to activity, from birth to death., It is a curious fact of observation, that the muscles around and over the vital organs, though not attached directly to any, -and the separation is clear-cut,- 11 seem to 'be so related to the vital organs that one can judge of the condition of a vital organ by the muscles over it. For example, one can judge of the condition of the stomach by the condition of the muscles over it. A physiologist would not neerl to ask a man how his food agreed with him if he could examine the muscles over the stomach. A person with chronic dyspepsia cannot bear a touch upon the muscles over the stomach. lf he happens to meet a hlunflering June bug he collapses. lVhy is this so '? My opinion is that the nerve centres which rule the vital organs are affected, through reflex action, by those nerve centres which govern the muscles sur- rounding the vital organs. Sonic muscles are con- trolled by the same nerves that control the organ under them. Those muscles that holfl the organs in place, create such activity in the pin-uinogastric nerve that it carries life and animation to the stomach and liver. I know not how else to account for this observable fact. I saw it lirst recorded by Dr. Jackson, thirty years ago, as a record of his long experience with dyspeptie patients and those who had what they called H liver complaint." p Moreover, the muscles that hold the stomach in place, constitute a portion of the muscles of respiiationg therefore, if a person breathes only in the upper part of 12 the chest, he does not exercise what i-s below the lungs. Deep, full breathing, exercises the muscles around the waist and exercises the abdomen. The contents of the abdomen are thus moved, and their energy is quickened. I am aware, in saying this, that certain works on physi- ology, declare that men and women ought to breathe differentlyg that, while men should take a full and deep respiration, women should not, that woman is not constituted so that she should, especially after the years of puberty. Yet, if we look at the muscles of respiration, we find that they are precisely alike in men and women, and the stomach and the liver need the same motions in both sexes in order to promote the activity of these organs. Now, the third method by which these vital organs are developed is by preserving a due balance between the energy that supplies and the energg that wastes. There are certain muscles of the body that quicken the supply of blood, -that develop the power of life. It is blood that we want, -it is blood for which every part of the organism is crying out. Nourishment, nourishment, nourishment! Where is the nourishment? In the blood. What manufactures the blood? The vital organs. Look well to them. From them radiates all power. The vital organs are the manufacturers of life. Now, a certain number of muscles are used perpetually 13 in quickening tl1e activity of the vitztl O1'g2LI1S. 'llhcre are other sets of muscles that are used cc111ti11uz1lly in wasting the supply that comes lf1'c'1111 these vital organs. Now, this latter class of muscles 111:1y he developed until they will 0Xll2l1llStf the l1l1111d Ztlltl lcill the 1lQ1'SOllQ as in tl1e case of the XV41INll'l'illll, Dr. lVi11sl1i11, who developed such llll,lSljl1l21.l' 1111wc1' that he efmld lift two thousand seven llll1'llll'l1'tl 11o1111ds, llllli dit-fl of pros- tration. He lost the llilllllllftb l1Ul'VL't'4'll llll' two func- tions. A 11111.11 is truly Sll'C1llg', i11 111'11po1'ii1111 11s hc is SJCIOIIQ' in the vital ls't'lllI't'S. llc-rc is the fz1c't111'y 111a11ufuctu1'i11S' lllOOtl, 1111d that 11111-tr11'5' is li1'l't 1111 to its 1lO1'l112l1l tOl1G by exe1'c:isi11g the llll,lSt'lt'S :11'o1111d its oiguns. l1111s11111cg:h as tl1e1'1f is llllfiillltfl' set of muscles coiistantly using 1111 Zlllll l'Xll1lllSlllilg' the blood, we must 111'esc1've due l1z1l:111111' l11fl11'ee11 the two sets. lVe 'l71'1l-Sf sI'1w'11,g1f71v1z ffm f'f'Hfl'1'N 11'!11'If' 11-1' .f"1'1wf the swfaces. If the tltillllilvlltsl of the 11111s1-les that waste, exceeds tl1e vital supply, no 11111tte1' how stroiig the muscles are, the health is going down. Stfl'Qllg'ill of muscle is 11ot l'1Q211ll3l1. XVe must. then. lime 21 syste111 of physical culture that 211l11lS directly at the vital 0l'Q'21-llSZ first, and second,z1nd all the way tl1l'UllQl1. It is the testimony of physiciauis thz1,t over ninety per cent of diseases are caused by ClG1'Zl111gC1l1Gl1l? of the StOlllltC1l1 and liver. Hence the i111po1't11,11cc of St1'G1lg'iLl19llll1g 14 those organs. Our exercises spur the inactive liver to perform its functions, and they stimulate the process of digestion in the stomach, causing the gastric juice to flow more freely. They preserve the balance between the muscles that supply and the muscles that Waste. By properly combining the exercises of the muscles of the neck, arms, and legs with those of the torso, We preserve due balance between the energy that supplies and the energy that Wastes. In all the exercises that We give for the arms and legs, the muscles that surround the vital organs are more powerfully ex- ercised than are the arms, neck, and legs themselves. The exercises are, in fact, so arranged as to affect immediately the vital organs. - In the second place, We maintain in our exercises the equilibrium between the forces of the jonemnogastrie and thelsyvnpathetio nerves, on the one Yzanol, and the forces of the spinal eorol and spinal nerves on the ofher. I have spoken of the muscles. Let us now consider What are the nerves that develop life - that maintain and quicken the vital organs in enabling them to fulfil their functions. They are the pneumogastric and sym- pathetic nerves. By their force and activity, the Whole manufactory of vital force is maintained. The nerves propel and regulate the activity of all the vital organs. The reason too much labor breaks ' 15 5. W 1 and sympathetic nerves, on the one hand, and the activities of the spinal cord and nerves on the other. Now, what is the office of the spinal cord and nerves? From the spinal cord comes power to move the hands and feet--motor force. Every time I move my arm, the tissues are calling for blood in the ratio of the waste, but this process is not manufacturing blood. I move my legs, I spread them far apart, I bring them together 5 I run and leap, I hang upon a pole, I balance myself across the pole 5 I pull at the rings, I lift chest weights 5- all these processes are carried on by the strength of the spinal cord and the spinal nerves, and exhaust the iiuids of life. No harm is done by this if, on the other hand, we develop equal energy in the pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves. But 'there is great danger in going through all these severe exercises unless we have some counter exercises to supply an equivalent to the waste. Now, what we want in physical exercises, and what the Emerson College system provides for, is the preservation of proper balance between these two forces, so that, while one is exercising the spinal cord and nerves, he is, by the same exercises, calling upon the pneumogastric and the sympathetic nerves to supply the nutriment exhausted by the use of the opposing nerves. 'A Again, we must preserve this true balance between the 17 exercise and stimulation of the Zfype-sustaining forces and that of the brain. ln schools we work the brains of children to their utmost capacity, that they may learn and recite certain lessons. But the value of acquire- ment is in its use. It is not altogether the knowledge a man possesses that gives him power, although knowledge is said to be power. The question is, what can the man do with his knowledge? Has he added to his brain power by study? Yes, provided that he makes blood enough for that brain, otherwise he has not added to the sum total of his power. He may know how to solve a problem in geometry, but the knowledge of the solution of that problem may not have added anything to his personal power, unless he has sufficient blood to sustain the brain he is using while he is trying to discipline it by means of these lessons. The fundamental life-sustaining parts of the great nerve system must be nourished, before activity of the accessory portions is greatly taxed, or we shall have brain forcing and vital decline. lVe must secure permanence in exercise, and for this the exercises of the Emerson College provide in their very nature. Physical culture should continue through life. One cannot lay up a store-house of health during five years to draw on for the next fifty years. He should be developed by a system of physical exercises that he r is r can repeat every day, no matter Where or how he is situated. Our system requires no apparatus, it calls for no room especially prepared for exercisesg it makes no further demands for a special costume than that the clothing Worn during exercise, must be loose and free. It needs neither clubs, rings, Weights, dumb-bells, parallel bars, nor any of the things to be found in a Well-furnished. gymnasium. I am not an antagonist of these things. They are doing good in their place and time, but We cannot carry gymnasiums about With us. We are to develop the healthy man before We try to train him to be a Hercules. We Want free gymnastics to which We can devote a few minutes every day and under all conditions, for it is the continuance of exercise that gives it value. Another object sought by our exercises as a means to health and beauty is, to free the clgferent parts of the physical system that are joined by definite articulations, and thas prevent them from embarrassing each other. The greater the number of articulations, the more complete the gracefulness, other things being equal. The serpent is the most graceful of animals because of the number and freedom of his articulations. If the articulations of the human body are free, the person moves in curves, and there is also repose of bearing. As soon as any articulation becomes rigid, the parts 19 1 ii EE 31 I 11 in I ll H ji 3 71 11 ,1, l 'I 111 ,H 111 X 13 11l 15 ,HL l,1 2111 113 1lg ll' ily i ii 1 11 ,,l tl 1,1 1, li Ml lif 'lm 11 112 Ei I 1 tl I 1 . V K ll 1 N l 1 it 11 I 1 X, which that articulation joins embarrass each other in their movements, and hence produce friction and Waste. For example, the articulations that are in the neck are often partially rigid, - there is a lack of freedom. This is especially manifest in advancing age. The conse- quence is that the head on the one part, and the chest and back on the other, interfere with each other's movements and are dead Weights upon each other, re- quiring a great deal more strength to move than would be necessary if the articulations were free. But the exercise that frees the articulation must be exact, and must be in accordance with the structure of the articu- lation itself. It is not every exercise that will develop an articulation. XVe must study that articulation, find its physiological nature, and adapt our exercises to it. We should secure the freedom that prevents one part from embarrassing another, Qag bg giving the exact exercises to each articulation which are clemaviclecl bg its physiological stractfareg Chg bg giving such exercises to each articalateol part as will cause it to act in harmorig with all the other articalatecl parts of the lnoclg. Not only must these articulations themselves be free, but there must be established or developed a harmonious movement between the diferent parts that are joined by these articulations. This harmony always exists naturally, but needs education. The action of the 20 muscles assists the arteries in the distribution of blood throughout the systemg therefore there can be no constriction- of any muscle Without embarrassing the heart's action, though not always to an appreciable degree. The third object sought is economy of force, or, in, other Words, a maximum of result with a minimum of efort. How much force is unnecessarily expended by a person Whose physique is uncultivated! He is every day expending the force of two or three men to do the work of one. The Greek could so move that, with a minimum of force, he could attain gigantic results. It is this that made him the best soldier in the World, when he would fight. Caesar himself was a copyist of the Greeks in this respectg during forty years he spared no pains in cultivating his body to the last possible degree, and that practice gave him his great agility. He could labor many hours more than any other man, because there was so little friction in the body. This high physical condition is attained, first, by practising such attitudes of the person as are in harmong with the law of gravitation, therehg overcoming the resistance of the weight of ang part. One can never step out of the hand of gravitation 5 it is Working for him or against him all the time. If he Works With it, it Works for him With an infinite powerg if he Works against it, it crushes him Q 21 as if it were an iron hand of fate. An important end sought and attained by a faithful practice of our exercises is the 'securing of proper poise or oneness with this universal law. Poising brings perfect obedience to the law of gravitation, secures infinite rcinforrfcincnt, and a suggestion of power and sell'-commancl. All physical powers seem controlled in the grasp of the sovereign will. Poise stands for strength. lVeakncss takes a braced and constrained attitude. Poise is a gymnastic of the nervous systemg it strengthens the cerebellum. Poise gives presence and secures ease. There is no rigidity in the cultivate-cl body. lf it moves, its movements will be soft as music. Again, we must clcrelojn Juv 1vfIfzfz'cnzs71zj2 Iictzz-mm, diferent groups of muscles. Now. here come the most delicate of all the exercises in physical culture, - those which require the most careful attention, and. in all probability, bring the highest results. Our muscles are not all snarlcd together, as they might appear to be, to the novice examining them. Different groups of muscles bear a certain relation to each other. The muscles of the arm and neck are so related that if the arm is raised the muscles of the neck are affected. In this we have an illustration of reflex action, that law of the body by which the exercise of certain muscles causes other muscles in physiological 22 i I relationship with them to move alsog for there is a natural reflex action from muscular sense, as well as from the stimulation applied by experimenters in vivi- section. If the neck be held rigid, normal response through the law of reflex action has been prevented, and an undue exercise has been given to the muscles of the neck. Such an exercise a child would never use at its play. In nearly all muscular exercises that are taught, there is indication of a lack of knowledge on this subject of the relation which the muscles sustain to each other. The true object is not to see how much exercise a person can take, it is to secure accurate, physiological and educational exercise. Nearly all the muscles act in groups. Thus, in the universe, nature gives a system by itself, but it relates that system to other systems. It was once thought that outside of our solar system there was no other system of planets. Now we believe that the number of systems is countless as the fixed stars. But there is a proper relationship existing in the universe between these different -solar or planetary systems. If that relationship should cease for the millionth part of a second, the consequence would be the destruction of our planetary system throughout. But that relationship is secure, in our bodies it is 'not so. There is a separate group of muscles that governs the 23 3-rin, but that group acts in relation to :inother group, and that to yet another. Now there is :L delicate relationship hetween those clitI'I'ei'cnt groupsg :uni that relationship must he clevelopecl through the securing of proper reflex action, or there is inhnrinony in the body, great friction, great wean' of parts. It is just as if, in a watch, two wheels were helrl so near together as to hinder each otherg the watch would go wrong because of that friction. So it is wln-n rlifferent groups of muscles do not an-t in hzirinony with can-li -other,-when the relationship between lhvin is not properly developed and UlN'.t'l,'tl. Dm-vi-lopinent of this relationship, prevents unclne waste of inusi-ulair tissue. ,One may say: 4-Does not pliysiology ti-zurh that we must waste the tissues ?" Certziinly. hut onisirle of certain limits one inust not go. Development of this ?'8ZCLfli0lZ.Slllj7 Qf the nzusfzles jfrerents undue nervous tension. Now, when no propi-1' relation- ship exists between two contiguous groups of muscles, there is a nervous tension exerted unduly, upon both groups, causing the one group to holil itself stiilly in resistance to the other, and making it necessary for the second group to overcome the resistance of the rfirst. OW' next 053.605 is beauty. The Greek sculptors have shown us what God meant physically when he created 24 man. Beauty and health cannot be divorced. That which produces health produces beautyg that which produces beauty will produce health. I wish to make the claim emphatic, that beauty is one of the objects sought by our system of physical culture, because that which I claim as one of the chief excellencies of .this system, is the very thing that some people say is its. fault. Let us examine this ground. One of the most. important functions of muscular exercise, is to assist. the arterial system. The heart, unaided, cannot per-- form all the work of carrying the blood through the- system. The heart is assisted by the arteries, and they are prompted to healthy exercise by the effect. produced upon them by the muscles When in action.. The arteries can be assisted by any muscular exercise.. Any form of exercise is better than no form at all,. but I believe those motions the most helpful, Which. are at the same time the most beautiful. All nature's. lines are curved lines. The curved line is the line- of beauty. All our exercises are in curved lines. I believe that a curved movement assists more than an. angular one or one that is made in a straight line- There seems to be a prevalent belief that the uglier' the exercise the more beneficial it is. That aspect reminds me of. what a man said 'once in an audience. He called my attention to some one Who Was present, 25 make her look exceedingly handsome, with ruby lips and rosy cheeks. Ah, but go to the fountain, and drink! Nature asks no money. God has a Way of developing beauty outside of the druggistis shop. When one can make the World believe that beauty is not a valuable thing, he has reached the extent of deception, for that will be the greatest of all. YVould one like to live in a World devoid of beauty? Whenever our system of physical culture has been exhibited, there have always been physical culture critics present, who said they liked it very Well, all but one thing, -- it was H too beautiful." We 'intend it shall bebeautiful. Ugly exercises never developed beauty, and they never developed the true perfection of health. . What does beauty include? lt includes, first, unity. Wthout unity there is no beauty. Some people have said that beauty is only skin deep. There never was a greater mistake. Beauty is more than skin deep. If one will tell me how deep soul depths are, I Will tell him how deep beauty is. The beautiful face and the beautiful form have been developed down the ages from beautiful impulses of the soul. There is not a handsome face in the World to-day, that does not owe its inheritance to beautiful impulses that existed in the bosoms of its ancestors. There may be beautiful 27 faces to-day which are masks for evil thoughts 5 there may be beautiful faces which, instead of being the facades of temples of worship, are the facades of dens of thievesg but let these evil conditions continue, and the face slowly but surely loses its charms. Something gave that fine outline of brow, and chiselled nose, and sweet mouth. Something, we know not when nor where, but it existed in the hearts of the predecessors of the person who owns the face. From ugliness comes ugliness. From beauty of soul, by-and-by, down the ages somewhere, comes beauty of face and beauty of form. Beauty is a sign that there is good some- where. When is a face really beautiful? lVhy, when teach feature, and the parts of each feature, are in harmony with each other. lVhat gives beautiful expr-ession? Unity of expression. lVhen the expres- sion of all parts of the face combine in one common unity, thenwe have positive beauty of expression, and it was from beauty of expression that beauty of the features' was developed, somewhere and at some time. There never was a beautiful effect without a beautiful cause. lvfen do not gather grapes from thistles. Men do not drink sweet water from a bitter fountain. Plato sayszf 'G Are not goodness and beauty some- what '? " What is unity? The whole expressed in each of 'the parts. Unity is the criterion of beauty. Art 28 delights, only in the ratio that the law of unity is obeyed. ln the Greek statue there is a line of con- tinuity throughout each part, associating it with every other part, so that all confirm each. In the best of the Greek statues the spirit which the artist intended to reveal is manifested in every part of the figure, so that each part repeats What every other part expresses. The more perfect the unity, the more perfect the illusion of life, until the beholder is moved to say: 44 That statue, speaks!" Our physical 'exercises obey the lavv of unity. Qur system is the only one that even pretends to obey this law. There is no other system of exercises, - there is no form of manual labor that educates all muscles harmoniously. We keep before us the Whole man. Every part must be exer- cised in reference to the Whole. The gymnasium Works with parts. We Work with parts in vital relation to the Whole. When a part moves, other parts must respond harmoniously. Hundreds of bones and muscles are to be moved by a single impulse, to one purpose. We aim to produce perfect action of the parts in relation to the whole. We aim for beauty, then, because it includes so much. It includes, first, unity, second, it includes power, third, it insures endurance, because in unity of action there is little friction. Therefore a person Z3 whose movements are beautiful can move without fatigue much longer than a person whose movements are ugly. If one wants to rob a person of his power of endurance let him teach him to move in an ugly manner. Look at pictures of ugly exercises which appear as bad as the pictures of some of the victims on the rack during the Spanish inquisition,-- Cfor some of these pictures do much resemble themQ, - then ask, Can beauty come out of such exercises? Why can it not? Because we know that a beautiful movement is a movement that is free from friction, - a movement in which all the powers of the body are united as one by the realizing of a common purpose. Finally, beauty involves self-command, which is shown in this harmony of the parts. Of what value is a mighty arm--of what value a front like Mars, if one cannot use them, if one cannot make the powers of body assist each other to the realizing of a common aim? We claim that these exercises not only develop beauty of movement, but also that they develop beauty of form. They do not develop great tumor- like .bunches of muscles in one part, and cause great depressions or impoverishment of the tissues in other parts. There is, on the contrary, harmony in and between all the parts from centre to periphery. 30 These different exercises, again, follow each other in such consecutive order as to secure obedience to the physiological lavv Which can be phrased thus: from rest to climax, from climax to repose. Exercises should be begun gently. The utmost power should be put forth at the middle of the exercises, and the latter part be less strong. One should never start suddenly in ex- ercise. Wliat is the record in regard to animals? How many horses have fallen dead when suddenly started from a walk! Again, how many have fallen dead when suddenly stopped at the height of speed! The same facts are true of men. About two years ago a gentleman ran to catch a traing he caught the train, stopped, and dropped dead. It was not the running that killed himg it was not the vigor of the exerciseg it Was the sudden stopping that killed him. We lay stress upon three directions for exercises, viz., slowness, precision and deyioiite aim. This system is constituted of exercises that are related to each other, and inhere in the principle that governs them all. They are like the parts of a vital organism, one exercise acts directly upon the others, and the exercises follow' each other in logical and progressive order. If one starts from rest too suddenly it tries the heart. Sometimes it brings on aneurism, or difficulty in the great aorta, or some other artery, occasionally producing 31 These attributes, which are expressed in all normal movements of the body, 'are lfe, onannfest in conscious- ness, ajlection, intelligence ancl will. These qualities of the soul have legitimate channels of expression. They have natural channels of expression in the tones of the voice, and they have natural channels of expression in the movements of the body. The body is generally so constricted that the intellect, if ever so active, cannot express itself through the body, and although the body is the natural servant of the intellect, when contracted into the rebellious servant it Will not respond to the intellect. This misrepresentation of the soul by the body is so common that many persons possessed of loving and benign hearts have bodies Which, in their attitudes and movements, express direct antagonism to the law of affection. A Christian heart cannot express ,itselflthrough a savage body. God gave the soul ia body and said to it, 44 Speak through the body." All the movements, then, in this system of physical culture, are expressions of some one or of a combination of these attributes, which should guide the soul in human conduct. f These great attributes were intended to give man life, affection, intelligence, Will, but man has perverted them untill We have sick- ness in the place of life, hatred in the place of love, ignorance in the place of intelligence, and Weakness in 33 the place of Will. So it is With the body. There are souls that are partially divorced from their bodies, While yet they dwell in them 3 that is to say, they are divorced from them so far as soul manifestations through the body are concerned. For illustration, take a person who has cultivated the intellect at the expense of the body. I have seen, sometimes, in the physical movements of great students a resemblance to semi-idiocy. Giant faculty has starved the rest of the organism. Why is that so if the body is intended by its Maker to express intelligence? It is because the body has not been commensurately developed. The result may not be seen in an enfeeblement of the intellectual activities, but the Wrath that comes in consequence of a violated law deals vvith the violator personally. It is the body in this case that has sinned. and as it refuses to obey the intellect, punishment 'swift and sure seizes itg and thus We have giant intellect imprisoned in a debil- itated body. We must educate the body with reference to the soul. The old tradition of Beauty and the Beast has a 'deep moral significance. Wlnat a mon- strosity Would it be for the Beast Qthe Bodyy to ride Beauty Qthe Soul lj VVhen We come to the last analysis, We find that the only legitimate office of the body is t-o express the soul, until 34 U The tongue be framed to music, And the hand be armed with skill, The face be the mould of beauty, And the heart the throne of will." The claim is sometimes made that the mind should not work in physical culture. This may be an excuse for those who have no minds. If we watch an idiotic child at play, we will observe that he does not play according to any definite plan. How is it with intelligent children? John says to James, H Come, let us play fhide and seek., H The game has its laws, and how definitely and enthusiastically those boys play, even though they are playing the game for the five hundredth time! It is said that children do not like repetitions. Look at them playing ball day after day, week after week, month after month. Cultivated and uncultivated people play alikeg the refined and the unrefined will play lawn tennis day after day, and will become mad with delight in the game, doing the same thing over and over again 3 yet it is said, 44 playing has no mind in it." Now, what is playing, carried to its last analysis? Playing is allowing the body to obey the monitions of the will. Wlienever the body is following the dictates of the mind, one feels that he is playing. Play stands over against drudgery and slavery of movement. Wliy' do I not like to work? Because 35 ordinary labor is servitude. Why is it slavery 's Because I am working for a dollar a day? Oh no, but because I am doing something for a dollar, and not doing something because my soul prompts the doing of it! But if I were doing that which my soul prompts, itiwould be play, and I should rejoice in the play. This leads us up to the last grand principle which all this suggests,--that the body of man was not made for the lower walks of life alone, nor for itself alone. In the lowest walks of life it has to work steadily and constantly to maintain itselfg in the higher Walks of human nature the body rises to the grand stature of a man in the spirit who obeys instinctively the high behests of the soul. The body becomes happy, the body becomes healthy, the body becomes graceful, the body becomes beautiful, when the great attributes of the soul flow through it unhindered. The soul is not sick and the mind is not sick if the proper relation- ship exists between the human being and his Creator. WVhen these attributes of the mind pour themselves down through the beautiful channels of the physical organism, the physical organism is not sickg and I absolutely believe, from the best of testimony, and not as an abstract theory, that if man would main- tain and develop the relation between the higher Qualities of his soul-intelligence, will, affection, life,- A 36 ' 9 , - X V 4 - . a11d the Author of the soulg and then, would maintain the proper relationship between these attributes of the soul and the body in its movements, there would be no sickness. 44But," says one, 44 do you not agree With some Who say that sickness is a concept of the mind?" No, I do not. Disease is a positive fact in the World, and it takes many forms. Animals have it. They had it in this World before man existed. We find cases of disease in the fossil remains of animals that existed before man. Disease was upon earth then. Therefore, disease may come from ten thousand sources, but over and' above the animal stands the soul of man, and while that soul may not .bring by any false concept all the diseases of the body, it is a mighty resource to call upon in restoring the body when it is sick. A healthy spirit Will not long carry around a sick body. It Will either cure it or cast it off. But -the spirit must act according to definite methods. It is not merely that I imagine myself Well, and that, therefore, I am Well. It is that I become Well by lifting the soul into the realms of goodness, of beauty, of truth, of pulsating divine life, and then practising methods of exercise for the body that Will invite those beneficent impulses to pass into and through it. Away With' the physical culture that makes the body the drudge and the slave! Practise 37 from the world and with it the sins of the soul. Then men shall stand up with no sickness in the body, and no taint of sin in the soul. HNow are we sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be." My hope for the human race is bright as the morning star, for a glory is coming to man such as the most inspired tongues of prophets and of poets have never been able to describe. The gate of human opportunity is. turning on its hinges, and light is breaking through its. chinkg possibilities are opening, and human nature isp pushing forward toward them. I believe in the divine fulfilment of man's destiny. I believe that a crown is developing within himg and when it shines upon his brow it will not be a crown put there as a master might put one upon a slave, but a crown coming up, in wreaths of splendor from his own soul and body.. The crown comes from God, but He develops it through. the righteousness of man. 4' Thenceforth there is laidl up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day, and not. to me only, but unto all them, also, that love His. appearing." y .39 TI-IE EXERCISES. FIRST DIVISION. EXERCISES FOR OVERCOMING STOOP IN NECK .AND SHOULDERS, AND FOR SECURING PERFECT POISE. FIRST, -EXERCISE FOB. OVERCOMING STOOP. AKE the entire Weight of body upon the balls of the feet, the toes pointing outward and describ- ing an angle of about sixty degrees, and heels nearly touching each other. Place the arms as in Fig. 3, then push with the hands in the direction indicated by the arms Qat an angle of forty-five degrees With the bodyy, and at the same time push up and back the crown of the head. Hold head and 'torso in the position secured by this exercise, and let the arms drop easily at sides. 40 'We . LA! I D I . 1 1 i I . X . X . K Y big ' S X. N, , -x, llz. ,Qi FIGURE 2. . XXX By frequently practising this, the head and neck will finally be brought into a line with the entire spinal column, as seen in Fig. 1, the opposite of which is seen in Fig. 2. SECOND,-EXERCISE FOR SECURING PERFECT POISE. In the position acquired by the above exercise, and with chest leading, poise the body as far forward as possible Cwithout losing equilibriumy, then as far back- ward as possible, maintaining- throughout the entire exercise the sanie anglelbetween chest and floor as in beginning. See Fig. 4. Now swing the body back to first position, rise on toes, descend to position, touching heels lightly upon the floor, rise again and hold while counting four, then descend slowly to first position. Fig. 4. Now take the weight upon the ball of right foot, heel gently touching the floor. Swing the left foot in a way to describe a circle around the right QFig. 52, then back, not allowing it to touch the floor, and, finally, holding it behind the strong foot, poise the body forward, backward, to position, etc., as upon both feet. Transfer the weight to the other foot and repeat exercise. 41 X42 'Nw f 7 fl 'Q In J: IU 1' 'gl W 'ww A '1 + :mm N J Wd! M0111 Ju 1 N V i Q Z M ff' N' l X , W 'M 1 aff .r + I X 1 MV 'll J 'Mi H " ' Z'W vN wi X1 Rf NN lm f w w X W l ,, gk N N HGURE3. were in their proper place. As soon as they are habitually carried at their normal altitude, these diseases and all consequent upon them cease. Second, -These exercises exert a powerful effect in strengthening the nerve centres, and harmonizing all the nerve forces, even to the extent of curing partial paralysis. The nerves which sustain the vital organs are relieved from undue exertion, and the perfect self- command required in poising with such nicety, har- monizes the nerve action. All nerve force is thereby properly directed, the habit of too much activity, which results in such a misery of unrest, is commanded, and repose, which prevents overvvaste of nerve tissue, is secured. BESTHETIC VALUE. The chief noticeable result, wsthetically considered, is that appearance of person termed good presence. The unity, dignity and ease manifested in one While in repose, are of the most potent and subtle nature. It is presence which seems to tell what the individual is in his essential being. Wliat a person is affects us much more than What he does. He who is perfectly poised suggests great moral Weight. 43 All grace and beauty of bearing and movement depend primarily upon obedience to the following laws: EQUILIBRIUM AND MUSCULAR SENSE. The first law is obeyed in obtaining right relations with the earth. Again, it is obeyed in lifting up the parts of the person so that there is a diffusion of energy throughout the entire system, each part con- tributing its required share, thereby giving the effect of ease in force, which is power. ' The second law is obeyed in maintaining perfect poise of body while standing upon one foot, and the climax is reached in poising upon the toes of that foot, for all poise is maintained, not alone by will or knowledge of how to poise, but by muscular sense. It is by a highly developed muscular sense that the trapeze performer balances with such beauty and accuracy on 1 the rope, and a Blondin walks a wire above Niagara, carrying another man with perfect safety from shore to 7' r shore. It is a line muscular sense which enables all celebrated performers of this description to walk with such ease, dignity and grace. 44 l l 'JJ Q --1. F GURE 4 MUS CLES INVOLVED. The harmonious activity of so many muscles is such that no one can be said to lead. There is an elastic activity of all the large muscles oi legs, trunk, and neck. SECOND DIVTSTON. -i EXERCISES FOR HIPS, WAIST, CHEST, AND NECK. IRST,--Correct standing position, with tips of U fingers resting lightly upon the shoulders. Now, take the weight entirely upon one foot, and by a slow, steady movement send the hip corresponding with strong foot, out at the side as far as possible, not allowing the chest to sway, but using it as a strong centre, as if the hips were to revolve about it. Keep the shoulders level. When the person is in this posi- tion he is much below his normal height. See Fig. 6. Next glide the weight from one foot to the other without rising. This is accomplished by bending the knee of the strong leg while straightening the other, and, at the same time, sending out the opposite hip. L At the medium point in gliding from one foot to the other, the knees .are equally bent. Repeat this exercise and return to position. E' 46 r I X Aw- 1 rv . -1.7 . 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' . +-'. - " i ' 5. 53 ,. if - , 5 -' ' - I N . ,,1r'.,gg.v4. .HQ r' Li- - Q, Q ,y.:ffi,j-, fi'-QQQ:'.gi, ' , .A V -, ' 252' .wif P L ' ' 1, "' Y . , 1 P nl?---i?E5Y"i7??f54 'e4'f"l..F" H S- .. f f us f ,. rf Es? ri 4 -.1 , V my 1.---fcvxni f. Jw- A - Lak' -0,5-Szyfsx :LQ . 1 - fig -i5g..s'51 - 1- ..-Q4 vw .V " Xx'5:5g14'.'f""1'-5"i, 45.ip-.ga""F,g:rrS.,sffVs1:. ', ,. .I A . . f, . . . -' -2 a n -if wg ' .14 gf:--: zygavf . s 5' E, lfifilk P -a . E?jx:..g:,Li- .-'.,i,1..TQ3l::-ft J 5- .2 . Q I. 7' ' F434-" ",:1'.?-6--'T , A '- I .10 f " - - " Aj fe. 1 :L . X ,.k.. - x 1 . 'if 1. , ti 3 -- 1' " lf-3 f M454 " -:,'7W:2 1 1 .. ' s g , '?32-NiSf?9z'?Sqm.-,'.g.g.gQzasif'' 5 K. X , - . t.f,rff Y,,I..E"'3fE:-53.7392111,178-'-Q"1't" . . 'Q ,gig Nz...-rg. . -1 5. ,- iz? " ::::5:g-,,gg'- - 'P A .Lys .'3f:Q,x1f?y..x ' SQ ,- ' -,:1-53.Qf..'Q:'g.:.,-5 f1:p.'fr' - L, - -sei.. ' -f1'fi1g'if:.q: .413 ,. x if? "1 ' 5 11 - A X 'ig ":,. - 3'---11'-vga..qs-v-Q. ": 5,,.-it-5 , . ..V ., . . 1 px ' V 1 tgefe - . bmw:--,., N-,b.k,.1:L:1AFg.Sfg. 4145-ff::gefig43g7iggL:qfQg:,3.5.: - lisxqif, . N., X, X...-pg...-4.-.I - A ix -. - , 3 V xx , -:3,:L?.il ,1:A.:.x 1- , Q In - - - , , -Q N me ww V 'J' E rg.-falq x ay b . f LJQESQ-.j1::gf25gif.-if., Q :QQ--.L ' . , FIGURE 5 .I HYGIENIC VALUE. The physical benefit to be derived from this exercise is in overcoming that friction in walking which ex- hausts the back and stomach, also in exercising the muscles across the stomach in a way to strengthen and promote its activity, and thereby develop the unity of action between those muscles which play upon and move the stomach and aid in the peristaltic wave, and those of the legs, so that whenever the individual walks, or stands upon one foot in ever so unconscious a manner, a direct quickening of the digestive forces will take place. By this habit the exercise which wastes the tissues will, at the same time, develop the vital supply. Q XESTHETIC VALUE. The secret of grace in walking lies in this : that the legs and hips are made to serve the chest instead of being allowed to lead it. This gives the feeling that the moral and intellectual powers of the soul govern the passions, while the too common and vulgar manner of walking conveys a feeling of uncertainty, and that the person is not controlled by what is best within him. 47 There are three modes of walking with reference to the hips. First, -An easy movement which allows a slight play of the hips while the chest keeps its position so reposefully that if the person was seen down as far as the waist only, he would seem to be sailing in a boat upon a smooth river. I have borrowed this figure from the tradition concerning Buddha which tells us that when he was walking, unless one could see his person Fbelow the waist line, he seemed to be sailing in a boat -on a smooth river. WVe do not claim that this exercise :alone will produce the ideal walk, but it develops the :first conditions, viz., a strong chest and free hips. Second, -One can swing the body with the hip, :giving the movement usually termed 4' rolling gait." Third, -The hips may be held stifliy, and at the :same time no roll take place in the upper part of the ibodyg but to prevent this vulgar sway, one would be obliged to attract attention to the rigidity manifested throughout his whole person. The natural office of beauty is to indicate goodness, and this is the reason why we instinctively feel at- tracted to strangers of graceful movements, and are as strongly repelled by those who are awkward. 48 I xv v 5 B! 1 '12, p-'lr I' ' . f AV - .3 ilk. .ff . , 'x wo- . , :mhz QQLL J-f-5:11 ' 4- ' I ,5 - ' .ix " ' xx A j 2' Xl M, N., fl A NX 1 A ' ,f va' -,.-.,,.'1, -,Mx I . , , le, gym ,.w.:,.9 ,My f . Nfl -' .- Z 'J ,V 5,35 , f , ,'-"3- X '. m fx I Ll Q1 jf? ' V ' x 1, .X . 1 X V ,fc he V4 ' . 'ff W' X - . un .f , 43' V , S, ' 'fx ja'- . f 4 :-.ff a X is X ' YRS, 2 ' Z ,l"' , fl, wxjg gs 5 . -1 5.3355 gf Vifwwwwww . ff J , ' f 5 3, :yards 'N ,' 1 235- haw Qu' - xxggfs 1 i 'VP93 " ir' 1 ?l2':g-A " ffbx mmwm .. 2-is ' , 3-1, 1 ski: f V ln W Qg15,gfivk ti: gjigffgg , js ' ' gfmzgpf ' . I :'fv9g., Szvifaaiw , - 3-Q ,x , 4231. 437: ' ' 42 f . 1525? 'K 92,5 Q . K Q x- sw, 2 ' ,U ,157 - ' gk, I 1 . ,wx ' 1 , I. V 44 -L ',55Lf21xl1?- .. V ilu: Eff I ' 2 2 , ' 'fs . Pl, 4 , 'b i 3' fi 'rfibxn Q. NE' 0 K twig-. 5'!,' ' ' NN Q wi f 1 A . ,Y , r i . , . sq, l rf, V . 5 x ,' . j . xx i fi.: . , Q, . Q zf . 5- - , A, A 1 2. - cf' PX . 55 'K , 4 2-2 ' --fu S- , ,311 K .Y I , if E.. C x .. A' ' ff' 1-f ,P f 2 I 1 : 5 .ag fs ' V 1 , , ,Q W. .., .Y Q V. V Q,-b ' , fig' l , . ? , .A I jg 1 P 1 , .. ' Y :X f. ' fy , 6 . , ,Jar . M- A 1 'Aww . .wx ? fwwf ' -lax .- r ' ' .g affix ji I Q . gi .. . ,. Wy, - l ' V ,if ?,:",:.51' i V5 - 5- .f- 4. ff',""4'w42?12w,,,, .-, 1 -- - - ' . 1 1 ?'w1 5 5 f I .1 1 . 0 A 9:4 Q 1 if f if 1 ? .' ihfffv . Lg' ,' 5-f gfy qa-ig, ' f 'Q -3, 4 ,, .qyf'Q1 :- ' , A-3 . f is-Ti' j V if "fi ' 4 ,' 5-.g"i5,1-, L 'v 'bf' : '- xjj.-at ' " .Ji ' ., , , L l ..: .,... ML .J 1 - " I HGURE6. ,, - W PRINCIPAL MUSCLES INVOLVED. The diaphragm, all the abdominal muscles, including the intro-abdominal, the iliacus, anterior femoral, and muscles connecting thigh with hip and knee. -1 EXERCISE FOR FREEING AND STRENGTHENING SIDES. Place thick of hand upon floating ribs, merely as a guide to the mind, not to assist the muscular effort, draw the sides as near together as possible, as in Fig. 7, then send them as far apart as possible, as in Fig. 8. Repeat this movement, and then allow the arms to fall at sides. During this exercise a perfectly upright position is to be maintainedg the body is not to bend in the slightest degree. HYGIENICX VALUE. The exercise gives great activity to the stomach by causing it to fall and rise as it does during the respira- tion of very powerful men and women. It carries this needed motion to much greater extent than can be 49 accomplished in breathing except by the most gigantic persons. It is a very vigorous exercise of the most powerful muscles of respiration. The will is exerted exclusively in 'moving the sides, no thought being given to respiration, which takes its own automatic course in accord with the movement. It develops greater breathing capacity, and gives more freedom to the vital organs. IESTHETIC VALUE. The appearance of narrowness of feeling and con- straint of manner offends the taste. Intuitive taste always demands in appearance what moral philosophy demands of character. Moral sentiment requires sym- pathy and magnanimity, and good taste requires their expression. The aesthetic sense is made up mostly of feelingg it does not reason upon truth and goodness, it feels them. It is influenced in such a subtle way that one usually fails to recogniie the cause. By care- ful observation I have been led to believe that the sides appeal to the feelings of sympathy and mag- nanimity, either attracting, repelling, or neutralizing them. The effect is not produced by their breadth or narrowness, but by their freedom or restraint. 50 4 . 5 1 'KL s -Tim. 1. aenil- A , , f ' , E- Q ,gt J - ' 'I X- X . s , A -We V ,A . . - - - f c 274 E2- . Fr :S:1:lg'.z-' 7 . 2 3 - ""- LSB? - 1.. -f' - ?'s 'Q -, .. ff: ' ' HNQQ5, xv,--ga ,.-1.3 p f 4 -- y -. . 'a-,Q i , ,- Mf .- Q . -Q - - 1 'f K 'J-P'-' -.L-P Nj f , '- QW wi -K V - , ., X f.-- 1 fl 'X 'fm 'l 5552? -A A4 E i -4 A '- txlg- 1 g X T 352 - S -,, ' wi., 5 Q - ,NM -. X- 51- f ,I-fl-., fa "'.7rl:'i'N.- ix" , " x f '. -A5 --h x rv ,533 N x - H ik 5 X X- -ESQ gEi'ff?iCV 3 - 1 li - 2 x wfafS5Qva,faQaa-21 --w.: a Q 4 v ,,,i.:z:i. 1- Q A S, R N - x - L,-.:3..g4 , Q ,Ap A x -S49 I ff ,- M,-I-1 - I , S 'Kal'-25' X f1'.,X9L2 .f zi- E x f Q- we X gggf- ,L-. -Q gigs: ,z '. . V 1 x '- X fe -Q1-2: 'M' , . X X N453 Q , -3: 'gg . Q, ' Q in N, by Y - 5 . iii. E Q: - 1 5 -xg-Q--1" ,ga - var . 1 i 1, 1 Q X -NRM Q4-hS.x,., .H .g ,. . , . 1 Q x X N ' " 's:.+. SN-:ff , .. . ,, . rm:-. - .2 , , -:W f1f"'f?,'5 'pg ag- j ,' -'fi-1 - ,AM , -wx KK 1mH?xfAwiw4m9fWk'vi M . N N, ' rv' mf Q, .:m'e1f:'r . . L-,-, - ff: - N Q X Qm-... .-, ' - A -' ' ' 3 fi, 2--Q I'k24l..fSEiE53' 'WE' ful-f':'-H--Qc.. -A , YN. 5 R, Q 'Til .-Z1 - 'if . 1 23 Wk' .P lair H -' 1 z 152' f ,if-if .. -fix X Q ' - ' .' " . - . 1 XX ' - ' -, k -gif' ' Q' ". - ' .,.- Q- . M1 - N- K ,KU .Ag W y 3 , .W X. , . Q' sl , . .ggi I ff l."1 ' .. "' V. -I g'1,.,, ' ' . 'F L 1:,,,,i.. L , . ., ijqp. ' . 1 "5 L. .- ' ' ,, " 41 -gy "'- ' H+, :Exif ' Xwgi ' ' -Ng gg1'.f -.f:257xQ I ,wg-Q.-.. H, X an 2 ,, , . 4 1 Y - If" 1i?':f-. 1 1 . , 1x.:" '5:'.'., ,C ' E1 I "" ' 92' Y is. -f '- - -,fi '- f 2 . A 1.312-: . Env V4 A , N ' if . - ' 4, 'zmyys' 3 , K- -w 3' .., ff .gf 1" 1' -, , 1 "J - -fm X-.4 I -,331-,Q . I s 1 gf, 1- v-.5 -X E .mfpg-Hs w,-Lf- ., x N-Q -. 5, ',':1I , .swf-Q 2 W 5 ' I I 1 15, 233 , ,A ' f -skwfa--' - 1 -- , A 1 -2 ' V , tl 's XX .1 ,- 4,g1:,:Q: eL z -A , .- .- ., - . .4 ' . gf .-gigs, H " My 'Q.iS"2 '- -QQ NL--E, 1 ', ,455 pg- ar. .- Q, SEN." Q , ' ' - if S ,Q 3.-:wx ivy i A ,- 'K 3 f ,f -5 ' ., 5 -S ., -'w1fv5x1i1- 2- - .1. -.Et .AN -. ' - , . - -. , .. I5 - x 3 A-i:1"., 'Q' .. .f . K 5 1.3 ., rx fs 1- - . 4 5 - ' gi, x .-Q17 - xi :- . -2' .'b33fl",5x:' X- ' 'f -' ' 1' aepmggfy ffiffff 4 f 5 ' f-Q , . X Q - 1 ' '-wav'mf .p -we Q- . -Q D v m. J. ., ,wi ,A . .f Eg-Y-' i'1f it ' .. xi- ,QQ L Q J, .j 52 --eg - "ESX 5 -'Ns ' L -' f -' f ' 27- - fl: ,555 .fax 1 f 1 I ., --Q4 .mm .X .., ' M1 -' -1, , - RJQNSQQ wrmuvq A- .. -- 1 .1 -1:..,-s',wz-:- - . fr , f , '- - 'e a-s:,r'.p5E3gf' 19 - hit- 11 ' 3 A ., 5 fx 'aff ' -- - - -- 5 X+ , fx 4. 9 A5625 " 'Ti M SQax--- K -xxx X ' Q f ' als-5. fin: ' WwkE5iHSf5, M :QQ -W NN-2 -gs-x--1,--14.1, v, .. , 211:--frQ,.X,Q X-E M fgsm.-i'.3 ' - ' Q I- 4 w :mv ,. Q:-,-5' qu: , XS: Riff Q' ufwwha gh X 'S fx "KX-Q ' .. 3 N. ,,,., ..,' . N- W., -- . - X155 X . 'f -wp 5 , --:QLN--'g.2i-v f-5 Q wx, X 1 Nw Yi A---4 N1 1-1, -' K f ,X xl N - - M my ,Q - kk -'A :xv .. :Q 4,1 fx fall 'z :-,.-fngaW,,Xm,.,, , A 1 WS. x mx V . , XX Q x . . X 1 5 a -.4 A j Wt Us X v XT- X K Q-1 ' V ., , A-,"N--g -fggf-ph--4, , V , X ,,,A ,, , I HGURE7. 7 1 r , , 1 Z i n P r i i i J f , J , ,,,. ,J l , if f- o N QW. 5 y 3 'I r fb ' , X-7 Vg.. 'A A 'Q f ' Wi! -'I W X f xxxsxx F if fff 11 , I W w wx , 1 1 I Y I , nf! if 'W I ff s , I 1 ' l I ! , ,I ' 1, 1? , 1 A n -' ', . I , I m y , , . i 1 Hlpfwf j I M 5 f x ,'f! f If fi ,WA g, 1 .,'ws' Hif iff Ill If A A ' f -.Jf Z2 3? -'s'.-5,-13 HGURE9. A 3 , , L v 1' f ,1- 11 , 'z w 3 , ES ' ' I 'Q iiw 2551 iii I nfw 'gary :ML MWA ESU? UQ4 KINQWER ip g '1 'F A I+ ,4 We fi ' W 5 : 5 A els: ,M 'Q U giSfi '1Q'l lim QMQV Wim LIN'-X Min wif Ni1Q QYEQ 'lrlfl 125212 'lfwsl llp '3'Ng5 sw my ll" MU M1 ants ,ui Ni will 31:11 'H Wi W: .1 - ,lil P13 N! gill!! , IH 5'!1. W1 E35 H! ,4. '.E, I. , ii' .L lil! HE fx '. I5 ' 'I H! ! li 1. 'I ll' Q ? 5 C 4+ PRINCIPAL MUsCLEs INVOLVED. Serratus magnus, Intercostal, Diaphragm, and Ab. dominal. A 511-i7i -, EXERCISE FCE DEVELOPING GAMUT OF CHEST, . PERPENDICULARL Y.. Take a good standing position, place the ends of fingers lightly in region of third rib, Cas seen in Fig. 95 lower the chest at this point as much as possible by an effort of the will, allowing every other part of the body to accommodate itself to this attitude. Now lift the chest directly up towards the chin, as seen in Fig. 110. As a consequence, the shoulders come back to place, the spine becomes erect, the crown of the head rises to its utmost height. Repeat this exercise, then take normal position. HYGIENIC VALUE. The ezrercise deepens the capacity of the chest, furnishing more room for the lungs, giVes powerful exercise to all the muscles that control the ribs, and strengthens all the muscles that hold the internal organs i 51 in their proper places. l' cannot state with satisfactory emphasis the importance of keeping all the organs contained in the trunk of the body, in their proper positions. Wleiile this exercise attracts attention to the thorax only, it is an exercise of such extensive reach, as to cause all the muscles of the trunk to move in harmonious unison. It exe1'cises the muscles of the trunk in such a man- ner as to invigorate the vital organs. WVhile the main source of this activity is in the nerves which furnish the stimulant to these organs, the proper exercise of the muscles that surround them and hold them in place, exerts an influence that assists their activity in two ways, by moving the organs, and by refiex action upon the nerves that supply them. 1 Wlieii the lungs are suihciently high, by means of a Well-elevated chest, what is termed thoracic breathing, as distinguished from diaphragmatic breathing, is never practised, because one cannot get satisfaction. In normal respiration the diaphragm descends during in- spiration and ascends during expiration, the abdominal muscles moving consistent with it. This not only causes the lungs to till, but by the continuous move- ment of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles the organs below the diaphragm, as Well as above, are kept in constant motion, thereby promoting a free circulation 52 Z v , -uv .- 5 3. ig E: - ,.,,.,,-,. J W I 6 -. Cf ,, 41 Q 'I' l 1 1' 'N M Z WM: . ,-.2 xy X '94 m W ,M 'L .,. JZ. J'- M fi 2 A V7.2 W VW ,355 "' '1" ' I M 4321 M ' Wa 5 ! ,MX 1 4 f x ' W - X J ff Q . HGUREIO. and aiding digestion very materially. Little children always breathe in this manner, and so do the adults of the strongest races, and also strong individuals of both sexes in all races. Some physiologists teach that this method of breathing is not, normally, continued by females after the years of puberty. WVe answer simply, that it is always continued by the strongest women, and to keep up the tone of the organs below the diaphragm, it is necessary. Normal breathing is perfectly secured by keeping the chest sufficiently elevated. Keeping the chest in this position prevents all attempts at abdominal breathing and singing, which many physicians know is so injurious, especially to females. No attempt to breathe abdominally should be made. Maintain a right position of chest and correct breathing will follow as a natural conse- quence. All efforts to 'breathe correctly in a false position are injurious. Nature, in her infinite kind- ness, suits the breathing to the position, otherwise life would often be endangered by the simple act of breathing. In nature, function is according to form, and form is according to use. 53 JESTHETIC VALUE. This exercise joins with others in enlarging the bust, and producing delicate lines about the lower part of the waist, such as the use of the corset seeks to effect, and of which it gives a counterfeit at the sacriiice of beauty elsewhere. We may be sure that if among civilized people an artificial custom is retained a long time, it points toward some need that would produce beauty, and therefore health. Womeii, and sometimes men, have for hundreds of years, used artiiicial means to cause fulness of bust and delicacy of the lower waist line. The mind holds that form as an ideal of beauty. The ideal is natural and true. It did not spring from false custom, but grew out of the very structure of the mind. ' No amount of preaching can uproot it. No penalty, thundered by reformers into the ears of young ladies, can change their conduct in this matter. They sometimes see a com- panion die, and hear the attending physician say that death. was caused by tight lacing, but, as if moved by the hand of fate, they continue in the same habit, and seem to say, HI would rather die than not to appear beautiful." From a study of the 'history and habits of the human race it is very evident that there is nothing 54 Y Q ixx W x fff X R fpf X H 2 FGUREII else for which human beings are so willing to suffer as they are for beauty. This is not owing to perversity in human nature. If we look deep enough we shall see that this love of being beautiful springs from an innate desire to be perfect. Beauty is the natural sign of truth and goodness. Poor humanity is often mistaken in regard to the method by which truth and good are obtained. Let us cease this War of Words against corsets, for when true physical culture has developed the bust, and given the :corresponding waist line, the instinctive desire for beauty will cause all to turn away from the false method to the true, and corsets and all like inquisitorial machines of torture will take their places in the museum of antiquities, beside the rack and thumb-screws of the Spanish Inquisitiong one showing the sacrifice and suffering of humanity consequent upon its search for pure religion 5 the other, what it endured in its desire to attain beauty. Superstition dies a natural death when true religion comes, and perverted fancy expires in the light of natural beauty. Another point of beauty which this exercise helps to develop is a good voice. It strengthens those muscles which condense the air in the lungs, and thereby gives fulness and evenness of tone. Surely voice culture should be included in physical culture, and was so 55 i f' I iff -RQ Q K NX. X! u WX , N X w , f ,xii i X qw' wg ww x l iii ' 1 .1 f fi' ' ig M,f:f? f ff" 'T 3 Q , X Wg M! I Y W P fi' fi M97 ,vfnf Y 'M My , H X M, K fffgfm M fl EW , 4 1 X 1.1 .h FIGURE IQ. , M 4 Ks J S This exercise, like all the others, should be taken slowly, strongly, and with precision. Too great a pressure will come upon the back unless the thighs are kept far forward. If any unpleasant sensation is experienced in the back it is because the thighs are not in the right position when rotating the body backward. Let the shoulders, with upper part of chest leading, describe as large and true pa circle as possible. Allow the head to follow the chest, with neck relaxed. HYGIENIC VALUE. All the contents of the abdomen, but more especially the stomach and liver, are seized between the abdomi- nal muscles and diaphragm, and pressed very strongly during all the movements that describe the front half of the circle, and relieved during the movements that describe the other half of the circle. This exercise is in direct obedience to the law of physiology that alternately contracts and relaxes throughout the human system, pressing and relieving by turns every part. All growth and strength is promoted and sustained by this law. It is by this mechanical pressure and relief that the blood circulates, the glands send forth their secretions, the peristaltic wave is produced, and 57 ,4- my , , I ju 4 ! is . if ii i Af . 12-1 . , "NN-NQX r .I W W M55 f 1133 in 'L ,I . K X xx ' 1 I 1 M, , 1.l' Z' f I- - ,f A N- . x Y X 'I X v X Y 1 ' ? I A ' 15 X w I 9 'L X .l 5 X , X f E W 4 X -I f y M 1 N I 1 ff I I, V M W, X f WI WW FIGURE l3. f- 5, 213 discovered' by dissectiong still it is easy to see that there is at the line where the diaphragm connects with the walls of the trunk such dividing movements as resemble an articulation 3 therefore I have used that term for convenience. This articulation is so impor- tant that it requires several others to do its Work for it whenever it is not permitted to do its own, thereby causing great exhaustion in the system, and weakening the vital organs. IZESTHETIC VALUE. In all Greek sculpture of the entire human form this articulation is very apparent. To perceive its beauty and movements one has but to imagine it left out, and the aesthetic feelings will experience a shock. All curves- in the posture and movements of the torso are gone, and a stiff and unsightly angularity is dis- covered in the place of them. The great artist Rubens, in the pictures he painted to express his ideals of abundant life and health, especially marked the definition of this articulation. PRINCIPAL MUSCLES INVOLVED. AAbdom,inal, Diaphragm, Latisimusdorsi, and Ser- ratus post inferior. I 59 Xxfw , xx ' XX A . s ,, .,r gb: 'K .R lf . 77 . X X ,QI X .' XX : X xy QI ' 1 .jil A g 'UI 'IQ LH ,XL l 'L IJ!! J' .sqs ' . Yi ffhf' v 'wi my J lf' ,N g li ' Y fig ' -M ,ffl - , ,WAHI - ' .li if N, " . Iwi , 'Hn' 1, ' Y ,1 aj V5 ' 1 'xi V, . ' fm -i :I f ' I, fl I.. 1 A, l , '-1 -y 4. 15 , g. p' In '. ' : - ' I 7 1 1 , ' W i 'V f 'y , z 'I -V, Q 1 I ,. . , r"- H 9 ! N, , K ,ll, lx 1 1 1 H M X N ,M it W K4 M : iw ,r MMR ' Nl 1 r 'fm Kim li my 1 ill! N K , IH H xg J V a? if , xi ' ' l , , V2 X Q WK , X . ' N E. ' f ' Xi? Q, x ' . -J" FIGURE I4. J 775-5' ' Q sv 2' X . ng Q Q V X X a iu X, HL 9 1625 qi! w wf!! ' 1 ffm xg W 4 If! 'I fl Q f I ' V U I 1 .R . . HH- ,' f v , NI , N. I 'v I - E MA X I 'LEX 'K 'li ' , l 4: f Y : - 1 ' i , 1 L X N Q '2 'Y' V1 f 'W ff' 'lf 'I ff ! JM ffffwi V' . fm 1 V1 ' ' - f 4-J' ,.f . , Af' ,Q."3' f,-,,.--,.-L Q , J y 1 X w r I 4"'f'. ' NYS., --.1.-,gin r- I,- -- 1-w 4,-- 1.1 2 . where there is or has been any tendency to nervous prostration. Theexercise is helpful to those who have ever had trouble with the head in any way. It serves to regulate the supply of blood that goes to the brain by toning up the arteries and veins that connect with the head and brain. a .L , . . . Q AESTHETIC VALUE. The neck exercise gives an easy poise to the head, taking away the appearance of limitation of intellect and rigidity of ma1mer. A rigidity of neck often misrepresents an individual. WVe are obliged to judge of the soul by its representative, the body, until fully acquainted with the person, when the physical misrep- resentation becomes painful to us, making us feel as Would a published slander concerning a friend. The people are not few whose bodies are a public libel upon their characters. All this could be remedied by this system of aesthetic physical culture. PRINCIPAL MUSCLES INVOLVED. Platysma myoid, Sterno-cleido-mastoid, Sterno-hyoid, Sterno-thyroid, Omo-hyoid, Thyro-hyoid, Genio-hyoid, Mylo-hyoid, Stylo-hyoid, Stylo-pharyngeus, Rectus cap- 61 Q. , af! l J . 1 g . 3. Q, vi Q 539 n Y i if R . 1 Y F1 ,IQ 1, ff, 'H 1,4 3 4 Y, , ii' vi VV i i 1 17 'X'- 9 ,TN 'S ,-5.f:"Q fx 'il gif' xg! X gf P' 1 f if ,. 'G f x , , 1 ir, lv ww' I 1 4 Q 1 ' I 5:5- :wx 1 ,, U . 232 ' 1?-19 ff l I IP 4. J I . ' I 6 11, I In -X ,x , ,4 i 1 ,,1 4, . QM ,W Q, JI fini' +!,1f1'E5 .EX ww f 5: ' ' W W 1 f -gg x vi iylywvwi Nj v I , , F12 K "' f Au rx " JI 13" 4 . if 5. i ff : u, , t n 4 I ' '.v N' 'x A ' :Muf f :Lf A QV., f : W ' fWIv 'i 3 Wm 7 up Wx gp NO N l' .V A L!! '.. X AM , X ,f A xx xx 4 A , FIGURE I6. THIRD DIVISION. THE EXERCISE OF HEAD, ARJIS AND LEGS IN THEIR RELATION TO THE TORSO, TO TIIE END OF DE- VELOPING AND SECURING THE VITAL UNITY OF IIIOVEMENTS AND ATTITUDES. N the physiological design of the muscular system all the different groups of muscles are so arranged as to assist each other in every effort. If the muscles that sustain any particular member are called upon to perform any task, usually several other groups automatically volunteer their services in aid of the leading one. The muscles of the trunk of the body are, in all normal exercises, called upon to sustain the efforts of the upper and lower extremi- ties. Again, if the arms and legs are exercised in the right manner, such as the structure of the organf ism demands, there is a reflex action brought to bear upon the muscles of the torso which increases its vital power. 63 In this way there is a reciprocal benefit obtained by the trunk of the body, and the neck, arms and legs. Every exercise that an arm or leg takes should involve, in addition to its own muscular develop- ment, a definite exercise of some part of the torso. A teacher of physical culture should always become certain of what effect an exercise will have upon the trunk of the body, the arms and legs are the natural servants of the body in all their physical uses. Movements of the arms and legs should have as their ultimate purpose the strengthening and vitaliz- ing of the torso, and should be definitely arranged to this end, because in the torso is the factory of life. Two questions, at least, are always to be asked regard- ing the correctness of every exercise. First,- Wliat will the exercise do for the part that leads ? Second,-VVhat will it do for the trunk of thefbody? The object of all the exercises in this division is first, to develop the trunk of the body by means of exercis- ing its branches, second, to develop the branches 5 third, to establish unity between all the parts in accomplishing definite ends. 64 FIRST EXERCISE OF THE THIRDIDIVISION. The person is supposed to maintain a perfect stand- ing position, as in Fig. 1, during this entire exercise. Take a full breath and hold it in the lungs by means of the contraction of the superior Qor falsej vocal cords. Wliile the breath is thus held, turn first the right ar1n around, lifting it up and carrying it over back, thus revolving it like a wheel upon its axis -the shoulder representing the axis, and the arm the wheel, as in Fig. 17. In each revolution carry the arm back as far as possible. Repeat this move- ment with the right arm, then exercise the left arm in the same manner, then both arms together. One breath may be held during the entire exercise 5 or it is better for all but the strongest to take one breath and hold it, in the inannerdescribed, during the two revolutions of the right arm, then to exhale and take another breath and hold it while the left arm performs its revolutions, then to let out breath and inhale a third time, holding the breath during the simultaneous revolutions of both arms. If dizziness should ensue, take less breath and change it oftenerg dizziness oitener comes, however, from not assuming an elastic manner than from holding the breath too long. 65 As the strength increases the breath can be held a longer timeft HYGIEN IC VALUE. First the apexes of the lungs are filled with air. From many years of study and observation I am convinced that the apexes of the lungs neverfill With- out the closing of the false vocal cords and the simul- taneous relaiing of the muscles of inspiration. I will say more of this when naming the muscles involved taking this exercise. Consumption, as a rule, commences in the apexes of the lungs. The cause for this is that, for some time previous to the deposit of tubercles, the air cells are not properly filled during respiration, and therefore are, in a measure, collapsed, which weakens the Walls of the cells until there is not suflicient tone in the tissue to resist a foreign deposit. Therefore tubercles are deposited in these debilitated walls. That is not all, When the apexes of the lungs do not fill there follows, itSorne have questioned this exercise on the ground that it may abnormally distend the air cells. A profounder knowledge of physi- ology would clear the mind of this objection. One cannot voluntarily hold the breath long enough to cause abnormal distention of air cells 3 but, on the other hand, holding the breath by means of the superior vocal cords for a time prevents fixity of air cells, and quickens their contractility instead of producing distention. 66 L2 r f , J : i K M sk I x Q xi -3 '- x, ., , X X x - '- '. 'H . X x 1 J H . i" I 'ig A f'-SKEEUX ,Qgggxx xl . KQLI f I , le Q' V V 1 'PI is S .. .2 X Q ss! k 1 fl 1' E ' KH! K ' a I 6 , I - Lf n f i . Ali ' ' , , y. , 1 f A .. L 11 5 E w lg: kg, 'L 6,4 ff ff 1 FI Af A-xF'n45?'x, QA ,qy N ' ',.':'l ' ' ,rf - ' v 51 t ,- . , 12 , V . I .s L' A ,gp .fbi J ,Si ' fi' V' 'N . ,,Af, ,- HGUREII x L ' S ,V , - 'A , M4 ' 4 ,Q 2, ' Fi if 5. , , . . I Ll V , :VI 2 N1 Q 4. H- 5 .pl ff l: ! 1513 5 Q" 5 QI' g :V I i nf .f l -f n 1 ' PM 1 5, -2 1 1 ' :l s Q, it 2 QQ ! T- , H i VH I 11 1. Q: g l ef L V 5 H 2 ':. I n! ,, ,Mi Quik. Y fila- gel . A ,R iw -VI' auf -1 In flwi 1 , FHM gifsf . QV is 1 +5 R 1: T. . ip 1 'x 1 3 I fm., fif axis, 5 :wx ,NH ww int .iff 1 1 :Ng I lei ,,i, w lii Q 2 4 " ' D uf , i -.,- 1 .2 7 s v F' Q i : if n y ' f 1 - r ,. , 'E 5 f' ' 5 1 - I Eff W 1 Q 'ral ' i :. - W. fn' " 'el ar' r i f' , u' g:, , ,Mi f A' ,Q , I f . , 'L f . 5 . 4 5 la I :Im a . xl " 1 T1 m e 2 VU ! Z gg g BW I v i glm f V1 i f Q1"I1 f .' sl : 'N i 1-, 1 ,IN 1.1 .MM f fi 1,' M ' 'IE ' ' ' , D 9 . f 1'5" ' . - , . 1. ,A I. ww' V, f , , I M , .-v f W U? r F n T Q I . I '5 W - 2 Q' A na - V i 19 ' 'f of necessity, a lack of oxygen in the blood, and, conse- quently, the blood becomes impure, which serves to increase the deposit in the lungs and devitalize the whole system. The nervous system is to a great degree dependent upon oxygen for its health and vigor, and if it is deprived of a part of its natural supply, it becomes more or less prostrated. Digestion and assimilation are retarded for want of a sufficient amount of natural stimulant, for the air that is breathed into the lungs is the natural tonic required by the stomach and assimi- lating powers. WV e see from the 'foregoing that from this exercise, while it frees and develops the muscles of the shoulder and arm, the chief benefit derived is health of the lungs and through them health of the whole person. That is not allg life itself may depend, in many cases, upon the practice of this exercise. I have known some cases of incipient consumption to be cured by it. s PR INCIPAL MUSCLES INVOLVED. Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Subclavius, Serra- tus magnus, Deltoid, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres major, Teres minor, Subscapularis, Coraco- 67 ---QF 1 1 , i brachialis, Biceps flexor cubiti, Brachialis anticus, Triceps extensor cubiti, Subanconius. We must also include all the muscles of respiration, both the inspiratory and expiratory, which constitute at least sixteen pairs. WVe see by this what a vast numlrer of muscles are exeroisecl, anal that all of them are eomlrinetl in one effort to strengthen the lungs ancl through them to give vigor to everg part of the hoclg. This exercise of swinging the arms in a rotary manner is not original with me, but doing so while holding the breath with the vocal cords, was first taught by myself, so far as I know. The chief Value of this exercise is not in swinging the arm, but in exerting all these muscles for the benefit of the lungsg therefore Very little comparative beneiit is derived from it unless the breath is held in the lungs lrg means of the vocal oorcls. That this subject of respiration may become clearer to the reader, I will explain the moclus operancli of NORMAL BREATHLNG. Vlfhen inhaling, the diaphragm, which is a muscle of inspiration, is contracted, and thereby lowered, the floating ribs are drawn away' laterally, and the long ribs are liftedg thus by these movements on the part 68 3 i I I 4 I l 4 'e U l K , E fi 1 F H 1 gi 9 x l 'f 5 . li l L: 5 ifi 4 Q ,w 1 T '53 ! I p f l , frm : ' ' V -11,1 -- of the floor and walls of the thorax, the cavity of the chest is greatly increased, so that the lungs can be made to hold many cubic inches of air g but there is one thing' to be particularly noticed, viz.: that the expansion of the thorax is principally at and near the base, hence the air will be taken into the lower parts of the lungs. while the apexes will not fill at all during inhalation.. lVhen a perfectly healthy person has fully inhaled, the superior vocal cords close simultaneously with the relaxing of all the muscles of inspiration and the contraction of all the muscles of expiration. These latter muscles drive the air upward, but it cannot. escape easily from the lungs because the superior vocalf. cords, by their contraction, have closed the glottis, and they must be driven apart by the air being forced upw between them. lVhile the breath is escaping with such dimculty, it will be driven into the apexes of the- lungs. This statement may be questioned, and as I have no- authorities to quote in reference to the part the vocal? cords take -in kealtlzy 9'espirati0n, no one ever having' attributed this action to the superior vocal cords, I willl briefly state my reasons for believing this to be their oflice. First, Dr. Polk and other writers upon phthisis have said that the air during inspiration always tends toward 69 the base of the lungs, and that consumptive patients fail to fill their lungs during respiration for some time previous to more active symptoms. This led me to try to discover what causes the apexes of the lungs to fill in a healthy person. I experimented, hrst with a healthy puppy, and discovered a coniirmation of the statement of Writers on this subject, that the air during inspiration all tends to the base of the lungs, and that the apexes do not fill during inhalation. I was soon able to see, by this examination of the higher order of animals, that the ajaexes, whenever filleel, were fillecl cluring expiration of breatli. After obtaining this cue from the animals, I Was able to detect, by listening to the respiration of the human lungs, that the apexes were Hlled during expiration only. As yet I was not able to decide whether it was the inferior or the superior vocal cords that acted in con- nection with the muscles of expiration. Finally, becoming acquainted with Dr. Cutter, who has revealed so much of the action of the larynx by means of his skilful use of the laryngoscope, and While looking into his larynx I discovered that it was the superior vocal cords that acted With the muscles of expiration. '70 r 3 x K- X- xx -S x. 'N ,P RM 4 4- 1, w- - ay. X X .5 , 4 N 1 'x ,rl . n a L N 1 X 'X , xv , xx .g . 3 j : , , 5 I X I ?i ., 4 1 ' 1 3 Arff-. - 'fl ' H :Fw.f . X , W, fu i 5 1' jf 'N x , s bf fr ,f ' S f' X 'f i' , 7 if ' XXX QA' XY fy "f 1 V 4615 xwh if? I .ig ' T VE 'SJTY' 2 Af 'L A 3 F - "'T f2,Qf'?+g"1g , ' 1' I 2 H ' W' Lt ' ! Y :A f " 5 ' I 4 92 ff S: 5 - ', ,S W J? 2 2 2 3?Q Vf: 57' 24 l fr' 7 QA, Q S f ' f 3? i , ,,,' . V Vx! I J if 'g gl 33 '.f . 3 iff? 2 .3 I' 1 s-LN I 5 . , Q - X. HGUREI8 I 1 2 I I . I I , I . 1 I . I I I rI I I 2 I i I if ,I A It is evident, therefore, that the superior or so-called 4' false vocal cordsl' have a natural use, which is so important that the continuation of life, for any reason- able time, depends upon their action. In many books of the past it is said that Hthe use, if there is any, of the superior vocal cords, is not fully knoxvnf' Some one has presented the theory that they have no use, but are the remains of some organ that was of value in the ancestry of the race. JESTHETIC VALUE OF THIS EXERCISE. The exercise reacts upon the carriage, especially in giving an elastic and radiant appearance to the whole person, for the entire exercise is of the most elastic class, being one that is based upon inovernents that relate to the elasticity of the air in the lungs. ,,.-1111..i.i.-.l BENDING EXER CISES. FIRST MOVEMENT.-FORXVARD BEND. Place the heels together, or nearly so, carrying out the toes so that the feet, taken together, form a right angle. 71 Take a good standing position, in Fig. 1. Carry the arnis up as high as possible, placing them each side of the head and pushing with the ends of the fingers in a way to stretch the entire person, as in Fig. 18, then with a sweeping forward curve, describing an arc of as large a circle as possible, carry the ends of the fingers toward the floor QFig. 195, aiming to reach it as soon as the practice of this and the other exercises has inade the body suliiciently elastic. Let all the joints bend that will aid in reaching the floor, except the knees. After holding this position a second, rise slowly to normal position, allowing the arnis to fall easily at the sides of the person. If this exercise is taken. rightly the chest will coine to its correct position first, then the head will resume its normal poise. SECOND MOVEMENT.--BACKNVARD BEND. Place the tips of the fingers of both hands lightly on the chest, as seen in Fig. 10, carry the head backward and down upon the back 3 in doing this, describe with the head as large an arc as possible. Do not let the body bend, but carry the head backward until the front part of the neck is severely pulled, and a powerful stretching of the muscles is realized, then, by bending 72 1 x I w 1 'l ' 1 M? U J V! 'x .1 Iii 1 l 7 5 1 i 1 ,.....X fi! ffl I .VKX u -ff'-':"'-irl,-gy.. ' A Tjbxg Q 512 - . X fir ffii ,M 1f,,,.-fu' ' ' - f ' N15-gif W ff, 1 'Q 'i ,f 54-M1 , V+ my Nw yy ,ff1'.,WZf'-M JW A 27,1 ' y l My ff wr' wwf! WM E! 'f,WfjX -Q'iS,f1fflffQjQIf 47 Q NNW! 7 M QXQ3Qv .f13I3 XA3 f f ': I I '- X x n x'.XN'.:XA '- I 1 1 1' f, iwffh1NY:,Q4?v'XX fy! ' s M U " xg ,UA N .x 'N Qbffp QQXX MBV' -gg 'Wi if U-5: 'QXXQLEXX 1 F!GURE I9. 5 rl I I. . P if ' fx i f a.gi?,4:f'1. ' I if -aff' .Z 'I a I M X A f gf f Q! X " A nt! :K I H , '- I an Kay X ly wsrikfgf Mi' ' mf' NU 7 "ff 'SN 6 V' XX 'fav W F W X NW ,xx k -. - if L Hf'1t!'. f!NH"xU NNN , ' Xxx - N WT mp. w is 'w1 M g Nw, Q SQ H' lx: V w x , 59 X- w e 35, ?', I I. PFW r '53 ? T XQPx XY-J FIGURE 20, i 4 1 Q, 1? E P1 TF I K w I, F. R1 GH I fi. f If. :ll Q ,Nl 'Q w 5 JI If ' wi 19 1 5 Y W g p Q 1 l 45 E , L 5 I. I l I 1 J , l 3 v r W 'l , 46 1 , 1 K the knees, allow the body to go backward and down, not bending the back but keeping it as straight as pos- sible, feeling the weight and strain in the legs only, not allowing any effort to be felt in the back, then come slowly up, leaving the head upon the back until the torso is in normal position, when that is erect, poise the head and carry the arms to the side. THIRD MOVEMENT. - LATEILAL BEND. Carry one arin up over the head, as in Fig. 20, then bend towards opposite side from the arm raised, keep- ing the weight upon the foot of the same side of the arni that is raised, and carrying the other foot directly out at the side in a way to form a graceful curve extending from shoulder to foot, bring the body slowly up to position, then return head, arm and foot to nornial position. Repeat the exercise with the opposite side. FOURTH MOVEMENT. -FORYVARD DIAGONAL BEND. Take the sanie position and exercise as in forward movement QFig. HD, only this time carry a hand each side of the toes of the right foot, instead of directly in 73 front of the body, then slowly come back to position as before. Repeat this exercise with the other foot as guide, after the following first backward diagonal bend. FIFTH MOVEMENT.-BACKVVARD DIAGONAL BEND. Place the ends of the hngers of both hands lightly upon the chest, as in Fig. 10 5 without moving the body carry the head back and down towards the left heel and pull the head backward in such a line as to feel a stretching of the neck as close to the right side of the trachea as is possible, then, by allowing the knees to yield, bend toward the left heel Qsee Fig. QD, rise as before to position, bringing the head to position after the torso has its poise, then carry the arms to the sides. Repeat this exercise, after that of the fourth movement with the opposite heel guide. HYGIENIC EFFECT. This group of exercises causes such a continuous stretch of the muscles, from the head to the feet, and also throughout the entire length of the arms as searches out all the muscles that from lack of proper development are in any degree feeble. It develops great freedom and strength in the muscles throughout the Whole system. 74 i 1 l If ' ,' .. , If 1 'PZXW f I, 1, ,XIQ -ffn-,--. ' i ff" 1 ,Af ' 'f 4 ,f .' ' ' --, 41- ,1 ,n K wwe, I 1, ly., X WWA, 'J' 1 H f Jff' fi, 1 ,.V Z Tz5,ff, 4l , J. V .. 4,f. f ' ' .VA ' f' ,H-. ' yi 1-.',,,!? V AX m VI! If . .A 'f,yfm1 it V ' ' , s In Q, Eff V1 L ff' as "ml 4, 1' 5 m w r R I ,W Qf,' .' IIN! l. , ' . 5. 1 , 1 ,-I' I , , ' x , '- 'N X ' A 4 L x -Q N ' 5, AQ 'Q Q X- xl X' l ' ' X 1 xxx X ,L iw. HM z A n , v ,lx WV xt' ' X w wa- SL NX 1 XZW WZXX X X Mx rw s 'wx byxx JR X .1f,,r'.1'f' VJ! ,ffg M. f A ' .N 4 ,Wg 291 1, K V '. if Q '- :ff if N 1 ayfa. 1 A ,,f f - .lf X A 'fy K f K I ?l !f 7 M4734 IR 'f nl hi X !g f N5 ff' A I 1 X f . ,,l X, 1- azz: , -,1Ll,,I,f A 1. fn, ', w .,, 1.,, I X41 -M 'fs L fs A 1l!!"1:f,'xx ul A :fx ' I Q 'Mx , .1 X, . J- MMR ,A 'LU lx" ' Q nu ' 5wt,Li,,i.,. WM N51 W Xt! fn, ff X lx u. , ' I: V Nix tx n xx , QR jk A f xx :SX X NX N 1 M X X wx VF xX X r ' .f f y A hu 5 .,. mid WW l W N X wL xN , . ' Nix 'XxxWM1f4f'ff1f:i 'f1.555ff W QQ Q A A Xw IN - k XX N Y Xisirff ' J' K xxx XSS A 5--Q IIMQZ' ' 'gify V wx f,fmffwm f f X X ,l x . X. xl E L , V, f X X NX kj X.--' " - rr ' X xx , A X T-5-I . L ,. ", X ,xXX5.X - K Ax- f. 'Ax WN x xg .,. . xg -:L . ,-12... . . ' A X - ' X is --- ' .- .,-- 111 .1,,- F' "":' X ' . ' ' . i- Af'- FIGURE 2l. ' . K sl' ' 1 'Q 'T- ix 'Q I 5 J r i f v s a f il f if .i f .lf ii Ejilslwg f'?'5' i,E . All-ETX. Eiffj 'QEE :IMIHV ,Wy jiiwlw-, wil .V Ne. sm. ,Iii uw, 1 Ar QF. f v x !!1:f af" JVF. ? NM My WH' jug sw Q. gui lul X. 1'1" lug- 55: we Z 'G ? f . i 4 i ai- V, pg! s . f x 'Q !+ . 1.2, 1 1 ' ' 13 U, A fl L: , Z . 1. Lu Ls 'gl , . .N 31 y Q +I.: 0 :gf Q.: ,wg 2 1 E5 Q I Q 1 3 I V 1 5 M U a til 1 Q . Wf' 1 1 H ip ly . . Q FV f 1 - w ' v I ff A ' A w i v 2 . ? 2 E ' S 9 ' Q15 i if N 212 Y 1 I ' I FEW 4 Hi? 'L Fifi? f - ' ff-512 4 E - f. 1 ' 1 A .- .1-.,f. 3 H 'W' i . ' 11,1 W 1 h Q., 513335: 1 + I Ni WV 1 F IW? f ? g 5- ' Fl ri 'S - !- Ng- , " W . Y . ' 'N s . 'H+ x ' Qg j s fa I .i A f L , 'g 5 . . H ' sf l x . 4 A D . ' K I K fvkr if ,. V. No other exercises can do more to equalize the circulation of the blood through all parts of the body. They develop what is sometimes called 44 staying qualitiesf' that is, they enable one to endure hardships, and strengthen the body in such a way as to overcome the sense of weakness about the waist, back, and stomach, which many people experience, and which they express by saying: HI do not feel as though I could hold myself up when sitting, and, therefore, I always feel as though I must lean on something." It will be observed that while one set of muscles is contracted to its utmost degree of power the op- posite set is being stretched to its greatest extent. Muscles cannot be developed to their highest con- dition by contraction alone, nor by being stretchedg but being alternately contracted and stretched will cultivate them most perfectly. ESTHIETIC VALUE. Continuity of line through all parts of the person is obtained. There is an evenness of development gained in all the parts, giving roundness, fulness, and symmetry. 75 Caution: Omit this exercise until the pupil has practised . a great deal upon all the other exercises given in this and the previous divisions. MUS CLES INVOLVED. All the voluntary muscles except those of head and face. . igl-... l-Q REA CHING EXER CISES. FIRST MOVEMENT.-- LATERAL STRETCH. Take the entire weight upon one footg swing the other around the strong' leg as in Fig. 5, touching the heel of the foot upon which the weight is placed, with the heel of the other, then carry free foot out at the side as far as you can reach with the inner edge of the toe without swaying the iloodydg liftn the opposite arm directly toward the side of the head Qletting the hand fall passiveD until head and arm meetg next, depress the arm just enough to bring the palm of hand up so that the fingers will point upward, and push with the palm of the hand until you have reached position seen in Fig. 225 then come slowly and . 76 4 l H 5 D I 5 I K I 5 i s , 5 I i 1 1 1 , ll V Z E ir 3 3' Alf f' 4 g . V 'lrggsxbx , 'Dim ,X I f L f f' NW N 1 X f fwx X 1+ X f '1 I W XM gli f' X X W ' M , A W xx U: x . S! A W I , ,, NH . W mlm my L V I 'VI .inn -url-I1-1 K :-- ' - if R 1 , JH ll XX XX XX Y xx X X N' J njzfw ?Yi3 ,, '?l. x J 5 w if I ' 'Zig ' X 'J ' , Z ' V Qi av ff-Q ,Q ' HGURE22 4-5 W FIGURE 23. F'- I I I I I I I I I II ,. II II I -I I II II I I I I I II II II I II I I I I I II Ii I I I II' gracefully back to position. Repeat this exercise with the other foot and hand. SECOND MOVEMENT.-BACKXVARD DIAGONAL STRETCH. Take the weight on the foot first used in the lateral stretch, swing the other foot as before, this time touching the hollow of the strong foot with the heel of the free foot, forming nearly a right angle, and carry the free foot out in the direction the toe points, until the toe touches the Hoor as far from the other foot as it can be carried, being careful not to sway the body g then raise the opposite arni in front, describing an arc as you carry it backward until it forms an angle of forty-five degrees with the head, then straighten the arm and push in the direction it points until the foot is carried from the floor and the attitude seen in Fig. 23 is reachedg coine back to normal position, allowing the arm to describe the same are as it did in taking the position. Transfer the weight to the other foot and repeat the exercise. THIRD MOVEMENT. --FORXVARD DIAGONAL STRETCH. Retain the weight on the strong foot used in last exercise, swing the other foot, carrying it forward as 'TT I 1 I I I 1 1 I 111 I I 1 I I I I 1 II II 1 +I 1 1 ,E 1 .I1 I .,, 11- 1 I I I II I 1 1 1 I 111 I I I 1 I 1 I -' 11 .i 1- 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1 .., 1 I I I . I 7 I If I fl 1 Ii 'I' 1 ' ' 1 . 1 ' I I1 1 11 I 1 - I I I I l 1 1 1 Q 1 I I I I Y I . 1 1 I 41 I Q . I 'I have cured several young persons of this disease. The stomach is exercised with great vigor. These exercises give strength and power of endurance to the entire person. They prepare one for carrying burdens 5 for the individual, each time he reaches in this manner, overcomes the resistance of opposing muscles, and, in addition, may put forth sufficient strength to lift his own weight. EEST I-I ICT I C VALUE., These exercises develop symmetry, and prepare the body to take easily and habitually such a posture in standing and walking as will express a spirit of nobility and radiant manhood or womanhood. They cultivate harmony of action between the sides of the body. An awkward person conveys the impression that his sides are compelled to live near each other much a.gainst their wills. This appearance is not always confined to persons of low breeding, but is often seen in those of refinement of mind and morals, the reason being that the body, for want of physical culture, cannot express the condition of the life within. Man has a dual nature composed of feeling and intellect. In the finely cultured these are happily 79 joined, the feelings being consistent with reason, con- sequently the character is beautiful. The body is an expression of the soul, it, too, is dual, possessing tivo brains, tvvo hearts Qthough joinedj, and two lungs. In the external form the same duality is apparent in its members, a right arm and leg involving right half of torso, left arm and leg involving left half of torso. In rude persons the sides seem to move as separate individualities. This same dual principle is manifest in the muscular system. The muscles, except four or five, are all in pairs, and are 44 symmetrical With reference to the median plane of the body." Feelings in the uncultivated are Wild, and entirely unregulated by reason, the intellect is cold and severe, unsoftened by the feelings 3 but in the cultivated, feeling is guided by reason, and reason is vvarmed by feeling. This condition of the inner-being has its counterpart in. the body, in the relation the sides sustain' to each other in attitude and movement. Nature has created a demand for culture in all organic being. It is as necessary to educate the sides of the body in relation to each other, as it is to educate thought and feeling in their spiritual relationship. The cultivation of the latter results in Christian grace, that of the former in physical tgracefulness, and thereby the body becomes 80 a fit and beautiful medium for the expression of Christian grace. M USC LICS INVOLVED. Nearly all the muscles of the neck, which have been named in connection with the neck exercise, making it unnecessary to repeat them here, and the muscles which connect shoulder and chest. All the muscles of the arms and legs and body. In short, all the voluntary muscles of the entire person, except those of the head and face are involved. E .YE 1? CI S 15' F013 S TI? EN G TI I EXI .YG CEN TR ES A ND FIIEEING S URFA CES. Take a good standing position. Make the head, shoulders, chest and spine very strong, as if expecting to carry a great weight upon the head, prepare at the same time to resist with resolute determination a push from the front or back, not allowing the body to be swayed in any direction by any force, however powerful. , Lift the forearms to a horizontal position pointing front and parallel to each other. Do not hug the arms S1 to the sides nor push the elbows out, but let the arms hang easily from shoulders. Put no energy whatever into the wrists nor into any part of the hand. See Fig. 25. Now swing the forearms rapidly up and down with all your might, but do not let the swinging of the arms move the body in the least. The ideal effort is to throw the arms with all the power of the person, and at the same time to maintain perfect repose of body. After swinging the forearms up and down, whirl them round in a circle, first one way and then the other, and finish the exercise by repeating the first movement and returning to normal position. Practise this exercise from one to two minutes. ESTI-IETIC VALUE. One of the most charming effects of proper physical culture is that it gives the person the appearance of being very strong in centres and free in periphery. i In contrast to the object sought in this exercise, is the clumsy appearance of persons who are in the habit of moving heavy weights with their hands, for example, the hard working stone mason, or any other laborer whose hands are compelled to perform heavier 82 ' a A f ,Im ff! ' f' ,,, . 5 ff r 1 JL Q' .1 1' I i Q J i fy, If I f ,L-2 My v, fl 4 1 -1. . II 'ii X :-x,"'2 - , . . . I -I-5 ' I XXX ' 'r X f f Y ISRGSSX if X3 WIP, :I 1 1 ! 5 xl 'K g . 5 S 3 L ,. 'f 1 I ,- A ' i 5 f L 5 .,-ffs.,...., iw 5 - ,fi X , V "xg 'Tu 1 ff H 'X 1 Nf- , L V, x , Z ' ' fs , irfi '. - ' v' 1 .,Z X 'ffm 5 4 12 L . f , M. I ' 1 'x,, f F, 3 'xT',L:, 4 E 1, 5' ,Y , f, s , . J Z 5 J 4"' Q f 4, 5 X 2 A 1 x I I . Q' 3' K '. 3 ' 3 x : . ax , I E 1 "' f A V , gf ff ff' 2' gf 1: v ,E 1 'R 4, . 'k .gy -N -H ,ff , ' jf: rf-..-. 'Z I ' 4' 5- ,L 5 . ,. 1, ' x i 7 gig-' 'V if f' 'Yx,f gg -,l FIGURE 25. I I I I I I I I II I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I If I fI -figu- I I I I1 I' I I I IH 'I I Work than the energy of the chest impels. This appearance is very noticeable in persons who practise heavy gymnastics. Such attract attention to their hands by every movement, and are always very con- scious of these members when in society. In order to obtain and preserve grace, the muscles of the chest and shoulders should habitually exert more force than should those of the hands. The great force is in the muscles of the trunkg the effort should grow less as the extremities are approached. This fact should serve us as a guide in our study of physical culture. The hand should ever suggest skill, as distinguished from the force that impels. It should never look helpless Csuch a hand is disgusting, no matter how beautiful its formj but should indicate ability to perform its true office, viz. : to obey the mandates of the intellect. A FOURTH DIVISION. ' v ,......l... . EXER CISES EOE 'THE DEVELOPMENT OF HARMONY i OF MUSOULAR MOVEMENTS. y E now enter upon the fourth division of physical exercises which We name,-the relation Of diferent groups of muscles to each Other. i i ' UPVVARD MOVEMENTS IN CURVES. Wieight entirely upon the loall of right foot, heel lightly touching the floor, left leg and foot perfectly passive. With Wrist and hand passive, raise the right arm half Way between front and side, carry it up besidethe head as if to carry it over the shoulder. At the point Where the forearm is nearly on a level With top of the head Qdo not be too precise about the altitudeb let the arm descend, the forearm 'leading and ' 84 " I 5 i . 5 1 I i L A u y , W 4 1 M 7 f f , ,WI7 ' if M51 ,mia ' ' Q , l H .--rl: ff I s if 4 , 4 K I , 5 l I ! y 1 'vm .4 1 x i X 2 5, it lf ' - ' f 5 V ,L 3:4 f' . ' ul 5 . ' gjifglxx E dggf' IVAQQ P 3.7 If X 1 7 . K f ll". . W , 11 1. X 4 ' '3 A L -, ,V I' ' X. MA' JT? A' ' 1 e'.-1- ' . X! Q- , r' I A " ' ' ,I Tr- 1 , . k-':- Tax K 'JP' L s ' K 'Y X 1 f' x xx , . , 1 A ,X if 9- f X. X X r A x 3 X - x' f A 1 A2 f. -X . il-'42 W 1 3 1 Q 2 'g 1 e ,ix W ffl Q 1 V 5 J " f W, , A 3 , 1 .Qi 1 ' ,,i . , 1 ' X Q5f :e Ei W 2 1, , Q13 ' Har ,ry by K 5' , 5 ' 3 f -fm ra 4 - -L, 1' , 2 J? Q ' 1, . 'Vffwffffw' 1 4 . ., 1-f xw- f:f?.,g,r ' 5:2 2? 5 ' Ein Q3 1 V 'ff' z 'ixmgzziiy R L V . .ggvgla H , ' I- ,V mg 40315, ' ' v ' 'Af ,., f".1,3NM 3 E , -4. ','1-gas' "' -,ri . ,..-' 4 'ng-pf f ji ,R ." -'J the hand following Qsee Fig. 265. Never allow hand or wrist to lead in any exercise of this division. As the arm slowly descends carry it to a position about thirty degrees back of the hip Qsee Fig. 272. Again, raise the arm and draw it down as before, this time leaving it in a passive state by the side. Now draw the free foot up to the heel of the other, and, without attracting attention to the movement, transfer the weight, and repeat the exercise with other arm. lVhile the arm is moving up and down it is expected that the head will move slightly in an opposite direction. Next 'lraw the free foot near the other and take the weight equally upon both, then lift both arms, bring them down and carry them back as in the single arm movement. Raise them again and as they descend allow them to approach each other until the thumbs nearly touch at an altitude corresponding to that of the chest, then slowly lower them till they fall easily by the sides. Lift them the third time till the hands are directly over the head Csee Fig. 285, then extend the arms later- ally right and left Qpalms of hands and ends of lingers toward each otherj until they are straight out at the sides and on a level with the shoulders. Now raise the arms C the forearms leading, as in Fig. 29, hands, with S5 palms up, followingj until the palms nearly touch above the head. Turn the arms till the palms of image are presented right and left,.when the arms again descend to a level with the shouldersf From this point .raise them until the backs of hands nearly touch 'above' the head, as in Fig. 30 g carry them forward and down' to ag level with face, palms directly in front, ffingers extended upward, thumbs within one of two inches of each other. in In this positioni push 1 gently and elastically, then turn the armsso that the palms are presented toward face, the lingers 'pointing toward each otherj carry the arms out rightand left and finally permit them to rest by the sides. i i i l l 4 5 l f As the arms move up anddown in this exercise, the head moves slightly in obedience to the law of. ojoposii tion inthe parts. As the arms move' simultaneously right and left from any 'point' the' head remains ini repose. i 1, f ' ,' 1' Take the weight -upon 'right foot, etc., 'as' directed in first exercise of this division. With the front 'of forearm leading, 'carry fthe' right arm upward iasi if about tolay the palm on the top of the head. 'Let the arm stop when if the hand is within about 'four inches' of the top, side and 'front of head Qsee' Figf 313, and slowly return the arm to former position. Repeatthis movement. t Now with the back of forea 86 x 7 4? 11' i I , e 2 L 4 V ! H gf! 27? li OT! ? 9 I ,ix la 1- i ! L I 1 5 . 1 yn s Q1 I4 f,- Q if . if Ls Z I 'f ,S -1 M if z ,w 1 Q ,lf FIGURE 28 I- AV , .. , nxt f .w fff v xl l X 1' SX Q.: ww ,K X f 1 7' I 1 I, ff I fi ' , .-W m i , N . , -f W .. , X J- ,-.k L dy m1QQ:Q w wf Fr E , 'fl s, . .J M N,,,,,., ': , A,,,,,.,,.,,XM,'QA. .,. QM-H, , 5, ,A '4' -,,,.N- .mv-' '- ' ' 1 A ' ,,,.y:,, 1.,,,,,-f- 4 jj' ,,,,,.."' 1 E1 re.. ah 5-,,1:::A 2ff':i1,.f.w Q . I.-45 f " inf - YN Q-,L '71 ""' Q' . '-- 'wx H.. ' W 'V Q'35'Q-ffl? -iffffkigi-3 f 17' , , 'M K ,fm V' QA , . .K ff.. fc-wf'fr"'f?LT"' ff-32. ' ' - - f X ,wx W ff-'.,: wry? f,.A,'!r'. .rf guw ,:,,,,.-.4 ,.,+.-3. --A A. ., -A , """,f4f"x4,..-Jff-- 3. ,,.x,v"1w-ff '...4f " 0 . . Q .:., 47- fu ' ,H -' n Hg- .: Q ' Q ,,, jygw .E 1 x., .- . . x, N ,, ,V f- X '1"'..,- 'fx x, , xx . 3 3- 'L' K 1 '. I ,Tiff , a ? I . . -4- . .yvlf 2 1 Y - - 4-V , Tv.. +I. wg if HGURE 29. arm leading swing the arm in a graceful curve across the -torso up and over in front of the head, as if describing an oval around chest and head, Qsee F ig. 325, thence down to the side with palm upg raise the forearm slightly, presenting the palm, then return the arm quietly to iirst position. Repeat. Transfer the weight to the left foot and repeat the entire exercise. LATEHAL 3IOV1CMlCX'l'S IX GUI-LYES. 'Weight upon right foot as before described. Witli forearm leading carry the right arm up until it is within about two inches of the chest, and the ends of the lingers are about four inches from the left shoulder Qsee Fig. Now carry the arm around toward the right side until it points directly out from the shoulder, with the palm front Qlfig. 345, draw it back to former posi- tion near chest, twist the arm till the palm is turned outward, and again carry the arm around and out at the sideg return arm to its position near chest, then turn it till the pahn is downward and the edge of hand outward, repeat the movement of arm toward the right, draw it back toward chest till about half-way, then allow it to drop slowly by the side. S7 Transfer the weight to left foot and repeat exercise with left arm. FORWARD MOVEMENTS IN CURVES. Take weight upon the right foot, etc., as in former exercises. 4 i With back of forearm leading raise the right arm so as to bring the hand beside the head, with palm to the front, fingers pointing upward, as in Fig. 35. With hand in this position extend the arm forward, as if repulsing an object QFig. 36j, then return the arm to position with hand beside the head, again extend the arm and bring it back to the side of the head, in which position the arm presents a graceful curve. Now carry the back of forearm, describing an are of a circle, over and forward until it forms an angle of about ninety degrees with the head 3 raise the forearm slightly, allowing the hand to open freely as seen in Fig. 37g then bring the arm, with front of forearm leading, down to its normal position at the side. Transfer the weight to the left foot, and with corres- ponding arm, repeat these last movements. 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' ,, I I' ' . . - ' '2'fi-.,'..24mi,V.E..L,f:f::.fzfs -':ff.I2ZVIz"2:Fi53311:C1it:.tf.sai55f21f1.f-'v 4I::.ff'v- ge5.Vig:a:s:ZV'2I -. ::+--f"'--r:efi-g- Y-' f'fv1+ V""Vf2'k N ...TGI-'3sgfgz:.5si x2:':r1:?-q.2'I:V,V "'P:'.ff,::Q,:,,-'ffVg.5I--.V:.r .555-'5-,3551-.I1I:5'-Iz,-5234Q'-,-gsm-V., 4I,I..I., ...' .-g f " 'I:.I,5.3':.:fZf 13221 ..-fri-::V.-f2sa-f:-iVI,-g.,,:Q.rf' .- 4 S125 fx 'i'21f-Sfmzs 5 -, fi 'gg-:5:I.:,I-V.-3,:,.,g-5.I.5-jzw,-I :'. j-5.51. Qfsnqzrmeviqgag-51I.325,.5,rf-2,451513:75.1151415233'5I:I5:11-.:.,:g,:y::g5:g,g,:::ag:5:rg1a.:.j 3,32-V -v K 4 '-Q:-:--.:Vf.'.4':-ffm:-.:'-.Vy:V--r,:1-Vf.:-:V:I.I.:--.--...fm :.,Zl2g3Ke?6xI2f:Ns:i:rs:w4-1-.---V-zf-1x2-fL'V:f-N:-ameiizz:-25:-:f--.IfssN3112:-1-Mm3336522-flilf-'1:e1"'Qk3's1'?':V:?w1"3f?2--V"- ':::':1-:MAN we2x2f-maf-.4k1-fr-X::r!'-"- WV-sw -. 1 -"' K' " + .M Pig V--V. . . V . . , . , - -,.-.245-..-4:+:.g -.V V . - A xiii,-, -, -I IK M - F .,-53--.31 X-H I! FIGURE 30. 1 -r .', I -1 1 Y 1 E!A Q Qlfx w 11' . 45.. ' I 'fgQ'y6X 1 1 Xx.xj7 K I, X xx .W I f' S V M I A F 3 4 . . 'Y 1 A ' if , f T . i . 4 ' ' 1 X -K-Q gi e ,s., V-,H . ..x - 5. "X'X1:Jl " ix A-2Qf,t 1 I K I, . u-,,..,.,i-X I A x K. I ri , E 3 4 ,N ,' 1 'Q xg 6 M ' 1 V ' ' X- 1 1 gf 1 fa Ev 1 R 1 Y f Q f v f ! 1 x 1, J if 4 A 1 f ff' J HGURE 3L R P ig ,i ' I W n A ! ,A 1 L HW rg 4 5336 W n E ' 5 if 5 I HM 1 .U 1 15 1 2- K:, :- li' 52 .' A ni' I If i ia? ,. 51 1 5 V 'I ri Q QE I ' 3 EL ,1 1 ES I x W N1 U iw V Q, A Ir ' L M qw' ' N i ,4 I 45 !' i r I 1 1! 'I fl i 5 S in H YG I EN IC Y.-X LU Ii. At the time the exercises of the fourth division are begun, the forces of the system are in a high state of activityg the heart is beating rapidly, and the lungs are correspondingly working with great speed, so that respiration is rapid, as one would quickly realize if he should attempt to read aloud, or speak for any length of time, at the close of the third division of exercises. The entire arterial system is pulsating in a way to send the blood through the lungs very swiftly. If one should stop all exercise suddenly at the close of this third division, the legitimate beneiit would not be realized. One would not only fail to reap profitable results, but might seriously apprehend positive injury from violating the Zan' of 7'7zyz'7znz -in vulture. lf a violent, exercise is begun suddenly the danger is great, and it, is equally great if ended suddenly. There are records of positive injury, and not a few cases of sudden death caused by such exercises. One might naturally ask, if it would not be better to avoid vigorous exercise altogether. The proper and simplest answer to this question is, that the structure of the human system provides for such exercise, and therefore it ought to be taken. TVithout it reserve power could not be stored up in the organism. Science has so abundantly S9 demonstrated this truth that all doubts are removed from the minds of those who have given the subject any serious. study. But While vigorous exercise must be taken, it is equally necessary that suitable exercises for harmonizing the force thas generated should be practised also. The exercises described in this fourth division are for the purposelof meeting that require- ment. By them the dynamic force, which has been developed by the vigorous exercises, is transmuted into harmony of action, Which is as needful to the perpetuity of all organisms as is dynamic force itself. One of the most Wonderful principles of all natureis organisms and systems, is the perfect harmony With which they move. This is observable all through the planetary systems and up through the vegetable and animal organisms. Harmeng is a positive energg and not a negative gaalitg. This is Why I have said that the dynamic force developed by vigorous exercises must be trans- muted into harmony. The object is not Hto slow down," i. e., to reduce a force in the body, but to transmute it into something abiding. If you allovv vigorous exercise to become less and less vigorous, until the forces of the body are quiet as they were previous to taking the exercise, reaction and prostration follow. The effect of exercises taken r 90 , X f 2 ? 1 i 5 3 1 ? 1 1 T s 1 z e I Eu if I T F f 5 . 1 1 K K 1 1 5 S v 'I A r i ? 1 F ii za 5 A 5 1? L4 sl , 5 1 qk . . wi ' X4 1 X 3 x 'x gn rx . i I "' ' , 'xgrfzif 1 X . . V --Ii'-" L M' HNQ5 f k A ., is -, Y' 5 i 5 I v , Q I , ' xx , 1. vp' '.,, ,. Q . '-.Ny i-,,..,1 A .Q '-- ,I Q - ., 1 50? T' Q6 "rl-f. QV 'S .1 EY 7' f I :Q- 4 , X1 -. : i '31 . A., 4 ,, ' ,ff 11 Q 2 xl, 1 ,' 1- . ' 1 , I ,vw . 4 ' if ,Af ,L f, P. " 92' V. R f , , . M4 , . w r f 'M-H 5. 5 3 ,J , W. ,-' Y, mink :Q 4 N, ,, 5- . V. , fku? 1?-2917 ' 1" ff T if si :qi 5 4' .I Qx 5 , .1J41.C'fJ 1 1 . R .-2923" 4. A L M... X .l '15,-.jm, ak., r-Z " 1 '? 1 f f .'s-hy. . ac' 1 3 +iii.'f'Qsf'V 'IF fix 'iw' ,ff . .2 '7-57.137 HQ- ii ':f."1: 'fs ' f . . "lx, at - il ' ,x L L C 5 -A-...lku-11" . as K 5 ,N 5 ,. . , , 'vu 1 1 'V' 7 1, . , ' 5 Q,9.X , . 4 xiii: 6-51 . .2 ig .V 1522! 4 gin . 2 s' srr.i,.T v - - puwzk Bi' -Ayn ' , V-1 Q ,4 if 33 .Sf Wil. f'94Mf 4 1 4 " ' 5 .f ' , 1 2 772 in if . vw- 4 fa hi A. ' E, 7 1.5-.,3,ff V:-X V N ' ,.-3 Q ,fi .Yr gt: -,F V1 ,A ' 'Q,f'.f.'.3'5' - . "I:-J 3 1' X "'r --asf. 1 ' f-7-we...--'V s E-Ig' . '. 1' Q 'W fp", .T-'4 3- , A ftyrg' .1 -an --..,,. J 'Q - K-,,,.-J 'M' .21 isv"' HGURE33 in this manner tends toward weakness rather than strength. It is similar to the reaction consequent upon taking alcoholic or narcotic stimulants, except for the lingering poison of these stimulants. An llll1llCtll11AiLC and entire change of exercise is required in the form of l-IA RMK JN IZIXG MOVISMENTS which are found in the fourth divisionf A hint of this principle may he found in 1'lO11lC1'iS writings, where he describes the Greek warriors as entering upon athletic games when the battles with the Trojans are suspended hut fora day. Cnc might think that after such hloody conflicts they would rest, but they knew too inuch for that even at so early a period of their historlv. The Greek generals would not suffer such an enervating and deinoralizing influence to he exerted, in view of the anticipated struggles of succeeding days. By the egz'crcz'svs Qf this f0zzrt7r ciivision the nervous system is 1'cjf1'cs7zeJ and lZ'7IZ?Z'g07'C'lfCCZ. The nerves fur- nish the natural stimulant for muscular activity, and this stimulant is acting upon the muscles at the close of the severe exercises of the third division, and should now be returned through a higher order of exercise, a semi-psychological form, to the brain that ftunished it. 91 Q 5 4 1 2 2 Z 1 5 5 e i e 1 S Q 5 I 1 1 3 4. YV: ff ,HV f 'I H ,Ng ' , , Nl' ' ' 1 . 1 , N1 ' XME , W qs' k Nil 1 x- X y Q un, . - MUN ti yy 4 if Q W X .ix ' ' A .- ,H up-,R . u ,xl '. 1 in :mit'?Nf.35 xg. U- '. -- Q rw.. .Inky A f'. 'F'QQx'li. mi ,rYQ"1jM.' , W' ,N 'Q 'gy 'Hrf' I I ' ,NWN HMI w H - I 1 a'Qfr1'Q-in 5a'i2'.I ff, 2 fl yMl:f.w:I 1 'vw' -nl Milt- -' XII. 4' X mil-l.1 , . . W ' Ex. " 'gixx .. W fs 3 4- 57 va I X'-2? 1 X .- ,ix 1' . ' W w I 1 , M! 1 1 1 W , , . , V, .w V 1 W V , A Q m My .u. , I . ,N ,X ill f N f ,xxx 5 , fi 7. . -Lg W' l W i x l 5. ff f M N NK NH, PM K W, Ng 1 'sm 4? ,fm :g1J,5f 'g f 1 u My if ww M 1. ,N W XMI: I W ff' ,W " W Qing lk W 1 4, V' J l x lx' Mwk fnfyff fm M Q wb lmfsx 1 f,fZ1'f'f ffl, JM ' X W' f WZ' 5 4 fw- .f , , Y I L Il I M, v . It ,sth . V1 'W ' 34 H fbi fix 1 H W - .-.z 2 212 .1 'f ff ' mi T ' vf jfjw Wm Q! H 6? if W - L.- FEGURE 34. F -1 x, X ,LQKQW .Nfl w 1 I x .KK . x K ,m 3 N K , X s, , x- xv-gg 1 fi. . ai , x V l '7 .gf 9 ik ga. 5 .Y . aim .nf 'WYT M" 1 li 4 13 I ,e ,Q- -flv , . n l FIGURE 35. No other system of physical culture, so far as my knowledge extends, has made obedience to this prin- ciple one of its chief corner-stones. In fact, no one has definitely mentioned it. Some have arranged to gradually increase the vigor of the exercise they give, and then to gradually decrease it to the point of rest. This practice is good so' far as it goes, lout it does not meet this demand! revealed in the correlation of forces and conservation of energy. In this demand the requirement is not to Work faster and then slower, lout, through a different exercise, to transmute a force developed by vigorous exercise back to the brain and nerve centres, to be stored up in healthier nerve tissues. - It is easy to develop and Waste power, but it is not an easy matter to conserve it. Yet I am satisfied there is a Way, and that Way is to trcmsmutc pure physical energy into psychological force, not in some accidental or fanciful manner, but through definite forms of psycho-physiological expression. 1 HESTHETIC VALUE. One experiences pleasure in listening to a melody, lout how much deeper and richer the joy While listening to the full harmony with it. The chief pleasure that 93 , i f ,a E K 5 wg fe 1 5 2 i X P 2 4 N 1 4 f li 5 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 in beauty, and thereby obtain from it what another poet declares, who says, HA thing of beauty is ae joy for- ever," he must not look for beauty in any separate object, but in the relationship that objects sustain to each other. j Beauty grows out of the contemplation of truth, and that truth is the natural relationshzjv of objects in nature, and not the objects themselves. No single object considered by itself is beautiful, nor does it give: pleasure to the imagination in any Way. The poet continues : ' "Then I said, 'I covet truth, Beauty is unripe childl1ood's cheat, I leave it behind with the games of youth., As I spoke, beneath my feet I The ground-pine curled its pretty Wreath, Running over the club-moss burrs, I inhaled the violet's breath, A Around me stood the oaks and flrs, . Pine cones and acorns lay on the groundg Over me soared the eternal sky, Full of light and of deity: Again I saw, again I heard, The rolling river, the morning bird, Beauty through my senses stole, I yielded myself to the perfect whole? 95 TI-IE RELATIONSHIP OF TPARTS. That which distinguishes 'Greek art from all other, and gives its immortality, rendering endeavor to equal it a hopeless task, is the exact relationship of all its parts. Greek sculpture does not excel in .perfection of detail Michael Angelo's, but no other artists have ever .developed to so high a degree of perfection the -relationship of the parts. Other artists have sculp- tured a leg and an arm, a hand and a foot, a head and a breast vvith as much accuracy and finish as have the Greeks. The difference is in presenting the relation these parts sustain to each other, In looking at Greek artthe soul is satisfied Without asking Why. 'The satisfaction comes from the revela- tion of feeling given by the relationship of parts. The reason of this unequalled skill proceeds, doubtless, from two causes: their great love of the human form, amounting almost, if not quite, to Worship, and their opportunity of observing the nude person While it Was in action. They were brought up in schools Where the human form was an 'object-lesson in 'all their studies. Their gymnastic exercises were taken' when divested of ,all'.clothing,.and it .became the aspiration of the artist to fix in imperishable form the relation ' 96, that the different parts of the person sustained to each other when in free exercise. 5. 4 ,Attempts have recently been made to accomplish the same end by photography, and with some degree of success 5 but the result comes far short of that Which the experienced eye of the Greek, that eye which had been trained for a thousand years, could perceive, and which Greek skill could reproduce. Great possibilities of, and strong G tendencies toward, accurate observa- tion Were transmitted from generation to generation, increasing in excellence by the contributions from the improvements developed in each succeeding age, until the Greek of the Phidian period not only felt a hitherto unknovvn enthusiasm for beauty of form, but he had eyes that could see finer relationships than had ever been previously discovered. - This high revelation in art, which reached its climax in the Phidian period, was not due alone to the skill of the artist. ,The Greeks Were at that time the most beautiful people, both in form and . movement, that have ever existed. The systematic physical culture by which they had been educated through a period of many hundreds of years, had cultivated their persons to ,stand and move in exact obedience to the laws- of the relationslnjo of parts. For a model, the artist had 97 move in opposite directions. When the arm rises the head inclines toward it 5 when the arm moves toward the right the head moves toward the left, and vice versa. When one arm moves toward the left the other moves toward the right, and vice versa, except When both arms are used as oneg also the left leg opposes in attitude and movement the opposite leg, the left arm, and the head. This law is equally applicable to all the other parts not here named. It is manifested in every person, in the ratio of the grace of his moveQ ments. In the awkward person this lavv is violated, and the violation is the secret of his avvkvvardness. In Greek statuary obedience to this law is perfect. The reason is not in the intention of the sculptor, for there is no evidence that the Greeks knew this as a lavv of nature. It appears in their art, because they represented persons as they saw them, and their physical education had developed a race possessing ideal forms. The judgment can never express this unity by any conscious dictation, for unity of movement proceeds from feeling. There is a natural tendency in the physical system toward harmony of movement and posture. It is our aim to educate this tendency. Unity secured by obedience to the law of opposition is not an invention of art, but a physiological method 99 1NeXt, - The child will Walk. ,Thais anadded ask, in 'Which he Will meet thegsame difficulty that 2- first stood in theiaway of his being able toistand. e Finally the muscular sense becomes sufficiently developed to cause theidifferent groups of muscles to' contract in a manner .to sustain the body in an erect position, in spite of changing its centre of gravity With .each added step. l l R A R ' E f In process of time .the arm renders assistance 'by swinging With the opposite leg. ' i l R all f A From this beginning, development should ,go on untilall the groups of muscles in the humanf system obey the universal law. Then, and not till then, does the body become literally the- servant of the soul, obeying its mandates through a lavv of its ovvn structure, Without requiring the. interference of care and judgment. l ' 5 -Second,- a - v -STIMUEATION RECEIVED BY OPPOSING MUSCLES , i - THROUGH RESISTANCE. 'E When a group of muscles is exercised, its tendency .is to .move the bones, to which the several muscles are attached, from their position. It would succeed in doing so if another group did not instantly contract to A1011 prevent. The latter group of muscles is stimulated by the impulse of motion imparted by the former group to that part of the osseous system to Which the latter is attached. y e P ' - Take a muscle from the body of an animal recently killed, and fasten one end to the side of a Wall, allow- ing the other end to hang free, apply stimuli and it Will shorten somewhatg then attach a given Weight to the free end and it Will be seen that again the muscle immediately shortens. In the living body the nerves stimulate the muscles, causing them to contract. While that is the main cause of muscular contraction, there is another, though less positive cause, viz., the resistance of the action of one group of 'muscles to another group, Which acts upon the same principle as that shown in the illustration of fastening a Weight to a liberated muscle. It is not that one group of muscles is attached to another and opposing group, buttvvoopposing groups are attached by means of tendons to the same bone 5 therefore, the shortening of muscles on the one side, Which tends to move the-bone, causes the opposing group to contract, and thereby moves the opposing member 'in an opposite direction. i A third cause of opposite movements which result in harmony of action, is the r , 102 NERVOUS SYMPATHY WHICH EXISTS THROUGHOUT U R ALL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. 4 O Figuratively speaking, there-is a vvatchfulness on the part of the nerves, for the purpose of 'discovering the need of action, and a readiness to respond to every such call. The nerves not only furnish the body with power to act, but they exercise a care in pre-venting any unnecessary expenditure of force. Much more vvork can be accomplished by the body, and With less exhaustion, if the ,parts Work harmoniously. The tendency of the nervous system is to cause the body to accomplish the most With a given degree of strength, also to preserve the body from unnecessary friction. .H. FURTHER DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTISING EXERCISES I IN FOURTH DIVISION. That the different parts of the person may move in a manner to obey the law of opposition, which secures harmony, the individual should stand elastically, in a buoyant and expectant attitude, for the slightest re- sistance on his part, through indifference or lack of concentration, will prevent proper muscular response 103 H the 'different agents. l5But V' if helstands expectant condition, and moves the arms in the Way described, it Will be but a short' time before he Will notice that the head begins to if move slightly' in an opposite direction from that 'in Which his N farm? moving. 'After sufficient practice, other parts of the body Will also respond in undulations Which" describe beautiful curves. The general effect upon all parts of the body is to cause an expression of life in beautifulrepose, in A r y A if if A ,There is' a poeticbeauty inthe movements of this fourth division, which is very manifest When anumber of persons take the exercises together, with a musical ammpanimeiir. T T MUSCLES INVOLVED. 'T MI shall not attempt to name the muscles employed these exercises, for it is not the purpose of the exer- ciseslof this divisionto develop special muscles, -butfto give the movements of all muscles a harmonious rela, tionship. This much may be said, hovvever,that the movements of the fourth division tend to give fulnessf and roundness to all parts, of the form-, -especially to the neck, chest, Uandyarms. W U , 104 sUccEsTioNs FOR SECURING HEALTIJW AND LOZVGEVITY. A l..-. WORK on physical culture should treat upon What may properly be termed the. habitual con- duct of life regarding health. Health is developed and preserved .more by right daily habits concerning those things which are called the common necessities of life, than by any extraor- dinary eHorts. In self-culture each person is obliged to begin with what he finds himself to be, and do the best he can With the material furnished. Qne eminent thinker and Writer has said 44 If you are to properly educate a man, you must begin With him tvvo hundred years before he is born." We can- not begin vvith ourselves two hundred years before birth, nor even at birth. We cannot begin until early childhood is paste Most of us do not begin to' think 105 much about improving our physical powers until we have become men and women. Then we learn from our failures that we need much more power of body than we possess, to enable us to compete successfully for the prizes which are the legitimate fruit of endeavor. As we begin to realize our deficiencies, the much discussed law of heredity looms darkly before us, sometimes to the extent of shutting out courage and hope. The more desponding ternperaments hunt up the weaknesses of their ancestors and build mountains in their pathway of progress. There are laws of heredity, and we should study them and stand in awe of them lest we organize the penalties of violated laws into the physical structure of generations to come. . But while we study and practise obedience, for the sake of generations yet unborn, for ourselves we should look, not backward to the grapes that set our fathers' teeth on edge, but to the possibilities with which we are endowed. If one born with a very moderate degree of robust tendency should begin in youth to obey the laws of health wisely and persistently he would, when reach- ing middle life, be much stronger than the average of those born with good constitutions. Many of those who, by their Herculean labors, have written their names the most indelibly on the records T 106 1 of immortal fame, Were noted for feebleness during childhood. ' - a- , ' If one Would become strong and enduring he must eXercise the spirit of heroism directed toward health. When one has firmly resolved to become strong, he has taken the most important step towards securing that incomparable prize, health. The laws of nature say 44 Obey us and live, disobey us and dief' Health is the price of constant obedience, and is Within the reach of the majority. Every human being has descended from two distinct lines of ancestry, the human and- the Divine. The human line is but the condition through which the race is perpetuated, not the cause. The cause lies deeper than human heredity, it lies in the Divine nature. We are the children of the raceg on this side comes limitation, taints of disease, tendencies to particular Weaknesses. We are also the children of Godg on that side lies health, strength and longevity. If, in looking up the ancestral stream, you find Weakness and disease on the human side, rally with all your Will, perseverance and Wisdom on your relation to the Universal, the Infinite, which gives each generation the opportunity of rising far above the generations that have gone before. Standing squarely upon the conviction, that We W 107 making those around you so, and lcave the time of the final event out of your personal arithmetic. r That lifeis duration may seem to stretch and :pro- long in a way to make us feel young Cwhich is a most desirable feeling in allj, I will insert a few notes which show that it is possible for some to attain 'a great ageg hoping, thereby, to inspire courage in those who are thinking themselves too old to engage much longer in life's duties. I ' A My friend, keep on the harness as long as possible", many years may be yours. I have seen some, who were seventy years old, take a new lease of life and a deep draught of the elixir of health by adopting new methods of exercise and diet. Malte Brun says, Cflt was in Punjaub and other elevated districts that the ancients collected -numerous examples of Indian longevity. The Cyrni and the subjects of Prince Musicanus, often lived to the age of one hundred and thirty or two hundred years." 4' Faria says an inhabitant of Diu lived to the age of three hundred years." H Captain Riley, in the Journal of his Shipwreck, mentions that he was told by Sidi I-Iamet, of an Arab in the great African Desert who was 'nearly three hundred years oldg and he adds 4I' am fully of the opinion that a great many Arabs in this great expanse 109 of desert actually' live to the age of two hundred years or more." 44 According to Pliny, in the year 76 of the Christian Era, from a taxing of Vespasian it was estimated that between the Apennines and the Po, there were living one hundred and twenty-four persons one hundred years old or upwards, viz. fifty-four of one hundred years, lifty-seven of one hundred and ten years, two of one hundred andntwenty-five-yearsg four of one hundred and thirty, four of one hundred and thirty- Hve yearsg and three of one hundred and forty. Besides these, Parma had five, whereof three had fulfilled one hundred and twenty, and two one hun- dred and thirty, Brussels had one of one hundred and twenty-five, Placentia one of one hundred and thirty-one 3 Faventia one woman of one hundred and thirty-two, a certain town then called Velleiacium, situated in the hills about Placentia, afforded ten, whereof six fulfilled one hundred and ten years of Mage, four one hundred and twenty, lastly Rimino, one of one hundred and fifty years, whose name was Marcus Apponiusfl Q K HJ. E. Worcester, LL. D., gives a list of ninety- eight persons in New Hampshire, with the date of their deaths, which occurred within the period of ninety-three years, ending in 1824, all of whom were l r 110 one hundred or more years old, 'besides 'six others, the dates of whose death were unknown, the eldest of whom was one hundred and twenty. Dr. Worcester gives a table, beginning in 1808 and ending in 11821, exhibiting a list of one hundred and thirty-two persons in the United States who had attained the age of one hundred and ten years or upwardsg three at one hundred and thirty, three at one hundred and thirty- fourg one at one hundred and thirty-five, two at one hundred and thirty-six, one at one hundred and thirty-seven, one at one hundred and forty-two, one at one hundred and forty-threeg one at one hundred and fifty years of age. 1 Hln the beginning of the year 1858, there were in the New England States, four clergymen, all edumtevd. at Dartmouth College, each of whom was one hundred years oldf' Dr. Mussey, formerly a professor of anatomy and sur-- gery at Dartmouth College, says that John Crilley, born in the county of Cork, Ireland, 1690, died at Augusta, Me., July, 1818, aged one hundred and twenty-four. H I saw him after sunset of a cold evening in December' at the age of about one hundred and eighteen. At. that time he took the whole care of the cattle at his barn, and cut all the wood for the fire in his house. He lived a bachelor till he was between seventy and 111 eighty, When he Was .married to a girl of eighteen. They had eight childrengvvho had gone out into the World 9 to seek their fortune,' leaving the old folks to take care of the homestead? H Henry Francisco, born in France, died near White- hall, N.. Y., in October, 182-1, in his one hundred and thirty-fifth yearf' 44 William, Scoby, a native of Ireland, died in Londonderry, N. H., at the age of one hundred and ten years. When he Was one hundred years of age he travelled on foot from Londonderry to Portsmouth, more than thirty-five miles, in one day." 'G Robert Metlin died in 1787 at the age of one hundred and fifteen. He lived for some time at Portsmouth, and followed the occupation of a baker. He Was a great pedestrian. He usually bought his flour in Boston and travelled thither on foot. He performed the journey in a day, the distance being then about sixty-six miles, made his purchases, put his flour on board. a coaster, and returned home the next day. He Was eighty years of age the last time he performed this journey. At that time this Was thought an extraordinary day's journeyafor a horse. The stage-coaches required the greater part of two days. Col. Atkinson With a strong horse and a very light sulky once accomplished it in a day He set out Q c y H112 ,early in the morning, and' before he reached Greenland overtook Metlin, and inquired where he was bound. Metlin answered, to Boston. Atkinson asked if he ever expected to reach there, and drove on. Atkinson stopped at Greenland, and Metlin passed himg they alternately passed each other at every stage on the road, and crossed Charlestown ferry in the same boat before sunsetf' N The Hon. Mrs. Watkins of Glamorganshire, visited London at the age of one hundred and ten, the last year of her life, to witness one of the per- formances of Mrs. Siddons. She ascended the many flights of steps, which lead to the whispering dome of St. Paul's. The last forty years of herlife, Mrs. W. is said to have lived exclusively on potatoes." 4' Thomas Parr, of Shropshire Qhlnglandj, died in 1636, aged one hundred and fifty-two years and nine months. He was twice marriedg the first time at eighty, the second time at one hundred and twenty years 3 he had offspring by each marriage." 4'Henry Jenkins of Yorkshire, England, lived to be eight score and nine, or one hundred and sixty-nine years of age? 44 Peter Zarten, near Temesvar, in Hungary, died January 5, 1724, at the age of one hundred and eighty-fivef ' 113 F' John Rovin and his Wife, of Temesvar, Hungary, died in 17 41, he in his one" hundred and seventy- second year, she in her one hundred and sixty-fourth, having lived together, man and Wife, one hundred and forty-seven years." I 44 There were in the United States, in 1850, two thousand, five hundred and fifty-five persons over one hundred years of age," which Would make about one person in every nineuthousand. I have not given this record of longevity merely for the sake of imparting statistical information, but to shovv the possibility there is in the human con- stitution for living vastly longer than the ordinary limit of mortal existence. When a person arrives at the age of eighty years We think it certain that the end is nearly reached, yet one person, I have here mentioned, lived one hundred and five years longer than that. If one has lived so long, another may. Those who have lived to a great age have ,not always been persons of great strength or of especially uniform health. The only individual I have ever been personally acquainted with Who lived to be nearly one hundred years of age, Was Rev. Roland Hewett, who died in Northfield, Vermont, in November, 1886, 'Well advanced in his ninety-ninth year. He told me he 114 in had never been what Was termed a very healthy man, and had had several severe lllnesses But he never knew what people' meant when they sometlmes sa1d,l Gthe pams and aches of old age It could not be sa1d of h1m that great longevlty was hls mherltance from h1s parents, for h1s father dred at the age of s1Xty-n1ne and lns mother dled when she Was about thnty years old c Some say I do not vv1sh to l1ve to be old They mean by lt, they do not Wlsh to l1ve many years after becommg enfeebled Wlth age The persons Who at Were especmlly enfeebled Feebleness does not neces sar1ly belong to age Its presence depends upon the life the old person has led It appears from accounts glven of many persons Who have llved to such ad vanced peuods that they contmued possessed of the povve1s of enjoyment up to the very last CLIMATE Chmate should be consldered as one of the cond1 tlons of health and longevlty There lS no doubt that cl1mate exerts an mfluence upon the health, and that some chmates are more favorable to health and longevltv than are others As a lule people Who g ' 77 cc ' ' 99 Q 0 tained such very great age did not ilive after they .C Q ' . C 0 O TI n C I. 1 C . 115 live in a mild climate live to a greater age and are ,larger and stronger than those who live in ex- tremely cold regions.. Extreme climates, either hot or cold, are not thought to be the most congenial to health and strength. p Those living in extremely northern regions do not grow to nearly the size of the natives of more mild climates. The same criterion can hardly be applied to the hot climateg for the natives of the latter grow to full size and frequently live toa .great age. The temperate zone, however, is considered most favorable to the highest develop- ment of mind and body, yet history proves that this is far from being a rule' without an exception. One should study the climatein which he resides, and properly relate himself to its demands in his diet, clothing, exercise and dwelling. Man can so iit himself to nearly all climates as to live healthfully in them. ' The climate of New England has received much criticism for being so conducive to catarrh, consump- tion and pneumonia. But we must remember that when the natives of the Atlantic coast were dis- covered by the white race, these diseases were unknown here. It was not because of anything in the constitution of the North American Indian that indemnified him against these diseasesg for since he 116 I has become ff partially civilized" his greatest foe is found to be consumption. It is bad food, drink, clothing, houses and habits that render the climate in this part of the country unkind. In enumerating the conditions of health We Will mention, first PROPER VENTILATION. I When the air has been breathed it becomes not only uninvigorating, but deadly in its effects. i Our houses, as a general rule, are so constructed that either they fail to protect the inmates from the Cold, chilling currents of air, or allow no fresh air to pass through the rooms. In either case health is impaired and life endangered. Allowing a cold current of air to continue blowing upon any part of the person is liable to produce a congestion which will result in a form of disease that is in accordance with the nature of the part and the temperament and tendencies of the individual. On the other hand, habitually occupying rooms that do not admit a free passage of air, and Where much of the air is breathed over many times, poisons the blood, enervates the entire system and renders the person susceptible to any and every form of disease. 117 Windows -are 'not proper- ventilators 'inthe winter season. By opening the window a great is deal of heat is lost Y-fromalthe room, therefore there 'is added expense of fuel 5" also a sudden stream of cold -air must ffall upon some 'part of the room, so that one sitting near the window feels the damaging chill, and those farther away receive it upon the lower extremi- ties, chilling them and driving- too much blood to the head, already oppressed with the heat. The house should beimade in every part to shut out cold in winter and heat in summer. For the winter season external windows should be added. i Even if a person lives in a hired house, and is to stay there but one winter, it would pay him to put on -these outside windows. The fuel savedathe first winter would, as a rule, pay for the cost of the windowsg besides, they would prevent great liability .to sickness, for there is no more effectual way of taking .cold than by sitting near a window which has butfone .thickness of glass between the person and the cold outside air. The warm air of the room contin- ually strikes against the cold -glass. In condensing, it becomes heavier, and consequently, falls from the .window in such a steady current that in a cold day it may be felt like a chilling blast coming from the outside. People yin consequence of feeling this draft N118 think the cold air is coming in around thee' windowf and look for some means of more tightly fitting the window. Instead of this an outside window should be added. There should be an open fireplace in every room, even if the house is so heated that no fire is neededg then the fresh air should be conducted from the outside in passages that will carry it from near the base of the outer wall of the house to the ceiling, then conveyed by a passage made for the purpose to the centre of the room, where it should be allowed to fall in small jets through a large centre piece. By thus conducting the air in close passages up through the walls of the dwelling, no hot air will escape, for hot air, being lighter than cold, will not fall. The chimney, being warm, will draw the cold air from the floor, thus allowing the air from the outside of the house to pass into the room and fall into the overheated air at the top of it, and become warmed by the surplus heat. In a well warmed room there is always, near the ceiling, a high degree of heat which, could it be utilized, would warm a sufficient amount of 'cold air with which to ventilate the room. Some think a room is sufficiently ventilated if fresh air is brought from the outside through the furnace. If there is an open fireplace in all the rooms, this theory -is 119 true 5 but the air when heated by the furnace be- comes so dry that it absorbs the moisture from the mucous membrane of the nose, mouth, bronchial tubes and the air cells, to an alarming extent. Vessels con- taining water are usually found in hot air furnaces, but they are so placed that the evaporation is not sufficient to properlyemoisten the air. A The subject of ventilation should command serious attention. Few persons can govern the Ventilating mechanism of the rooms they occupy, and each one is called upon to manage the means of obtaining fresh air in his own room the best he can. Let him, therefore, exercise his ingenuity in so changing the air as to give him a healthy atmosphere to breathe, and at the same time receive no chill. .Better poor air than a chill. ' LIGHT. ' The influence of -sunlight as a health-producing agent is by no, means to. be overlooked. Sir James Willie, physician to the emperors Alexander and Nicholas of Russia, reports that in the hospital where' sunlight was excluded, the death rate was four times as great as in one into which the sunlight penetrated. ,I have known personswho had been considered' 1.20 hopeless invalids to cure themselves by lying in the sunlight, allowing the rays to fall directly upon the entire body, except the eyes, for several hours' each day. Dr. Kane wrote during his exploring lexpgdi- tion: '4The day is beginning to glow With the approaching sun. The south at noon, has almost an orange tinge. In ten days his direct rays will reach our hilltopsg and in a week after he will be dispensing his blessed inedieine among our sufferers. The coming sun will open appliances of moral help to the sick, and give energy to hygienic resorts which I ani arranging at this 1li101illUllt. For the last ten days we have been watching the growing warmth of the landscape as it enierged from the buried shadow through all the stages of distinetness of an India ink washing, step by step, into the sharp, bold delinition of a desolate harbor seelie. lYe have inarked every dash of color which the great l'ainter, in llis benevof lencc, vouehsafezl us, and new the einpurpled hues, clear, unmistakable5 the spreading lake, the flickering yellow, peering at all these poor wreiehesl livery- where superlative lustre and unspeakable glory." Let us be careful how we ext,-lude this friend from our houses or his kind rays freni our bodies. 121 A BATHISG. The chief office of the skin is not to cover the body. The skin is can organ involving most- important func- tions. It must eliminate many ounces of effete matter from the body daily, or much disease-engendering material is left in the blood, and the lungs and other organs are overtaxed in adding to their own duties the work which should be performed by the skin. Thecpores of the skin, through which should escape so much of the impurities of the body, frequently become clogged. At other times they become too active, and an unnatural amount of perspiration takes place. ' y y Proper bathing will prevent both of these difficul- ties, by cleansing the pores and keeping them free, and by giving to them due tone to sustain their contractile power. It is difficult to prescribe any exact rules for bathing 5 therefore we will suggest a few general directions. Do not take a plunge bath either hot or cold within two hours of a meal. Never allow a chill after bathing. A If a chill follow a bath, injury has been done. The laws of health require that one should bathe 122 I I 4 daily. The kind of bath depends much upon the general condition of the person. A few are benefited by a plunge into cold Water, but they are persons of great vit-al resources. A sponge bath, taken as rapidly as possible, followed by quickly wiping the person with one towel, then a severe rubbing with a fresh towel, is the safest and, ordinarily, the best form of bath. More than one towel should always be used, or a suificient glow of the skin will not be obtained. TIME FOR B ATI-IING. The best time for bathing is innnediately on rising, the next best is at the time of retiring. For invalids, eleven O'eloek in the furelnmn is the best tiine. EXERCISE, XVIIICN AND HOW' MUCH. The exercises described in this work should be taken in their eonseentive order, for one division of exercises prepares the body for the following division. One division assists all the others in producing the proper physiological efl'eet', and therefore they should all be taken in their logieal order, not a part of them at one time and the remainder at some future time. 123 the system, thus preventing sleep from giving entire recuperation. THE NUMBER OF HOURS OF SLEEP REQUIRED. It is impossible to prescribe a rule for the number of hours out of every twenty-four that one should sleep. Persons of some temperaments require more sleep than persons of other temperaments. The slow, bilious temperament does not admit of as rapid recu- peration as is wrought in one of Sanguine temperament. Then again, at one period of life a person needs more sleep than at another period. Children and aged people need more sleep than persons in middle life. Again, while following one pursuit an individual may require more sleep than when following some other.. Jeremy Taylor declares that three hours of sleep out. of every twenty-four are sufncient. Lord Coke says seven hours are the required number and Sir William Jones agrees with him. Sir John Sinclair mentions- eight hours. And so one might quote an endless- number of different authorities without coming to any fixed rule. Many persons are much troubled with Wakefulness in the night. Tl1is may be owing to different causes, such as improper nourishment, insufhcient nourishment 125 round, a quarter of an hour together in a month. ' By the same experiment Qrising earlier and earlier every morningj may every one find how much sleep he really wants." WVithout doubt the rule lies between five and eight hours, and at or somewhere between these two eX- tremes, each person will find his needed amount of sleep. Some persons form the habit of sleeping too much, thereby enervating the forces of the system. I would like, however, to give a word of caution to parents in regard to treatment of children in this matter. The child never feels like sleeping any more than it needs to. Many children have been wholly or partially dwarfed by being deprived of sufficient sleep. Let the clzzflcl sleep, do not Qmke him. One person7S experience is not a rule for another. Tl-IIC BEST TIME FUR SLEEP. The best time for sleep is between the hours of nine at night and five in the morning. The rule that John W'esley gives has a truth in it Worth consideringg but we must take into consideration that John Wesley had such habitual command of him- self in every way that it was comparatively easy for 127 this. These two children were always, during child. hood, under the same influences, yet one Was' awake as early as iive and always asleep at seven at night, while the other could not go to sleep early nor rise early. The parents tried every expedient in their power to correct the habit of the one who slept late, but with no success whatever. Feebleness and even positive illness followed every attempt at changing her habit. lVhen this child grew to womanhood she used every means to create a change in herself in this respect, but with no good results. t W'hile nature has provided general rules, let us be careful in the treatment of our children that we do not attempt to make what is a general rule apply to every individual case. CLOTH IN G. WVe shall in this place consider the matter of clothing in regard to temperature, having elsewhere spoken of the necessity of the freedom it should allow in exercise. I wish here to say only a word in regard to clothing being so worn as not to hinder the free exercise of all the muscles, and that word I wish to give to mothers and to all who have the care of small children. The 129 waists of little girls, in many instances, are prevented from developing to their full size by having the clothing so close as to be termed '44 a good fit." Nature always does the best she can under the circumstances. The lungs need free play for respiration, and nature makes great efforts to secure it for them When they are in any Way restrained. n If there is the slightest restraint from the clothing being too close, the Waist of the body will shrink from filling the Waist of the garment that it may have full freedom to expand during inspiration., In making the Waist of the garment care should be taken that room be left between the body and the garment for the utmost expansion of the body Without the slightf est restraint from the garment. While the dress is being fitted the child is quiet, and the breathing reposeful, but it must be remembered that when the child runs and plays, which is itsright and necessary privilege, the respiration is greatly increased. So much is it increased that, though the garment is perfectly free While the childis in repose,'it requires tvvo inches more in the circumference of the Waist for the added action of the lungs 'caused by vigorous exercise. Another Way in which the child is some- times injured is by the bad fashion of Wearing too long clothing in early childhood. Whatever may be said in 130 7 , favor or against the long skirts Worn by Women, and however tyrannously custom exerts her power in restraining the freedom of healthy exereige in the adult, a mother should, in spite of fashion, provide for the health of the little child for which she stands responsible. About once in so many years it becomes the fashion to bestow the long skirt upon children. Then the fashion changes and.the skirt extends no lower than the knees, which is its proper limit. Is it necessary that intelligent mothers should yield to the long skirt fashion, and thereby burden their little ones in a Way that will prevent development of strength and grace? Mothers should think of what the law of God demands in the care of their children, and be sure they yield to the demand of fashion only so far as is consistent with the laws of nature. Mothers intend no wrong to their children in these respects, but- they do not give sntlieient thought to the subject. There are many mothers who would not for their lives violate one of the laws God wrote upon tablets of stone, who, through inexcusable ignorance and thought-f lessness, violate the laws Ile has written in the consti- tution of their children. One never knows What life and health extinguishing machines fashion may invent and impose upon society at any time. Our only safe- 131 guard in this respect is the knowledge and application of science in resisting, the freaks of -fashion. The legitimate use of clothing is to protect the body against such degrees of temperature as are uncongenial to its condition. A sufficient amount of clothing should be worn to prevent too great a loss of heat from the body. The amount of clothing required for this is largely determined by sensation. The best general rule for determining the quantity of clothing that should be worn is the amount required to secure comfortg for, generally speaking, the point of comfort is the point of ikedlth. There are, however, a few exceptions to this rule. Sensation is not always a safe guide in the matter of clothing, becausefsensation is modified by use. A person may so accustom himself to wearing less clothing than health requires that, although he expe- riences some discomfort while forming the habit, the sensibilities adapt themselves to his habits after a time, and he feels comfortable, though not properly pro- tected. lf the body loses too much heat the blood is impoverished, the vital organs are weakened, and the system suffers from a diminution of power through all its parts. Another exception to the infallibility of sensation as a guide is in the case of wearing too much clothing during the warm, season of the year. 132 - I I l By wearing too much clothing in warm Weather or in warm rooms, the skin becomes weakened and morbidly sensitive to cool air. The skin is not only weakened by too much clothing, but the energy of the small arteries that supply the skin suffers a loss of tone in the muscular coating with which they are lined, and therefore they fail -to convey the blood to the surface of the body whenever the temperature is lowered even in a small degree, and a chill and a cold are the consequences. lf one concludes he is wearing too much clothing he should leave it oil' very gradually, and commence to do so during the hottest weather, and should take great pains, morning and evening, to bathe in tepid or cold water, and rub the person with either a flesh brush or coarse towels. One should always take off all his clothing at night and expose the entire person to the air in the room, hut the room should exhibit the mercury at not less than sixty-five degrees, unless the individual is healthy and used to such exposure. The skin needs to come in contact with fresh air daily. One should never wear a garment at night that has been worn during the day. Little children should he protected from the temperature that is near the floor which is always cooler than the 351' that is higher up in the room. I haVG fOU11Cl the 1:13 temperature in a room Where' the ceiling was only nine feet high, to vary forty degrees between ceiling and floor. This, of course, Was in the coldest Weather in the Winter, for such a difference could not exist in the summer season. The mercury stood at eighty near the ceiling. and at forty near the floor. Adults were comfortable, seated in the room with good Winter garments on., But what was the condition of little children Who were playing on the floor? Not long since, during a January morning, the mercury ranging within fifteen degrees of zero, I called at a friendis house Where a little one, with naked legs, was playing on the floor. The child soon grew irritable and the mother wondered at it, saying, HI think the child feels cross during cold days because the elec- tricity affects its nerves, for it is a very sensitively organized child, just like its mammaf' I took up the child and found its legs so cold that theylmust have been in pain .i.' A In these days, When scientific terms are household Words, people frequently hunt up some very obscure and remote cause for disease instead of taking the pains to exercise a little common sense in discovering and removing causes that are right at hand and under their control. T T T - W Indolent minds seek for rules to guide them in all 134 T matters of health, but no arbitrary rules 'canibe given which will apply to every case that may arise gfmany valuable suggestions may be given, but 1104 rule 01- suggestion should be allowed to take the place of constant watchfulness, thoughtfulness I and care. I write, not to lay down rules, but with- the hope of stimulating earnest thought on the subject of securing health by obeying its laws. FOOD. In discussing food, the mst question that arisesis in regard to the kind of food natural to man. This question touches primarily the much discussed subject of whether man is naturally a vegetable eater or Whether he is carnivorous. Cuvier says, Hfruitss roots and succulent parts of vegetables appear to be the natural food of man." To this view most scientific men, who have carefully investigated the subject, seem inclined, and I am fully persuaded that it is the correct view. But, while it is true that man is naturally a vegetable eater, it is also true that a large part of the human race lived for untold ages in regions where it was impossible to obtain subsistence from the vegetable kingdom 310119: and were therefore compelled to resort to flesh eating., 135 A Let us say this, however, that if a vegetable diet has been tried by any person and it is found to agree with him, let- it by all means be continued, for it is the ideal food. Langsdorf says, 4' The people of the Marquesas and Washingtoii Islands excel in beauty and grandeur of form all the other South Sea islanders. Many of them might Well be placed beside the most celebrated chef cfoeufvres of' antiquity and they would lose nothing by the comparisonf' They never eat any meat. Pausanias has told us that the early Greek athletes ate no meat. After all has been said that can be said for vegetable diet and against meat, care and experiment should not be neglected While adopting an exclusively vegetable diet. No doubt, in most instances, milk together With fruit and grain Would render meat entirely un- necessary. Prof. Mussey, from Whose valuable work called, 44 Health, lts Friends and its Foes," I have had occasion to make several quotations,,says that some of the Arabs who range the great 'desert -of Sahara are said to live on milk, and toiattain a great age. 44 The Arabs Who live in the desert subsist' 'Wholly on the milk of their camels. It is the milk of an animal that We call sacred and it causes long life. Those Who live on nothing else have no sickness or diseases, and are particularly favored by heaven 5 but 137 only carry the same people off :from the desert and let them live on bread, meat, and fruits, they then become subject to every kind of pain and sickness when they are young, and only live to the age of two zille and a half at the most Cabout one hundred yearsD while va great many die very young, and not one-tenth part of the men or women live to the age of one zille. Hamet assured Capt. Riley that it was very common to find Arabs on different parts of the desert nearly two hundred years old retaining all their faculties." I have known several who, on account of very weak digestion, left off all kinds of food except bread and milk, and then enjoyed good health. I have in mind one at this moment, who has coniined himself to bread and milk exclusively, or nearly so, for almost forty years, and is now living in good health at the age of eighty-seven years. Previous to adopting a diet of bread and 'milk he had been, for many years in feeble health, and suffered greatly from dyspepsia. THE MOST NUTRITIOUS KINDS OF FOOD. Our next inquiry is concerning the most nutritious kinds of food found ordinarily upon our tables, The great objections to pastry may be resolved into two-: 138 X fx First, that it is allowed to take the place. of more nutritious food and thereby deprives the system of a suihcient amount of nourishment. Second, that pastry induces derangement of the stomach and- fermentation in the blood. At best we should eat sparingly of those things that are put upon our tables 'merely because they are pleasing to the taste. ' One ought to know something of the chemical elements contained in ordinary kinds of food. I will, therefore, give some statements contained in a valuable work written by Dr. Bellows: 44 The Philosophy of Eatingf. published by Houghton, Mifflin 85 Co., I hope every student of physical culture will peruse this book. Galt is a remarkable fact which shows the importance of connecting science with practice, that the deterioration in the quality of the diet in Dundee prison consisted in substituting molasses for milkg which had been previously used with oat-meal porridge and oat-meal cakes, molasses being ,entirely destitute of muscle-making material, while milk contains as full proportion of these important materialsf' 1 From study, observation and experience, I am led to place milk first in the rank of the most healthful articles of dietg notwithstanding the fact that so many people think it disagrees with them. Never take milk cold and never take it between meals, 139 and, if past experience shows that it causes any unpleasant symptoms commence with a very small quantity and gradually increase it. Also eat fruit With milk. Wheat- unbolted is the most nutritious of grains. Beef and lamb are the healthiest and most nutritious of the meats. Taking everything into consideration, it is better to have meat cooked 4' medium 77 than ff raref' When We say Wheat unbolted makes the most healthy and nourishing bread, We do not mean the article that is usually found under the name of Hgrahamf' This was originally unbolted Wheat, and Was so intended by the reformer from Whom it took its name, but there is so much adulteration of this article that it is better to purchase the Wheat and have it ground to order. T Bread and biscuit should be much better baked than they usually are in this country. The English bake their bread much more than We do here, and that is one reason Why dyspepsia is less common in England. Again there should be no ushorteningn Whatever put into the mixture, for any fat cooked with meal or flour renders them more or less indigestible. One might ask Why butter cooked in the bread is not as healthy as when spread upon the bread after it is cooked. Nature does not always ,gratify our curiosity by giving us the Why. In 140 chem1st1y We can know l1ttle of the Wl V, but must content ourselves W1th knowlno' What a11d how Some people cannot eat fat meat of any kmo. such may lndulge freely 111 butter or cream Of all the o1ly substances crea1n lb tl1e health1est 'Wlthout doubt lt m1ght ofte11 take the place of cod l1Ver o1l Wlth benef t to the consumptwe pat1e11t Of the vegetables, potatoes are the health1est 'S n 1840 some of the prlsoners 111 the Glasgow b11deWell Were confined to a str1ct d1et of potatoes two pounds at breakfast, tl1ree pounds at drnner, one pound at supper, all bozleol At the beg1nn1ng of the eXper1ment elght were 111 good l ealth and two 1n mdlfferent health at the end, the emht contmued 1n good health and the two Who had been 111 mdfferent health had 1mproVed There was an average ga1n of nearly three pounds and a half 1n tl1e weght or the prlsoners All expressed themsel Jes ,qute -t1.f1ed W1th thls d1et, and regretted the cl1ange back 1, the o1d1nary d1et 1 1 , Frult should be eaten freely at meal-tnne never between meals Apples are the best kllld of fru1t and oranges rank next 111 d1etet1c V1rtue What I have sald concernlng apples and oranges may 3,ClII1lJl3 f eXcept1ons 1n 1nd1v1dual cases Much also depends upon the quahty of frult 141 I . -- A great variety of food is undesirable. Some stomachs are always craving a change of food. Such a stomach should be disciplined, for there is something abnormal in its condition. A .change of food it is -required only when some element in it preponderatesa over others to the extent of loading the system with that one element.. The change brings about a better balance between the elements. A QUANTITY OF FOOD NECESSARY. Another much discussed 'principle in diet is quantity. Here again one must not attempt to be too exact, for no one is able by any scientific calculation to determine just how much food is required to sustain a man for a given period of time. A person may need more at one time than at another. Again, no two persons require precisely the same quantity. Nature has a way of her own by which she regulates the quantity to some extent through the appetite. Appetite is by no means an infallible guide, either in quantity or kind. It has been said 'L one had better eat too -little than too much." The reverse of this is true. Let a person be sure of eating enough. This advice, however, applies more particularly to persons 142 ,of nervous tendencies thank., to A persons, of. vitalhabits. The nervous, anxious 'person seldom eats as much as good for him, while the person of more vital tenden- cies is liable, under favorable conditions, to eat' too much., -Again, the quantity of food should be 'regu- lated somewhat according to the amount of exercise taken. A NUMBER or MEALS To BE TAKEN IN A DAY. The Germans at one period were in the habit of eating five good meals in a day., The North American' Indian flourished on one when it was inconvenient to-- obtain more. A majority of people require three- meals. Some persons, however, do much better with two meals a day. Let each person study his own. needs. T A' " 4 FLAVOR or noon.. I Avword should be said about flavorof- food. ,That which one relishes, other things being equal, will be digested the most easily.. But the relishilis largely a matter of habit. An appetite for almOSti anything -can be acquired. A person usually likes thatfbest which he is in the habit of eating. 44 I would like-it the-'way my mother used to make it " is aw. common remarkg . 143 though sometimes not agreeable to the present cook's ears. u Therefore, instead of being guided in the selection of food by what is most pleasant to the taste, educate the taste to enjoy that best which is most nourishing and healthful. CONFEGTIONERY. Here an emphatic word should be spoken. Much is said against the dram shop and none too much 3 but a great deal ought to be said against the candy shop. Not that I Would compare the two shops, for the evil of the former is so much greater than that caused by the latter that no comparison whatever can be made. Still the confectionery store is a positive injury to the community. Our children and young people are being seriously harmed by it. There are so many evils growing out of the use of these sweets that there is no space in a work of this size in which to even name them. That fermentation takes place in the blood in consequence of so much sweet' is a demonstrated fact. Acidity follows, engendering countless evils, such as catarrh, sore throat, acid stomach, coughs, colds, stomach derangements, and general debility. ' 144 If parents would look into this evil their children .would be taught better than to eat confectionery, though some friend 44 more tender than Wise " should give it to them. i Q DRINK. The kind of beverages one should use is a very important question. This is apparent when ,We consider the fact that a person requires several times the Weight of Water to sustain life and health that he does of solid food. This is not intended as an exhaustive treatise upon any of the hygienic conditions, therefore I shall say but little on this subject, but hope I may be able to make some useful suggestions concerning what and how much to drink. u i No one will question the statement that water is the proper beverage for all persons, Whatever their con- dition. It is Water only that can quench thirst, What- ever may be mixed With it. One may mix elements' of food or medicine or stimulants with Water, for nourishment or cure, or to the end of producing happy- making sensations and emotions, yet, upon a moment's thought, all will acknowledge that it is Water and Water only that allays the parching cry of the body y 145 T - for moisture. We 'vvill pause to say but a word concerning- 'the mixture of any form. of alcoholic spirits with the Water. To say nothing of the danger of increasing the habit, and thereby entailing upon one's self all those evil consequences with which every one is theoretically acquainted, the spirit taken regularly in small quantities preserves tissue which retains dead materials in the 'place of new and fresh elements. Chocolate and cocoa are harmless mixtures, and are aboutthe only harmless elements that are fashionably used in beverages. Tea is less harmful than coffee. Coffee is an excellent medicine, especially as an antidote for several poisons, because coiee itself is a poison. The suffering that comes from this medicine when used as a beverage cannot be estimated. Some preparations from Wheat have been recently introduced that are not only harmless but very beneficial if used with meals. I Would specially mention a preparation by Prof. John Clark. This preparation contains a large per cent of vitalized hypophosphites, Which' nourish the .brain nerves and bones. I hope the time is not far distant when this' new preparation from Wheat will so far take the place of the coffee bean that the sales of they 'latter Will be confined to the physicians' orders. 146 Consider howmuch better it is to nourish brains than to stimulate and thereby weaken them. - Cold drink should never be taken- with meals 3 nor within half an hour before nor in less than an hour after eating. The gastric ,juice ceases toiflow when the temperature of the stomach is below 98 degrees Fahrenheit. This has beenldemonstrated in stomachs laid bare by a wound. U r fMilk may be drunk by some people with great bene- fit, but it is food, therefore the best method of taking it is in the form of Hbread and milkgi' for the saliva needs to mix with it before it enters the stomach. QUANTITY OF DRIN K. According to the latest and most satisfactory experi- ments made in Germany and elsewhere, it is very evident that but few people drink as great a quantity of water as the body requires. A few years ago a theory was started that it was not best to drink during meals, because the water would dilute the gastric juice, rendering it too weak for' digestive purposes. The stomach takes care of that' matter. If there is more water in the stomach than its functions require, it at once disposes of it. The danger and harm that comes from drinking at ,147 L meal-times, 'is caused by improper kinds or improper temperature of drink. The exact temperature that nature requires the drink to be is 98 degrees Fahren- heit. Fevv persons take it at that temperature because it tastes insipid to them. Some, even declare they cannot retain Warm Water upon the stomach. This but proves that they haveabused their stomachs and rendered them morbid. The milk provided by nature for the nourishment of the infant is at exactly the prescribed temperature. As an immediate tonic, or for any other medicinal purpose, Water may be administered as hot as the mouth can bear it, but as a beverage, 98 degrees is the only temperature which exactly meets nature's requirements. USES OF MEDICINE. We have little to say under this head, but leave it to each -person's family physician to prescribe accord- ing to the needs of his patient. The Word that is most needed is that Which Will prevent a person from taking medicine when it is 'not called for by symptoms of disease. One theory in regard to medicine is clearly estab- lished. and that is that a medicine that Will help the sick Will injure the Well. ' y 148 . . TOBACCO. The use of tobacco is one-of the crying evils of our time. The design of this work will not allow space for a proper consideration of the subject, therefore I earnestly pray every reader to peruse H The Tobacco Problem," by Meta Lander. It is a book that should be in every young manls hands. There is no more appropriate gift for birthday or Christmas. Who- ever helps others to read the book will perform an act of real missionary work. ' HEALTHY ATTITUHDES OF THE MIND. 1 Diierent states of mind affect the health of the body so much that a few words under this head may be helpful in obtaining and maintaining a high degree of health. Some persons inherit such a strong ten- dency towards health that they almost seem to be predestined to live healthfully through a long life. With a large number of persons the opposite is true, and health with them is the result of constant and even heroic endeavor. The first healthy attitude of the mind that I will mention is an heroic resolve to y be well. This state of mind, if habitual, reacts power- fully upon the body, securing the first requisite of 149 health. For illustration c we have the case of the young soldier, who, after being severely wounded, was told in reply. to the questions he' asked concerning his chances for recovery, that he had about one chance in a hundred. He quickly answered 'C I will take that onef' The fact that he felt, without question, that he could take which of theone hundred chances he chose, and that it was choice on his part and not accident, that was furnished him, made the surgeon feel sure of the young.man's recovery, although the symptoms were ninety-nine against to one for him. The man recovered speedily. But how would it have been had he stopped to balance inyhis mind the odds against him. Any experienced physician would say that a different mental attitude on the part of the 'young man would have made death almost certain. if What' the mind contemplates affects- the health of the body materially. Some are always thinking of 'health -in all its many splendid manifestations. A Such Will stand a much better chance of keeping well, or, if sick, their opportunity for recovery will be vastly greater. i f i 'l i There are mothers who take a very unwise course in this regard, and keep an unhealthy mental atmos- phere in their homes continually by always holding -150 the thought of Sickness before the minds of their children. s y i l l t The power of a mental concept to realize itself in the r--physical. conditions is very great. I have seen individuals get Well when there was no apparentcause for their recovery except a right mental attitude. There' are certain mental states which produce health and others that produce disease. 'I Habitual clieerfuluess is the friend of physical health, While its opposite is fruitful of disease. Prof. Carpenter,fin his great Work on physiology, says, HA' cheerful state of feeling seems to be decidedly favor- able to the performance of the digestive functions, it probably exerts a beneficial influence as to both quantity and quality on the secretion of the gastric fluid." An, habitual state of trust acts favorably upon the health of the body. The effect of this affirmative quality on the health is not as apparent as is the effect of its opposite Carpenter again says, Galt is a prevalent and perhaps not an ill-founded opinion that melancholy and jealousy have a tendency to increase the quantity and vitiate the quality of the biliary fluid. But it is certain that the indulgence of these feelings produces a decidedly morbific effect by disordering the digestive processes, and thus reacts upon the nervous 151 t ' l 2 lv 12 -3 ll E! .2 -l vi M Q 1 44 A lady Who Was Watching her child at play saw a heavy Window sash, fall upon its hand, cutting off three of its fingerslg and she Was so much overcome by fright and distress, as to be unable to render it any assistance. A surgeon Was- speedily obtained, Who, having dressed the Wounds, turned himself to the, mother, Whom the found seated, moaning and com- plaining of pain in her hand. On examination, three fingers, corresponding to those injured in the child. Were found to be swollen and inflamed, they had ailed nothing prior to the accident. In four and twenty hours incisions Were made into them, ,and pus Was evacuated, sloughs Were afterWards discharged. and the Wounds ultimately healedf, Dr. Carpenter de- clares that he has personally verified this statement. Speaking of the poWer the state of the mind called expectancy has over the body Dr. Carpenter says, 4' It is to such a state that We may attribute most if not all the cures Which have been Worked through What is properly termed the imagination. The cures are real facts hoWever they may be explained." l A Word of caution may not be amiss here. While Wonderful things have sometimes been done through some special action of the mind it is not Wise or sound to run into some extreme theory on this subject and discard learned physicians. f 153 What certain states of may be able to accomg plish in 'perpetuating health and restoring those who are ill is beyond the comprehension of the understand- ing, and possibly beyond the power of belief. Upon reliable testimony, it is affirmed that every one of the most fatal diseases have, one time and another yielded to the power of special mental concepts and emotions. It is reasonable to believe that the time will come when the relationship of psychology and physiology will be- so well understood that healing the body through the influence of the mind, that is within it, will become one of the mightiest agencies for banish- ing disease known to the medical profession. Not that it will take the place of. all known remedial methods, but will have its recognized place among them. It is now one of the principles of the healing art that is discussed in the medical colleges, and without doubt it will become a-subject of increasing interest. - ' . - ' " There -is no -great and no small To the soul that maketh all: , s And where it cometh, all things are, A And it cometh everywhere." l 154 5 A J ,L , Q X l E xi l Q, X3 AQ ' I Q , . I l I 4 lv l ,KV . ' I E V 1 1 I f ,A L E 5 ! .5 i i E 5 V ZZ , 'E 5 .1 ' 1 2 5 5. 512 I. 5 'U I is 'Q I I I 1 I ! I I I f K, 9 1 . i. I 1 V v Publications by Charles Wesley Emerson. PHILOSOPHY OF GESTURE OR, EXPREJJIUE PHYJICHL CULTURE. The psychological and physiological basis and teaching prin- ciples of the Emerson System of Expressive Physical Culture and Responsive Drill-Value of Art Models, fEsthetic Laws of Ex- pression explained, with illustrations drawn from classic art. ' Price, Post-paid, 81.50. f PSYCHO VOX OR, THE UOICE OF THE JOUL. Setting forth the principles of the Emerson System of Voice Culture. Considering the voice as the natural reporter of the individual. The relation of- the proper use of the voice to the nervous system and to health-. Exercises for securing freedom and proper direction of tone, and for establishing right habits in the use of the voice. ' . Price, Post-paid, 81.50. . EVOLUTION OF EXPRESSION. Revised edition. New selections chosen from classical literature. Explanatory notes for the study of each chapter. Compiled with special reference to the needs of teachers and students of both literature and expression. The only published work on the prin- ciples underlying the Emerson System of Oratory or Expression. In Four Volumes. Price, 50 cents each, Post-paid. THE PERFECTIVE LAWS OF ART. A compilation of selections illustrating the sixteen perfective laws of art applied to oratory. This work is adapted to the use of all advanced students in expressive reading. It consists of sixteen chapters, with a key to-the study of each chapter. Published in Four Volumes. Price, 50 cents each, Post-paid. EMERSON COLLEGE PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT. Chiokering Hall, Huntington Ave., Boston. v1 7.-v , rj" gf' 'qw ., f f-f 5 Y, - . 1, v ,,--J .4 . 1: K -,-.- I, - . 1 ,L -J, 1, V, : I N... ,...,,.,, ..,.,,, .,Y.5.,..,,,. ..,,..-,-.Km,.,.,,q,.,,2.T,,,mn, HJ, I H t ' -, , ., - -- A ,.ll 35- ,fb V , - 1 -A I 1 ' - .V , -f - , J -- 'I if v !QL:7.1.,,A, .j.,,V' g3 . - 5 . . .-c f?-,gg x E ' - g ' k T . , A x -, - A4 , -I ' V ' ' ' 11' " U: ' A f'e1i"1z"'.: -.:'4,.i'g af- , 4, -- Y ' . , I W ,, ' X Y jg j' ,rc 'kk A V -V 1:1 ' yiigiz f-.3 gl 5.314 r I . , is I lv xx r , , , A f, ., , .. ff-,, , . I , , ' ' ' , Y rf' Q ",,?'ff 3 I u ,V ' . 1 x . gem Q JNL", ' 1 I I P 1' , 1 f o X . I V . 54 A 1 , . , . . ffl 5 e '21 1 5 1 'Q , I f 2 iw f FI 5 ,,, V., 2 Q .gn Z M I 11 N i ' - , vj r , - 1 v 3

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