Aberdeen Proving Ground - Yearbook (Aberdeen, MD)

 - Class of 1943

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Aberdeen Proving Ground - Yearbook (Aberdeen, MD) online yearbook collection, 1943 Edition, Cover

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Text from Pages 1 - 72 of the 1943 volume:

BUMP A NYL CLASS 37 UHUN!-KNEE UFPIIIEH E!-XNDIU!-XTE SEHUUL X E, ff ABERDEEN PHUVING EEUUND, MARYLAND 1 9 4 3 Th'rd Edi DOUGLAS G. PUTNAM CARLTON R. GETTE First Lieuienant Second Lieufenanf Commanding Officer Company Officer ir 'k 'k 'Ir lReacling from Leif To Righil Firsf Row: Corporals Levin, Bennieg Urbanslci, Raymond Second Row: Privaies Firsi Class Lifio, Michael J. J.: Technician Fifih Grade l-laskin, Leong Privale Firsl' Raczynslci, Edward T.: Privales Bellanclo, Primo J.: Buse Class l-lohenzy, Michael J. meyer, John G. 'Ir ak L Myi 3' 1 I fi Q vi . 2 5 - 5 3 .Qi xx' ' V 1: Z E ., ., M K s . 5 : , if , Q .v.QEyg ar , A 8 K , .. ., .. L R , Q x J , M w 3 1- w W I Axim 'va 3? iq Q QM M 'Q Alllll llel Ily 4 f vfi 5 2, W .. , ,,,, Q 'ff N 4 , i A'7',f,. :ii I ,f 5? " Wire, 'Myf . ----. 3'-5 .mfs H 5 i 1 , . A ' r ffm? f A ll 4-'Q 5' "SM 7 Ll P .", Z V:-2- ::5::, "Ah 1' R. W' K K? .Nia-v"""o ,m'c-4 ?'9,N'1' Q' 1 ,mu 3 , x' M -, H M , , Q: -Jil. ii, Kihei ' i' WK A v""""' M N-4,.M.g.m..m WM V-W.-'-N... aff, wg Hgfs Q F fs., X f F 4 I M Q I 91? MM--W.,..,,w Www m Q Bmw 111 ,gm- M """+--Q.. H maya wibiww Fgg NW ,we ff '55 'x Y U Fwfi . . ' bw ,v ,H . V MSW 5 Ei my f Wiwf- , I KS' , A .. Q, WEE, M24 ' iff , Yffkfm., P sf? in Q ' ' 'Y 11 '35 1, ff ' Q N 2 ,M 5 HX, 2 71 Vg. X4 5 wa. 54424 Q We .,., x ' ., .,.. . , , 4' -X jf fy f . H.. I I A A XXL, .rr i?N?"!.Qf?S?,i:l'W,g . 'YN ig. Q , F V ,, M. :S L, xv, , :V ,F '- 4 ., I - wfymy'-,J w A ' 1 f A yy f .1,., . 1,15 ' ' 1'-'f' ff ,Q .... : -V H -. .z .. NA ,V -S . 4. . .. ,-X F -V ..,. vi:-Egg: 1 - . 7 1 -. . -. , . - --:f-g2g:,: ez. , Q Q ,. . 4. LTU - ,-. eg .: . .,... K, . .ggtgj-' Y ,A s '..f, -1 ' ' ..f::.:-f,.,,- .':g ., il t V' .ln -N --M ..... K W .,xx,VL.,. ,,, ..., . ,, 1 Q , 1 w 6. f 23 ,mx K KA ,, i f b ! f be in 6 ya 4 Q '-mf? XX fi Q z 'lc Q if an M51 A Us .X 'Q' Ng Ig 4 r we ,Q Q, r '15 ,JV S 'ff rm H., W , fy, Fw ,.. . hx ,a5':,, I aff 1 if 3, ark "' ,..2::- ,.,. ,.F.E:: .. .ir x 3 - .A 1... xg 5 . If 5 1, W Q 'X ve ' , K A 'HS 4' ,Q S, 1. ,Q H vu, 51 -K in Q. 'Nag Ax ' " f-Q R 1 ,. 'Q X 1 Q3 'A H., f Q K 'H 7 W X 4 fi ., , 1 7 2 Ak 2 K A ,X M6 I ,ks ' nS-W PERSONNEL COMP cpu-a-4. K i , 4 , J FIRST PLATOON , 'I' 5 1 -1 Q ,. all W. R. Benson C. H. Berry R. T, Birney D. A. Bloom W, R. Brashear R. A, Brennfleck M. A. Bullard QQ R. P. Burqwald W, H. Bulls C. Bufya J. E. Caldwell H. E. Callahan O. A. Campbell, Jr. J. A. Caulfield J. L. Coleman J. l. Cornell A. E, Coslello C. K. Coulson C. B. Cox C. C. L. Culhberlson E. R, Dagil L. C. Derwinski E. E. Dunlap, Jr. R. S. Dunn, Jr. W. M. Durnil R. M. Easfman H. Eirinq, Jr. W. A, Epling R. R. Esles J. A, Everell S.F areneak J. B. Felker N. V. Filbey W. H. Friedberg ANY . mi PERSDNNEL CUMPANY . . Brock G. M. Gougler fu., ' J. H. Henderson S. O. Hirs hberg H. Josf, Jr. J. R. Kairis SECOND PLATOON O. C. Akre ff?-fm .. limi r U 351 l A. F. Grassmuck H, J. Greenberg C, L. Griffith H. V. Hcffmeier, Jr. W. M. Hunfingfon L. P. Johnson Q 'f l T. L. Hainline W. W. Hammond R, W. Johnson E. C. Jones im... W. Kidder R. B. Killen J. F. Kelly J. L. Kelly L. C, Kerans y ik G. Lackmann, Jr. R. S. Kinch A. King D. Klein C. C. Kowal J. T, Lampilal Jr. VV. J. Laipple W. D. Lamm 'UH' . 1l"'f'-H 'fb .im in tg ,Nm il B S Q., T' Ma s W. J. McDermoH C. T. Lindquisf W. W. MacDonald W. H. Martens D. C. y PERSDNNEL GDMPANY l J. R. Buckley, Jr, E. A. Zimmer J. W. Morrison, Jr. H. Mollershaw R. L. Nearhoof C. A. Neorr J. D. Nichols G. B. Norris F. W. Olsen S. B. Osman T. B. Overmier A. J. Pannilfi B. T. Parkinson T. R. Pafferson R. L. Pafzold R. B. Paul C. Penrose J. D. Pool F. R. Porler, Jr. R. L. Powell H. S. Randolph L. E. Rasmussen J. E. Ray weigh ,- ,L 11'5'Wm 5 .,' ' V -.1 l ,xr X of W. A. Reichenbach E. H. Reuss H. L. Rhoads A. Rodgers R. N. Roth G. A. Ruesink C. W. Ruskowski . F. B. Sallee T. T. Sarelsky E. Schee E. R. Schwarlz L. B. Scof? P. D. Tipfon M, L. Wilson PERSONNEL COMPANY FOURTH PLATOON ,nw-wf .al----1. F. Kromm M. E. Loqerquisl S. G. Mellner D. G. Myers H. Scherba D. W. Seagrave E. J. Shea P. A. Smilh, Jr. H. W. Springer W. P. Slancklewlfz W. H. Slevens R. M. Slewarl M. S. Sfock liz: Eh- L. W. Subiack C. A. Sumpler J. E. Swearingen F. C. Taylor M. R. Taylor R. W. Temm J. R. Thompson L Tremoulls W H Van Hausen F P Vavo R S Volkman J R Wal es C. T. Wallon W. E. Walson A , ., -QQ ..,.5,k ,. .. 2 1. . .. . .. .. V ,f 9 x in L "I - l ff .1 . I r nw t . J. E. Weflen D. E. We hrs .wmv G. F, Wilman J. H. C. Weianl A. E. Wheeler D. W. Wheeler E. W. Williams F. A. Wiszcholek K. 2 qwe Q ,,..,..,-no . D. Wiflen C. J. Workman O. R. Worley V. O. Wyble A. Zeff PERSDNNEL COMPANY W. F. Aimone J, R. Anderson C. E. Applegafe M. P. Balerviez S. Baran J. A. Bassefi H. H. Benner? J. O. Fifzpafrick R, A. Fielland M. H. Fiefcher W. A. French R. W. Gaffney C. V. Galbreafh D. I. Gelsinger L. C. Gerds R. J. Gilberf R. F. McGee W. T. McGra1h M. C. Mclnfosh S. C. McKeIvey W. A. McNamee H. D. Milsiead H. T. Mooney R. C. Seeley R. N. Selfridge W. A. Sharrifis, Jr. W. F. Shore M. L. Simkins M. C. Smiih, Jr. R. H. Smith S. F. Smiih M. Snyder B. Solomon R. C. Speer W. R. Spencer J. W. Veley HlSTlllll UF THE "MONSTER" No, we were nof creafed by a Frankensfein, nor did we ever consider ourselves as a monsfer: buf for fhirfeen weeks we were a learning and drilling machine. We were builf wifh precision and of fhe besf available maferial. The Ordnance Officer Candidafe School searched far and wide for fhe subsfances for fhis machine. Despife fhe facf fhaf fhe counfry was af war and sea fravel haz- ardous, imporfs of parfs were made from Iceland, from Hawaii, and from fhe Solomon Islands. As fhe packages of fhe segmenfs arrived, fhey showed by fheir braids sources from all arms and services. All parfs were assembled on Jan. I4, l943. The com- posifion of fhe machine numbered 23l separafe and dis- fincf pieces. Af firsf, liffle efforf was made fo properly gear and fasfen fhe parfs fogefher, and for several days fhe resulfanf body wobbled awkwardly on unsfable feef, and ifs mind lwhaf mind fhere wasl wandered aimlessly fhrough uncharfed ways. Buf fhe school officials had a iob fo do, and done if would be. They had had previous experiences in fhe building of such machines. The crea- fion of our mechanism was fheir fhirfy-sevenfh affempf, fheir previous record had been excellenf, and fhey were defermined nof fo fail wifh us. Thus was our mechanical body assembled and, when complefed, labeled "Class No. 37." The confused creafion needed guidance, and fhe au- fhorifies in fheir wisdom, placed fhe mechanism under 'rhe confrol and supervision of Lieufenanf Douglas Puf- nam. Lieufenanf Pufnam had successfully famed such mechanisms fwice previously, for he had nurfured our predecessors of Company L, Class No. 9 and Class No. 23. And lesf fhe creafure should prove unconfrollable for one man, fhe able assisfance of Lieufenanf C. R. Geffe was invoked. This was nof a one-man iobg for fhe obiecf was fo fame fhe mechanical body and af fhe same fime polish and smoofh each of ifs separafe parfs. The polishing began wifh a gusfo on Monday, Jan. l8. Oh, fhere was marvelling and wondermenf when The hor- rible "monsfer" firsf appeared in public. The creafure's arms and legs flew in all direcfionsg and fhe school faculfy fore fheir hair in bewilderrnenf. Our insfrucfors had so firmly sef fhemselves fo fheir work, however, fhaf fhey were fo succeed under any circumsfances. For eighf Elllllll ll OF ABERDEEN hours daily fhey oiled and greased and polished fhe brain-sfrucfure af H-lp and for an hour daily fhey scoured and rubbed and "chewed" fhe body on fhe drill field. Affer nof foo many days, a bif of coordinafion could be observed bofh wifhin fhe brain-sfrucfure and befween fhe brain and body. Even affer five weeks of experf shaping, fiffing, and lubricafing, some parfs of fhe sfrucfure seemed fo grafe and refard fhe mofion of fhe creafure. A fhorough check was made of each parf, and on Feb. 23, fhe body was forn down complefely lby emofional sfrainl and reassem- bled, less fiffy some odd parfs. Af firsf, if seemed fhaf fhe new assemblage would nof work so well, because some parfs missed fhose parfs fhaf had been removed. Buf as fhe oils of enfhusiasm spread, fhe mechanism real- ly began fo funcfion smoofhly in abouf fhe sixfh week of ifs exisfence. True if was, a few parfs were sfill mis- placed, buf such were removed wifhouf affecfing fhe body. Then one day in April, fhe machine suddenly disin- fegrafed, and, wonder of wonders, each parf furned ouf fo be a living and breafhing second lieufenanf. All fhaf remained of fhe "Monsfer" of Aberdeen was g-old bars and heads sfeeped in knowledge of Ordnance. The cre- afors of fhe "lv1onsfer" had succeeded in polishing and smoofhing fhe parfs info perfecf young officers. Wifh iusf pride, fhe officials of fhe Ordnance Officer Candidafe School, fhe school insfrucfors, and fhe com- mander of Company L senf fheir producfs ouf fo meef fhe public during academic leaves. The producfs fhem- selves leff in high spirifs, and heighfened fheir spirifs while away. If was war-fime, however, and pride in fhe accomplish- menfs of all conceived had fo give way fo dufy, a mosf honorable dufy, fhaf of serving one's counfry in ifs need. Such dufy has called our men fo fhe four corners of fhe earfhg such dufy may fake fhe lives of some of our men. We fake solace, however, nof in our personal well being, buf in fhe well being of our counfry and fhose fhaf in- habif if: yes, even more, we fake solace in fhe well being of a decenf world cifizenry. lf is such a well being fhaf we will have helped fo achieve. r ORDNANCE OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL I I Biographies FIRST PLATOON BENSON, WILLIAM R.-IOO E. 38th St., Paterson, N. J., Technician Fifth Grade, Wesleyan University, Columbia University, Law School, Lawyer, Corps ot Military Police, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Sigma Rho, Phi Delta Phi. BERRY, CHARLES H.-Notasulga, Ala., First Sergeant, Student, Ordnance Department. BIRNEY, ROBERT T.-IO8 N. Martindale Ave., Atlantic City, N, J., Ser- geant, Electrical Construction, Corps ot Engineers, Sigma Kappa. BLOOM, DONALD A.-I337 Elmwood Ave., Wilmette, Ill., Corporal, Antioch College, Finance Department. .BRASHEAR, WILLIAM R,-47l7 Westfield Ave., Camden, N. J., Techni- cian Fifth Grade, Drexel Institute ot Technology, Sub-Station Operator, Signal Corps, Order ot DeMolay. BRENNFLECK, RALPH A.-l5352 Wisconsin St., Detroit, Mich., Technical Sergeant, Tool and Die Makers Apprentice, Ordnance Department. BULLARD, MERLIN A.-l5I7 San Francisco St., Olympia, Wash., Cor- pprailiq Watchmaker, Ordnance Department, Benevolent and Protective Order o s. BURGWALD, RUSSELL P.-IZB W. South St., Dwight, Ill., Corporal, Utili- ties Engineering Institute, Electric Retrigeration and Air-Conditioning Serv- ice Engineer, Service Command Unit. BUTTS, WALLACE H.-Belle Fourche, S. D., Corporal, University ot South Dakota, Research Economist, Ordnance Department, Free and Ac- cepted Masons, Phi Delta Theta, Delta Sigma Pi. BUTYA, CARL-Route 5, Cratton, Pa., Sergeant, Carnegie Institute ot Technology, Heat Treater ot Steel, Tank Destroyer Command, Benevolent and Protective Order ot Elks. CALDWELL, JAMES E.-Vernon, Tex., Technician Fourth Grade, David Rankin Junior Technical and Mechanical Trades, Mechanic, Ordnance De- partment. CALLAHAN, HOWARD E.-2099 Webster Ave., Bronx, N. Y., Statt Ser- geant, Restaurant Manager, Corps ot Military Police. CAMPBELL, OLIVER A., JR.-East Norwich, Long Island, N. Y., Techni- cian Fitth Grade, Trinity College, Machinist, Cavalry, Delta Psi. CAULFIELD, JAMES A.-6559 Northwest Hwy., Chicago, Ill., Corporal, North Park College, lntantry. COLEMAN, JEROME L.-4940 S. East End Ave., Chicago, Ill., Corporal, Armour Institute, Northwestern University, Real Estate Mgr., Insurance Broker, Medical Department. CORNETT, JAMES I.-Hartford, Tenn., Corporal, Engineer's Aide, Ord- nance Department, Loyal Order ot Moose. COSTELLO, ALPHONSUS E.-24l Brook Ave., Passaic, N. J., Technical Sergeant, Stock Clerk, Ordnance Department. COULSON, CHARLES K.-Route I, Brenham, Tex,, Technician Fourth Grade, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College, Recorder, Texas High- way Department, Medical Department. COX, CHARLES B.-28 Hamilton St., Rockville Centre, Long Island, N. Y., Corporal, Columbia University, Ordnance Department. CUTHBERTSON, CHARLES C. L.-Route 2, Duncan, Okla., Corporal, Warehouse Foreman, Ordnance Department. DAGIT, EDGAR R.-New Baden, Ill., Corporal, St, Louis University, Ac- countant, Finance Department. DERWINSKI, LEO C.-8l2 Main St., Simpson, Pa., Corporal, Bridgeport Engineering Institute, Industrial Engineer, Ordnance Department. DUNLAP, EDGAR E., JR.-50 Grove St., Auburndale, Mass., Technician Fourth Grade, Clerk, lntantry. DUNN, RAY S., JR.-3725 Macomb St., N.W., Washington, D. C., Tech- nical Sergeant, Beniamin Franklin University, Agent, United States Depart- ment of Labor, Army Air Forces. DURNIL, WILLIAM M.-474l W. Okmulgee Ave., Muskogee, Okla., Cor- poral, University of Oklahoma, Department Store Mgr., Ordnance Depart- ment, Phi Kappa Psi. EASTMAN, ROBERT M.-IOI4 Woodlawn Ave., Springtield, Ohio, Cor- poral, Antioch College, Accountant, Finance Department. EIRING, HILMAR, JR,-Eagle, Wis., Corporal, Carroll College, Insur- ance Agent, Ordnance. EPLING, WORTH A.-lllb Adams St., Lagrande, Ore., Statt Sergeant, University ot Oregon, Mgr. Meat Stores, Army Air Forces, Sigma Alpha Epsilon. ESTES, ROBERT R.-l8II N. 37th St., Kansas City, Kan., Technician Fitth Grade, University ot Kansas, Transportation Corps, Delta Chi. EVERETT, JOHN A.-SIS Lindsay St., Chattanooga, Tenn., Statt Sergeant, Dragline Machine Operator, Cavalry. FARENEAK, STEPHEN-l9O Ross St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Corporal, Haaren Industrial, Aviation Ordnance. FELKER, JAMES B,-I323 Delaware Ave., Bethlehem, ,Pa., Corporal, Le- high University, Student, Army Air Forces, Lambda Chi Alpha. FILBEY, NATHAN V.-706 Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill., Private,-Uni- versity ot Illinois, Accountant, Finance Department, Beta Theta Pr, Phi Eta Sigma, Beta Alpha Psi, Beta Gamma Sigma. FRIEDBERG, WILLIAM H.-9235 Doheny Rd., Los Angeles, Calif., Pri- vate, University ot Calitornia at Los Angeles, Northwestern University, Jewel- er, Ordnance Department, Zeta Beta Tau, Alpha Delta Phi, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. SECOND PLATOON AKRE, ORVILLE C.-Corporal, Airline Traftic Agent, Ordnance Depart- ment. BROCK, LOUIS R.-Hague-On-Lake, George, N. Y., Corporal, Princeton University, Purdue University, Mechanical Engineer, Ordnance Department, Delta Tau Delta. GOUGLER, GEORGE M.-5I7 Richardson St., Grass Valley, Calit., Mas- ter Sergeant, Army Air Forces. GRASSMUCK, ALBERT F,-35l9 Vista Ave., St. Louis, Mo., Technician Fitth Grade, American institute ot Banking, Ottice Manager, lntantry. GREENBERG, HAROLD J.-2035 7Ist St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Technician Fitth Grade, St. John's University, Store Manager, Detached Enlisted Men's List, St. John's Indian Society. GRIFFITH, CLETUS L.-Etna Green, Ind., Private, Indiana University, Purdue University, Teacher, Ordnance Department. HAINLINE, THOMAS L.-3000 Tracy St., Kansas City, Mo., Corporal, Salesman, Ordnance Department, Sigma Pi. HAMMOND, WILLIAM W.-Route I, Kearneysville, W. Va., Private, George Washington University, Correspondence Clerk, Ordnance Depart- ment, Phi Sigma Kappa. HENDERSON, JAMES H.-Box 43, Newby, Tex., Private First Class, Lon Morris Junior College, Grocery Cashier, Ordnance Department, Maverick Club. HIRSHBERG, STUART O.-200 W. Huron St., Bad Axe, Mich., Technician Fitth Grade, University ot Michigan, Accountant, Ordnance Department, Sigma Alpha Mu. HOFFMEIER, HENRY vonASEN, JR.-422 Arlington Village, Arlington, Va., Corporal, Airplane Mechanic, Army Air Forces. HUNTINGTON WILLIAM M,-I35-32 224th Street, Springfield Gardens, N. Y., Corporal, Yale University, Investment Counsellor, Ordnance De- partment. JOHNSON, LYNDEL P.-420 S, 8th St., Quincy, Ill., Master Sergeant, Automotive Sheet Metal Worker, Ordnance Department. JOHNSON, ROY W.-Route 4, Mt. Airy, N. C., Technician Fourth Grade, National Youth Administration Proiect Supervisor, Armored Force. JONES, EDWARD C.-723 N. Monroe Ave., Mason City, Iowa, Corporal, Ottice Mgr., Ordnance Department, Benevolent and Protective Order ot Elks. JOST, HENRY, JR.-Corporal, Painter and Decorator, Army Air Forces, Painters and Decorators Union. KAIRIS, JOSEPH R.-I23 Norwood Sf., Newark, N, J., Sergeanf, Sfock Clerk, Field Arfillery Corps. KELLY, JAMES F.-Wesfville, Ill., Privafe, Universify of Illinois, Easfern Illinois Sfafe Teachers College, Social Worker, Field Arfillery Corps. KELLY, JAMES L.-205 S. Allanfic Sf., Dillon, Monl., Sergeanf, Monfana School of Mines, Mining Engineer, Field Arfillery Corps, Sigma Rho. KERANS, LAWRENCE C.-2I0 Vermilion Sf., Georgefown, Ill., Corporal, Air Forces Technical School, Easfern Illinois Sfafe Teachers College, Olivef Bible College, Olivel' College, Army Air Forces. . KIDDER, WILLIAM-Box 206, Cannonsburg, Pa., Technician Third Grade, Vanadium Processor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. KILLEN, ROSS B.-Wise, Va., Corporal, Aufomofive Parfs Supervisor, Ordnance Deparfrnenf. KINCH, ROBERT S.-Technician Fourfh Grade, Machine Seffers Helper, Ordnance Deparfrnenf, Hi-Y Club. KING, ALBERT-Shoshoni, Wyo., Technical Sergeanf, Sfock Clerk, Ord- nance Deparfmenf. KLEIN, DAVID--27OI Valenfine Ave., New York Cily, Corporal, The Cily College, Columbia Universify, New York Universify, Edifor, Transporfafion Corps, Andiron Club of New York Cify. THIRD BUCKLEY, JOHN R., JR.-Prairie Cify, Iowa, Privafe, Grinnell College, Salesman, Ordnance Deparlrnenf. MORRISON, JOHN W., JR.-5296 Wesfrninsfer Pl., Sf. Louis, Mo., Tech- nician Fourfh Grade, Yale Universify, Finance Deparfmenf, Zefa Psi. MOTTERSHAW, HAROLDYSfaff Sergeanf, Medical Deparfmenf. NEARHOOF, RALPH L.-4I6 Pennsylvania Sf., Alfoona, Pa., Sfaff Ser- geanf, Coasf Arfillery Corps, Anfiaircraff. NEORR, CARL A.-37l4 Almeda Dr., Toledo, Ohio, Corporal, Toledo Universify, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons. NICHOLS, JOHN D.-l438 Vassar Dr., Toledo, Ohio, Corporal, Univer- sify of Chicago, Corps of Milifary Police. NORRIS, GEORGE B.-ZIS W. I2l'h Sf., Horfon, Kan., Privafe, Universify of Kansas, Insurance Business, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Sigma Chi, Free and Accepfed Masons. OLSEN, FRANK W.-20 Posf Ave., New York Cify, Corporal, Pace In- sfifufe, Ordnance Deparfmenf. OSMAN, STEIG B.-Monroe Sf., Soufh Bend, Wash., Technical Sergeanf, Universify of Washingfon, Ordnance Deparfn-ienf, Tau Kappa Epsilon. OVERMIER, THOMAS B.-'II00 Arlingfon Sf., La Grange, Ill., Privafe, Universify of Illinois, Audifor, Finance Deparfmenf, Zefa Psi. PARKINSON, BURT T.-335 3rd Ave,, E., Twin Falls, Idaho, Sergeanf, Universify of Ufah, Army Air Forces, Sigma Nu. PATTERSON, THEODORE R.-222 Lexingfon Ave., Mansfield, Ohio, Cor- poral, Finance Deparfmenf. PATZOLD, ROBERT L.-W. 2627 Sharp Sf., Spokane, Wash., Warranf Officer li.g.l, Order of DeMoIay. PAUL, ROBERT B.-II6 Lincoln Place Dr., Des Moines, Iowa, Corporal, Arrny Air Forces. PENROSEHCHARLES-428 Fiffh Sf., Marieffa, Ohio, Technician Fiffh Glrade, William and Mary College, Corps of Milifary Police, Delfa Up- sion. POOL, JOSEPH D.--206 Mernminger Sf., Greenville, S. C., Technician Fourfh Grade, Field Arfillery Corps. PORTER, FINLEY R., JR.-6l4 E. Buffalo Sf., Ifhaca, N. Y., Masfer Ser- geanf, Cornell Universify, Infanfry, Delfa Sigrna Phi. POWELL, RALPH L.-Powell Hofel, Niles, Mich., Corporal, Universify gh Michigan, Ordnance Deparlmenf, Benevolenf and Profecfive Order of s. KOWALIK, CHESTER C.-Box I38, Normanna, Tex., Sergeanf, Shoe Sales- man, Infanfry. LACKMANN, GEORGE, JR.-Moorehead, Minn., Sergeanf, Nashville Aufo Deisel College, Shop Foreman, Ordnance Deparfmenf. LAIPPLE, WILLIAM J.-BIZ W. 6fh Sf., Cedar Falls, Iowa, Sfaff Ser- geanf, Machinisf and Machine Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. LAMM, WILLIS D.-227 School Ave., Clawson, Mich., Sfaff Sergeanf, Michigan Sfafe College, General Mofors Corp., Field Arfillery Corps. LAMPILA, JOHN T., JR.-424 Trumbull Ave., S.E., Warren, Ohio, Tech- nical Sergeanf, Supervisor of Producfion, Ouarfermasfer Corps. LINDOUIST, CURTIS T.-I98I E, 226fh Sf., Euclid, Ohio, Corporal, Gen- eral Elecfric Technical School, Experimenfal Engineer, Infanfry. MacDONALD, WALTER W.-2II Cedar Ave., Sharon, Pa,, Sfaff Ser- -gIeanf,PUniversify of Pilfsburgh, Wesfminsfer College, Teacher, Epsilon efa i. MARTENS, WILLIAM H.-Roufe I4, Box 906, Porfland, Ore., Corporal, Typewrifer Mechanic, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf. MAYS, DEAN C.-II9 Lloyd SI., Alfoona, Pa., Sergeanf, Salesman, Army Air Forces, Veferans of Foreign Wars Club, American Legion Club. McDERMOTT, WALTER J.-79fh Sf., James Terr., Yonkers, N. Y., Technical Sergeanf, Salesman, Ordnance Deparfrnenf, Charlofle Engineers Club. PLATOON RANDOLPH, HENRY S.-456 S. Zlsf Sf., Irvingfon, N. J., Sfaff Sergeanf, New York Insfifufe of Phofography, Medical Phofographer, Corps of En- glneers. RASMUSSEN, LESLIE E.-I4II N. 63rd Sf., Omaha, Neb., Corporal, Bookkeeper, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons. RAY, JAMES E.-IIO3 Raymond Ave,, Befhlehem, Pa., Sfaff Sergeanf, Franklin and Marshall College, Ordnance Deparlmenf, Sigma Pi. REICHENBACH, WILBUR A.-70-I4 65fh Pl., Glendale, Lon Island, N. Y., Slaff Sergeanf, Brooklyn Technical College, Field Artillery Corps. REUSS, ELMER H.-2362 N. 63rd Sf., Wauwafosa, Wis., Corporal, Univer- sify of Wisconsin, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf. RHOADS, HARLEY L.-632 W. Iron Ave., Salina, Kan., Corporal, Royal Typewrifer Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf. RODGERS, ALLAN-Shepherdsfown, W. Va., Privafe, U. S. Ranger, Ord- nance Deparfmenf. ROTH, ROBERT N,-808 Nome Ave., Akron, Ohio, Technical Sergeanf, Universify of Akron, Armored Force, Free and Accepfed Masons. RUESINK, GORDON A,-Redwood Falls, Minn., Technician Fourfh Grade, Salesman, lnfanfry. RUSKOWSKI, CASIMIR W,-l703 Waff Sf., Schenecfady, N. Y., Ser- geanf, Union College, Yale Universify, School of Law, Lawyer, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf, Phi Befa Kappa. SALLEE, FLOYD B.--P. O. Box 98, Groveporf, Ohio, Sfaff Sergeanf, Crane Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SARETSKY, THEODORE T.-6l5 Fiffh Sf., Alpena, Mich., Technician Fourfh Grade, Alpena Business College, lnfanfry. SCHEE, ERIC-Wesfby, Wis., Corporal, Universify of Wisconsin, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Thefa Kappa Nu. SCHWARTZ, EDWARD R.e730 Park Ave., New York Cify, Privafe, Uni- xgirsify of Pennsylvania, Sales Execufive, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Pi Lambda I. SCOTT, LYLE B.-lb? Florence Sf., Sunnyvale, Calif., Sfaff Sergeanf, San Jose Sfafe College, Bank Clerk, lnfanfry, Kappa Alpha Pi. TIPTON, PIERCE D.-3095 Summer Ave., Memphis, Tenn., Sergeanf, Wesf Tennessee Sfafe Teachers College, Armored Force. WILSON, MARK L.-IO00 Ave. "C," Denfon, Tex,, Corporal, Universify of Soufhern California. ZIMMER, EDWARD A.-624 Penn Sl., Jeffersonville, Ind., Privafe, Ord- nance Deparfmenf. FOURTH PLATOON KROMM, FRED-2555 30fh Ave., San Francisco, Calif., Warranl' Officer, Mill Worker, Field Arfillery Corps. 4 LOGEROUIST, MARVIN E.-Bark River, Mich., Corporal, Norfhern Mich- igan College of Educalion, Insfrucfor, Infanfry, Alpha Delfa. MELLNER, SAMUEL C.--233 N. 8lh Sf., Allenfown, Pa., Corporal, Muhl- enberg College, lnspecfor of Ordnance Maferiel, Army Air Forces. MYERS, DWIGHT G.-Polk, Neb., Technician 5fh Grade, Fur Rancher. SCHERBA, HARRY-l995 Vega Ave., Cleveland, Ohio, Sergeanf, Cold- header, Armored Force. SEAGRAVE, DANIEL W.-42I W. Roy Sf. Seaffle, Washx Corporal' Washingfon and Jefferson College, Sfudenf Apprenfice, Engineering Dei parfrnenf, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Phi Kappa Sigma. SHEA, EDWARD J.-3058 Ashland Ave., Delroil, Mich., Corporal, Wayne Universify, Lawrence Insfifufe of Technology, Indusfrial Safefy and Hygiene Engineer, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Shahs Frafernify. SMITH, PETER A., JR.-66 Sfanley Rd., Soufh Orange, N. J., Corporal, Pro- ducfion Mgr., Newspaper Publisher, Infanfry, SPRINGER, HOWARD W.-60-42 Boofh Sf., Elmhursf, Long Island, N. Y., Technician Fiffh Grade, New York Universily, Cerfified Public Accounfanf, Ordnance Deparfmenf. STANCKIEWITZ, WALTER P.-Roufe I, Box 384, Dover, N. J., Firsf Ser- geanf, Munifions Worker, Ordnance Deparfmenf. STEVENS, WILLIAM H.-3l E. I2l'h Sf., New York Cily, Sergeanf, Ford- ham, Oil Business, Ordnance Deparfrnenf. STEWART, ROY M.-8873 Buhl Sf., Defroif, Mich., Privafe, Brickmason, Ouarlermasfer Corps, Free and Accepfed Masons. STOCK, MELVIN S.-605 Redknap Sl. N. S., Piffsburgh, Pa., Masfer Ser- geanf, Machine Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SUBJACK, LOUIS W.--435 John Sf., Soufh Amboy, N. J., Corporal, Middlesex Counfy Vocafional School, Die Maker, Coasf Arfillery Corps. SUMPTER, CURTIS A.-Floyd, Va., Sfaff Sernaeanf, Roanoke College, Hercules Powder Co., Army Air Forces, Kappa Alp a. SWEARINGEN, JAY E.-3l2 Reserve Ave., Sfeubenville, Ohio, Technician Fiflh Grade, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Sheef and Tin Plale Sales Division, Vgeigsn Sfeel Co., Ordnance Deparfmenf, Benevolenf and Profecfive Order o s. TAYLOR, FREDERICK C.-IOI9 Ridge Rd., N.W., Canfon, Ohio, Cor- pgoral, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Confracfor, Corps of Engineers, Sigma Phi psi on. TAYLOR, MORTON R.-I579 E. 3Isf Sf., Brooklyn, N. Y., Corporal, Uni- versify of Norfh Carolina, Accounfanf, Ouarferrnasfer Corps. TEMM, ROBERT W.-54 Aberdeen Pl., Claylon, Mo., Privafe, Sf. Louis Universify, Audifor, Army Air Forces. THOMPSON, JUEL R.-I09 Minfern Sf., Riverside, Calif., Privale, Clofhf ing Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepled Masons. TREMOULIS, LOUIS-5ll Hanover Sf., Marfins Ferry, Ohio, Technician Fiffh Grade, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Examiner of Building and Loan Asso- ciafions, Finance Deparlmenl. VAN HAUSEN, WILLIS H.-5l6 Borland Sf., Piffsburgh, Pa., Technician Fiffh Grade, Aufomobile Parfs and Service, Armored Force. VAVRO, FRANK P.-90-4I Helen Sf., Defroif, Mich., Technician Fourfh Grade, Building School of Trades, Elecfrician, Ordnance Deparlmenf. .VOLKMAN, RAYMOND S.-3200 Granfley Rd., Balfimore, Md., Techni- cian Fourfh Grade, George Washington Universify, Johns Hopkins Univer- sify, Law and Real Esfafe Firm, lnfanfry, Kappa Alpha. WAILES, JOHN R.-IIO Sl. Albans Way, Balfimore, Md., Technician Effh Grade, Universify of Maryland, Mgr. of Coal Yard, Quarfermasfer orps. WALTON, CORWIN T.-6808 Hough Sf., Los Angeles, Calif., Warranf Officer li.g.l, Aufomofive Engineer, Medical Deparfmenf. WATSON, WILLIAM E.-2585 Melrose Ave., Norwood, Ohio, Sergeanf, Inspecfor, Machine Shop, Ordnance Deparfmenf. WEFLEN, JOHN E.-60l "V" Sf., N. E. Minneapolis, Minn., Technician Fourfh Grade, Universify of Minnesofa, Bank Burglar Alarm Technician, Scand-America Frafernify. WEHRS, DONALD E.-33I N. Elmwood Ave., Oak Park, Ill., Corporal, Valparaiso Universify, Buyer, Ordnance Deparfmenf. WEIANT, HENRY C.-358 Hanover Ave., Allenfown, Pa., Sergeanf, De- fail Draffsman, Armored Force. WHEELER, ALBERT E.-Washinglon Sf., Norfh Chelmsford, Mass., Sfaff Sergeanf, Nafional Diesel School, Diesel Engineer, Army Air Forces. WHEELER, DONALD W.-3426 Sfevens Ave., Minneapolis, Minn., Tech- nician Fiffh Grade, Universify of Minnesofa, lnspecfor of Ordnance Ma- feriel, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Minnesofa Commons Club. WILLIAMS, ELGIN W.-983 Ocean Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., Sergeanf, Wesleyan Universify, lnvesfigafor, Armored Force. WISZCHOLEK, FRANK A.-I7I9 W. I8fh Sf., Chicago, III., Warranf Officer, Crane College, Shoofing Gallery Operafor, Ordnance Deparlmenf. WITMAN, GEORGE F.-345 Buffon Sf., S,E., Grand Rapids, Mich., Pri- vafe Firsf Class, Bufler Universify, Army Technical School, Manager Trainee, Sears, Roebuck and Co., Army Air Forces, Lambda Chi Alpha. WITTEN, JOHN D.-420 E. McNair Sf., Versailles, Mo., Corporal, Execu- five Secrefary fo Secrelary of Sfafe, Missouri, Ordnance Deparfmenf. WORKMAN, CLIFTON D.-908 Joplin Sf., Galena, Kan., Technician Third Grade, Refail Aufomobile Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf. WORLEY, OWEN R.-Goshen Springs, Miss., Corporal, Mississippi Slafe College, Medical Deparfmenf, Sigma Phi Epsilon. WYBLE, VERN O.-206 N. Gorham Sf., Jackson, Mich., Sfaff Sergeanf, Jackson Junior College, Railroad Trainman, Transporfafion Corps. ZEFF, ALBERT-3601 Federal Sf., Camden, N. J., Sergeanf, Pennsylvania Sfafe College of Opfomefry, Opfomefrisf, Medical Deparfmenf, Gamma Omega Phi. FIFTH PLATOON AIMONE, WILLIAM F.-130 Cedar Ave., Hawfhorne, N. J., Technical Sjrgeanf, College of Paferson, Insurance Underwriter, Defacned tnnsred en's Lisf. ANDERSON, JOHN R.-3525 Fleming Ave., N.S., Piffsburgh, Pa., Cor- poral, lowa Wesleyan College, Salesman, McQuay Norris Manufacfuring Co., lnfanfry, Sigma Phi Epsilon. APPLEGATE, CLARE E.-476 Rembrandf Sf., Mansfield, Ohio, Privafe, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Mechanical Engineer, Army Air Forces. BALERVIEZ, MICHAEL P.-I6 Coffage Sf., Exefer, N. H., Sergeanf, Shoe Manufacfuring, Ordnance Deparfmenf. BARAN, STANLEY-7606 W. 64fh Sf., Argo, III., Sergeanfg Argo Com- munify Trade School, Foreman, C. P. R. Co., Aviafion Ordnance. BASSETT, JOHN A.-6246 Kenmore Ave., Chicago, Ill., Corporal, Yale Universify, Adverfising Accounf Execufive, Army Air Forces, Sf. Elmo Club. BENNETT, HERBERT H.-728 N. 4fh Axe., Knoxville, Tenn., Privafe Firsf Class, Universify of Tennessee, Mgr., The Carolina Inn, Army Air Forces, Tau Kappa Omicron, Hi-Y Club. FITZPATRICK, JAMES O.-276 Adams Sf., Oakland, Calif., Corporal, Wafford College, Bookkeeper, Coasf Arfillery Corps, Anfiaircraff. FJELLAND, RICHARD A.-Hofel Packard, Pendlefon, Ore., Corporal, Mgr. of Firesfone Sfore, Ordnance Deparfmenf. FLETCHER, MARVIN H.-Sumner, Miss., Sergeanf, Norfhwesf Junior Col- lege, Sfudenf, Ordnance Deparfmenf. FRENCH, WELLINGTON A.-Church Sf., Sfockbridge, Mass., Corporal, Clark Universify, Chain Sfore Merchandising, Signal Corps. GAFFNEY, ROBERT W.-905 Merfon Rd., Defroif, Mich., Technician Fourfh Grade, Wayne Universify, Tool and Die lnspecfor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. GALBREATH, CARROLL V.-I400 W. Nevada PI., Denver, Colo., Cor- poral, Universify of Denver, Public School Teacher, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf, Phi Della Kappa, Schoolmasler's Guild. GELSINGER, DONALD I.-Edgewood, Ill., Technician Third Grade, David Ranken Junior School of Mechanical Trades, Welder, Ordnance De- parfmenf. GERDS, LESTER C.-Roufe I, Farmingfon, Mich., Sergeanf, Coach Op- erafor, Deparfmenf of Sfreef Railway, Medical Deparfmenf. GILBERT, RICHARD J.-Middlefon, Wis., Technician Fourfh Grade, Bookkeeper and Wafchmaker, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Wisconsin Wafch- makers Associafion. MCGEE, ROBERT F.---IIO4 Prendergasf Ave., Jamesfown, N. Y., Corporal, Sfaunfon Milifary Academy, Furnifure Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Lambda Sigma. McGRATH, WILLIAM T.--37 Blossom Sf. Rockland, Mass., 466 Washing- fon Sf., Brighfon, Mass., Privafe, Benfley School of Accounfs and Finance, Bosfon Universify, Infernal Revenue Agenf, U. S. Treasury Deparfmenf, Finance Deparfmenf. McKELVEY, STUART C.-3736 Verne Sf., Fresno, Calif., Technical Ser- geanf, Fresno Sfafe College, Area Engineer, Sfandard Oil Co., Ordnance, Army Air Forces. MCNAMEE, WILLIAM A.-3626 Keswick Rd., Balfimore, Md., Technical Sergeanf, Sfeam Engineer, Ordnance Deparfmenf. MILSTEAD, HANEY D.-I224 Park Ave., Nebraska Cify, Neb., Technician Fourlh Grade, Pennsylvania Sfafe Teachers College, Pefroleum Operafor, Medical Deparfmenf, Befa Befa Befa, Philomafhean. MOONEY, HAROLD T.-236 Lincoln Way E., Chambersburg, Pa., Ship- pensburg Sfafe Teacher's College, Invesfigafor, Refail Credif Co., De- fached Enlisfed Men's Lisf. SEELEY, ROBERT C.-50 Hawfhorne Sf., Harfford, Conn., Corporal, Colf's Pafenf Firearms Manufacfuring Co., Army Air Forces. SELFRIDGE, ROBIN N.-Seagraves, Tex., Corporal, Oklahoma Agricul- 'rural and Mechanical College, Pefroleum Producfion, Ordnance Deparf- menf. SHARITTS, WALTER A., JR.-503 Buckeye Sf., Miamisburg, Ohio, Ser- geanf, Engineering Specificafion Clerk, Armored Force. SHORE, WILLIAM F.-9238 California Ave., Soufh Gafe, Calif., Corporal, Producfion Planner, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SIMKINS, MELVIN L.-Box 65, Corsica, Pa., Technician Fourfh Grade, Juniafa College, Accounfanf, Finance Deparfmenf. SMITH, MANNING C., JR.-lI48-B, Honolulu, T. H., Technical Sergeanf, Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SMITH, ROBERT H.-277 W. Fourfh Sl., Mansfield, Ohio, Privafe, Ord- nance lnspecfor, Wesfinghouse Elecfric, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SMITH, SIDNEY F.-928 Broderick Sf., San Francisco, Calif., Sfaff Ser- geanf, Clofhing Salesman, Aviafion Ordnance. SNYDER, MARTIN-6523 N. l7fh Sf., Philadelphia, Pa., Technical Third Grade, Towne Scienfific School, Universify of Pennsylvania, Machine Tool Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SOLOMON, BERNARD-BI 4fh Sf., New Dorp, Sfafen Island, N. Y., Cor- poral, College of fhe Cify of New York, Social Invesfigafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf. SPEER, RALPH C.-Monficello, Ark., Sfaff Sergeanf, Sparfan School of Aeronaufics, Salesman, Army Air Forces. SPENCER, WALTER R.-8 Monroe Sf., Binghamfon, N. Y., Sfaff Sergeanl, Draffsman, Field Arfillery Corps. VELEY, JACK W.-476 N. 3rd Sf., San Jose, Calif., Privafe, San Fran- cisco Archifecfural College, Conslrucfion. Superinfendenf, Ordnance De- parfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons, Phi Sigma Zefa. lilllilll lil l ll llll SEL lf is wifh greaf pleasure fhaf I falce fhis oppor- funify fo congrafulafe you on fhe successful com- plefion of your fraining af fhe Officer Candidafe School. You who now wear fhe bars of a Second Lieufenanf for fhe firsf fime may view your ac- complishmenfs of fhe pasf fhree monfhs wifh pride. Buf you have iusf embarked on your four of dufy as an Officer. Before you lie fhe complex problems which will fax your resourcefulness, your ingenuify, your abilify, and your sfamina. The preparafion which you have iusf undergone is merely fhe basis upon which you will develop your usefulness: fo solve fhe sifuafions which you musf face in fhe fufure demands fhaf you malce unceasing efforfs fo furfher prepare yourselves. The responsibilifies which have been placed upon you, and which you accepfed when you fook fhe oafh of office, are many and greaf. The perilous fimes fhrough which our counfry is now passing require fhaf each of you work foward fhe final fulfillmenf of fhese responsibilifies, so fhaf +he opporfunifies which have been ours fhroughouf our lives may confinue fo besfow fheir benefifs upon fhose who follow us. You have enfered fhe service of your counfry when if needed you: fhaf is as if should be. You falce upon yourselves fhe fask of securing fhe liberfies and freedoms which we have inherifed: fhaf is as if musf be. All your efforfs musf be guided foward fhis one ob- iecfive, fhe affainmenf of which will bring fhe safisfacfion fhaf comes wifh a job well done. CZCWLJ arria, r. Mainr General Commanding Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. if if if Three monfhs of infensive fraining have been complefed, and you are fo be commended for fheir successful complefion. If gives me greaf pleasure fo congrafulafe you on your newly- earned commissions as Second Lieufenanfs in fhe Army of fhe Unifed Sfafes. The fraining you have received, loofh as an enlisfed man and as an officer candidafe, will prove invaluable as a basis for solving fhe com- plex problems which lie ahead. This preparafion musf be augmenfed by your own resourcefulness and ingenuify, for you have been chosen as leaders and have accepfed fhe responsiloilifies which have been placed upon you. Many and greaf will be fhese responsibilifies. Whefher your assignmenf be af home or abroad, each is equally imporfanf. ln whichever field you serve you are well qualified fo properly fulfill fhe responsibilifies you have assumed. Having enfered fhe Ordnance Officer Candi- dafe School fo learn, if is now your privilege fo go forfh fo serve. l exfend my congrafulafions and bid you "God Speed." 90471, ingd eg Lieutenant Enlnnel Commandanf fhe Ordnance School. lik SYS REPORTING IN ,,,,,.,-M ,,,..,..,-M ,,,....., DEAR MOM STUDY TIME POLICING THE BARRACKS SHlNE'EM UP CALISTHENICS ON THE RIFLE RANGE . ,. ,,. I Vg J 1' Q- V: I Env YL ff H-A A WWW Mm , 5, 7 22552 3 A ! . 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He reverted to his regular rank of Captain on March l5, l920, and was promoted to Maior on July I, I92Og to Lieutenant Colonel on August I, I935g to Brigadier General ltemporaryt on October I, I940g to Maior General ltemporaryl on April I, I942, and to Maior General ipermanentl on June I, l942. General Campbell first served at Fort Monroe, Virginia, followed by duty at Fort Williams, Maine, until the autumn of l9l5, when he was ordered to the Panama Canal for duty with Coast Artillery troops. He returned to the United States in April, I9l8, and was ordered to duty in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, in Washington, D. C. In September, l920, he was'ordered to Stockton, California, for a study of artillery material production at the Holt Manufacturing Plant. He remained at Stockton until the summer of I92I, when he was transferred to the Ordnance Department and served to September, l923, at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as a proof officer in charge of tanks, tractors, self-propelling mounts and mobile artillery. He then became Officer in Charge of the Design Section at the Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois. In April, l926, General Campbell was ordered to Washington D. C., to take charge of the Automotive Section, Artillery Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, remaining on this duty until June I930, when he returned to Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, as Officer in Charge of Manu- facture. He served to June, l935, when he was ordered to Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he had charge of the Artillery Ammunition Department until the summer of l940. He was then ordered to Washington, D. C., for duty in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, as Assistant Chief of Industrial Service Facilities. On October I, l940, he was placed in charge of Development of Facilities, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Washington, D. C. General Campbell became Chief of Ordnance on June I, l942, for a four- year term, with headquarters in Washington, D. C. HARRY R. KUTZ Baiqacfiea Qeneaal STUHY UF BEHDEE PHU EHUU Aberdeen Proving Ground is a huge combinaTion oT display room and experimenTal and research laboraTories, manned by highly Trained scienTisTs and engineers, skilled mechanics and machinisTs To whose ears The roar oT cannon and blasT oT bomb are commonplace, and The sharp bark oT smaller arms is no more Than The noise oT TraTTic. IT is The duTy oT These Technical men To know exacTly whaT can be expecTed oT every Type oT Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion used in The various branches oT The UniTed STaTes Army. MainTained by The Ordnance DeparTmenT, The very siTuaTion and Terrain OT The Proving Ground lend Themselves To The work. NaTure endowed The 67,700 acres wiTh everyThing needed buT a hill, and The DeparTmenT soon Took care oT ThaT by building iTs own. The Proving Ground is locaTed along The wesTern shore OT The upper arm OT The Chesapeake Bay, a wisely chosen siTe, Tor iT provides a waTer surTace Tor approximaTely TiTTy per cenT oT The vasT acreage. The esTablishmenT came inTo being in l9I7, when The limiTed scope OT The old proving ground aT Sandy Hook, New York, handicapped The TesTing oT maTeriel and ammuniTion during World War l. Congress approved The pur- chase oT land in OcTober, l9I7, and wiThin a Tew days The necessary survey was sTarTed. ln all 53,500,000 were spenT in acquiring The PosT, which included a Three-mile righT-OT-way Tor a GovernmenT railroad and highway To connecT wiTh The Pennsylvania Railroad aT Aberdeen, The Town Trom which The proving ground Took iTs name. When The TirsT TesT shoT was Tired on The new reservaTion, New Year's Day, l9I8, There were buT Three dozen oTTicers sTaTioned There. April, l9l8, Tound l2O oTTicers on The posT, and aT The close oT World War l The work had proved so valuable ThaT The miliTary complemenT was greaTly enlarged and There were abouT 900 civilian workers, ex- clusive oT conTracTors' employes on The reservaTion. Since The TerminaTion oT The TirsT World War, and especially during The pasT decade, The original Temporary build- ings have Tallen beTore The march oT progress, and a modern and beauTiTul posT has arisen in Their sTead. In general The recenT consTrucTion has been in Tield sTone oT disTincTive design, while The shop buildings and laboraTories are oT sTeel and brick, and are equipped wiTh every conceivable Tool and machine To expediTe The work. Recognized Today as one OT The greaTesT Ordnance PosTs in The world, The proving ground is also The home OT The Ordnance School, The Ordnance ReplacemenT Training CenTer, and The Bomb Disposal School. The primary TuncTion oT The proving ground is The TesTing oT Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion. ConsequenTly, The requiremenTs Tor This work were given The TirsT consideraTion in deTermining The size oT The reservaTion, selecTing iTs siTe, and providing iTs TaciliTies. The basic duTy on The posT is To make developmenT, accepTance, surveillance, and experimenTal TesTs. These Tour general headings break down inTo The Tollowing specialized groupspsmall arms, arTillery, bomb, and auTomoTive. Realizing ThaT improvemenTs in Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion are To a large exTenT made possible by The resulT oT research, The Ordnance DeparTmenT supporTs a greaT amounT oT such work aT The Proving Ground. A sTaTT oT highly Trained engineers and scienTisTs is mainTained on The PosT, lT is Their duTy To creaTe new Tools and machinery needed To expediTe The producTion oT arms, To Tind Tlaws in weapons and ammuniTion and To correcT iT, as well as To be versed in all phases oT baIlisTics. When Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion has compleTed The TesTs aT Aberdeen Proving Ground and is accepTed Tor use by The Army, ThaT maTeriel and ammuniTion is righT. The proving ground personnel may never meeT The enemy, buT when peace comes again They will have done more Than Their share in keeping him Trom American shores. Theirs is The diTTiculT, unsung iob oT experimenT and research: Theirs is The baTTle oT paTience and oT Trial and error. Wherever American arms are Tound on The world's Tar-Tlung baTTleTields, The men oT Aberdeen Proving Ground saw and Tried Those arms TirsT. They know They are The TinesT weapons on earTh and ThaT They are worThy oT The men who use Them. ' CHARLES T. HARRIS S. KELLOG PLUME Maior General Lieufenanf Colonel Executive Officer Posl' Headquarters Staff RICHARD J. DILLON CLARENCE C. HARVEY Lieutenani Colonel Coloncl Provost Marxhlll Fox! Surgeon A an Q6 ABERDEI JOHN D. BILLINGSLEY Lieulenanl Colonel Commandant EDGAR H. KIBLER, JR. OREN E. HURLBUT Lieulenanf Colonel Lieufenanl Colonel Director of Training Execuiive Officer Officer and Officer Candidafe Division PAUL J, PHILLIPS WILLIAM L. BOLAND ALBERT O. BOSSON WILLIAM R, McWlLLIAMS Lieutenant Colonel Maior First Lieutenant First Lieutenant Director of Training Methods Director, Personnel Branch Personnel Of-ficer Mess Officer Personnel Branch WILLIAM C. MINSHAW WILLIAM C. LEAVENWORTH KEITH T. O'KEEFE FRANKLIN G. GOUDY Maior Maior Maior Captain Director of Technical Training Director of Academic Training Director of Base Shop Division Assistant Director of Training Department Department Officer and Officer Candidate Division ROLF O. WULFSBERG JOHN C. NELSON CLARENCE F. ENDSLEY E. DALE ADKINS, JR. Maior Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant Director of Military Training Director of Officer Candidate Chief of Military Section Assistant Director Officer Candidate Section Division L' nik, 'K K K K . , 2 i X K . GREGORY C. LEE JASON L, CAMPBELL RALPH J. RUSSO Captain Captain Captain Chief of Ordnance Service Section Chief of Administration Section Chief of Ammunition Section RILEY M. SHARP RAYMOND L. JOHNSON RICHARD N. ROLLASON JOHN A, PAWLOWSKI First Lieutenant Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant Military Law Section Director of Fire Control Section Chief of Machine Shop Section Chief of Welding Section OSCAR A. RAMNES ALBERT L. HETTRICK LEROY ASKREN GLENN H, STALEY Captain Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant Chief of Artillery Section Chief of Automotive Section Chief of Small Arms Section Chief ot Aviation Ordnance Section CH H0 ULUGI Dec. Xb, NOX: Study or Ordnance Xnsrruchon begun. Feb. '28, X9O'2z Caprarn Dunn suxomrrs reporrs and recommendahons. Ordnance SchooX oi Pxp- phcahon esraxohshed soon rhereahrer ar Sandy Hook Vroxfrnq Ground, New Jersey. H2051 Programs or prachcaX shop work esjrabhshed ar prKncrpaX manugackurrnq, arsenaXs. N061 Ordnance SchooX 0? TechnoXoqy esrabhshed air Wakerrown Pxrsenah Massachuserfrs. X9Xb: hAachKne Gun SchooX opened ak SprKnqheXd Pxrmory, Massachusekrs. Summer, XCIX7: Ordnance SchooX or Pxpphcahon ar Sandy Hook Provknq Ground, New Jersey. ' and Ordnance SchooX or TechnoXoqy, ar Warerrown Pxrsenak Massachuseirs, dKscon'rKnued. Sepk. XCIVI: Ordnance Xnsrruchon 'rn manu'rac'rur'rnq pXan'rs approved by Secrerary off War. Rock Xdand PxrsenaX SchooX for Oihcers and Yznhskred men opened. Oc'r., WW: Kenosha, NNKs.,'Branch opened ar Nash Morors Company, for oihcers. Ock. '23, WW: ?eor'ra, hhnors, Branch or Ordnance Xnskruchon SchooXs dedrqnared as Headquar- rers for O-rdnance,Mo'ror Xnsrruchon SchooXs, for oihcers and enhsfred men, and dasses open ar khe Hoh'hAanuracrur'rnq Company. Ocr. 30, XQVI: FAN. D. Branch or Ordnance Xnsrrucfron SchooXs opened ar rhe Four NNheeX Drrye Company, Chnronvrhe, NNKS., vfrkh 'rnsfrruchon for ofhcers. 'Y Dec. XC2.X'l: Enhsred s'ruden'rs en'rer F. NN. D. Branch ak Chnronyrhe. Dec. V2, WW: Enhsred sjrudenrs enrer Kenosha Branch. VNS: Ordnance Xnsrrumenk Reparr SchooX opened ar Frankiord Pxrsenak Vennsyhlanka. Pxpr'rX '23, XQXB: Machrne Gun SchooX moved from Spr'rnqheXd Pxrmory, Massachuserrs, 'ro Camp Hancock, Oeorq'ra. ' June, VNS: Specfrahsrs SchooX for mo'ror 'rnsrruchon opened ai Camp Jackson, Soukh Carohna. duXy, XQXB: Moror, Pxrhhery and Machkne Gun SchooXs consohdared ar Rar'r'ran Pxrsenak New der sey, and cahed Ordnance hAa'rn'renance and Reparr Schook Sepr., VNS: EXecrr'rc NNeXd'rnq SchooX ar XfxncoXn Hecfrrkc Company, CXeyeXand, Oh'ro, opened A MARY lVov. 11, 1918: Armisfice Day, Personnel af Ordnance Schools numbered 458 ofhcers and S86 enhsfed men. Schools ohsconfinued shorfly affer Worlo' War l ov. 23, 1918: Elecfrie Welohng School closed Nov 2Z 1918: Ordnance lnsfrumenf Peparr School closed 1 91 9: Plans considered for consohdahen of all Ordnance fralnfng acfivifies af Aberdeen Prov- ing Ground Maryland Ordnance Operafibns, Marnfenance and Repair School esfabhlshed af Parifan Arsenal New Jersey. Sepf., 1919: Ordnance School of Technology reesfabhshed af Waferfown Arsenal Massachuseffs. Ordnance School ofAppl1caf1en reesfabllshed af Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland 1921: Ordnance School of Apphcafion fransferred fo Waferfown Arsenal and consohdafed wifh Ordnance School of Technology fhere. Consohdaffen lnown as fhe Ordnance School Arrangemenfs made wifh Massachuseffs lnsfifufe of Technology Cambridge, Massachuseffs, fo give cerfain former School of Apphcafion Courses. Sepf. 1, 1921: Ordnance Operafrons, Malnfenance and Repair School changed fo Ordnance Spe- clahsfs' School ' 1931: Ordnance Specfahsls' School changed fo Ordnance Held Service School 1932: loleadquarfers of Ordnance School moved fo Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland from Waferfown Arsenal wilh cerfarn courses, howeven remaining af Massachuseffs lnsfil fufe of Technology under supervision of fhe Cofnmanohng Ofhber of Waferfown Arsenal Dec. 11, 1936: Aofufanf General approved plans for consohdaffen of Ordnance School and Ord- nance Held Service School af Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland 1 June 1, 1940: Ordnance School and Ordnance Held Service School consohdafed af Aberdeen rroymg Ground Maryland lfnown as The Ordnance School Jan. 1, 1941: Ordnance Training Cenfer acfivafed consishng of fhe Ordnance School Ordnance Peplacemenf Training Cenfen and Ordnance Unif Training Cenfer. July 16, 1942: Ordnance Training Cenfer made fnscffve and fhe Ordnance School made a sepae rafe echelon under fhe Mlhfary Training Division of fhe Ordnance Deparfmenl. -'-l 'A' ir The grOwTh OT The Ordnance School aT Aberdeen Prov- ing Ground, Maryland, during recenT mOnThs has been a process which was wholly unpredicTabIe a Tew years ago. So swiTTly has The school expanded ThaT iTs Organ- izaTiOn baTTles sTrangers, buT in reaIiTy The size and scope is a simple Thing. The developmenT OT The school has been logical and On a planned basis, moving surely and cOnTidenTly againsT many obsTacles TO perTorm The Task OT Training men TO lqeep The vasT quanTiTy OT presenT-day Ordnance equiprnenT OT The UniTed STaTes Army in oper- aTing condiTion. The Ordnance School, as iT is designaTed Today, came inTo OTTiciaI exisTence On July I, I94-O, when iT was de- cided TO merge The OTTicers' School aT Aberdeen Prov- ing Ground and The Ordnance Field Service School OT RariTan Arsenal, MeTuchen, New Jersey, on a single PosT. AcTually The process Toolc over a monTh, despiTe The TacT ThaT The mOvemenT OT men and equipmenT Trom RariTan Arsenal was compleTed by July I5. The school was in OperaTiOn long beTOre The housing TaciIiTies Tor iT were compleTed. Many hardships were endured by The TirsT sTaTT OT The school, buT They weaTh- ered Through: The while sTarTing a new course Tor non- commissioned oTTicers wiTh almosT 200 in aTTendance: This in addiTiOn To specialisT courses in MainTenance. DepOT and Supply, and AmmuniTion. The oTTicer courses conTinued in Their Tormer TaciliTies aT The Proving Ground. On AugusT I The TirsT OT The new buildings were ready TO be occupied, alThough all doors and windows had noT yeT been puT in place. The pioneering OT The school required much iniTiaTive Tor adequaTe insTrucTional equipmenT was lacking. There were no TexTs or Training aids such as charTs and film slides. And This was aT The Time when The Tield needed The equipmenT under manuTacTure by The Tew Tirms en- gaged in building Ordnance maTeriel, and The Tield uniTs had The highesT prioriTy. Some OT The insTrucTion had To be given On equipmenT which required insTrucTors wiTh wide experience. This was especially True in The Fire COnTrOl SecTiOn, and The Tew Trained men in The counTry capable OT insTrucTing This subiecT were cIassiTied as lcey employes in indusTry. There were no TexTs available Tor insTrucTors TO use as guides, buT The sTaTT worlced On, modiTying courses, rem- edying errors, and pulling weeds in procedure and course rnaTeriaI. lnsTrucTOrs OTTen wroTe Their own TexTs and. aTTer much waiTing, The TirsT OT The new equipmenT began To arnve. On January I, I94I, Ordnance School Special Order NO. I IisTed apprOximaTely 30 oTTicers and Their assign- menTs TO duTies, wiTh LieuTenanT Colonel George W. SIIIIII III THE Oufland as COmmandanT. On The same day The Ord- nance Training C.Ommand came inTo exisTence. The Ordnance School was one OT The Three sub-headquarTers OT This Training cenTer. The oTher Two were The Ordnance UniT Training CenTer and The Ordnance ReplacemenT Training CenTer. A number OT valuable oTTicers and enIisTed men were relieved Trom assignmenT TO The Ord- nance' School On +ha+ daTe and were assigned Tor duTy in These oTher new headquarTers. The Tollowing Tew mOnThs were criTical Ones Tor The school. EvenTs overseas were causing apprehension ThrOughouT The UniTed STaTes, SeIecTive Service had been inauguraTed, and The Ordnance School was sure To ex- pand, Tor modern warTare employs much mechanized equipmenT, which in Turn requires many repairmen. WiTh so many imporTanT phases OT Ordnance TO be TaughT, There was some guesTion as To which branch or branches OT The school should develop TirsT. The COmmandanT, his sTaTT, and Their advisors moved wisely. They buiIT The headquarTers organizaTiOn soundly, so ThaT no maTTer which branch mighT grow The TasTesT The headquarTers would be large and sTrong enough To balance The sTruc- Ture. The process OT pruning ouT dead wood was also em- ployed. Any misTiTs Or unquaIiTied personnel were TacTTulIy eliminaTed, and Their places were Taken by careTuIIy chosen men. The sTaTT used all available sources OT oTTicer maTeriel, OTTicers OT The Regular Army headed The OrganizaTiOn, giving Their Tull experience To The school. Many oTTicers were commissioned Trom The ranks, men who were experT Technicians in Their lines. Many OT These laTer became secTion heads. Reserve oTTicers wiTh varied Technical and adminisTraTive Training and experi- ence ObTained in indusTry were anOTher supply. These men Toolc adminisTraTive pOsTs, became insTrucTors and company commanders-The maiOriTy OT Them learning Their iob as They perTOrmed iT-buT all OT Them learning rapidly and working well. February, I94I, saw The esTabIishmen+ OT The FirsT Pro- visional Ordnance Training Company in which all enlisfed sTudenTs were housed. Two general messes Tor The Teed- ing OT enlisTed sTaTT and enlisTed sTudenTs were acTivaTed. In March, The enlisTed adminisTraTive Overhead and Train- ing personnel reached a sTrengTh OT beTween Three and Tour hundred. OTTicer sTudenTs numbered abouT one hun- dred and enIisTed sTudenTs Two hundred. Five specialisT courses Tor oTTicers were sTarTed. They were: AuTOmoTive and AmmuniTiOn, ArTillery and DepOT and Supply, DepoT and Supply and Small Arms, and an ArTilIery course Tor Marine Corps personnel. The en- IisTed division was busy Training cadre Tor new uniTs TO be acTivaTed in The Ordnance UniT Training CenTer and llllli ll SIIHIIIIL The Ordnance Replacemenf Training Cenfer. Before The end of May, four more provisional companies were acTi- vaTed aT The school for The housing of enlisTed sTudenT personnel. On July 8 an evenT occurred which marked The begin- ning of a new branch of The school, a branch desfined To aTTain a size greafer Than any oTher. This was The sTarT of insTrucTion of The firsT class of Ordnance Officer Candidafe STudenTs. The iniTial enrollmenf was only a Tracfion of The class which now sTarTs weekly, buT, never- The less, iT was imporTanT. On Ocfober 8, affer Three monfhs of infensive Training and insTrucTion, approximaTely Three-guarfers of The class successfully complefed The course and were commissioned Second LieuTenanTs in The Ordnance Deparfmenf. A number of These men were assigned for duTy wiTh The School STaff and Faculfy. AT The Turn of The year, January, I942, The school balance sheeT boasTed almosT one hundred officers and over five hundred enlisTed men assigned To The sTaff. The officer sfudenf rosTer conTinued wiTh li++le change. buT The enlisTed specialisf course enrollmenf had iumped To well over a Thousand men under insTrucTion. AT This Time There were four officer courses and TwenTy enlisTed specialisf courses. The school conTinued wiTh iTs many Tasks, perfecfing and revising courses, adding new ma- Terial and discarding old, and The Training of insTrucTor personnel for any immediafe fuTure expansion. Many addifional duTies rnusT be performed in order To allow an organizafion such as The Ordnance School To make full use of iTs insTrucTion Time. Every hour ThaT a sTud-'enT spends aT The school is considered valuable. Therefore abouT all he does is aTTend classes or sTudy. The housekeeping rnusT be performed by oThers. Kifchen police dufy and company deTails are all performed by men of The 4OTh Ordnance Company lTng.l or The Ord- nance School Defachmenf. lnsTrucTion is rapid and every device To speed iT up and To make assimilaTion more swifT is employed. Training aids and TexTs are developed and wriTTen aT The school. These aids include charTs, diagrams, film slides, mofion picTures, mock-ups, and models. The school has iTs own phofographic secfion and a visual aid secfion. Much of The work is performed by These agencies. Models and mock-ups are builf by The insTrucTion secfion which is going To use Them. Charfs and diagrams are produced by The school draffing and arT secTions. Preparafion of school TexTs is an imporTanT funcfion. A sTudenT should have read his nexT day's assignmenf be- fore reporfing To class in order To successfully use every hour of insTrucTional class-Time. This necessiTaTes The use of TexTs. Since much of The eguipmenf used in insTrucTion is new, The regular War DeparTmenT TexTs have noT yeT been published. Therefore The insTrucTion secTions fur- nish The Technical facTs To The Publicafions Secfion of The Ordnance School and This secfion ediTs, prinTs, binds and disTribuTes The informafion. l.imiTed numbers of These TexTs are also provided To Ordnance unifs in The field. ln April, l942, The careful planning of The school paid off in big dividends. l-leadguarfers in WashingTon cle- creed ThaT The immediafe iob was To Train Thousands of enlisTed men for commissions as officers. This was To Take place wiThouT curfailing or inferfering wiTh insTruc- Tion in oTher secTions of The school. Since April l, Ten more officer Candidafe Companies have been acTivaTed, bringing The ToTal To fourfeen. There are seven general messes in exisfence. The school sTaff now has an acTual sTrengTh of almosT five hundred officers and nearly Two Thousand enlisTed men To care for adminisTraTive, insTrucTional and housekeeping loads. lnsTrucTors who had formerly been The only officers Teaching a given subiecf suddenly found Themselves aT The heads of secTions of a score or more officer insTruc- Tors, all Teaching The same subiecf. Courses increased so greafly ThaT To name Them would be cumbersome, and names have been replaced wiTh numerical code designa- Tions. AuTomoTive, once embodied in a single course. has developed info Three courses, and is aT presenT broken down inTo Twelve separafe enlisTed courses in addiTion To officers and officer candidafe courses. lnsTrucTional secTions, once housed in one small building, now occupies several large ones. All secTions of The Ordnance School are noT locafed aT The Aberdeen Proving Ground. ln Ocfober, l94O, The firsT branch school was formed aT Springfield, Massa- chuseTTs, -for The Training of machinisfs. The presenT number of enlisTed men undergoing insTrucTion aT This branch is abouf one hundred. A second branch school began in January, I942, aT Savanna, lllinois. Over six hundred sTudenTs regularly receive insTrucTion in Depof and Supply and AmmuniTion aT Savanna. Affiliafed schools have been esfablished aT planfs of civilian con- cerns who manufacfure Ordnance maferiel. Among Those in exisfence aT presenT are schools locafed aT Lansing, Michigan: Akron, Ohio: and DeTroiT, Michigan. The concerns include: Firesfone Tire and Rubber Company, General MoTors, and The Whife MoTors Company. The Ordnance School is beginning To produce a rich harvesf. Trained officers and enlisTed men are going everywhere To perform innumerable Ordnance Tasks in Thousands of places. Whaf The fuTure holds in sTore for The school-no one knows, buT The sTaff is ready To cope wiTh any siTuaTion, iusf as They have done in The pasT. Ji,.Ji,iJl5,.3iiliWO Q uk Ordnance men have To know every derail aboui each Jrype oi gun Jrhar Jrhe Army uses. He rnusi know how if is consfrucfeci, he musi know fhe srresses and srrains +o which if is subiecrq he musf know how +o repair if in Jrhe shop, how ro im- , 2, . nfl' 2 .1-14, ,p,13Q,'LJ "" ' ' , .. ,, ,jay-fl ' 3:9-2 2 E i??a21a 5 'V W.,- -W Je ez?" 1 Top: Repairs in +he field. Above: Anfiaircraff gun firing. EEE Antieircrafi gun check. Work on gun barrel. provise repairs in The Tield, and he musT be able To cornpleTe These repairs in record Tirne. ln The ArTillery secTion oT The Proving Ground The various Types used by our Torces are TirsT TesTed and Tried under all sorTs oT condiTions. IT is here ThaT our new weapons are TirsT Tired, iT is here ThaT They receive The exacTing and rigorous TesTs ThaT will deTern'iine Their TiTness Tor accepTance in acTion. ln addiTion To Tinding and correcTing Tlaws in new Types oT guns The Ordnance man musT learn Thoroughly The '11 ix l .ink l l i l operaTional principles oT each Type oT piece. l-le musT be able To overhaul and puT baclc inTo operaTion pieces ThaT have been damaged, or which have worn ouT. On These pages we see various phases oT acTiviTy in This secTion, Trom Tiring The rnighTy railway guns To repairing quiclcly small deTecTs in anTiaircraTT guns. To W "WW" W k 'Ad M -,,, A.,s MM., ,N , , V' so Yeo gs, . L., ' w:.::f4Ll' L . , ..,,T.f"' if if . W. .w..,-"" Top Bg g re air. Above: Ready To mounf anfi- 'rcraff gun. - We X if Q' .,: Y gi ji J s f fl g X F6 z xx ii N , ' -F' ,- .. 5 ifii xg: 'TT ff . in '-" 4 V, i i' if T V' T E 'A i ' 3 : i un barrel in for p CI Top. Anfiaircraff gun placemenf. Cenfer: Tesfing lighTer 'Field pieces. Above: A big gun roars. 1 :T Q ff' ok- rf' B ji - ff X X S' fa lh Q 4, -, ..- -, Q v 1 l 4 l l l l l I. F. ffl N, .wr S , hw" Y"We"P7'V5'S"5Y"luV-wi' 7 1rSiWMMM"""""" , 0 I 4 1 ,M M' Q 1, ,iw it . X. N. ,. ,R 2? 3 as . fum ,f 2. ffm M 1 -'Q , ff-'if - 3' ' .. Q 1-ffl ,- -' 555m K ' wif 9" ' VR' Wfxaff '51 "fVf 'L 'lffg gi i' T ?':i?:l?- 395 Vi?" , -141, ' gs? 'Q ff? f M m 1,3 .mv l k l "' N 33 r fm Q? Q 'U as' J-f. , n ' R A w -, A ,141 E ' . 4 ik, 3 ,L , V, X 4 H A, -, Lf' , uf frfwv 11 A -4' Y N- -' - ggz- 2 ev fg,',y'gaF Q- .2 'Z 5 .e ag- , www A f Eff? ' , M- I S5?i2f? 'Q-,fi 'Egg' V N ' K 51' . V N, ,, . , u- V ,f ' gf :f 1 'i 8.5" ' ng ' f W -2 ' -W 3 X A kf?"xS,?f'.'5 X 'V ' i Y. - Ly. ' wa ' f i J S If s 44 1M.,,.f-W -M W sv! 55 X e A . ' Q. V J ' ml Q -55,3 x W F A sf X M, 7' ' F' M M , ",5,"" ,H ' K me sf , 2 ,E . ,ILT 1 5 4 ' W V, f , Q 'LL' Q X xi. Q In AL,. f 'I MLS: I., i X X 'x wif, . 'sy " ' - 1- A six ' - S i 2 Q, at i. ii 5, is a Tracks ready for Tanks. General view aufomofive repair. WiTh Uncle Sam's TighTing Torces consTanTly adding To Their mechanized equipmenT in This war oT movemenT, The need has become proporTionaTely greaTer Tor a Trained Torce oT men To keep These indispensible weapons in perpeTual good order. The auTomoTive secTion oT The Ordnance DeparTmenT has supplied These Technicians in adequaTe numbers Trom iTs specially equipped Training shops picTured on This page. Men Training Tor This work are Turnished The mosT up-ToAdaTe equip- menT Tor The sTudy oT Tanks, auTomobiles, Trucks, and any rolling sTock ThaT The armed Torces are puTTing in The Tield, In addiTion To repair and mainTenance, Ordnance is responsible Tor consTanT experimenTaTion in This Tield, including The TesTing oT newly- developed models. Tank inferior. g's 4 Ti fir A Work on Tank mofors. Wx T f f av mo re ,I , z,f,,, Wmf gi i ' iii . v i 2 5 LECTURE ON BOMBS .30 CAL. MACHINE GUN IN AIRCRAFT I I 6323336 QQ35' igxxfsslilxigwi M! .. M j K , is as is 0 2 i 4 . 1' l l l WiTh The increasing emphasis on aviaTion There has been an increasing amounT oT aTTenTion devoTed by Ordnance men To The problem oT aviaTion ordnance. This ranges Trom experis menTs and TesTs conducTed on bombs oT all Types. To The mounTing oT guns in combaT planes and The TesTing and devis- ing oT newer guns Tor our TighTing aircraTT. Men in This secTion learn how To repair guns in planes. how To mounT Them, and how To load The "eggs" which are placed inside The gianT bombers. They are also busy aT work devising new and un- pleasanT surprises Tor The enemy in The way oT new and beTTer aviaTion equipmenT. wheTher in The Torm of newer and more deadly bombs or heavier and more devasTaTing aerial cannons and machine guns. Mounfing gun in wing. Arming a plane. f Vw . ,Q FIRE CONTROL INSTRUMENT CLASS The consTrucTion, repair and devising OT new and beTTer insTrumenTs To enable The Army To have more eTTec:Tive conTrol over The Tire power oT iTs guns is The preoccupaTion OT This secTion OT Qrdnance. I-lere men learn To operaTe, make, and repair precision Tire conTrol insTrumenTs. They become Tamiliar wiTh all sorTs oT These insTrumenTs Trom simple binocu- lars To The elaboraTe and highly inTricaTe anTicraTT insTrumenTs. IT is Their duTy To keep These insTrumenTs in A-I condiTion and To consTanTly experimenT wiTh ways OT improving ones we have. As in oTher secTions oT Grdnance Training, They musT know The insTrumenTs Trom A To Z, and insTrucTion and demonsTraTions are supplemenTecl by laboraTory work in order ThaT The men will know by doing. TLTMJLTTJIBJ, TEZTETJNVHT lNSTRUMENT REPAIR Fire confrol insfrumenr check. Working on lenses For fire coni-rol. Insirumenf repair ff 3' f J, ff yy fr r aw? 'AJA ' ,.,. ., L fwf ,V .mf fn' ! 1. bu., 2""Ly'jr I ' '34 Q v' 19565 , 7 - My "gr f' W : 4, 7 , ' W-,gif ' 'v it I , Wn?ffQ2i4"7lQfi ,4 M" r r ci ,W ,r , if ..,. an-..f-'Q,,,,,,,..., '19FEafQuf,.'l liiiizligizl ian'4f4'1f Az...- QHNIE SH-3163330 0 0 Precision . . . precision . . . precision . . . ThaT is The Bible of Ordnance. l-lere in The large machine shops aT Aberdeen, ordnance men are TaughT The uses oT many precision insTrumenTs. They learn how To Tigure Tolerances down To The ThousandTh oT an inch, how To operaTe machines in such a manner ThaT when The worlc is done The obiecT will TiT exacTly inTo iTs place. Upon The accuracy and abiliTy oT ordnance machinisTs depends The proper TuncTioninq oT The complicaTed implemenTs oT war ThaT make up a modern Army. Never before in The hisTory of warfare has The Technician in his shop been so essenTial To vicTory. -----J" GENERAL VIEW MACHINE SHOP 'Em wif' 5 ar ln Jrhe welding shops al Aberdeen, Ord- nance men are laughl how lo make acely- lene and eleclric welds in order lhal lhey will be prepared lo make quick repairs on damaged ranks, lraclors, Trucks, and any olher equipmenl which may require lhis lype ol work. Welding is a highly skilled Trade even in civilian life, and The Ordnance welding classes are so conducled as lo Turn our masler welders lor our rapidly growing mechanized Army. ir K ,, A.., . . ,. .f,.w.,. J, QM, X ff 1 ' - 1 , XXIIII z Q ,.m,??, 634, . , mu , F 5 x E H5552 'S f2,, ., V ,QV , 5 gi. K. . IR 1 F03 I I , . .- - 'K az I P r , M - ., I' 1. W I iz,51. ,,f 4 , , ,FP Y . mfyamgggifz fx, , iif",,.?3 ff:, I 3 L 1 my Iggy L f ' N322 I Psa 'S il ,H EI YE SSM ff w 'ew ,S 1 I V, WT Q' ifiggig- fy f gff gg 5435052 g"9y1,,1yj2F2 , :4w f?f:.ggT I - 1, , I M V : . . , . I 1 -Q f 1. 3 X X Assembl all Targets. WheTher iT loe The Tried and True Army .45 or The newesT in auTomaTic rifles The Ordnance small arms secTion is Tamiliar wiTh Them all. On The range and in The shops, day in and day ouT, men are Trained in The many uses of all our small arm equipment They are TaughT how To dismanTle, repair and reassemble pis- Tols and machine guns. They TesT new Types oT guns, and new Types of ammuniTion. ln The baTTle To sTay one iump ahead of The enemy no device is overlooked and no experimenT is Too small To receive a Thorough invesTigaTion and TesT. M hine 9Ufl. .50 caliber class. Machine gun, .30 caliber class. manmm1uMfaeiemm,,:,,,.,,.s .fe ,2:mxQnw21z.ar2w2v4eml , x 0 W ff' x 'f If :SX If L . A x x z f - , f' in 0 H1 Loading ammuniTion in The clepof T ,ll lfllflw T? Q T fl i. X . I H fbw 1 1, , T W A 'U I WHHUN3 EEJTT EDN pound bombs are TesTed and handled by The Ordnance DeparTmenT. ConsTanTly working To perTecT beTTer ammuniTion as well as beTTer ways in which To handle and sTore iT, ordnance men musT be Tamiliar wiTh The consTrucTion and use oT diTTerenT Types oT shells, bombs and grenades. BoTh beTore and during combaT, The mosT essenTial iTem To be supplied To The combaT Troops is ammuniTion. Making This com- modiTy available To The using Troops in The lcinds and quanTiTies needed, and aT The Times required, is one oT The major responsibililries oT ordnance soldiers. Below: Aircraff bombs. Boffomz DemoliTion exercise wiTh a dummy l05-mm. projecfile. -lss EU Sllllllll H l HUTME T The Three piciures illus'rra're conslrucfion of a cor- rugaled sleel hufmenl' wi'rh nealness and dispalch. Huf- menls like 'rhese are used by U. S. lroops in many far- flung ou'rpos'rs and bases of fhe global war in which we are now engaged. Shipped in seclrions rhe hu+men+s are assembled in Jrhe field. Ordnance is called upon 'ro experi- menr, lesl' and pass upon all new innovalions of 'rhis fype before rhey are used by The Jrroops in aclual field condi- 'rions. Whelher if is a new secrel aniiaircrafi' gun or a newfangled po+a+o peeler, if is all grisl +o +he Proving Ground Mill. , 'Ir 'A' ir Ages before The dawn of hisTory, when primifive man firsT began To leave imprinfs of his exisTence upon The earTh's crusT for fuTure generaTions To uncover and record, some forebear of modern man reached To The earTh and, adapTing The Thumb and fingers of his hand To a new purpose, picked up a rock for use as a weapon To supplemenT his claws, TeeTh, and fisTs. Such was The probable beginning of man's developmenT of maTerial for which lexicographers have selecTed The word "Ordnance" - :Sri fc Q 5553 3 ooo be ' 0 One may surmise ThaT when This primiTive creaTure discovered The added advanTage supplied by a sTone or club wielded by hand he evenTually learned To increase The effecTiveness of his range of power by hurling his weapon aT his prey or enemy. He found ThaT sharp missiles would wound more effecTively. He fashioned a poinfed sTone for his club and Transformed iT inTo an axe, which evenTually was converTed inTo a spear or lance. To increase The range of This weapon, he fashioned a bow which would give greaTer speed To his arrow. He improved The accuracy of This weapon by giving beTTer balance To his arrow in flighT. As The ceniuries passed and man acquired greaTer skill and broader knowledge, These weapons losT Their crude shape and approached perTecTicin in design. Mechanical conTrivances were devised To give greaT disTance To The arrows, and similar weapons were developed for hurling sTones and missiles. While These weapons for aTTack or offense were being developed, did man remain conTenT wiTh The proTecTion provided by naTure alone? A search Through museums Today will disclose many ex- amples of his ingenuiTy in devising shields and armor for personal proTecTion. The habiTaTs of The cave men show The inaccessibiliTy of The "forTress" wiThin which he esTablished his home. When The horse became domesTicaTed for his use, did he use him only as a beasT of burden? Again our museums provide numerous examples cf The "armor" provided for The proTecTion of his mounT in combaT. Even The design of his charioT emphasizes iTs value as a combaT vehicle raTher Than as a cargo carrier. WhaT Tlen has primiTive man, in his crude implemenTs of war- fare, handed down To his descendenTs ThaT may sTill be of value THE Hllllilll lllllllllll in The design of modern ordnance? He recognized The value of increasing The range and accuracy of his weapons, The advanTages of fire power, mobiliTy, camouflage, and arTificial proTecTion, Has modern man added To These basic principles? The firsT imporTanT sTep made in The design of implemenTs of war was The resulT of man's discovery of The use of meTals. These, however, were used To enhance The effecTiveness of The weapons raTher Than To change Their basic principles of design. LeT us review briefly some of The weapons ThaT were used during The cenTuries preceding The discovery of powder as a propellanf. Among The early hand proiecTile Throwers, in The probable sequence of Their developmenT, we can lisT The bow, sling, and blowpipe. The bow, originaTing in The STone Age, derived The power To drive iTs arrow from The sTrengTh of The archer's arms, Nof unTil abouT l,OOO A.D. was This principle maTerially changed wiTh The developmenT of The crossbow, This weapon, wiTh iTs sTock, sear, and Trigger, uTilized The sTrengTh of The muscles in The archer's back or of mechanical winches and Thus greafly increased The power of iTs blow. lTs cumbersomeness, however, reduced The raTe of Tire maTerially, and iT never replaced The quick-firing long- bow even when, five cenTuries laTer, iT was made from heavy spring. sTeel. YeT iT did lead To The developmenT of chain mail and plaTe armor for personal proTecTion. The race beTween sTriking force and armor, even in Those early days, was confinued unTil The knighT could scarcely move when dismounTed. lT is inTeresTing To noTe ThaT, in spiTe of The facT ThaT gunpowder was discovered someTime during The early parT of The ThirTeenTh cenTury and records indicaTe iTs use during The Moorish Wars in Spain in l247, The bow-operaTing hand weapon remained as The principal weapon of The individual soldier for many cenTuries, AT The greaT baTTle of l.epanTo in l57l The 25,000 soldiers in The Turkish fleeT were nearly all archers. Even in our own Revolufion some able leaders believed ThaT archers wiTh rapid-firing bows could compeTe efTecTively againsT The English flinTlocks, As laTe as i8l3, liTTle more Than a cenTury ago, French cavalry aT The baTTle of Leipzig were charged by Thousands of Russian bowmen who had no oTher arms. A modern auThoriTy on archery considers The BriTish longbow of The sixTeenTh cenTury a more effecTive weapon aT ranges under T50 yards Than The sfandard BriTish muskeT prior To l840. Paralleling The developmenT of These hand weapons were me- chanical devices requiring The services of more Than one man for Their operaTion and which hurled heavy missiles. The idea of a more powerful weapon To ouTrange The handbow and keep besieging forces aT a disTance probably arose in The EasT during The eighTh cr ninTh cenTury B.C. There are numerous references in The Bible To leaders who employed engines of war in combaT. The Two Q eijeefffcf-lx. :cle X gy if Z'2jf--5- ff- X X A ...... s N' " 0 vimnm me """ """ """ "" ' "" ' - 000 "" ' .1000 me -I IMILE -1 2Mu.:s -I amirzs -.I 4MrL:s -4 5Mn.ss -.1 6Mu.:s -I 7Mn.zs -.4 BQMLES -1 9Mu.Es ..l IOM DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING RANGES OF BRITI llllll Ullll principal Types were The ballisTa and caTapulT. These machines were True arTillery oT Their Time and The Torerunners of modern weapons. BoTh uTilized The elasTiciTy OT TwisTed ropes, hair, hide. and animal sinews Tor The energy of propulsion. The ballisTa was shaped somewhaT in The manner of The crossbow and hurled iTs bolTs, TeaThered iavelins, balls, and sTones wiTh a relaTively TlaT TraiecTory, making iT eTTecTive againsT walls and TorTiTicaTions. IT may be considered as The ancienT equivalenT of our modern Tield gun. IT is repuTed To have hurled sTones weighing more Than 50 pounds a disTance of 400 yards, while The range of TeaThered iavelins someTimes reached 500 yards. The caTapulT, on The oTher hand, was a weapon Tor high-angle Tire and was employed in a manner similar To our modern howiTzers. This weapon employed an arm which, swinging in a verTical plane and suspending a sling Tor iTs proiecTile, hurled The missile high overhead somewhaT in The manner oT The scorpion's sTing, aTTer which iT was someTimes named. This machine proiecTed missiles someTimes weighing more Than 500 pounds, ITs range, varying wiTh The weighT' of iTs proiecTile. is repuTed To have been abouT 400 yards Tor a 58-pound sTone. These proved Their eTTecTiveness in sieges againsT ciTies and TorTresses and were someTimes used To hurl many obnoxious iTems inside The TorT besides proiecTiles inTended To desTroy Their TargeTs. These weapons were heavy and cumbersome and were noT pracTical Tor accompanying TasT-moving Troops. They were some- Times developed by improvisaiion on The baTTleTield or TransporTed by waTer on boaTs, where They were oTTen employed as naval weapons. They were oTTen used in a manner c1uiTe similar To modern combaT pracTice Tor arTillery weapons, even To The exTenT of being employed Tor barrage work in proTecTing advancing lllllll By COLONEL GEORGE W. OUTLAND CommandanT, The Ordnance School, January I, I94I-November I, I942. ThaT increased The range Tor a 58-pound sTone To more Than 800 yards. These developmenTs added immeasurably To The weighT of maTeriel To be TransporTed by an army. IT enabled wealThy ciTies To TorTiTy Themselves sTrongly againsT The invader, who was ham- pered by The immobiliTy of his eTTecTive arTillery. In Alexandria during The Third cenTury B.C. and in Rome during The TirsT cenTury A.D., mechanizaTion was in Tull swing. DeTensive TacTics and social decay appear To be The cause of The decadence in miliTary eTTiciency oT The laTer Roman Empire. While in The EasT The proiecTile-Throwing machines were kepT aT a high qualiTy Tor cenTuries. in The WesT The caTapulT and ballisTa were replaced largely by a new machine known as The "TrebucheT." This machine usod The Torce of graviTaTion on a heavy weighT Tor hurling iTs proiecTile insTead oT employing Tension or Torsion members. IT released a proiecTile weighing up To 300 pounds Trom a verTical beam which hurled iT ouT To abouT 300 yards. We Thus Tind ThaT liTTle oT imporTance was added To The design of ordnance equipmenT Tor cenTuries preceding The discovery of gunpowder. The exacT daTe oT iTs TirsT use as a propellenT Tor proic:cTiles in warfare is unknown. Some hisTorians asserT ThaT iT camo ouT oT Asia, oThers ThaT iT was invenTed by a German monk abouT l320. Records, however, indicaTe iTs use in The Moorish Wars in Spain in l247, aT The siege of Seville. The TirsT deTiniTe descripTion oT a gun daTes Trom I3l3, and The earliesT picTure oT one is found in a manuscripT oT abouT I327, by which Time iT appears ThaT The weapon was well esTablished for combaT use. In exTerior appearance The weapon resembled a vase. Iron darTs, wrapped in leaTher To prevenT leakage of powder gases, were used as proiecTiles. In some insTances sTones were used, while in y Troops and Tor hurling incendiary missiles wiThin walled TorTresses. l IT is inTeresTing To noTe ThaT companies of craTTsmen and T arTisans, similar To modern ordnance Troops, accompenied The 1 armed Torces Tor The purpose oT repairing and mainTai..ing ord- l nance equipmenT in The hands oT combaT uniTs. Tley even supplied crude insTrumenTs Tor laying The weapons in elev. lion and direcTion, Thus giving birTh To modern Tire-conTrol equipment T GvreaT sTrides were made in The developmenT oT war machines in The hundred years following The deaTh oT Alexander. STimulaTed ' by The success of such men as DemeTrius PoliorceTes, son of oThers sacks or cans of scrap iron, called "langridge," The Tore- runner oT grapeshoT and caseshoT were Tired, The maximum range of These weapons could noT have been more Than 700 or 800 yards. The size and power of guns rapidly increased, buT iT was cen- Turies beTore a serviceable hand gun was developed. They were TirsT used primarily Tor siege work. Following I339, cannon came inTo general use by all armies in Europe. AT The baTTle of Crecy in T346 The English used cannon Tor The TirsT Time in an open Tield. SomeTimes These guns were laid on The ground and wedged l Alexander's eneral AnTigonus, engineers insTead oi soldiers Took u To ive The proper elevaTion. In oTher insTances a crude car- Q P 9 up The sTudy of war machines. One Alexandrian named Dionysius riage was provided by aTTaching The gun To wooden Timbers. Some invenTed a "polybolos," which mighT be considered as The TirsT of The cannon developed were enormous in size. GuglielmoTTi machine gun, as iT enabled a succession oT arrows To be Tired quoTes Bishop Leonardo 6iusTiniani in his "HisTory of The Papal Trom a magazine. AnoTher engineer Trom The same ciTy, named Navy" as having seen a huge gun, repuTedly used by The Turks CTesibius, uTilized compressed air in "careTully wroughT cylinders" aT The siege oT ConsTanTinople in I453, which needed sevenTy To o eraTe The bow arms ol: caTa ulTs. Wea ons were conTrived s an of oxen To draw iT and whose sTone shoT weighed I350 ounds. P P P P P fl-TR "Zigi K X. i . Qi ,ga i gg- V , , .ilifh-.. I? J ,4,,,A,, J J, I . j , M, R., ' T A Im, 'Ilan 'P 10000 Il 000 Z1 000 23.000 551.000 15 000 26 000 27 OOO 25 009 29 000 30 000 JI OOO 31 U30 JJ 000 JI 000 JS 000 O O O 4 IIMTLIS .4 12 Mirgg ...T 13MiLg5 .4 lAM1LE5 ...T 15.MiLES . I6'M1z.ES ' -I I7gMlLES -T I8 MILES --I I9 Mx1.ES -T 20 MILES O TECES OF ORDNANCE USED IN WORLD WAR I Qi!l!l!! !!l0 o l? is reporfed ?o have weighed abou? 25 ?ons and fo have fired a proiec?ile abou? 3l inches in diamefer. As la?e as l807 some of ?he ancien? ordnance of ?his era was used as par? of ?he defense of Cons?an?inople agains? an invading Brifish naval squadron. One s?one proiecfile is said ?o have cu? away ?he mainmas? of ?he Brifish flagship, while anofher, landing on deck, killed or wounded abou? 60 men. Anofher ?ypical bombard was ?he famous Mons Meg, now exhibi?ed a? Edinburg Casfle. i?s powder charge of IO5 pounds could hurl a I9 l-2 inch iron ball ?o a maximum range of l,4O0 yards or a s?one ball 2,870 yards. The larges? weapon of ?his era was ?he grea? mor?ar of Moscow, buil? abou? l525, wi?h a caliber of 36 inches. l? fired a s?one sho? weighing 2,000 pounds. There is ?oday in ?he Tower of London a bronze gun of 25-inch caliber, of ?he same period, which weighs abou? I8 ?ons and fired a proiecfile abou? 24 inches in diame?er, weighing roughly 650 pounds. Because of ?he grea? weigh? of ?hese guns, ?hey were valuable only in siege or defense work. Their immobili?y made ?hem im- pracfical for field use. ln some ins?ances ?hese guns were made from cas?ings, while in o?hers ?hey were made of bars or rods of wrough? iron welded ?oge?her and bound wi?h hoops. ln some of ?hese guns one may defec? principles of design ?ha? closely resemble reasonably modern pracfice in ?he rnanufac?ure of wire- wrapped guns. During ?he six?een?h cen?ury ?he developmen? of muskefry forced ?he cons?ruc?ion of ligh?er and more mobile cannon, bringing ?o an end ?he producfion of such unwieldly ar?illery. While ?he early guns were all of ?he muzzle-loading ?ype, wi?h a small aperfure a? ?he breech for igni?ing ?he charge wi?h coals or red-ho? irons, ?he advan?ages fo be gained by breech-loading weapons were early recognized, and many ?ypes cf breech-loaders appeared in ?he smaller weapons. The greafes? difficul?ies de- veloped in ?hese designs were ?he escaping of gases around ?he breech and ?he failure of ?he crude blocks ?o wi?hs?and ?he shock of firing. Some repeafing guns, known as "ribaulds," were used. These weapons consisfed of a number of small barrels or gun ?ubes clamped ?oge?her and fired in quick succession. The mobile gun carriage made i?s appearance during ?his era, using wheels for ?ranspor?. Cannon were cas? wi?h ?runnions ?o facili?a?e elevafion and ?ranspor?a?ion. During ?he fif?een?h cen- ?ury, mounfain ar?illery, divided in?o loads for pack ?ranspor?a?ion, was manufac?ured in France. En?husias?ic gunners frequen?ly increased powder charges in an effor? ?o obfain longer ranges and blew up ?heir weapons. A dis?inguished vic?im of one such acciden? was King James Il of Sco?land, who was killed while observing ?he ?es? of a field gun in I460. The Vene?ians are credi?ed wi?h ?he firs? use of explosive shell, in I376. The shell was made of ?wo hollow hemispheres of s?one or bronze. filled wi?h an explosive, ?he ?wo halves ioined wi?h hoops and fi??ed wi?h a fuse. Many years passed, however, before explosives in shells became a general pracfice. During ?his same period ?he Vene?ians are credifed wi?h in?roducing ?he me?hod of ignifing ?he propellen? by priming ?he cannon ven? near ?he breech wi?h loose powder, and ?hey were probably ?he firs? ?o moun? guns on wheeled carriages. While cas? iron sho? was developed for use in cannon abou? I4-00, s?one proiecfiles con?inued in ?heir populari?y for many years, because ?hey were cheaper ?o manufacfure, could be made from ma?erials near a? hand, and, being ligh?er ?han iron, required less powdery as a propellen?. By l450 "corned" or granular gun- powder has been in?roduced, and caseshof, consisfing of balls fired in arconfainer, were employed as ar?illery ammuni?ion. ln view of ?he belief of some hisforians ?ha? real field ar?illery began wi?h John Zizka in ?he l-lussi?e Wars of Bohemia from l4l9 ?o I4-24, i? may be of in?eres? fo give, in somewha? grea?er de?ail, an accoun? of one engagemen? wi?h reference ?o ?he use of ar?illery. Car?s had been in?roduced for ?he rapid maneuvering of bronze guns-a me?hod devised a? an earlier da?e for ?he Roman ballisfas. A? ?he siege of Karlsfein, ?he Hussi?es emplaced 46 cannon, five large cannon and five ca+apuI?s for ?he a??ack. Marble pillars from nearby Prague churches were used fo supply cannon balls. The ra?e of fire for ?he heavy pieces was one or ?wo sho?s per day and for ?he ligh?er pieces six fo ?welve. l? is of in?eres? ?o no?e ?ha? ca?apul?s were s?ill in use a? ?his la?e da?e and were again used ?o hurl ro??ing carcasses and o?her fil?h in?o ?he con- fines of ?he for?, in ?he hope of spreading disease and breaking down ?he morale of ?he enemy. l? is reporfed ?ha? ?he defenders neufralized ?hese missiles wi?h lime and arsenic and defended ?heir posifions wi?h such valor ?ha? ?he l-lussi?es abandoned ?he siege af?er firing l0,930 cannonballs, 932 s?one fragmen?s, I3 fire barrels, and l,822 ?ons of fil?h. During ?he six?een?h cen?ury ?he developmen? of ar?illery reached i?s peak under ?he leadership of Maximilian, Emperor of Germany. His ar?illery developed a range of I,500 yards for solid sho? and 400 yards for case. and his gunners were considered ?he bes? in Europe. By I600, ?he caliber and range of cannon had been developed almos? ?o ?he maximum possibili?ies for a muzzle-loading, smoo?h-bore weapon using black powder as a propellenf. Befween ?his period and abou? l860 ?here was no radical im- provemen? in ?he fire-power of ar?illery. Many innova?ions were ?ried and abandoned, only ?o ?urn up la?er in more perfec? form. Spiral rifling was ?ried unsuccessfully. The use of explosive shell increased, bu? ?he breech-loaders proved unsa?isfac?ory. The gunner's quadran? and angle of si?e were developed. ln l573, Sebasfial l-lallwe sugges?ed ?he idea of ?he modern ?ime and percussion fuze, bu? ?he chemisfry of his day was inadequa?e ?o cope wi?h such advanced ?heories. ln l672, a proiecfile called ?he x Fl T 'W ,Wi B! ri HUKQ1 7' u ',il' IQ BTP ,cl Sli Z: Q Q AN ,L 1 E 173 114 i f f ww- 'Uf -8 l 'C VIS? lex gi,-,I'Ii',.,g'fR-sigglvl. T K ff' T' - - ,116-"' lla ,,-- iv i 1 lfgll '.0-A g E --- - f-1.-W ,C E 'X -LJ e , -'-' S X E A ff "- '- i 5- r as sy, .1 ,,,,, . ,, E ,A ' ,ff ,-A N, , - 5 wfb i at 1. gf! - E- .. IL . ... is , T- T Illia, -eg r " Ik' ' -"',,. gl- ... 3,3 'M' rL4'.,l"1u TT IA 'O 'T ' i'laf,iif.f' D 'r "carcass" was inven?ed, comprising a hollow me?al sphere pierced wi?h ven?s and filled wi?h incendiary ma??er. Smoke shell appeared in I68l. ln I74O Swifzerland in?roduced a new mefhod of boring ?ubes from solid mefal ins?ead of hollow casfings. ln l78O ?he Bri?ish Army firs? came in confac? wi?h rocke?s, which had been used by orien?al na?ions for many years. During ?his period ?he mos? impor?an? fac?or in ?he use of ar?illery in warfare was ?he developmenf of i?s ?ac?ical use. When gunpowder was firs? in?roduced as a propellen?, ?here was violen? opposi?ion ?o gunpowder ar?illery. The Pope excommunica?ed all gunners, Capfured ar?illerymen were frequen?ly ?or?ured and mu?ila?ed. Cannon were somefimes privafely owned and ren?ed ou? by ?heir owners. Under ?he pa?ronage of kings, however, special privileges were granfed fo gunners, and medieval ar?illery became a guild wi?h i?s own governmen? and ius?ice. The making of guns and gunpowder, ?he loading of shells, and even ?he service of ?he piece were considered ?rade secre?s, ?o be guarded V! iealously. Gunners were civilian arTisans raTher Than soldiers. ArTilIery was considered by The general public as a mysTerious science, and The gunner was ThoughT of as "a sorcerer in league wiTh The devil." WiTh iTs uITimaTe accepTance as a parT oT The miIiTary, arTiIIery became more closely allied To The oTher arms oT The service, and TacTics were developed To a high degree. Nofable conTribuTors To This developmenT were such leaders as GusTavaus Adolphus oT Sweden: Louis XIV oT France, who developed The use oT morTars and Tounded arfillery schools: Frederick The GreaT oT Prussia, who inTroduced horse arTiIIery: lnspecTor Gen- eral Gribeauval oT France, who developed The science oT ballisfics To such a high degree ThaT iT aTTecTed The developmenf oT arTiI- Iery in many oTher counTriesg and Napoleon BonaparTe, who gained his repuTaTion as The greaTesT miliTary leader oT modern Times largely Through his use oT Tield arTiIIery. During This Tive hundred years oT arfillery developmenT Tollowing The discovery oT gunpowder, comparable sTrides were made in The improvemenT oT hand weapons. While, as sTaTed previously. The bow persisTed as a baTTle weapon inTo The nineTeenTh cenTury. The hand gun wiTh a sTock TirsT came inTo exisTence someTime beTween I35O and I400. IT was a crude aTTair, called a harquebus. The bore was smooTh, and iT used as a propellant a poor grade oT black powder, which was igniTed by a hand Tuze applied To a Touch-hole. ATTer abouT IOO years This weapon had developed inTo The mafchlack, which employed a mechanical device To apply The Tuze To The Touch-hole. In abouT I6O0 The TlinTlock was de- veloped. This Tirearm provided igniTion To The powder by means oT a revolving meral wheel which sTruck a piece oT TlinT aT The momenT The piece was desired To Tire. This was a marked improve- menT over previous arms, which required The soldier To carry a lighTed Tuze when Tiring was imminenT. The TIinTlock Type oT muskeT was universally used un+il I835. ,I fn- s S g 4?" l -1.- Q2. fi? o, -ejife . ,Z Q.. gr ,M TX ffwm. 'vs-.. Mmy MF van, V -,', .wg I' f , T ' .Q I ff a I gl , . F, 7 f . Q ii i, .3 -ii 1 5 Q:ef V . . as 2 if- he-Y -Q Ill : v , ci , i"T" 122, il -R -f f I Ani i fi .. ' aa TTT' Y 5' F I ll ,Me g i V i ' b U Li www ,Sk , 2. Ill i ' si Ei' ilzgfe: r " 724' ll pail. IIQJTFI -g -M, T' 'TTC' ips' if Q . ,,Xx,'f 'Nix' 5 Q U V -K gig xxx. . lg - -... . . f, -my, ww- 1 ., pl ,uw an ":c?",:.w hw, ,K Q . M - " -as . F Mc" W' T f 1' h 1' ' . - Irv Jil . :eco li There- were many reasons why The developmenT oT small arms was slow. In The TirsT place, The raTe oT Tire was slow, much below ThaT oT The crossbow. In The second place, iTs Tire was inaccuraTe. NoT only did The grade of powder inTroduce variables, buT also The Touling caused by The propellenf necessiTaTed barrel clearance, leading To The escape of much gas around The spherical buIIeT. The escaping gas on one side oT a loose ball inTroduced inaccuracies ThaT could noT be predeTermined. Early Tirearms were so inaccuraTe ThaT an experT Iongbowman could ouTshooT The muskeT boTh in disTance and in accuracy. Many TacTicians considered iTs greaTesT value in baTTle To lie in iTs noise-making qualiTies, which creaTed confusion and disorder wiThin The ranks of The enemy. The value oT spin applied To cerTain proiecTiles as a sTabilizer was recognized very early. Many devices were used To imparT spin To arrows, iavelins, and spears. IT is diTTiculT To undersTand why proiecTiles were hurled Trom guns Tor hundreds oT years before The idea oT spinning These proiecTiles was evolved. The daTe oT The invenTion oT riTling is unknown. IT has been asserTed ThaT iT occurred someTime beTween I470 and I500. IT is apparenT ThaT riTling had been developed eTTecTiveIy by IS63, as The Swiss governmenT in ThaT year legislaTed againsT riTled arms in com- peTiTion wiTh unriTled arms Tor TargeT-shooTing purposes, This is diTTiculT To undersTand wiThouT a clearer knowledge oT The disadvanfages inTroduced by riTling. ThaT These disadvanTages were imporTanT is obvious Trom The TacT ThaT smooTh-bore muskeTs were considered superior To The riTled hand weapon Tor miIiTary purposes in England as IaTe as l800. The cause lay in The propel- lenT, black powder. The qualiTy oT This explosive was so poor ThaT aTTer a Tew shoTs The bore became so fouled ThaT ramming was diTTiculT. In The smooTh-bore weapon The Tolerance beTween The ball and The bore was suTTicienT To admiT The ball easily even aTTer Touling became considerable. WiTh The riTled barrel, how- ever, iT required some Torce To ram The ball down The barrel againsT The TricTion oT The riTling even wiTh a clean bore, since The riTling had To be TighT enough To imparT a TwisT To The bulIeT. STarTing wiTh much less Tolerance, The accumulaTion oT Touling wiThin The riTled barrel soon made iT mosT diTTiculT To load. IT has been recorded ThaT one shoT every Two and one-halT minuTes was considered a Tair raTe oT Tire Tor The riTled barrel, while a raTe oT Tive shoTs per minuTe was noT unusual Tor The smooTh-bore muskeT. Thus iT is easy To undersTand why The smooTh bore re- mained a TavoriTe miIiTary weapon even Though many Tine muzzle- loading riTles were made during The sevenTeenTh and eighTeenTh cenTuries Tor hunTing purposes, where speed in loading was noT oT paramounT imporTance. The invenTion oT The percussion primer early in The nineTeenTh cenTury, The evoluTion oT The cylinder-shaped buIleT, and The developmenT oT The meTaI carT- ridge case, which provided eTTecTive obTuraTion, resuITed in The breech-loading weapon. The use oT riTling in all weapons Then became pracficable. One early deficiency, resulTing Trom The slow reloading process required by a muskeT, was The TacT ThaT The gunner was IeTT vul- nerable To aTTack wiThouT means oT deTense. This led To The addiTion of The bayoneT To The weapon, so ThaT iT mighT be used as a pike in emergencies. ln order To speed up The reloading process, many Types oT rapid-Tire weapons were Tried. The provision oT several barrels was one oT The TirsT eTTorTs in This direcTion. In some collecTions oT old arms one can Tind Today mulTibarreled hand guns wiTh The mosT primiTive maTch igniTion sysTems. The repeaTing sysTem mosT successfully developed beTore breech-loading made iTs appearance is Tound in The old hand revolver wiTh eiTher a revolving chamber or revolving barrels. ATTer The developmenT oT breech-loading weapons and Tixed ammuniTion, The magazine riTle became a pracTical weapon and provided a rapid-Tire hand weapon Tor combaT use. AlThough maTeriaIs and workmanship have been improved, inTerchangeabiliTy oT parTs has become a universal pracTice, auTornaTic loading TeaTures have been added and The propellenf and The ballisfics oT The buIIeT have been maTeriaIly improved, The basic design principles involved in The riTIe have noT changed radically since The end oT The nineTeenTh cenTury. In reTurning To a discussion oT arfillery, iT appears prudenT To begin wiTh The Civil War period oT our own hisTory and cover The development oT all ordnance Trom ThaT period To The presenT. Regardless oT The TacT ThaT riTled cannon had been developed and were on The verge oT superseding The smooTh bore, The laTTer Type were used almosT exclusively on boTh sides during The Civil War. Likewise, although saTisTacTory breech-loading small arms had been developed, noT only abroad buT in This counTry, where The Hall riTIe had been manuTacTured in large numbers, The war was ToughT largely wiTh muzzle-loading guns. IT has been sTaTed ThaT The arTilIery used aT GeTTysburg diTTered IiTTle Trom ThaT used by Napoleon more Than half a cenTury beTore, and, allhough General Rodman had developed a Tougher gun meTal in I855 by infernal cooling in a casT iron gun, The principle was noT applied To gun manufacTure in This counfry unTil abouT 1885. AfTer ThaT Time our guns were of The sTeel breech-loading Type, and Today many of our seacoasf weapons are Those ThaT were developed during The nexT I0-year period. Smokeless powder and high explosives came inTo our service during This same Time, as well as The disappearing Type oT seacoasT carriage. While small guanTiTies of Three diTTerenT Types of breech- loading rifle were manufacfured during The Civil War, The firsT breech-loading Springfield rifle was The model of 1866. This ea.:-J-iii I f - gr D ffwia ee!!! 6 .I-if -T : l ZQQK iii? ,z T lil TT' l weapon was laTer improved and The caliber reduced from .50 To .4-5. IT was officially adopfed as sTandard Tor The Army in l873. IT is inTeresTing To noTe ThaT black powder remained as The sTandard propellenT for our small-arms bulleTs unTil I892, when The caliber .30 Krag-Jorgesen was adopfed as sfandard. This was a bolT-acTion rifle, using smokeless-powder carTridges Ted from a magazine holding five rounds. The nexT developmenT in our own small-arms weapon was The I903 Springfield, an adapfafion of The German Mauser, which is generally conceded To be The TinesT TargeT rifle ever developed To This day. As laTe as IS96 our sfandard field or mobile arTillery was a 3.2-inch weapon employing separafe-loading arnmunifion and mounTed on a carriage ThaT recoiled some l5 To 20 feef afTer each round was fired. ln l897 The French broughT ouT Their Tamous 75-mm. gun, buT guarded The consTrucTion of iTs recoil mechanism so well ThaT iT remained a secreT unfil The World War. We developed and sTandardized The Three-inch field gun, model of l902, wiTh a spring recoil mechanism, and builT 600 of These prior To The World War. During This period we also developed guns and howiTzers of 3, 3.8, 4.7, and 6-inch caliber, and a series of These weapons was sTandardized. Very few weapons oTher Than The 3 and 4.7-inch were manufacTured, as World War condi- Tions required The procuremenT of weapons in France. Now ThaT we have reviewed The develapmenf of arfillery and small shoulder weapons, we will discuss The developmenT of a more recenT weapon which fiTs in somewhere befween The Two-The machine gun, While many aTTempTs were made To develop a rapid-fire gun, The firsT pracTicable machine gun was broughT ouT by Dr, GaTling of Chicago in l862. This weapon employed a number of barrels, usually Ten, which revolved around a cenfral axis in The form of a cylinder. Various devices were used To feed The carTridges inTo The barrels as They roTaTed inTo posiTion. While The TirsT guns had a raTe oT fire oT from 200 To 300 shoTs per minuTe, laTer models were improved To aTTain a speed of abouT 600 shoTs per minuTe. This gun was used To a limiTed exTenT during The Civil War. ln T884 Sir Hiram Maxim, an American engineer, produced The firsT Truly auTomaTic machine gun. lT employed a single barrel and uTilized The force of recoil To obTain confinuous and auTomaTic funcTioning as long as The Trigger was held down. A fabric belf holding The ammuniTion was Ted Through The breech by an auTomaTic mechanism. The soundness of The principles of operaTion of This weapon sTimulaTed The developmenT of ofhef Types. IT also revoluTionized combaT Tacfics for machine guns. ln i889 Mr. John M. Browning, anoTher American, broughf ouT The Calf machine gun, which uTilized a small porTion of The ex- pending powder gas To acTuaTe The bolT mechanism. This was followed by The l-loTchkiss, employing The same sysTem of gas operaTion, During The firsT World War The mosT successful machine guns were The BriTish and German Maxims, The BriTish Vickers, The French l-lofchkiss, The AusTrian Schwarzlose, The Brifish-American Lewis, and The Browning machine gun. These guns and Those belonging To posfwar developmenT are sufficienfly well known To The reader To make descripTion of Their mefhods of operaTion unnecessary. lT is of inTeresT To noTe ThaT The principle of machine-gun operaTion has, in recenT years been applied To larger-caliber weapons, and Today small cannon employing auTo- maTic loading mechanisms have been developed for defense againsT aircrafT and armored vehicles. Since The readers of This book should be familiar wiTh The posT- war developmenT of small arms, machine guns, and arTillery weapons, we shall now Turn To a discussion of The mechanizaTion which has Taken place as a resulT of The developmenT of The in- Ternal combusTion engine and iTs adapTaTion To implemenTs of war. When we speak of mechanizaTion Today, The average person, Thinking only of The modern Tank, presumes This To be a recenTIy developed feafure of warfare. As a maTTer of facT, The idea of having a vehicle from which one may sTrike in combaT and yeT be proTecTed from The blows of The enemy daTes back many cenTuries. Minus, King of Assyria in 2059 B.C., is crediTed by some au- ThoriTies wiTh The invenfion of The charioT. Many Types were developed by The ancienfs. The crew was someTimes comprised of Three men who wore helmefs and body armor. One was a driver, one a bowman or spearman, and The Third a shield-bearer. The hulls were usually proTecTed by several layers of rawhide or bronze plaTes and someTimes equipped wiTh scyThe-like blades. These led To a developmenT of war cars which furnished proTecTion Tor The horses. IT is recorded ThaT The Chinese emperor Sun-Tse in The TwelfTh cenfury B.C. used four-wheeled carTs armored wiTh Ieafher. ln Europe The baffle cars were developed and improved To The exTenT ThaT in i472 an aTTempT was made To use wind-wheels as mofive power. Armed sailing vessels on wheels were builT for The Prince of Orange. In i482 Leonardo da Vinci, ThaT greaT masTer of all Trades, builT armored vehicles abouT which he wrofe, "I am building secure and covered charioTs which are invulnerable, and when They advance wiTh Their guns inTo The midsT of The Toe, even The largesT enemy masses musT reTreaT, and behind These charioTs The inTanTry can follow in safeTy and wiThouT opposiTion." Many differenT Types were experimenTed wiTh, and, abouT The Time WaTT produced a sTeam engine in I769, a Frenchman named CugnoT produced an arTillery TracTor ufilizing The sTeam engine for iTs moTive power. Volfaire Tried for more Than a decade To inTeresT The French or Russians in an armored war carT powered by horses. The Boydle sTeam engine used in The Crimean War ll854-l856l employed The firsT TooTed wheel, which had been invenTed in England in I770. The caTerpillar Track was invenTed in l8Ol by iiE?EQ f , - '. , 1 - 1 -' '- iixkzifi - 1' tie! K T - K fora- S--is VL xl- gfgiz- ,I . f I ' g':T7h ' ' 1' TL Thomas German. Since ThaT Time, a wide varieTy of designs have been experimenTed wiTh, and many diTferenT Types of maTerial have been used. During The Civil War a sTeam-driven gun car- riage was builT in Balfimore for The ConfederaTe Army by Ross Winans. lT was TesTed by The Federal Army aTTer iTs capfure and pronounced impracTical. BeTween The American Civil War and The firsT World War many naTions experimenfed wiTh Tracfion engines for miliTary use, buT largely in The field oT TransporT. While The caTerpilIar Tracks were used for farm and indusfrial work in boTh England and The UniTed STaTes, no serious Thoughf appears To have been given To iTs pracfical appIicaTion in warfare. Several aTTempTs were made by German, French, Russian, and American engineers To adapT The sfeam engine for use in a combaT vehicle and IaTer, afTer The developmenT of The gasoline engine, To uTilize iTs passibilifies in armored vehicle design. IT appears, however. ThaT The inerTia of conservaTism wifhin The armed forces plus The opposiTion of public opinion To innovaTions refarded The inTelIigenT developmenf of many new ideas which held forTh possibilities of success. The mosT inTeresTing developmenfs in This counTry were due To The aggressive- ness and foresighf of Colonel R, P. Davidson. Beginning in I898, he designed and experimenTed wiTh many Types of moTor-driven mounTs for machine guns, buT IiTTle supporT was provided for his efforTs. The same was True in oTher naTions, such as Germany, France and England, where many invenfors were meT wiTh cold rebuffs and, in some insTances. ridicule. When Trench warfare became stabilized on The WesTern FronT in I9I4, Mr. WinsTon Churchill, Then FirsT Lord of The AdmiraITy, auThorized The procuremenT of a hundred armored aufomobiles mounTing machine guns for use in proTecTing English air bases in France. The mild-sTeeI plafes firsT used as armor were easily peneTraTed by German bulleTs and armor plafe was Then used. Even aT This IaTe daTe The English War Office again Turned down The suggesfion of a "ca+erpiIIar forT" of a design previously submiTTed by Mr. L. A. de Mole, of AusTraIia, in I9I2. In The fall of I9I4 boTh CapTain T. J. Tulloch, manager of The Chilworfh Powder Company, and Colonel E. O. SwinTon of The BriTish Army became inTeresTed in The idea of a land cruiser capable of peneTraTing The enemy lines Through barbed wire and over Trenches. Their ideas were submiTTed and Turned down repeafedly unTiI The middle of The nexT year. when a ioinT com- miTTee. represenTing The War Office and The AdmiralTy was formed To sTudy The proiecT, IT was noT unTiI January I2. I9I6, ThaT The Tank, laTer known as Big Willie, MoTher, and H. M. L. S. CenTipede, moved under iTs own power. The name "Tank," sTiIl used To describe This Type of combaT vehicle. is repuTed To have sprung from The name "WaTer Carrier for Me-sopoTamia" which was applied To The hull during manufacTure. The firsT appearance of Tanks in combaT occurred on The Somme on SepTember I5, I9I6. This acTion was premaTure, and, because of The Terrain, The success was nominal. No imporTanT TacTicaI lessons were learned, and The acTion seT back and delayed Tank if deveIopmenT and producfion. During I9I7 Tank acTion in combaT was disappoinTing. The Troops had been led To expecT so much from Them, and The leaders were so unfamiliar wiTh Their proper TacTical employmenf, ThaT Their success in baTTle can only be Termed IimiTed. AT The baTTle of Cambrai on November 20 The usual arTilIery bombardmenT was dispensed wiTh before opening The baTTle, and The Tanks for The firsT Time had an opporTuniTy To operaTe overland noT cuT To pieces by artillery fire. Many models were developed boTh in England and France and a IimiTed number in Germany. AfTer The enfrance of The UniTed STaTes inTo The war, The Mark VIII, 37-Ton Tank was sTandardized for producfiong parTs were To come from England and The UniTed STaTes for assembly in France. The Renaulf seven- Ton Tank was The besT of The IighT Tanks developed during This period, The war ended before The Mark VIII Tanks were available for use, and one hundred of These, finished afTer The war aT Rock Island Arsenal, TogeTher wiTh abouT I,O00 RenaulT IighT Tanks, represenTed The ToTal Tank resources of our army up unTiI a very few years ago. Following The armisfice, There remained Iitfle inTeresT in The conTinued developmenT of armored combaf vehicles. The Ordnance DeparTmenT, resTricTed by very small yearly appropriafions, con- Tinued iTs research and developmenT wiTh a small group of en- gineers. They improved Their models from year To year as limited funds permiTTed. The Tanks used in Training personnel aT The Ordnance School Today are The producT of Their efforfs. In This brief hisToricaI resume of The deveIopmenT of ordnance we have aTTempTed To cover only The imporTanT changes which have come abouT in pasT cenfuries wiThouT much emphasis on modern developmenfs. IT is expecTed ThaT The reader is familiar wiTh These and has a full appreciaTion of The changes in TacTics developed by The inTroducTion of aircrafT and moTor vehicles inTo warfare. Ammunifion, including bombs and Torpedoes, has kepT pace wiTh The developmenf of The weapons. Ordnance maferiel Today covers a Tremendous field. When one considers The wide varieTy of iTems ThaT are issued, The sTores of spare parTs ThaT musT be provided and The Tools required in Their mainfenance iT is undersTandable why our supply problems cover hundreds of Thousands of differenT iTems. If one were asked To seIecT The mosT imporTanT lessons To be learned from a sTudy of The evoluTion of weapons of warfare, one mighT sTaTe ThaT "The search for perfecTion is Too ofTen The enemy of The good" and ThaT "The sTaTus quo aTTains such inerTia among The miliTary and civilians alike Thai They sTrongIy resisT innovaTions leading Toward change." if X fllgkfe Avi-4.2 -1-f"'A,,,, 4 , ' ll 'T'. 'Cal R' ', fh ,r T 'j:"qT if 'A' 'k 'A' if 'A' 'Ir if 'A' 'A' nl' 'A' PUBLISHED l942 BY THE ARMY AND NAVY PUBLISHING CO., INC. All Righls Reserved -A' MAIN omce 234 Main S+., Box 950. . . . Bafon Rouge, La WEST CCAST OFFICE Room 2ll, 700 S. La Brea Ave. .... Los Angeles, Calif -A' BRANCH ormcss l36 Fourlh Ave., Norlh . . . . Nashville, Tenn 408 Marshall Sf. ............ Shreveporl, Le CAPTAIN CHARLES D. BAYLIS, USMC lRETl Edilor-in-Chief and Direclor of Field Operalions Sale of this review is resl'ric+ecl fo officers enlislecl personnel and fheir families. Q 41-

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Aberdeen Proving Ground - Yearbook (Aberdeen, MD) online yearbook collection, 1943 Edition, Page 46

1943, pg 46

Aberdeen Proving Ground - Yearbook (Aberdeen, MD) online yearbook collection, 1943 Edition, Page 62

1943, pg 62

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