Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO)

 - Class of 1902

Page 79 of 126

 

Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 79 of 126
Page 79 of 126



Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 78
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Central High School - Centralian Yearbook (Kansas City, MO) online yearbook collection, 1902 Edition, Page 80
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Page 78 text:

V Patemal Ancestor of C. W. C. Member of Smokers' Union. -78- 9 f 2 I E 2



Page 80 text:

Department of Chemistry. The Ionic Theory and Some of Its Agzpl-ications. UST a century ago John Dalton was striving to prove his famous atomic theory, which he gave to XX the scientific world in 1807. To-day Dr. Loeb, of Chicago University, is rv working hard, with success X mf? ' - 'ff ' " ' A seemingly not far distant, proving his theory of the ion's relation to life. Dalton believed that the atom fthe smallest conceivable division of any elemcntj has a definite relative weight as compared with that' of hydrogen, which he assumes to be 1, and that the composition of a chemical compound is constant, that is, that the elements of which it is composed, always unite in a definite proportion. To be able to see clearly the difference between a compound and an element, a definition of the terms becomes necessary. An element is "one of the ultimate, homo- geneous substances of which anything is composed," or to make it clearer, any substance which cannot be divided into two or- more simpler substances. A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically united. Now, as Dalton said, the composi- tion of a chemical compound is con- stant. Taking water, HZO, for exam- ple, which we know is composed of two parts of hydrogen to one of oxygen, we find that the smallest conceivable division of this compound, the mole- cule, still contains two parts of hydro- gen to one of ojtygen. These parts which compose the molecule are atoms. It has been found that Dalton did not go quite far enough in his theory of the atoni-tliat an atom of one element docs not always replace onek atom of another element, as he believed, but may replace several, according to their respective atomicities or valence. Va- lence is measured by the power of an atom to combine with hydrogen. By hydrochloric acid, HCI, we see that the valence of the chlorine atom is oneg in the case of water, HZO, the hydrogen atom is shown to have a valence of two, and by carbon dioxide, CO2, the valence of the carbon atom is proved to be four, since it combines with two atoms of oxygen, and we have just shown the valence of the oxygen atom to be two. Valence is sometimes repre- sented by arms or bondsg an atom of carbon has four arms, an atom of oxy- gen two, hydrogen 0110, etc. This va- lence bears a close relation to the ion, which I shall consider next. If two salts are mixed together, a re- action seldom takes place immediate- ly, or if it does, the action is weak, but if one or both the salts be in the form of an aqueous solution, a reaction -30- two are ed, phyt at t cess fami the comy wher pass in tl

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