Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO)

 - Class of 1902

Page 82 of 126

 

Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 82 of 126
Page 82 of 126



Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 81
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Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 83
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Page 82 text:

phuric acid has but little action upon iron or zinc, while the diluted acid at- tacks those metals readily. Experi- ment shows that strong sulphuric acid scarcely transmits an electric current at all-that is, it contains very few ions to cary the electricity. Likewise, pure water does not transmit a cur- rcntg yet if you dilute pure sulphuric acid with several times its own volume of pure water, the mixture becomes an excellent electrolyte. The sulphuric acid is strongly ionized, For a metal to be attacked by an acid, there must be ionization, and this is secured by diluting with water. . In electrolyzing water, it is cus- tomary to add a little sulphuric acid, for the purpose, it is said, of rendering the water a better conductor. Really, however, the acid is thus broken up into ions, two of which are H and S05 When the current is passed, the sul- phate ions in moving toward the posi- tive electrode combine with the hydro- gen of a water molecule, and set free the oxygen. Thus, primarily, the hy- drogen that is evolved comes from the sulphuric acid, but this is eventually restored by an equal amount from the water, so that the results obtained ex- press the true composition of water. The most wonderful phase of the ionic theory is its relation to life, a relation which Dr. Loeb has given twenty years of his life to prove. He has discovered that the beat of the heart or the contraction of a muscle is wholly due to the action of ions. Then it is reasonable to suppose that one kind ol' ions causes a muscle to contract and the other kind causes it to relax. The Chicagogprofessor has practically proved this and much more. He.found that by placing an excised heart in a solution of sodium chloride, it could be kept beating for several hours, and stopped or started by the addition of certain salts. Different salts, of course, supply different amounts and kinds of ions. Now, all ions do not carry the same amount of electricity, for the amount it carries is determined by its valence. Each arm or bond carries a separate charge, hence the four armed ion of carbon is able to transmit four times as great a charge as the single armed ion of hydrogen. Poisons act upon the human heart in much the same way that the salt did upon the excised heart which was placed in the sodium chloride solution. Many of the salts that he used were poisons. We all know that the effect of alcohol upon the heart is to quicken the action. Arsenic has the same ef- fect, so we may simply say that these poisons supply the ions which cause the heart to beat. But we know that only a limited amount of a poison can be used with safety. Ur. Loeb found that when he had started the action of the heart with which he was experiment- ing, if he continued adding the same salt, the action would cease. The purpose of the food taken into the body is not altogether to supply material to worn out portions. It is also to supply ions, and the value of -82,, it o t fe- in so fro ma tog Pal-f sue for fibe. arti of 1 wh ers goo: hap: into in strel ter com

Page 81 text:

nr rle Q- 0- ts is. ot of nt of ut Dir 3- an By he in en of he ed -svo st: JIT1 :re- of y- a- Jn, re- te- k 3 he on takes. plaee at once. When a salt or 2111 aeid is dissolved in water, the atoms are dissociated or torn apart, Then when another salt is added the dissociated atoms are free to 4-Ombiug with others and forin a new eompound. Although sonicwliat dissociated in the form ot a dry salt, tl1e atoms are not enough so to react to any great extent, Now, WllCll a solution is t.U!'Illt'ti and the atoms are dissociated, the violence of tl1e tearing apart electrifies them, one set heeoining charged with posi- tive electricity, the otl1er with negative. These electrified atoms are called "ions,'1 a11d the process hy wl1icl1 they become electrified f'ionization." Suppose tl1at we have a solution of co1nn1on salt, sodium chloride, NaCl. In forming the solution, the sodium atoms become charged witl1 positive electricity a11d the chlorine atoms with negative electricity. lf we place tl1e two ends of a copper wire into the solu- tion, a. current of electricity is started, just as in the case of a voltaie cell, ex- cept that in this case the current is many times smaller. Metallic atoms are always charged positively, and non- mctallie atoms negatively. Surround- ed, as the ionic theory is, in a meta- physical fog, o11e is naturally surprised at the simplicity of its proof-a pro- cess with wl1iel1 many ot' us are very familiar-electrolysis. When we used the eleetrolytie apparatus to prove the composition of water, we noticed that when the current of electricity was passed tlirougrh the 0lCl.'tI'Ul.YtO, which in this ease was water, the oxygen col- leeted i11 ttltlt side ot the 'U-sliaped tulle at wl1icl1 the eurrent entered- -the teriniiial lCl1OWI1 as the anodeg and that the llAVtll'0Q'U11 passed to the terminal where the current passed out-the eatliode. Now tl1e eathode is the neg- ative pole Zllld the anode the positive pole. llydrogen, altliough a gas, is sometiines regarded as a metal, and we saw that it collected at the cathode or negative pole. All metallic ions do, and for this reason are called cathions. The oxygen collected at the anode or positive pole, as non-metallic ions al- ways do, hence are known as anions. Every one is tlilllllliill' with the fact that bodies oppositely electrified at- tract each otl1er Illld those electrified alike repel. Then since the oxygen ions were attracted hy the positive pole, they must he negatively charged and since the hydrogen ions collect at the negative pole, we k11ow that they are positively electrified. Had we used a solution ot' any salt or acid the results would have lieen the same. lls- ing a solution of sodium chloride, for example, the sodium would have col- leeted at tl1e negative pole and the chlorine at tl1e positive one. But if after electrolysis l1ad been completed, the current were turned off and the solution allowed to evaporate, the so- dium and chlorine ions would have re-eo111hi11ed to form the original salt. 'l'he ionic theory aids the student of eliemistry much in interpreting lllillli' of the phenoiiiena with which he meets from time to time. For in- stance, he knows that concentrated sul- ,.31-



Page 83 text:

e to is it has iore. Izised ride, -veral the vrent arent , all it of rries ach arge, rbon reat n of rt in t did was tion. were ffeet icken e ef- these te the only n be that f the ment- same into Hrply It is ue of food depends in a great measure upon the ainount and the kind ot' elcetricitv it supplies. Siu-li is at least, Hip beiuif of Dr. Loch. lt this is found to be true, a revolution will indeed he et- fected, and electricity, with its owl. inqq-nasilig applications. flll'lllSlllll.Q' heal, power, light, and life itself, will prove to be superior to the rulers of this age, and in evolution the era fol- lowing the Age ot Man may he known as the Age ot' lflleetrieity. Eanm HAi.i.AR. The Manufacture of Wrapping Paper. HIC subject of paper mak- ing would till volumes if - anything like a complete, systematic explanation of the different processes was attempted. Wood. Q?1"lX".i grass, straw, cotton, rags and the pulp of the Egyp- f tian papyrus plant, are some of the fniulamental constituents from which this important article made. The finer grades are made al- together from rags, hemp and the papyrus plant, and the coarser grades, such as wrapping paper and that used for printing newspapers, from wood, fiber and straw. The purpose ot this article is to deserihe briefly the process of making eoninion wrapping paper. This style of paper is made from wheat straw, brought in by the tarm- ers after the wheat harvest is over. A good sized pile of this, making per- haps twenty or thirty tons, is dumped into a large wooden iat, and soaked in fresh lime water of m0fl0I'f1f0 strength. The ohject ot' the lime wa- ter is to produce a very rapid de- composition. .Xfter the soaking has continued until the straw is a wet, sog- gy mass, the lime water is drawn off, and the straw dumped into smaller vats. Here it is thoroughly soaked with lime water, and runs through a set ot rapidly revolving knives which cut it up into pieces almout an inch long. A stirrer is constantly kept go- ing in these vats to push the pulp against the knives. When the fiber has been passed through this set of knives three of four times, more water is added and the ground-up mass is drawn hy suc- tion into what is called the fine grinder. This machine consists of a funnel-shaped cylinder whose inside surface is covered with knives ot' flat steel. set about an inch apart and run- ning lengthwise. Inside of this cyl- inder fits a eore of solid wood, whose surface is likewise covered with knives. This core revolves at the rate of from 1100 to S00 revolutions a minute. The straw fiber, drawn in by suction, as described, flows into this grinder at the large end. and Corning into contact with the knives, is instantly ground into a thick paste, and flows out the mga--

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