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Page 44 text:
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The Indian is usually pictured as a
sad and gloomy person who seldom smiled.
This is not quite true. In important public
meetings and when talking with white men he
was usually dignified and solemn in appear-
encegbut in the Wigwam or by the camp fire
he was social and cheery. He smoked his
pipe,talked,and joked with his friends much
as the white man is accustomed to do. When
neing tortured in public he could endure
By Richard Filloff.
There are many stories of when the
Indians were here when the white men came.
The Indians believed the white men were
angels but when the supposed angels killec
their fellow men they knew better and made
war against them. In some cases though,the
white men would not kill the Indians and
smoked the pipe of peace with them. Wil-
liam Penn smoke the peace pipe with the
Indians and remained friends with them
any kind Of aPiH Wifh0Ui H UUTUUT- His Sight for many years. One wonderful thing about
was remarkably keen. This was because his
eye and ear were trained by his mode of liv-
ing. When hunting,fighting,or fishing,he
we s on the lookout constantly for game or
for the enem . He was also straining his
ear for every sound of the forest.
. Herbert Warnick,8A.
THE SETTING FOR INDIANA HISTORX
The history of Indiana before its ad-
mission into the Union as a state is a part
of the history of that region of North Am-
erica which has been called the North West
Territory. So the study of the earliest
Indiana History is a study of the history
of the whole Northwest Territory in the
da ys of the early white settlers.
The Northwest Territory was composed
of all the land which is now included in
the states of Indiana,Ohio,Michigan,Illin-
ois,Wisconsin,and a small part of the state
of Minnesota. It is bou ded on the west by
the Mississippi Rivcr,on the south by the
Ohio River, and on the north by the Great
lakes. The rivers were very important to
the Indians and to the early white settlers
alike, because mater transportation was then
much easier than land transportation. Be-
sides the rivers mentioned above,others of
importance were the Webash,White,Tippecanoe
Eel,Whitewater,end Kankakee in Indiana,the
Illinois,Fox and Knskaskia in Illinois,the
Wisconsin in Wisconsin,nnd the St.Joseph and
Detroit in Michigan. Of course the Great
Lakes on the north,especiflly Lake Michigan,
Huron,nnd Erie played a very prominent part
in the early history of the region.
, Marie Vhite,8A.
the Indian was that he would never break
friendship until the white man did. The
white men were always the first to disre-
gard the peace pipe. The result was always
war with the Indians. '
COMMUNITY CIVICS. P
When a group of people live together
in a certain place it is called a community
They are brought together by some common
interest and have laws,rules,and regula-
tions. Here are some examples of different
kinds of communities: a church,school,
village,town,city. T ere axe industrial
communities,social communities,and reli-
gious communities. All people in a com-
munity are dependent on the rest of the
community. All the members of the commu-
nity must learn to be valuable. They must
take an active part in all the activities.
A resolution of Congress formally ad-
mitting Indiana into the Union,Dec.ll.l8l6
though the state government actually began
November 7th when the new officers were
qualified. A Sew weeks after, the consitut
tional convention, the first neck in Aug-
ust l8l6, a general election was held to
fill thc state offices. Thomas Posey, the
last Territorial Governor was candidate
for Governor against Johnathan Jennings.
Jennings von. The population of the whole
state was less than one fourth of that of
the city of Indianapolis today. The epople
were all poor and depneded on the soil for
their living. Merlin-Doud,8A.
Page 43 text:
MX QQHNZBX 2115 23 IF'1
My Country T'is of Thee,sweet lfnd of liWl.iy,of Thee I Sing'
Land where m Fathers died,Lvnd of the PiLgrim's pride
From every mountain side,Let freedom ring.
The President of the United St tes f
the highest representftive ef t
He is elected by the suifrffe X
of all the states for n fix-d
L u .
, , 1-
A N - r .
1,s,1 L. 5- .
He is independent of Congrcss,tne :ourst
and sectional demands. In spite
theory of the spenration of powers, in
sccordnnce with which the Consitutition
nkers created the office, the President
has immense influence over legislation and
is held responsible to the people for the
work of Congress.
The President's influence springs from
his power of vetog from his constitution-
fyzgl practice of submitting recom endetions
I .1 to Congress,which he may do either oral-
ij ly or by written nessngeg and his vast
it influence with the nations molders of
public opinion. His power of
ment with his a bility to distribute
patronage among members of Congress
I serves to keep the members who are
55 of his party in accord with his
N policies. Mildred Yarman.8A.
4+++swmseam++esm' ' ' fs
Hekionaga,the principal village of t
7 the Miami Indians,was formerlly with
in the limits of Fort Wayne. A Stockade
Fort,now the site of Old Fort Park was
fm built by had Anthony wayne.
In 1815 it
1 was besieged by the Indians who were
routed after e hard fight. Six years
V later the fort was abandoned? A permanent
M settlement was made in 1815 and it became
Fort Wnyn ,the county seat of Alle
'eunty is the second elif up Lhe State
1 railroad center,and'a manufacturing
center. It is located in the north-
efstern pert of Indiana. It is lo2
miles from Indianapolis and 156 miles
from Chicago. The St.Joseph and StMary
rivers unite within its boundaries to
form the Maumee River. Its population
in 1940 is about 125.000, Six impor-
tant tru k lines serve the city, the
Fort Weyne,Cincinnntti and St.Louis,
StLouis5 and the New York Central. There
nreialso interurbnn electric railrdhdg
and more than fifteen motor bus
Fort Wayne is the distributing cen
ter for nn xtensive agricultural
district end the city has many I
wholesale and jobbing houses. It y
has large shops of the Pennsylva-
nia and Wabash railroads. :und
among the important manufacturer 1
of gasoline pumps,car wheels,co l
wire,motor trucks, electrical I
The educational institutions,A
include Concordia College,Fort l' :1
Wayne Bible Institute, A Conser lk 1
vntory of music,end ArtSchool if
School of oratory,expression,and yl
physical culture. The Indiana y H
School for feeble mdnded youth and- 1
ggvefgl schools for orphans aret
h,s bading post in 1850. It became the city y 1
yt of Fort Wayne in 1840 loccted here' Vi
Bill S ith 85.
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Page 45 text:
When the Indians learned that their
land west of the Appalachians Mountains had
been given to the English they were very
much dissatisfied. The Indians had always
been friends of the French and enemies of
the English. So sow it was only natural that
they would do everything in their poser to
drive the English out. In this emergency
an Indian leader arose and his efforts re-
sulted in almost complete disaster for the
E nglish in the Northwest Territory. This
Indiana leader was a chief of the Ottawa
tribe named Pontiac.
Pontiac was a very shrewd warrior. Dur-
the two years years between 1760-72 he or-
ganized almost all the tribes of the north
nest to drive out the English. Pbntiac's
plans were perfected in 1765 and arrange-
ments were made to attack all the English
forts and settlements at the same time.
Detroit was the most important post but the
commander of this post had been warned of
the danger,so Pontiac was unable to capture
this stronghold. Had he been able to do so
it is likely that the Englsh would have
been driven out of the entire region. Other
forts did not fare so well as Detroit.Hoe-
ever,a number of them were suprised and
their garrisons killed. Fort Miami where
Fort Wayne now stands was aptured and its
commander slain. Ouiatanon was surrendeded
but no one was killed there. In a short time
Vincennes to take possession and rebuild
the fort there. Abbott found the fort in
a dilapidated condition. He made nn at-
tempt to repair the fort and mount some
cannon. He remained u til January 1778,
and then returned to Detroit for a visit.
While he was gone events took place which
started the change in the whole history
of the Northwest Territory.
The Revolutionary War began in 1576
At the beginning of the war the English
who were in charge of the forts of the
Northwest Territory began to arrouse the
Indians against the American settlers
who had been bold enough to venture west
of the Applachian Mountains. These Eng-
lishmen carried on a profitable trade
with the Indians and were enven accused
of rewarding the red men for bringing in
the scalps of American men and women.
The fear of being attacked by the Indians
cased the Americans from the colonies
along the Atlantic Coast to hesitate
about going into the Northwest Territory.
senses ' ' ksssssssssss
PROVIDING FOR RECREATION IND AMUSEMENT
In order to properly balance his life
every person must have a certain mount of
recreation and amusement. The age of mach-
ines and labor-saving devices has brought
reduction in the number of hours an ind-
ividual works each day and as a result
Dot an Eng1iShm3D WHS left in what is QOW there has been a great increase in the
I ndiana. Pontiac's success was short 1ved,, amount of time left for recreation'
however. English soldiers crushed the reb- It is the duty of every Community to
ellion duflng the Coming Year and the Ind' provide wholesome recreation for its mem-
ians were compelled to give up all the
tives which they had in their possession.
Pontiac mas murdered by a member of his
own race, in 1769.
At the time of Pontiac's conspiracy
the English had not hken control of Vin-
cennes. There were several reasons,besides
the hostilit of the Indians for the slow-
ness of the English in coming in to the
Northwest ih any large numbers. One reason
wa s that the King of England by the Proc-
lamation of 1765 forbade any Englishman to
settle west of the Applachians. This was
followed by the Quebec Act of 1774 which
a nnexed all the Mississippi valley to the
Province of Quebec Br the purpose of Gov-
Between 1775 and 1777 there was no of-
ficial authority within what is new the
State of Indiana. By the Quebec Act Vincen-
nes had been placed under the authority of
the Governor at Detroit but it was u til
1777 that the Englih Governor,Henry Ham-
ilton sent Lietenant Governor Abbott to
Qcontinued next columnl
bers. The community which provides these
extra pleasures and benefits for its res-
idents is the one where the citizens are
most likely to be healthy,happy,and law-
abiding. Doris Beam,7A.
THE FRENCH IN INDIANA
The first white men to explore any of
the Ngrthwest Territory were French Jesuit
Priests from Quebec. The beginning of their
labor was probably about l654. The first
place they worked was among the Huron
Indians on the southern shores of the Great
Lakes. These priests came to this region,
not from across the great range of mount-
ains which shut out the English, but by a
much easier route up the StLawrence and
the Great Lakes. Delma Justice,8A.
Mrs Bolinger: Eugene,what have you been
doing to the ink?
E ugene: I only put water in it, to make
it write wet. I'm writing a letter to Mr.
Brown and I want to whisper a secret to
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