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Page 46 text:
A M ERICA-N INDIANS.
E very town or family has a chief,uho
is distinguished by a particular title,and
whom we commonly cell n,VsachemN. The sever-
al towns or families that compose a tribe
have a chief who presides over it,'ni the
several tribes composing a nation 2 f .
chief who presides over the whole L L ..
These chiefs are usunll men advoxc , is
years and distinguished by their puu-,uco
The matters which
and ability in council.
merely regard a town or family are settled
by the chief and principal men of the town
those which regard a tribe such as the ap-
pointment of head warriors or captains,and
and settling differences between different
towns or families are regulated at a meet-
ing of the chiefs and those which regard
the whole nation,such as,making war or
forming alliances with the neighboring
nations. These are usually attended by the
head warriors and a number of the chiefs
from other towns,who are his councelors.
Indiana as at one time a place where only
Indians lived, However a long time ago when
Columbus came to America in l492 he gave
this place the nane,Indiana,to go with t e
Before that time there was slavery here
in Indiana which caused a great war. This
war was called the Civil War which 'ns be-
tween the North and the South. After tie
matter of slavery was settled,our country
was divided into forty eight states.
Each state has its own laws and may ef
running things. Indiana is-a nmnufacturing
and food producing state. It has many large
rivers sch as the Ohio,Maunee,Wabash,and
others. The cities of Indiana are Fort
Tayne,Huntertown,Lafayette and Washington.
In 1679 a few Frenchmen under the leader
ship of LaSalle came down the St.Joseph
River and crossed the South Bend portage
to the Kankakee River,nnd half way down the
Illinois River. Later on LaSalle reached the
mouth of the Mississippi River. For a long
time French explorers used these trails
and streams of the region that is now
During that period French trading posts
were built at the present site of Fort
Wayne,at Ouiatanon a few miles below Laf-
ayette, and at Vincennes. Only the last
became a real French settlement
In 1765 France ceded her possessions in
lcontinued next columnl
Ncrtl lmericzto England,and Vincen es
becime n British military post. General
George Rogers Clarke in 1778 led a Smal
army of Virginia troops and captu ed
Vincennes. Then the land northwest of
the Ohiob ecame a colony of Virginia.
Inrl7G3H 'it state ceded her claims in
the Ohio region to the National Govern-
ment. e John Schie,8A.
saaasnnsasf 'wiv -.4+ae4aa+4w
The American Indians furnish us with
examples of simple forms of government,
The federal government has authority
over most of the Indian tribes. One of
the projects begun by the Federal Gov-
ernment to provide work during the
economic crisis was the constuction of
schools in Indiana Reservations.
The schools were built in the style
of the so-called Indiana hogans,of
adobe brick and other materials. The
need for close supervision of such
building projects to prevent waste of
the taxpayers money is evident.
Indiana was a part of the Northwest
Territory. The Northwest Territory was
north of the Ohio River and east of the
Mississippi River and south of the Great
Lakes. The following states were carved
from it: Indiana,Ohio,Illinois,Michigan,
Wisconsin and a small part of what is
now Minnesota. On the north it is touch-
ed by Lake Michigan and is bounded on
the south by the Ohio River.
Indiana is one of the north central
States. It is known as the Hoosier State
The Indiana flower is the sennia, and
the state song is,VOn The Banks of the
Indiana is almost twice as long as
wide. It is about 275 miles long and
145 wide. It it the thirtyseventh state
in Size. -.
The school system in Indiana is
excellent. There are compulsory educa-
tion laws demanding attendance of all
children between the ages of seven and
sixteen yenrs.for at least eight calendar
months of each year. High schools form
a regular part of the school system and
there are more than eight hundred in
Page 45 text:
When the Indians learned that their
land west of the Appalachians Mountains had
been given to the English they were very
much dissatisfied. The Indians had always
been friends of the French and enemies of
the English. So sow it was only natural that
they would do everything in their poser to
drive the English out. In this emergency
an Indian leader arose and his efforts re-
sulted in almost complete disaster for the
E nglish in the Northwest Territory. This
Indiana leader was a chief of the Ottawa
tribe named Pontiac.
Pontiac was a very shrewd warrior. Dur-
the two years years between 1760-72 he or-
ganized almost all the tribes of the north
nest to drive out the English. Pbntiac's
plans were perfected in 1765 and arrange-
ments were made to attack all the English
forts and settlements at the same time.
Detroit was the most important post but the
commander of this post had been warned of
the danger,so Pontiac was unable to capture
this stronghold. Had he been able to do so
it is likely that the Englsh would have
been driven out of the entire region. Other
forts did not fare so well as Detroit.Hoe-
ever,a number of them were suprised and
their garrisons killed. Fort Miami where
Fort Wayne now stands was aptured and its
commander slain. Ouiatanon was surrendeded
but no one was killed there. In a short time
Vincennes to take possession and rebuild
the fort there. Abbott found the fort in
a dilapidated condition. He made nn at-
tempt to repair the fort and mount some
cannon. He remained u til January 1778,
and then returned to Detroit for a visit.
While he was gone events took place which
started the change in the whole history
of the Northwest Territory.
The Revolutionary War began in 1576
At the beginning of the war the English
who were in charge of the forts of the
Northwest Territory began to arrouse the
Indians against the American settlers
who had been bold enough to venture west
of the Applachian Mountains. These Eng-
lishmen carried on a profitable trade
with the Indians and were enven accused
of rewarding the red men for bringing in
the scalps of American men and women.
The fear of being attacked by the Indians
cased the Americans from the colonies
along the Atlantic Coast to hesitate
about going into the Northwest Territory.
senses ' ' ksssssssssss
PROVIDING FOR RECREATION IND AMUSEMENT
In order to properly balance his life
every person must have a certain mount of
recreation and amusement. The age of mach-
ines and labor-saving devices has brought
reduction in the number of hours an ind-
ividual works each day and as a result
Dot an Eng1iShm3D WHS left in what is QOW there has been a great increase in the
I ndiana. Pontiac's success was short 1ved,, amount of time left for recreation'
however. English soldiers crushed the reb- It is the duty of every Community to
ellion duflng the Coming Year and the Ind' provide wholesome recreation for its mem-
ians were compelled to give up all the
tives which they had in their possession.
Pontiac mas murdered by a member of his
own race, in 1769.
At the time of Pontiac's conspiracy
the English had not hken control of Vin-
cennes. There were several reasons,besides
the hostilit of the Indians for the slow-
ness of the English in coming in to the
Northwest ih any large numbers. One reason
wa s that the King of England by the Proc-
lamation of 1765 forbade any Englishman to
settle west of the Applachians. This was
followed by the Quebec Act of 1774 which
a nnexed all the Mississippi valley to the
Province of Quebec Br the purpose of Gov-
Between 1775 and 1777 there was no of-
ficial authority within what is new the
State of Indiana. By the Quebec Act Vincen-
nes had been placed under the authority of
the Governor at Detroit but it was u til
1777 that the Englih Governor,Henry Ham-
ilton sent Lietenant Governor Abbott to
Qcontinued next columnl
bers. The community which provides these
extra pleasures and benefits for its res-
idents is the one where the citizens are
most likely to be healthy,happy,and law-
abiding. Doris Beam,7A.
THE FRENCH IN INDIANA
The first white men to explore any of
the Ngrthwest Territory were French Jesuit
Priests from Quebec. The beginning of their
labor was probably about l654. The first
place they worked was among the Huron
Indians on the southern shores of the Great
Lakes. These priests came to this region,
not from across the great range of mount-
ains which shut out the English, but by a
much easier route up the StLawrence and
the Great Lakes. Delma Justice,8A.
Mrs Bolinger: Eugene,what have you been
doing to the ink?
E ugene: I only put water in it, to make
it write wet. I'm writing a letter to Mr.
Brown and I want to whisper a secret to
Page 47 text:
fre- "' ,fix-ff'
In one of the fables of an English Peet,
John Gay,may be read these linesg
Nor love,nor honor,weelth nor power,
Can give the heart a cheerful hour
When health is lost. Be timely wiseg
With health all taste for pleasure flies
Certainly the poet did not over-estimate
the worth of the greatest blessing mortals
can enjoy-health,which is the condition
The healthy person is one whose bodily
functions are being performed easily and
without pain. The physician says that an
one who sleeps well,and can digest his food
while satisfying a hearty appetite,nay be
Considered in a good state of health. Under
modern conditions,very few persons enjoy
perfect hea1th,but the observance of a few
simple rules help to keep one reasonably
Many of the physical difficulties of the
school child are caused by the wrong sort
of habits. Habit formation is the basis of
health. When bad health habits are formed
early in life, it is a very difficult nat-
ter to break them later, for they become
an almost unconscious part of daily life.
On the other hand,sound health habits
should be largely a matter of automatic
action on our own part. But good health
habits can only be acquired through a def
inite and conscious action at first and
such action must be based on an accurate
knowledge of health rules,
. Billy was in disgrace.
He had told an untruth
To DR'NK md he had been sent to
A PINT' usd to study the lifs
of George Wnshington,
OF and just to try to fol-
low his example.
In health we have been studying the
teeth. This is an interesting topic for
it teaches us how best to take care of
our teeth. Many people ask how to take
care of the teeth. The main way is to
keep them well cleaned. It is also im-
portant to eat the proper foods. If one
keeps the teeth well cleaned and eats
the proper foods it helps to keep them
white,strong,and from decaying. The im-
portant element for strong teeth is cal-
cium which is gained in the food.
HOW FIRES MAYQQE CAUSED.
Once there was a careless janitor
who took care of a hotel. This hotel was
very well built and beautiful. It was so
well liked that people came from other
lands to stay in the summer time.
The janitor became careless. He threw
papers in the corners in the basement in-
stead of burning them in the furnace.
One evening the janitor went to the
basement to fire the furnace. A spark fl
flew into the papers and soon there was
a teriffic balze. The hotel burned down
and all by the carelessness of one man.
-7-?i'3."'5'f3-',H8'.-i2-3it"f-3i-iH'-",s-3iJ,6 HC-6HHi-Eif':91'X4 -41?-3'c-X'
HE ALTH HABITS.
health habits you must
all the health rules.
is to get the right kind
is to E
To have good
know how to keep
One of the rules
of food. Another J
drink at least Six glas
D Next morning Billie rushed A person fghmifi get at
up to Mr.Bolinger and
said,HIv'e started' Iv'e
'L 2- I started. I couldn't find
2C3TIJ-,eP5?r- any charry tree,but
lLm,MMWgMM4M,W '14 I chopped down all the
L Jgple trees.
es of water each day. For J-3
every person there are
certain foods that do no .MD
agree. It is necessary 63625 N7 .
to learn to leave that 'e'T'c5',.f52. ,57
kind of food alone cgboo
least eight hours of sleep
each day. The window no
shoudl be open enough tra E- RE
air. There are EqQ1L2,-r-
health rules every person
should learn to keep.
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