BUMP A NYL
UHUN!-KNEE UFPIIIEH E!-XNDIU!-XTE SEHUUL
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ABERDEEN PHUVING EEUUND, MARYLAND
1 9 4 3
DOUGLAS G. PUTNAM CARLTON R. GETTE
First Lieuienant Second Lieufenanf
Commanding Officer Company Officer
ir 'k 'k 'Ir
lReacling from Leif To Righil
Firsf Row: Corporals Levin, Bennieg Urbanslci, Raymond Second Row: Privaies Firsi Class Lifio, Michael J.
J.: Technician Fifih Grade l-laskin, Leong Privale Firsl' Raczynslci, Edward T.: Privales Bellanclo, Primo J.: Buse
Class l-lohenzy, Michael J. meyer, John G.
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W. R. Benson C. H. Berry R. T, Birney D. A. Bloom
W, R. Brashear R. A, Brennfleck M. A. Bullard
R. P. Burqwald W, H. Bulls C. Bufya J. E. Caldwell
H. E. Callahan O. A. Campbell, Jr. J. A. Caulfield
J. L. Coleman J. l. Cornell A. E, Coslello C. K. Coulson
C. B. Cox C. C. L. Culhberlson E. R, Dagil
L. C. Derwinski E. E. Dunlap, Jr. R. S. Dunn, Jr. W. M. Durnil R. M. Easfman H. Eirinq, Jr. W. A, Epling
R. R. Esles J. A, Everell
areneak J. B. Felker N. V. Filbey W. H. Friedberg
. . Brock G. M. Gougler
J. H. Henderson S. O. Hirs
H. Josf, Jr. J. R. Kairis
O. C. Akre
A. F. Grassmuck H, J. Greenberg C, L. Griffith
H. V. Hcffmeier, Jr. W. M. Hunfingfon L. P. Johnson
Q 'f l
T. L. Hainline W. W. Hammond
R, W. Johnson E. C. Jones
W. Kidder R. B. Killen
J. F. Kelly J. L. Kelly L. C, Kerans y
ik G. Lackmann, Jr.
R. S. Kinch A. King D. Klein C. C. Kowal
J. T, Lampilal Jr.
VV. J. Laipple W. D. Lamm
,Nm il B S Q., T'
Ma s W. J. McDermoH
C. T. Lindquisf W. W. MacDonald W. H. Martens D. C. y
l J. R. Buckley, Jr, E. A. Zimmer
J. W. Morrison, Jr. H. Mollershaw R. L. Nearhoof C. A. Neorr J. D. Nichols G. B. Norris F. W. Olsen
S. B. Osman T. B. Overmier A. J. Pannilfi B. T. Parkinson T. R. Pafferson R. L. Pafzold R. B. Paul
C. Penrose J. D. Pool F. R. Porler, Jr. R. L. Powell H. S. Randolph L. E. Rasmussen J. E. Ray
.,' ' V -.1 l
W. A. Reichenbach E. H. Reuss H. L. Rhoads A. Rodgers R. N. Roth G. A. Ruesink C. W. Ruskowski
F. B. Sallee T. T. Sarelsky E. Schee E. R. Schwarlz L. B. Scof? P. D. Tipfon M, L. Wilson
F. Kromm M. E. Loqerquisl S. G. Mellner D. G. Myers H. Scherba D. W. Seagrave
E. J. Shea P. A. Smilh, Jr. H. W. Springer W. P. Slancklewlfz W. H. Slevens R. M. Slewarl M. S. Sfock
L. W. Subiack C. A. Sumpler J. E. Swearingen F. C. Taylor M. R. Taylor R. W. Temm J. R. Thompson
L Tremoulls W H Van Hausen F P Vavo R S Volkman J R Wal es C. T. Wallon W. E. Walson
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J. E. Weflen D. E. We
G. F, Wilman
H. C. Weianl A. E. Wheeler D. W. Wheeler E. W. Williams F. A. Wiszcholek
K. 2 qwe Q
D. Wiflen C. J. Workman O. R. Worley V. O. Wyble A. Zeff
W. F. Aimone
J, R. Anderson C. E. Applegafe M. P. Balerviez S. Baran J. A. Bassefi H. H. Benner? J. O. Fifzpafrick
R, A. Fielland M. H. Fiefcher W. A. French R. W. Gaffney C. V. Galbreafh D. I. Gelsinger L. C. Gerds
R. J. Gilberf R. F. McGee W. T. McGra1h M. C. Mclnfosh S. C. McKeIvey W. A. McNamee H. D. Milsiead
H. T. Mooney R. C. Seeley R. N. Selfridge W. A. Sharrifis, Jr. W. F. Shore M. L. Simkins M. C. Smiih, Jr.
R. H. Smith S. F. Smiih M. Snyder B. Solomon R. C. Speer W. R. Spencer J. W. Veley
No, we were nof creafed by a Frankensfein, nor did
we ever consider ourselves as a monsfer: buf for fhirfeen
weeks we were a learning and drilling machine. We were
builf wifh precision and of fhe besf available maferial.
The Ordnance Officer Candidafe School searched far
and wide for fhe subsfances for fhis machine. Despife
fhe facf fhaf fhe counfry was af war and sea fravel haz-
ardous, imporfs of parfs were made from Iceland, from
Hawaii, and from fhe Solomon Islands. As fhe packages
of fhe segmenfs arrived, fhey showed by fheir braids
sources from all arms and services.
All parfs were assembled on Jan. I4, l943. The com-
posifion of fhe machine numbered 23l separafe and dis-
fincf pieces. Af firsf, liffle efforf was made fo properly
gear and fasfen fhe parfs fogefher, and for several days
fhe resulfanf body wobbled awkwardly on unsfable feef,
and ifs mind lwhaf mind fhere wasl wandered aimlessly
fhrough uncharfed ways. Buf fhe school officials had a
iob fo do, and done if would be. They had had previous
experiences in fhe building of such machines. The crea-
fion of our mechanism was fheir fhirfy-sevenfh affempf,
fheir previous record had been excellenf, and fhey were
defermined nof fo fail wifh us. Thus was our mechanical
body assembled and, when complefed, labeled "Class
The confused creafion needed guidance, and fhe au-
fhorifies in fheir wisdom, placed fhe mechanism under
'rhe confrol and supervision of Lieufenanf Douglas Puf-
nam. Lieufenanf Pufnam had successfully famed such
mechanisms fwice previously, for he had nurfured our
predecessors of Company L, Class No. 9 and Class No.
23. And lesf fhe creafure should prove unconfrollable for
one man, fhe able assisfance of Lieufenanf C. R. Geffe
was invoked. This was nof a one-man iobg for fhe obiecf
was fo fame fhe mechanical body and af fhe same fime
polish and smoofh each of ifs separafe parfs.
The polishing began wifh a gusfo on Monday, Jan. l8.
Oh, fhere was marvelling and wondermenf when The hor-
rible "monsfer" firsf appeared in public. The creafure's
arms and legs flew in all direcfionsg and fhe school faculfy
fore fheir hair in bewilderrnenf. Our insfrucfors had so
firmly sef fhemselves fo fheir work, however, fhaf fhey
were fo succeed under any circumsfances. For eighf
hours daily fhey oiled and greased and polished fhe
brain-sfrucfure af H-lp and for an hour daily fhey scoured
and rubbed and "chewed" fhe body on fhe drill field.
Affer nof foo many days, a bif of coordinafion could be
observed bofh wifhin fhe brain-sfrucfure and befween
fhe brain and body.
Even affer five weeks of experf shaping, fiffing, and
lubricafing, some parfs of fhe sfrucfure seemed fo grafe
and refard fhe mofion of fhe creafure. A fhorough check
was made of each parf, and on Feb. 23, fhe body was
forn down complefely lby emofional sfrainl and reassem-
bled, less fiffy some odd parfs. Af firsf, if seemed fhaf
fhe new assemblage would nof work so well, because
some parfs missed fhose parfs fhaf had been removed.
Buf as fhe oils of enfhusiasm spread, fhe mechanism real-
ly began fo funcfion smoofhly in abouf fhe sixfh week of
ifs exisfence. True if was, a few parfs were sfill mis-
placed, buf such were removed wifhouf affecfing fhe
Then one day in April, fhe machine suddenly disin-
fegrafed, and, wonder of wonders, each parf furned ouf
fo be a living and breafhing second lieufenanf. All fhaf
remained of fhe "Monsfer" of Aberdeen was g-old bars
and heads sfeeped in knowledge of Ordnance. The cre-
afors of fhe "lv1onsfer" had succeeded in polishing and
smoofhing fhe parfs info perfecf young officers.
Wifh iusf pride, fhe officials of fhe Ordnance Officer
Candidafe School, fhe school insfrucfors, and fhe com-
mander of Company L senf fheir producfs ouf fo meef
fhe public during academic leaves. The producfs fhem-
selves leff in high spirifs, and heighfened fheir spirifs
If was war-fime, however, and pride in fhe accomplish-
menfs of all conceived had fo give way fo dufy, a mosf
honorable dufy, fhaf of serving one's counfry in ifs need.
Such dufy has called our men fo fhe four corners of fhe
earfhg such dufy may fake fhe lives of some of our men.
We fake solace, however, nof in our personal well being,
buf in fhe well being of our counfry and fhose fhaf in-
habif if: yes, even more, we fake solace in fhe well being
of a decenf world cifizenry. lf is such a well being fhaf
we will have helped fo achieve.
ORDNANCE OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL
BENSON, WILLIAM R.-IOO E. 38th St., Paterson, N. J., Technician Fifth
Grade, Wesleyan University, Columbia University, Law School, Lawyer,
Corps ot Military Police, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Sigma Rho, Phi Delta Phi.
BERRY, CHARLES H.-Notasulga, Ala., First Sergeant, Student, Ordnance
BIRNEY, ROBERT T.-IO8 N. Martindale Ave., Atlantic City, N, J., Ser-
geant, Electrical Construction, Corps ot Engineers, Sigma Kappa.
BLOOM, DONALD A.-I337 Elmwood Ave., Wilmette, Ill., Corporal,
Antioch College, Finance Department.
.BRASHEAR, WILLIAM R,-47l7 Westfield Ave., Camden, N. J., Techni-
cian Fifth Grade, Drexel Institute ot Technology, Sub-Station Operator,
Signal Corps, Order ot DeMolay.
BRENNFLECK, RALPH A.-l5352 Wisconsin St., Detroit, Mich., Technical
Sergeant, Tool and Die Makers Apprentice, Ordnance Department.
BULLARD, MERLIN A.-l5I7 San Francisco St., Olympia, Wash., Cor-
pprailiq Watchmaker, Ordnance Department, Benevolent and Protective Order
BURGWALD, RUSSELL P.-IZB W. South St., Dwight, Ill., Corporal, Utili-
ties Engineering Institute, Electric Retrigeration and Air-Conditioning Serv-
ice Engineer, Service Command Unit.
BUTTS, WALLACE H.-Belle Fourche, S. D., Corporal, University ot
South Dakota, Research Economist, Ordnance Department, Free and Ac-
cepted Masons, Phi Delta Theta, Delta Sigma Pi.
BUTYA, CARL-Route 5, Cratton, Pa., Sergeant, Carnegie Institute ot
Technology, Heat Treater ot Steel, Tank Destroyer Command, Benevolent
and Protective Order ot Elks.
CALDWELL, JAMES E.-Vernon, Tex., Technician Fourth Grade, David
Rankin Junior Technical and Mechanical Trades, Mechanic, Ordnance De-
CALLAHAN, HOWARD E.-2099 Webster Ave., Bronx, N. Y., Statt Ser-
geant, Restaurant Manager, Corps ot Military Police.
CAMPBELL, OLIVER A., JR.-East Norwich, Long Island, N. Y., Techni-
cian Fitth Grade, Trinity College, Machinist, Cavalry, Delta Psi.
CAULFIELD, JAMES A.-6559 Northwest Hwy., Chicago, Ill., Corporal,
North Park College, lntantry.
COLEMAN, JEROME L.-4940 S. East End Ave., Chicago, Ill., Corporal,
Armour Institute, Northwestern University, Real Estate Mgr., Insurance
Broker, Medical Department.
CORNETT, JAMES I.-Hartford, Tenn., Corporal, Engineer's Aide, Ord-
nance Department, Loyal Order ot Moose.
COSTELLO, ALPHONSUS E.-24l Brook Ave., Passaic, N. J., Technical
Sergeant, Stock Clerk, Ordnance Department.
COULSON, CHARLES K.-Route I, Brenham, Tex,, Technician Fourth
Grade, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College, Recorder, Texas High-
way Department, Medical Department.
COX, CHARLES B.-28 Hamilton St., Rockville Centre, Long Island,
N. Y., Corporal, Columbia University, Ordnance Department.
CUTHBERTSON, CHARLES C. L.-Route 2, Duncan, Okla., Corporal,
Warehouse Foreman, Ordnance Department.
DAGIT, EDGAR R.-New Baden, Ill., Corporal, St, Louis University, Ac-
countant, Finance Department.
DERWINSKI, LEO C.-8l2 Main St., Simpson, Pa., Corporal, Bridgeport
Engineering Institute, Industrial Engineer, Ordnance Department.
DUNLAP, EDGAR E., JR.-50 Grove St., Auburndale, Mass., Technician
Fourth Grade, Clerk, lntantry.
DUNN, RAY S., JR.-3725 Macomb St., N.W., Washington, D. C., Tech-
nical Sergeant, Beniamin Franklin University, Agent, United States Depart-
ment of Labor, Army Air Forces.
DURNIL, WILLIAM M.-474l W. Okmulgee Ave., Muskogee, Okla., Cor-
poral, University of Oklahoma, Department Store Mgr., Ordnance Depart-
ment, Phi Kappa Psi.
EASTMAN, ROBERT M.-IOI4 Woodlawn Ave., Springtield, Ohio, Cor-
poral, Antioch College, Accountant, Finance Department.
EIRING, HILMAR, JR,-Eagle, Wis., Corporal, Carroll College, Insur-
ance Agent, Ordnance.
EPLING, WORTH A.-lllb Adams St., Lagrande, Ore., Statt Sergeant,
University ot Oregon, Mgr. Meat Stores, Army Air Forces, Sigma Alpha
ESTES, ROBERT R.-l8II N. 37th St., Kansas City, Kan., Technician Fitth
Grade, University ot Kansas, Transportation Corps, Delta Chi.
EVERETT, JOHN A.-SIS Lindsay St., Chattanooga, Tenn., Statt Sergeant,
Dragline Machine Operator, Cavalry.
FARENEAK, STEPHEN-l9O Ross St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Corporal, Haaren
Industrial, Aviation Ordnance.
FELKER, JAMES B,-I323 Delaware Ave., Bethlehem, ,Pa., Corporal, Le-
high University, Student, Army Air Forces, Lambda Chi Alpha.
FILBEY, NATHAN V.-706 Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill., Private,-Uni-
versity ot Illinois, Accountant, Finance Department, Beta Theta Pr, Phi Eta
Sigma, Beta Alpha Psi, Beta Gamma Sigma.
FRIEDBERG, WILLIAM H.-9235 Doheny Rd., Los Angeles, Calif., Pri-
vate, University ot Calitornia at Los Angeles, Northwestern University, Jewel-
er, Ordnance Department, Zeta Beta Tau, Alpha Delta Phi, Benevolent
and Protective Order of Elks.
AKRE, ORVILLE C.-Corporal, Airline Traftic Agent, Ordnance Depart-
BROCK, LOUIS R.-Hague-On-Lake, George, N. Y., Corporal, Princeton
University, Purdue University, Mechanical Engineer, Ordnance Department,
Delta Tau Delta.
GOUGLER, GEORGE M.-5I7 Richardson St., Grass Valley, Calit., Mas-
ter Sergeant, Army Air Forces.
GRASSMUCK, ALBERT F,-35l9 Vista Ave., St. Louis, Mo., Technician
Fitth Grade, American institute ot Banking, Ottice Manager, lntantry.
GREENBERG, HAROLD J.-2035 7Ist St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Technician
Fitth Grade, St. John's University, Store Manager, Detached Enlisted Men's
List, St. John's Indian Society.
GRIFFITH, CLETUS L.-Etna Green, Ind., Private, Indiana University,
Purdue University, Teacher, Ordnance Department.
HAINLINE, THOMAS L.-3000 Tracy St., Kansas City, Mo., Corporal,
Salesman, Ordnance Department, Sigma Pi.
HAMMOND, WILLIAM W.-Route I, Kearneysville, W. Va., Private,
George Washington University, Correspondence Clerk, Ordnance Depart-
ment, Phi Sigma Kappa.
HENDERSON, JAMES H.-Box 43, Newby, Tex., Private First Class, Lon
Morris Junior College, Grocery Cashier, Ordnance Department, Maverick
HIRSHBERG, STUART O.-200 W. Huron St., Bad Axe, Mich., Technician
Fitth Grade, University ot Michigan, Accountant, Ordnance Department,
Sigma Alpha Mu.
HOFFMEIER, HENRY vonASEN, JR.-422 Arlington Village, Arlington,
Va., Corporal, Airplane Mechanic, Army Air Forces.
HUNTINGTON WILLIAM M,-I35-32 224th Street, Springfield Gardens,
N. Y., Corporal, Yale University, Investment Counsellor, Ordnance De-
JOHNSON, LYNDEL P.-420 S, 8th St., Quincy, Ill., Master Sergeant,
Automotive Sheet Metal Worker, Ordnance Department.
JOHNSON, ROY W.-Route 4, Mt. Airy, N. C., Technician Fourth Grade,
National Youth Administration Proiect Supervisor, Armored Force.
JONES, EDWARD C.-723 N. Monroe Ave., Mason City, Iowa, Corporal,
Ottice Mgr., Ordnance Department, Benevolent and Protective Order ot
JOST, HENRY, JR.-Corporal, Painter and Decorator, Army Air Forces,
Painters and Decorators Union.
KAIRIS, JOSEPH R.-I23 Norwood Sf., Newark, N, J., Sergeanf, Sfock
Clerk, Field Arfillery Corps.
KELLY, JAMES F.-Wesfville, Ill., Privafe, Universify of Illinois, Easfern
Illinois Sfafe Teachers College, Social Worker, Field Arfillery Corps.
KELLY, JAMES L.-205 S. Allanfic Sf., Dillon, Monl., Sergeanf, Monfana
School of Mines, Mining Engineer, Field Arfillery Corps, Sigma Rho.
KERANS, LAWRENCE C.-2I0 Vermilion Sf., Georgefown, Ill., Corporal,
Air Forces Technical School, Easfern Illinois Sfafe Teachers College, Olivef
Bible College, Olivel' College, Army Air Forces. .
KIDDER, WILLIAM-Box 206, Cannonsburg, Pa., Technician Third Grade,
Vanadium Processor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
KILLEN, ROSS B.-Wise, Va., Corporal, Aufomofive Parfs Supervisor,
KINCH, ROBERT S.-Technician Fourfh Grade, Machine Seffers Helper,
Ordnance Deparfrnenf, Hi-Y Club.
KING, ALBERT-Shoshoni, Wyo., Technical Sergeanf, Sfock Clerk, Ord-
KLEIN, DAVID--27OI Valenfine Ave., New York Cily, Corporal, The Cily
College, Columbia Universify, New York Universify, Edifor, Transporfafion
Corps, Andiron Club of New York Cify.
BUCKLEY, JOHN R., JR.-Prairie Cify, Iowa, Privafe, Grinnell College,
Salesman, Ordnance Deparlrnenf.
MORRISON, JOHN W., JR.-5296 Wesfrninsfer Pl., Sf. Louis, Mo., Tech-
nician Fourfh Grade, Yale Universify, Finance Deparfmenf, Zefa Psi.
MOTTERSHAW, HAROLDYSfaff Sergeanf, Medical Deparfmenf.
NEARHOOF, RALPH L.-4I6 Pennsylvania Sf., Alfoona, Pa., Sfaff Ser-
geanf, Coasf Arfillery Corps, Anfiaircraff.
NEORR, CARL A.-37l4 Almeda Dr., Toledo, Ohio, Corporal, Toledo
Universify, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons.
NICHOLS, JOHN D.-l438 Vassar Dr., Toledo, Ohio, Corporal, Univer-
sify of Chicago, Corps of Milifary Police.
NORRIS, GEORGE B.-ZIS W. I2l'h Sf., Horfon, Kan., Privafe, Universify
of Kansas, Insurance Business, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Sigma Chi, Free and
OLSEN, FRANK W.-20 Posf Ave., New York Cify, Corporal, Pace In-
sfifufe, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
OSMAN, STEIG B.-Monroe Sf., Soufh Bend, Wash., Technical Sergeanf,
Universify of Washingfon, Ordnance Deparfn-ienf, Tau Kappa Epsilon.
OVERMIER, THOMAS B.-'II00 Arlingfon Sf., La Grange, Ill., Privafe,
Universify of Illinois, Audifor, Finance Deparfmenf, Zefa Psi.
PARKINSON, BURT T.-335 3rd Ave,, E., Twin Falls, Idaho, Sergeanf,
Universify of Ufah, Army Air Forces, Sigma Nu.
PATTERSON, THEODORE R.-222 Lexingfon Ave., Mansfield, Ohio, Cor-
poral, Finance Deparfmenf.
PATZOLD, ROBERT L.-W. 2627 Sharp Sf., Spokane, Wash., Warranf
Officer li.g.l, Order of DeMoIay.
PAUL, ROBERT B.-II6 Lincoln Place Dr., Des Moines, Iowa, Corporal,
Arrny Air Forces.
PENROSEHCHARLES-428 Fiffh Sf., Marieffa, Ohio, Technician Fiffh
Glrade, William and Mary College, Corps of Milifary Police, Delfa Up-
POOL, JOSEPH D.--206 Mernminger Sf., Greenville, S. C., Technician
Fourfh Grade, Field Arfillery Corps.
PORTER, FINLEY R., JR.-6l4 E. Buffalo Sf., Ifhaca, N. Y., Masfer Ser-
geanf, Cornell Universify, Infanfry, Delfa Sigrna Phi.
POWELL, RALPH L.-Powell Hofel, Niles, Mich., Corporal, Universify
gh Michigan, Ordnance Deparlmenf, Benevolenf and Profecfive Order of
KOWALIK, CHESTER C.-Box I38, Normanna, Tex., Sergeanf, Shoe Sales-
LACKMANN, GEORGE, JR.-Moorehead, Minn., Sergeanf, Nashville
Aufo Deisel College, Shop Foreman, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
LAIPPLE, WILLIAM J.-BIZ W. 6fh Sf., Cedar Falls, Iowa, Sfaff Ser-
geanf, Machinisf and Machine Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
LAMM, WILLIS D.-227 School Ave., Clawson, Mich., Sfaff Sergeanf,
Michigan Sfafe College, General Mofors Corp., Field Arfillery Corps.
LAMPILA, JOHN T., JR.-424 Trumbull Ave., S.E., Warren, Ohio, Tech-
nical Sergeanf, Supervisor of Producfion, Ouarfermasfer Corps.
LINDOUIST, CURTIS T.-I98I E, 226fh Sf., Euclid, Ohio, Corporal, Gen-
eral Elecfric Technical School, Experimenfal Engineer, Infanfry.
MacDONALD, WALTER W.-2II Cedar Ave., Sharon, Pa,, Sfaff Ser-
-gIeanf,PUniversify of Pilfsburgh, Wesfminsfer College, Teacher, Epsilon
MARTENS, WILLIAM H.-Roufe I4, Box 906, Porfland, Ore., Corporal,
Typewrifer Mechanic, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf.
MAYS, DEAN C.-II9 Lloyd SI., Alfoona, Pa., Sergeanf, Salesman, Army
Air Forces, Veferans of Foreign Wars Club, American Legion Club.
McDERMOTT, WALTER J.-79fh Sf., James Terr., Yonkers, N. Y., Technical
Sergeanf, Salesman, Ordnance Deparfrnenf, Charlofle Engineers Club.
RANDOLPH, HENRY S.-456 S. Zlsf Sf., Irvingfon, N. J., Sfaff Sergeanf,
New York Insfifufe of Phofography, Medical Phofographer, Corps of En-
RASMUSSEN, LESLIE E.-I4II N. 63rd Sf., Omaha, Neb., Corporal,
Bookkeeper, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons.
RAY, JAMES E.-IIO3 Raymond Ave,, Befhlehem, Pa., Sfaff Sergeanf,
Franklin and Marshall College, Ordnance Deparlmenf, Sigma Pi.
REICHENBACH, WILBUR A.-70-I4 65fh Pl., Glendale, Lon Island,
N. Y., Slaff Sergeanf, Brooklyn Technical College, Field Artillery Corps.
REUSS, ELMER H.-2362 N. 63rd Sf., Wauwafosa, Wis., Corporal, Univer-
sify of Wisconsin, Defached Enlisfed Men's Lisf.
RHOADS, HARLEY L.-632 W. Iron Ave., Salina, Kan., Corporal, Royal
Typewrifer Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
RODGERS, ALLAN-Shepherdsfown, W. Va., Privafe, U. S. Ranger, Ord-
ROTH, ROBERT N,-808 Nome Ave., Akron, Ohio, Technical Sergeanf,
Universify of Akron, Armored Force, Free and Accepfed Masons.
RUESINK, GORDON A,-Redwood Falls, Minn., Technician Fourfh Grade,
RUSKOWSKI, CASIMIR W,-l703 Waff Sf., Schenecfady, N. Y., Ser-
geanf, Union College, Yale Universify, School of Law, Lawyer, Defached
Enlisfed Men's Lisf, Phi Befa Kappa.
SALLEE, FLOYD B.--P. O. Box 98, Groveporf, Ohio, Sfaff Sergeanf,
Crane Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SARETSKY, THEODORE T.-6l5 Fiffh Sf., Alpena, Mich., Technician Fourfh
Grade, Alpena Business College, lnfanfry.
SCHEE, ERIC-Wesfby, Wis., Corporal, Universify of Wisconsin, Ordnance
Deparfmenf, Thefa Kappa Nu.
SCHWARTZ, EDWARD R.e730 Park Ave., New York Cify, Privafe, Uni-
xgirsify of Pennsylvania, Sales Execufive, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Pi Lambda
SCOTT, LYLE B.-lb? Florence Sf., Sunnyvale, Calif., Sfaff Sergeanf, San
Jose Sfafe College, Bank Clerk, lnfanfry, Kappa Alpha Pi.
TIPTON, PIERCE D.-3095 Summer Ave., Memphis, Tenn., Sergeanf,
Wesf Tennessee Sfafe Teachers College, Armored Force.
WILSON, MARK L.-IO00 Ave. "C," Denfon, Tex,, Corporal, Universify of
ZIMMER, EDWARD A.-624 Penn Sl., Jeffersonville, Ind., Privafe, Ord-
KROMM, FRED-2555 30fh Ave., San Francisco, Calif., Warranl' Officer,
Mill Worker, Field Arfillery Corps.
4 LOGEROUIST, MARVIN E.-Bark River, Mich., Corporal, Norfhern Mich-
igan College of Educalion, Insfrucfor, Infanfry, Alpha Delfa.
MELLNER, SAMUEL C.--233 N. 8lh Sf., Allenfown, Pa., Corporal, Muhl-
enberg College, lnspecfor of Ordnance Maferiel, Army Air Forces.
MYERS, DWIGHT G.-Polk, Neb., Technician 5fh Grade, Fur Rancher.
SCHERBA, HARRY-l995 Vega Ave., Cleveland, Ohio, Sergeanf, Cold-
header, Armored Force.
SEAGRAVE, DANIEL W.-42I W. Roy Sf. Seaffle, Washx Corporal'
Washingfon and Jefferson College, Sfudenf Apprenfice, Engineering Dei
parfrnenf, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Phi Kappa Sigma.
SHEA, EDWARD J.-3058 Ashland Ave., Delroil, Mich., Corporal, Wayne
Universify, Lawrence Insfifufe of Technology, Indusfrial Safefy and Hygiene
Engineer, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Shahs Frafernify.
SMITH, PETER A., JR.-66 Sfanley Rd., Soufh Orange, N. J., Corporal, Pro-
ducfion Mgr., Newspaper Publisher, Infanfry,
SPRINGER, HOWARD W.-60-42 Boofh Sf., Elmhursf, Long Island, N. Y.,
Technician Fiffh Grade, New York Universily, Cerfified Public Accounfanf,
STANCKIEWITZ, WALTER P.-Roufe I, Box 384, Dover, N. J., Firsf Ser-
geanf, Munifions Worker, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
STEVENS, WILLIAM H.-3l E. I2l'h Sf., New York Cily, Sergeanf, Ford-
ham, Oil Business, Ordnance Deparfrnenf.
STEWART, ROY M.-8873 Buhl Sf., Defroif, Mich., Privafe, Brickmason,
Ouarlermasfer Corps, Free and Accepfed Masons.
STOCK, MELVIN S.-605 Redknap Sl. N. S., Piffsburgh, Pa., Masfer Ser-
geanf, Machine Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SUBJACK, LOUIS W.--435 John Sf., Soufh Amboy, N. J., Corporal,
Middlesex Counfy Vocafional School, Die Maker, Coasf Arfillery Corps.
SUMPTER, CURTIS A.-Floyd, Va., Sfaff Sernaeanf, Roanoke College,
Hercules Powder Co., Army Air Forces, Kappa Alp a.
SWEARINGEN, JAY E.-3l2 Reserve Ave., Sfeubenville, Ohio, Technician
Fiflh Grade, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Sheef and Tin Plale Sales Division,
Vgeigsn Sfeel Co., Ordnance Deparfmenf, Benevolenf and Profecfive Order
TAYLOR, FREDERICK C.-IOI9 Ridge Rd., N.W., Canfon, Ohio, Cor-
pgoral, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Confracfor, Corps of Engineers, Sigma Phi
TAYLOR, MORTON R.-I579 E. 3Isf Sf., Brooklyn, N. Y., Corporal, Uni-
versify of Norfh Carolina, Accounfanf, Ouarferrnasfer Corps.
TEMM, ROBERT W.-54 Aberdeen Pl., Claylon, Mo., Privafe, Sf. Louis
Universify, Audifor, Army Air Forces.
THOMPSON, JUEL R.-I09 Minfern Sf., Riverside, Calif., Privale, Clofhf
ing Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Free and Accepled Masons.
TREMOULIS, LOUIS-5ll Hanover Sf., Marfins Ferry, Ohio, Technician
Fiffh Grade, Ohio Sfafe Universify, Examiner of Building and Loan Asso-
ciafions, Finance Deparlmenl.
VAN HAUSEN, WILLIS H.-5l6 Borland Sf., Piffsburgh, Pa., Technician
Fiffh Grade, Aufomobile Parfs and Service, Armored Force.
VAVRO, FRANK P.-90-4I Helen Sf., Defroif, Mich., Technician Fourfh
Grade, Building School of Trades, Elecfrician, Ordnance Deparlmenf.
.VOLKMAN, RAYMOND S.-3200 Granfley Rd., Balfimore, Md., Techni-
cian Fourfh Grade, George Washington Universify, Johns Hopkins Univer-
sify, Law and Real Esfafe Firm, lnfanfry, Kappa Alpha.
WAILES, JOHN R.-IIO Sl. Albans Way, Balfimore, Md., Technician
Effh Grade, Universify of Maryland, Mgr. of Coal Yard, Quarfermasfer
WALTON, CORWIN T.-6808 Hough Sf., Los Angeles, Calif., Warranf
Officer li.g.l, Aufomofive Engineer, Medical Deparfmenf.
WATSON, WILLIAM E.-2585 Melrose Ave., Norwood, Ohio, Sergeanf,
Inspecfor, Machine Shop, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
WEFLEN, JOHN E.-60l "V" Sf., N. E. Minneapolis, Minn., Technician
Fourfh Grade, Universify of Minnesofa, Bank Burglar Alarm Technician,
WEHRS, DONALD E.-33I N. Elmwood Ave., Oak Park, Ill., Corporal,
Valparaiso Universify, Buyer, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
WEIANT, HENRY C.-358 Hanover Ave., Allenfown, Pa., Sergeanf, De-
fail Draffsman, Armored Force.
WHEELER, ALBERT E.-Washinglon Sf., Norfh Chelmsford, Mass., Sfaff
Sergeanf, Nafional Diesel School, Diesel Engineer, Army Air Forces.
WHEELER, DONALD W.-3426 Sfevens Ave., Minneapolis, Minn., Tech-
nician Fiffh Grade, Universify of Minnesofa, lnspecfor of Ordnance Ma-
feriel, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Minnesofa Commons Club.
WILLIAMS, ELGIN W.-983 Ocean Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., Sergeanf,
Wesleyan Universify, lnvesfigafor, Armored Force.
WISZCHOLEK, FRANK A.-I7I9 W. I8fh Sf., Chicago, III., Warranf
Officer, Crane College, Shoofing Gallery Operafor, Ordnance Deparlmenf.
WITMAN, GEORGE F.-345 Buffon Sf., S,E., Grand Rapids, Mich., Pri-
vafe Firsf Class, Bufler Universify, Army Technical School, Manager
Trainee, Sears, Roebuck and Co., Army Air Forces, Lambda Chi Alpha.
WITTEN, JOHN D.-420 E. McNair Sf., Versailles, Mo., Corporal, Execu-
five Secrefary fo Secrelary of Sfafe, Missouri, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
WORKMAN, CLIFTON D.-908 Joplin Sf., Galena, Kan., Technician Third
Grade, Refail Aufomobile Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
WORLEY, OWEN R.-Goshen Springs, Miss., Corporal, Mississippi Slafe
College, Medical Deparfmenf, Sigma Phi Epsilon.
WYBLE, VERN O.-206 N. Gorham Sf., Jackson, Mich., Sfaff Sergeanf,
Jackson Junior College, Railroad Trainman, Transporfafion Corps.
ZEFF, ALBERT-3601 Federal Sf., Camden, N. J., Sergeanf, Pennsylvania
Sfafe College of Opfomefry, Opfomefrisf, Medical Deparfmenf, Gamma
AIMONE, WILLIAM F.-130 Cedar Ave., Hawfhorne, N. J., Technical
Sjrgeanf, College of Paferson, Insurance Underwriter, Defacned tnnsred
ANDERSON, JOHN R.-3525 Fleming Ave., N.S., Piffsburgh, Pa., Cor-
poral, lowa Wesleyan College, Salesman, McQuay Norris Manufacfuring Co.,
lnfanfry, Sigma Phi Epsilon.
APPLEGATE, CLARE E.-476 Rembrandf Sf., Mansfield, Ohio, Privafe,
Ohio Sfafe Universify, Mechanical Engineer, Army Air Forces.
BALERVIEZ, MICHAEL P.-I6 Coffage Sf., Exefer, N. H., Sergeanf, Shoe
Manufacfuring, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
BARAN, STANLEY-7606 W. 64fh Sf., Argo, III., Sergeanfg Argo Com-
munify Trade School, Foreman, C. P. R. Co., Aviafion Ordnance.
BASSETT, JOHN A.-6246 Kenmore Ave., Chicago, Ill., Corporal, Yale
Universify, Adverfising Accounf Execufive, Army Air Forces, Sf. Elmo Club.
BENNETT, HERBERT H.-728 N. 4fh Axe., Knoxville, Tenn., Privafe Firsf
Class, Universify of Tennessee, Mgr., The Carolina Inn, Army Air Forces,
Tau Kappa Omicron, Hi-Y Club.
FITZPATRICK, JAMES O.-276 Adams Sf., Oakland, Calif., Corporal,
Wafford College, Bookkeeper, Coasf Arfillery Corps, Anfiaircraff.
FJELLAND, RICHARD A.-Hofel Packard, Pendlefon, Ore., Corporal,
Mgr. of Firesfone Sfore, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
FLETCHER, MARVIN H.-Sumner, Miss., Sergeanf, Norfhwesf Junior Col-
lege, Sfudenf, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
FRENCH, WELLINGTON A.-Church Sf., Sfockbridge, Mass., Corporal,
Clark Universify, Chain Sfore Merchandising, Signal Corps.
GAFFNEY, ROBERT W.-905 Merfon Rd., Defroif, Mich., Technician Fourfh
Grade, Wayne Universify, Tool and Die lnspecfor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
GALBREATH, CARROLL V.-I400 W. Nevada PI., Denver, Colo., Cor-
poral, Universify of Denver, Public School Teacher, Defached Enlisfed
Men's Lisf, Phi Della Kappa, Schoolmasler's Guild.
GELSINGER, DONALD I.-Edgewood, Ill., Technician Third Grade,
David Ranken Junior School of Mechanical Trades, Welder, Ordnance De-
GERDS, LESTER C.-Roufe I, Farmingfon, Mich., Sergeanf, Coach Op-
erafor, Deparfmenf of Sfreef Railway, Medical Deparfmenf.
GILBERT, RICHARD J.-Middlefon, Wis., Technician Fourfh Grade,
Bookkeeper and Wafchmaker, Ordnance Deparfmenf, Wisconsin Wafch-
MCGEE, ROBERT F.---IIO4 Prendergasf Ave., Jamesfown, N. Y., Corporal,
Sfaunfon Milifary Academy, Furnifure Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf,
McGRATH, WILLIAM T.--37 Blossom Sf. Rockland, Mass., 466 Washing-
fon Sf., Brighfon, Mass., Privafe, Benfley School of Accounfs and Finance,
Bosfon Universify, Infernal Revenue Agenf, U. S. Treasury Deparfmenf,
McKELVEY, STUART C.-3736 Verne Sf., Fresno, Calif., Technical Ser-
geanf, Fresno Sfafe College, Area Engineer, Sfandard Oil Co., Ordnance,
Army Air Forces.
MCNAMEE, WILLIAM A.-3626 Keswick Rd., Balfimore, Md., Technical
Sergeanf, Sfeam Engineer, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
MILSTEAD, HANEY D.-I224 Park Ave., Nebraska Cify, Neb., Technician
Fourlh Grade, Pennsylvania Sfafe Teachers College, Pefroleum Operafor,
Medical Deparfmenf, Befa Befa Befa, Philomafhean.
MOONEY, HAROLD T.-236 Lincoln Way E., Chambersburg, Pa., Ship-
pensburg Sfafe Teacher's College, Invesfigafor, Refail Credif Co., De-
fached Enlisfed Men's Lisf.
SEELEY, ROBERT C.-50 Hawfhorne Sf., Harfford, Conn., Corporal, Colf's
Pafenf Firearms Manufacfuring Co., Army Air Forces.
SELFRIDGE, ROBIN N.-Seagraves, Tex., Corporal, Oklahoma Agricul-
'rural and Mechanical College, Pefroleum Producfion, Ordnance Deparf-
SHARITTS, WALTER A., JR.-503 Buckeye Sf., Miamisburg, Ohio, Ser-
geanf, Engineering Specificafion Clerk, Armored Force.
SHORE, WILLIAM F.-9238 California Ave., Soufh Gafe, Calif., Corporal,
Producfion Planner, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SIMKINS, MELVIN L.-Box 65, Corsica, Pa., Technician Fourfh Grade,
Juniafa College, Accounfanf, Finance Deparfmenf.
SMITH, MANNING C., JR.-lI48-B, Honolulu, T. H., Technical Sergeanf,
Salesman, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SMITH, ROBERT H.-277 W. Fourfh Sl., Mansfield, Ohio, Privafe, Ord-
nance lnspecfor, Wesfinghouse Elecfric, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SMITH, SIDNEY F.-928 Broderick Sf., San Francisco, Calif., Sfaff Ser-
geanf, Clofhing Salesman, Aviafion Ordnance.
SNYDER, MARTIN-6523 N. l7fh Sf., Philadelphia, Pa., Technical Third
Grade, Towne Scienfific School, Universify of Pennsylvania, Machine Tool
Operafor, Ordnance Deparfmenf.
SOLOMON, BERNARD-BI 4fh Sf., New Dorp, Sfafen Island, N. Y., Cor-
poral, College of fhe Cify of New York, Social Invesfigafor, Ordnance
SPEER, RALPH C.-Monficello, Ark., Sfaff Sergeanf, Sparfan School of
Aeronaufics, Salesman, Army Air Forces.
SPENCER, WALTER R.-8 Monroe Sf., Binghamfon, N. Y., Sfaff Sergeanl,
Draffsman, Field Arfillery Corps.
VELEY, JACK W.-476 N. 3rd Sf., San Jose, Calif., Privafe, San Fran-
cisco Archifecfural College, Conslrucfion. Superinfendenf, Ordnance De-
parfmenf, Free and Accepfed Masons, Phi Sigma Zefa.
lilllilll lil l ll llll SEL
lf is wifh greaf pleasure fhaf I falce fhis oppor-
funify fo congrafulafe you on fhe successful com-
plefion of your fraining af fhe Officer Candidafe
School. You who now wear fhe bars of a Second
Lieufenanf for fhe firsf fime may view your ac-
complishmenfs of fhe pasf fhree monfhs wifh
Buf you have iusf embarked on your four of
dufy as an Officer. Before you lie fhe complex
problems which will fax your resourcefulness, your
ingenuify, your abilify, and your sfamina. The
preparafion which you have iusf undergone is
merely fhe basis upon which you will develop
your usefulness: fo solve fhe sifuafions which you
musf face in fhe fufure demands fhaf you malce
unceasing efforfs fo furfher prepare yourselves.
The responsibilifies which have been placed upon
you, and which you accepfed when you fook fhe
oafh of office, are many and greaf. The perilous
fimes fhrough which our counfry is now passing
require fhaf each of you work foward fhe final
fulfillmenf of fhese responsibilifies, so fhaf +he
opporfunifies which have been ours fhroughouf
our lives may confinue fo besfow fheir benefifs
upon fhose who follow us. You have enfered fhe
service of your counfry when if needed you: fhaf
is as if should be. You falce upon yourselves fhe
fask of securing fhe liberfies and freedoms which
we have inherifed: fhaf is as if musf be. All
your efforfs musf be guided foward fhis one ob-
iecfive, fhe affainmenf of which will bring fhe
safisfacfion fhaf comes wifh a job well done.
CZCWLJ arria, r.
Commanding Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
if if if
Three monfhs of infensive fraining have been
complefed, and you are fo be commended for
fheir successful complefion. If gives me greaf
pleasure fo congrafulafe you on your newly-
earned commissions as Second Lieufenanfs in
fhe Army of fhe Unifed Sfafes.
The fraining you have received, loofh as an
enlisfed man and as an officer candidafe, will
prove invaluable as a basis for solving fhe com-
plex problems which lie ahead. This preparafion
musf be augmenfed by your own resourcefulness
and ingenuify, for you have been chosen as
leaders and have accepfed fhe responsiloilifies
which have been placed upon you. Many and
greaf will be fhese responsibilifies. Whefher your
assignmenf be af home or abroad, each is equally
imporfanf. ln whichever field you serve you are
well qualified fo properly fulfill fhe responsibilifies
you have assumed.
Having enfered fhe Ordnance Officer Candi-
dafe School fo learn, if is now your privilege fo
go forfh fo serve. l exfend my congrafulafions
and bid you "God Speed."
90471, ingd eg
Commandanf fhe Ordnance School.
DEAR MOM STUDY TIME POLICING THE BARRACKS
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General Campbell was born in Washington, D. C., on November 23,
l886. He was graduated from the United States Naval Academy on
June 7, l909. On December 2, l9lI, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant,
Coast Artillery Corps.
General Campbell was promoted to First Lieutenant on July l, l9I6g to
Captain on M-ay IS, l9l7, to Maior ltemporaryl on May ll, l9l8g to
Lieutenant Colonel itemporaryt on October I0, I9l8. He reverted to his
regular rank of Captain on March l5, l920, and was promoted to Maior
on July I, I92Og to Lieutenant Colonel on August I, I935g to Brigadier
General ltemporaryt on October I, I940g to Maior General ltemporaryl
on April I, I942, and to Maior General ipermanentl on June I, l942.
General Campbell first served at Fort Monroe, Virginia, followed by duty
at Fort Williams, Maine, until the autumn of l9l5, when he was ordered
to the Panama Canal for duty with Coast Artillery troops. He returned
to the United States in April, I9l8, and was ordered to duty in the
Office of the Chief of Ordnance, in Washington, D. C. In September, l920,
he was'ordered to Stockton, California, for a study of artillery material
production at the Holt Manufacturing Plant. He remained at Stockton until
the summer of I92I, when he was transferred to the Ordnance Department
and served to September, l923, at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland,
as a proof officer in charge of tanks, tractors, self-propelling mounts and
mobile artillery. He then became Officer in Charge of the Design Section
at the Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois.
In April, l926, General Campbell was ordered to Washington D. C., to
take charge of the Automotive Section, Artillery Division, Office of the
Chief of Ordnance, remaining on this duty until June I930, when he
returned to Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, as Officer in Charge of Manu-
facture. He served to June, l935, when he was ordered to Frankford
Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he had charge of the Artillery
Ammunition Department until the summer of l940. He was then ordered
to Washington, D. C., for duty in the Office of the Chief of Ordnance,
as Assistant Chief of Industrial Service Facilities. On October I, l940, he
was placed in charge of Development of Facilities, Office of the Chief
of Ordnance, Washington, D. C.
General Campbell became Chief of Ordnance on June I, l942, for a four-
year term, with headquarters in Washington, D. C.
HARRY R. KUTZ
STUHY UF BEHDEE
Aberdeen Proving Ground is a huge combinaTion oT display room and experimenTal and research laboraTories,
manned by highly Trained scienTisTs and engineers, skilled mechanics and machinisTs To whose ears The roar oT cannon
and blasT oT bomb are commonplace, and The sharp bark oT smaller arms is no more Than The noise oT TraTTic. IT
is The duTy oT These Technical men To know exacTly whaT can be expecTed oT every Type oT Ordnance maTeriel and
ammuniTion used in The various branches oT The UniTed STaTes Army.
MainTained by The Ordnance DeparTmenT, The very siTuaTion and Terrain OT The Proving Ground lend Themselves
To The work. NaTure endowed The 67,700 acres wiTh everyThing needed buT a hill, and The DeparTmenT soon Took
care oT ThaT by building iTs own. The Proving Ground is locaTed along The wesTern shore OT The upper arm OT The
Chesapeake Bay, a wisely chosen siTe, Tor iT provides a waTer surTace Tor approximaTely TiTTy per cenT oT The vasT
The esTablishmenT came inTo being in l9I7, when The limiTed scope OT The old proving ground aT Sandy Hook,
New York, handicapped The TesTing oT maTeriel and ammuniTion during World War l. Congress approved The pur-
chase oT land in OcTober, l9I7, and wiThin a Tew days The necessary survey was sTarTed. ln all 53,500,000 were
spenT in acquiring The PosT, which included a Three-mile righT-OT-way Tor a GovernmenT railroad and highway To
connecT wiTh The Pennsylvania Railroad aT Aberdeen, The Town Trom which The proving ground Took iTs name.
When The TirsT TesT shoT was Tired on The new reservaTion, New Year's Day, l9I8, There were buT Three dozen
oTTicers sTaTioned There. April, l9l8, Tound l2O oTTicers on The posT, and aT The close oT World War l The work had
proved so valuable ThaT The miliTary complemenT was greaTly enlarged and There were abouT 900 civilian workers, ex-
clusive oT conTracTors' employes on The reservaTion.
Since The TerminaTion oT The TirsT World War, and especially during The pasT decade, The original Temporary build-
ings have Tallen beTore The march oT progress, and a modern and beauTiTul posT has arisen in Their sTead. In general
The recenT consTrucTion has been in Tield sTone oT disTincTive design, while The shop buildings and laboraTories are oT
sTeel and brick, and are equipped wiTh every conceivable Tool and machine To expediTe The work. Recognized Today
as one OT The greaTesT Ordnance PosTs in The world, The proving ground is also The home OT The Ordnance School,
The Ordnance ReplacemenT Training CenTer, and The Bomb Disposal School.
The primary TuncTion oT The proving ground is The TesTing oT Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion. ConsequenTly,
The requiremenTs Tor This work were given The TirsT consideraTion in deTermining The size oT The reservaTion, selecTing
iTs siTe, and providing iTs TaciliTies. The basic duTy on The posT is To make developmenT, accepTance, surveillance,
and experimenTal TesTs. These Tour general headings break down inTo The Tollowing specialized groupspsmall arms,
arTillery, bomb, and auTomoTive.
Realizing ThaT improvemenTs in Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion are To a large exTenT made possible by The
resulT oT research, The Ordnance DeparTmenT supporTs a greaT amounT oT such work aT The Proving Ground. A sTaTT
oT highly Trained engineers and scienTisTs is mainTained on The PosT, lT is Their duTy To creaTe new Tools and machinery
needed To expediTe The producTion oT arms, To Tind Tlaws in weapons and ammuniTion and To correcT iT, as well as
To be versed in all phases oT baIlisTics.
When Ordnance maTeriel and ammuniTion has compleTed The TesTs aT Aberdeen Proving Ground and is
accepTed Tor use by The Army, ThaT maTeriel and ammuniTion is righT. The proving ground personnel may never
meeT The enemy, buT when peace comes again They will have done more Than Their share in keeping him Trom
American shores. Theirs is The diTTiculT, unsung iob oT experimenT and research: Theirs is The baTTle oT paTience and
oT Trial and error. Wherever American arms are Tound on The world's Tar-Tlung baTTleTields, The men oT Aberdeen
Proving Ground saw and Tried Those arms TirsT. They know They are The TinesT weapons on earTh and ThaT They are
worThy oT The men who use Them.
CHARLES T. HARRIS S. KELLOG PLUME
Maior General Lieufenanf Colonel
Executive Officer Posl' Headquarters Staff
RICHARD J. DILLON CLARENCE C. HARVEY
Lieutenani Colonel Coloncl
Provost Marxhlll Fox! Surgeon
JOHN D. BILLINGSLEY
EDGAR H. KIBLER, JR. OREN E. HURLBUT
Lieulenanf Colonel Lieufenanl Colonel
Director of Training Execuiive Officer
Officer and Officer Candidafe Division
PAUL J, PHILLIPS WILLIAM L. BOLAND ALBERT O. BOSSON WILLIAM R, McWlLLIAMS
Lieutenant Colonel Maior First Lieutenant First Lieutenant
Director of Training Methods Director, Personnel Branch Personnel Of-ficer Mess Officer
WILLIAM C. MINSHAW WILLIAM C. LEAVENWORTH KEITH T. O'KEEFE FRANKLIN G. GOUDY
Maior Maior Maior Captain
Director of Technical Training Director of Academic Training Director of Base Shop Division Assistant Director of Training
Department Department Officer and Officer Candidate
ROLF O. WULFSBERG JOHN C. NELSON CLARENCE F. ENDSLEY E. DALE ADKINS, JR.
Maior Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant
Director of Military Training Director of Officer Candidate Chief of Military Section Assistant Director Officer Candidate
L' nik, 'K K K K
. , 2 i X
GREGORY C. LEE JASON L, CAMPBELL RALPH J. RUSSO
Captain Captain Captain
Chief of Ordnance Service Section Chief of Administration Section Chief of Ammunition Section
RILEY M. SHARP RAYMOND L. JOHNSON RICHARD N. ROLLASON JOHN A, PAWLOWSKI
First Lieutenant Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant
Military Law Section Director of Fire Control Section Chief of Machine Shop Section Chief of Welding Section
OSCAR A. RAMNES ALBERT L. HETTRICK LEROY ASKREN GLENN H, STALEY
Captain Captain First Lieutenant First Lieutenant
Chief of Artillery Section Chief of Automotive Section Chief of Small Arms Section Chief ot Aviation Ordnance Section
Dec. Xb, NOX: Study or Ordnance Xnsrruchon begun.
Feb. '28, X9O'2z Caprarn Dunn suxomrrs reporrs and recommendahons. Ordnance SchooX oi Pxp-
phcahon esraxohshed soon rhereahrer ar Sandy Hook Vroxfrnq Ground, New Jersey.
H2051 Programs or prachcaX shop work esjrabhshed ar prKncrpaX manugackurrnq, arsenaXs.
N061 Ordnance SchooX 0? TechnoXoqy esrabhshed air Wakerrown Pxrsenah Massachuserfrs.
X9Xb: hAachKne Gun SchooX opened ak SprKnqheXd Pxrmory, Massachusekrs.
Summer, XCIX7: Ordnance SchooX or Pxpphcahon ar Sandy Hook Provknq Ground, New Jersey.
' and Ordnance SchooX or TechnoXoqy, ar Warerrown Pxrsenak Massachuseirs, dKscon'rKnued.
Sepk. XCIVI: Ordnance Xnsrruchon 'rn manu'rac'rur'rnq pXan'rs approved by Secrerary off War.
Rock Xdand PxrsenaX SchooX for Oihcers and Yznhskred men opened.
Oc'r., WW: Kenosha, NNKs.,'Branch opened ar Nash Morors Company, for oihcers.
Ock. '23, WW: ?eor'ra, hhnors, Branch or Ordnance Xnskruchon SchooXs dedrqnared as Headquar-
rers for O-rdnance,Mo'ror Xnsrruchon SchooXs, for oihcers and enhsfred men, and dasses open
ar khe Hoh'hAanuracrur'rnq Company.
Ocr. 30, XQVI: FAN. D. Branch or Ordnance Xnsrrucfron SchooXs opened ar rhe Four NNheeX
Drrye Company, Chnronvrhe, NNKS., vfrkh 'rnsfrruchon for ofhcers.
'Y Dec. XC2.X'l: Enhsred s'ruden'rs en'rer F. NN. D. Branch ak Chnronyrhe.
Dec. V2, WW: Enhsred sjrudenrs enrer Kenosha Branch.
VNS: Ordnance Xnsrrumenk Reparr SchooX opened ar Frankiord Pxrsenak Vennsyhlanka.
Pxpr'rX '23, XQXB: Machrne Gun SchooX moved from Spr'rnqheXd Pxrmory, Massachuserrs, 'ro Camp
' June, VNS: Specfrahsrs SchooX for mo'ror 'rnsrruchon opened ai Camp Jackson, Soukh Carohna.
duXy, XQXB: Moror, Pxrhhery and Machkne Gun SchooXs consohdared ar Rar'r'ran Pxrsenak New der
sey, and cahed Ordnance hAa'rn'renance and Reparr Schook
Sepr., VNS: EXecrr'rc NNeXd'rnq SchooX ar XfxncoXn Hecfrrkc Company, CXeyeXand, Oh'ro, opened
lVov. 11, 1918: Armisfice Day, Personnel af Ordnance Schools numbered 458 ofhcers and S86
enhsfed men. Schools ohsconfinued shorfly affer Worlo' War l
ov. 23, 1918: Elecfrie Welohng School closed
Nov 2Z 1918: Ordnance lnsfrumenf Peparr School closed
1 91 9: Plans considered for consohdahen of all Ordnance fralnfng acfivifies af Aberdeen Prov-
ing Ground Maryland
Ordnance Operafibns, Marnfenance and Repair School esfabhlshed af Parifan Arsenal New
Sepf., 1919: Ordnance School of Technology reesfabhshed af Waferfown Arsenal Massachuseffs.
Ordnance School ofAppl1caf1en reesfabllshed af Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland
1921: Ordnance School of Apphcafion fransferred fo Waferfown Arsenal and consohdafed
wifh Ordnance School of Technology fhere. Consohdaffen lnown as fhe Ordnance School
Arrangemenfs made wifh Massachuseffs lnsfifufe of Technology Cambridge, Massachuseffs,
fo give cerfain former School of Apphcafion Courses.
Sepf. 1, 1921: Ordnance Operafrons, Malnfenance and Repair School changed fo Ordnance Spe-
clahsfs' School '
1931: Ordnance Specfahsls' School changed fo Ordnance Held Service School
1932: loleadquarfers of Ordnance School moved fo Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland
from Waferfown Arsenal wilh cerfarn courses, howeven remaining af Massachuseffs lnsfil
fufe of Technology under supervision of fhe Cofnmanohng Ofhber of Waferfown Arsenal
Dec. 11, 1936: Aofufanf General approved plans for consohdaffen of Ordnance School and Ord-
nance Held Service School af Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland
June 1, 1940: Ordnance School and Ordnance Held Service School consohdafed af Aberdeen
rroymg Ground Maryland lfnown as The Ordnance School
Jan. 1, 1941: Ordnance Training Cenfer acfivafed consishng of fhe Ordnance School Ordnance
Peplacemenf Training Cenfen and Ordnance Unif Training Cenfer.
July 16, 1942: Ordnance Training Cenfer made fnscffve and fhe Ordnance School made a sepae
rafe echelon under fhe Mlhfary Training Division of fhe Ordnance Deparfmenl.
The grOwTh OT The Ordnance School aT Aberdeen Prov-
ing Ground, Maryland, during recenT mOnThs has been
a process which was wholly unpredicTabIe a Tew years
ago. So swiTTly has The school expanded ThaT iTs Organ-
izaTiOn baTTles sTrangers, buT in reaIiTy The size and scope
is a simple Thing. The developmenT OT The school has
been logical and On a planned basis, moving surely and
cOnTidenTly againsT many obsTacles TO perTorm The Task
OT Training men TO lqeep The vasT quanTiTy OT presenT-day
Ordnance equiprnenT OT The UniTed STaTes Army in oper-
The Ordnance School, as iT is designaTed Today, came
inTo OTTiciaI exisTence On July I, I94-O, when iT was de-
cided TO merge The OTTicers' School aT Aberdeen Prov-
ing Ground and The Ordnance Field Service School OT
RariTan Arsenal, MeTuchen, New Jersey, on a single PosT.
AcTually The process Toolc over a monTh, despiTe The TacT
ThaT The mOvemenT OT men and equipmenT Trom RariTan
Arsenal was compleTed by July I5.
The school was in OperaTiOn long beTOre The housing
TaciIiTies Tor iT were compleTed. Many hardships were
endured by The TirsT sTaTT OT The school, buT They weaTh-
ered Through: The while sTarTing a new course Tor non-
commissioned oTTicers wiTh almosT 200 in aTTendance:
This in addiTiOn To specialisT courses in MainTenance.
DepOT and Supply, and AmmuniTion.
The oTTicer courses conTinued in Their Tormer TaciliTies
aT The Proving Ground. On AugusT I The TirsT OT The new
buildings were ready TO be occupied, alThough all doors
and windows had noT yeT been puT in place.
The pioneering OT The school required much iniTiaTive
Tor adequaTe insTrucTional equipmenT was lacking. There
were no TexTs or Training aids such as charTs and film
slides. And This was aT The Time when The Tield needed
The equipmenT under manuTacTure by The Tew Tirms en-
gaged in building Ordnance maTeriel, and The Tield uniTs
had The highesT prioriTy.
Some OT The insTrucTion had To be given On equipmenT
which required insTrucTors wiTh wide experience. This
was especially True in The Fire COnTrOl SecTiOn, and The
Tew Trained men in The counTry capable OT insTrucTing
This subiecT were cIassiTied as lcey employes in indusTry.
There were no TexTs available Tor insTrucTors TO use as
guides, buT The sTaTT worlced On, modiTying courses, rem-
edying errors, and pulling weeds in procedure and course
rnaTeriaI. lnsTrucTOrs OTTen wroTe Their own TexTs and.
aTTer much waiTing, The TirsT OT The new equipmenT began
On January I, I94I, Ordnance School Special Order
NO. I IisTed apprOximaTely 30 oTTicers and Their assign-
menTs TO duTies, wiTh LieuTenanT Colonel George W.
SIIIIII III THE
Oufland as COmmandanT. On The same day The Ord-
nance Training C.Ommand came inTo exisTence. The
Ordnance School was one OT The Three sub-headquarTers
OT This Training cenTer. The oTher Two were The Ordnance
UniT Training CenTer and The Ordnance ReplacemenT
Training CenTer. A number OT valuable oTTicers and
enIisTed men were relieved Trom assignmenT TO The Ord-
nance' School On +ha+ daTe and were assigned Tor duTy
in These oTher new headquarTers.
The Tollowing Tew mOnThs were criTical Ones Tor The
school. EvenTs overseas were causing apprehension
ThrOughouT The UniTed STaTes, SeIecTive Service had been
inauguraTed, and The Ordnance School was sure To ex-
pand, Tor modern warTare employs much mechanized
equipmenT, which in Turn requires many repairmen. WiTh
so many imporTanT phases OT Ordnance TO be TaughT,
There was some guesTion as To which branch or branches
OT The school should develop TirsT. The COmmandanT,
his sTaTT, and Their advisors moved wisely. They buiIT The
headquarTers organizaTiOn soundly, so ThaT no maTTer
which branch mighT grow The TasTesT The headquarTers
would be large and sTrong enough To balance The sTruc-
The process OT pruning ouT dead wood was also em-
ployed. Any misTiTs Or unquaIiTied personnel were TacTTulIy
eliminaTed, and Their places were Taken by careTuIIy
chosen men. The sTaTT used all available sources OT
oTTicer maTeriel, OTTicers OT The Regular Army headed
The OrganizaTiOn, giving Their Tull experience To The school.
Many oTTicers were commissioned Trom The ranks, men
who were experT Technicians in Their lines. Many OT
These laTer became secTion heads. Reserve oTTicers wiTh
varied Technical and adminisTraTive Training and experi-
ence ObTained in indusTry were anOTher supply. These
men Toolc adminisTraTive pOsTs, became insTrucTors and
company commanders-The maiOriTy OT Them learning
Their iob as They perTOrmed iT-buT all OT Them learning
rapidly and working well.
February, I94I, saw The esTabIishmen+ OT The FirsT Pro-
visional Ordnance Training Company in which all enlisfed
sTudenTs were housed. Two general messes Tor The Teed-
ing OT enlisTed sTaTT and enlisTed sTudenTs were acTivaTed.
In March, The enlisTed adminisTraTive Overhead and Train-
ing personnel reached a sTrengTh OT beTween Three and
Tour hundred. OTTicer sTudenTs numbered abouT one hun-
dred and enIisTed sTudenTs Two hundred.
Five specialisT courses Tor oTTicers were sTarTed. They
were: AuTOmoTive and AmmuniTiOn, ArTillery and DepOT
and Supply, DepoT and Supply and Small Arms, and an
ArTilIery course Tor Marine Corps personnel. The en-
IisTed division was busy Training cadre Tor new uniTs TO
be acTivaTed in The Ordnance UniT Training CenTer and
llllli ll SIIHIIIIL
The Ordnance Replacemenf Training Cenfer. Before The
end of May, four more provisional companies were acTi-
vaTed aT The school for The housing of enlisTed sTudenT
On July 8 an evenT occurred which marked The begin-
ning of a new branch of The school, a branch desfined To
aTTain a size greafer Than any oTher. This was The sTarT
of insTrucTion of The firsT class of Ordnance Officer
Candidafe STudenTs. The iniTial enrollmenf was only a
Tracfion of The class which now sTarTs weekly, buT, never-
The less, iT was imporTanT. On Ocfober 8, affer Three
monfhs of infensive Training and insTrucTion, approximaTely
Three-guarfers of The class successfully complefed The
course and were commissioned Second LieuTenanTs in The
Ordnance Deparfmenf. A number of These men were
assigned for duTy wiTh The School STaff and Faculfy.
AT The Turn of The year, January, I942, The school
balance sheeT boasTed almosT one hundred officers and
over five hundred enlisTed men assigned To The sTaff. The
officer sfudenf rosTer conTinued wiTh li++le change. buT
The enlisTed specialisf course enrollmenf had iumped To
well over a Thousand men under insTrucTion. AT This Time
There were four officer courses and TwenTy enlisTed
specialisf courses. The school conTinued wiTh iTs many
Tasks, perfecfing and revising courses, adding new ma-
Terial and discarding old, and The Training of insTrucTor
personnel for any immediafe fuTure expansion.
Many addifional duTies rnusT be performed in order
To allow an organizafion such as The Ordnance School To
make full use of iTs insTrucTion Time. Every hour ThaT a
sTud-'enT spends aT The school is considered valuable.
Therefore abouT all he does is aTTend classes or sTudy.
The housekeeping rnusT be performed by oThers. Kifchen
police dufy and company deTails are all performed by
men of The 4OTh Ordnance Company lTng.l or The Ord-
nance School Defachmenf.
lnsTrucTion is rapid and every device To speed iT up and
To make assimilaTion more swifT is employed. Training
aids and TexTs are developed and wriTTen aT The school.
These aids include charTs, diagrams, film slides, mofion
picTures, mock-ups, and models. The school has iTs own
phofographic secfion and a visual aid secfion. Much of
The work is performed by These agencies. Models and
mock-ups are builf by The insTrucTion secfion which is
going To use Them. Charfs and diagrams are produced
by The school draffing and arT secTions.
Preparafion of school TexTs is an imporTanT funcfion.
A sTudenT should have read his nexT day's assignmenf be-
fore reporfing To class in order To successfully use every
hour of insTrucTional class-Time. This necessiTaTes The use
of TexTs. Since much of The eguipmenf used in insTrucTion
is new, The regular War DeparTmenT TexTs have noT yeT
been published. Therefore The insTrucTion secTions fur-
nish The Technical facTs To The Publicafions Secfion of The
Ordnance School and This secfion ediTs, prinTs, binds and
disTribuTes The informafion. l.imiTed numbers of These
TexTs are also provided To Ordnance unifs in The field.
ln April, l942, The careful planning of The school paid
off in big dividends. l-leadguarfers in WashingTon cle-
creed ThaT The immediafe iob was To Train Thousands of
enlisTed men for commissions as officers. This was To
Take place wiThouT curfailing or inferfering wiTh insTruc-
Tion in oTher secTions of The school.
Since April l, Ten more officer Candidafe Companies
have been acTivaTed, bringing The ToTal To fourfeen.
There are seven general messes in exisfence. The school
sTaff now has an acTual sTrengTh of almosT five hundred
officers and nearly Two Thousand enlisTed men To care for
adminisTraTive, insTrucTional and housekeeping loads.
lnsTrucTors who had formerly been The only officers
Teaching a given subiecf suddenly found Themselves aT
The heads of secTions of a score or more officer insTruc-
Tors, all Teaching The same subiecf. Courses increased
so greafly ThaT To name Them would be cumbersome, and
names have been replaced wiTh numerical code designa-
Tions. AuTomoTive, once embodied in a single course.
has developed info Three courses, and is aT presenT broken
down inTo Twelve separafe enlisTed courses in addiTion
To officers and officer candidafe courses. lnsTrucTional
secTions, once housed in one small building, now occupies
several large ones.
All secTions of The Ordnance School are noT locafed aT
The Aberdeen Proving Ground. ln Ocfober, l94O, The
firsT branch school was formed aT Springfield, Massa-
chuseTTs, -for The Training of machinisfs. The presenT
number of enlisTed men undergoing insTrucTion aT This
branch is abouf one hundred. A second branch school
began in January, I942, aT Savanna, lllinois. Over six
hundred sTudenTs regularly receive insTrucTion in Depof
and Supply and AmmuniTion aT Savanna. Affiliafed
schools have been esfablished aT planfs of civilian con-
cerns who manufacfure Ordnance maferiel. Among Those
in exisfence aT presenT are schools locafed aT Lansing,
Michigan: Akron, Ohio: and DeTroiT, Michigan. The
concerns include: Firesfone Tire and Rubber Company,
General MoTors, and The Whife MoTors Company.
The Ordnance School is beginning To produce a rich
harvesf. Trained officers and enlisTed men are going
everywhere To perform innumerable Ordnance Tasks in
Thousands of places. Whaf The fuTure holds in sTore for
The school-no one knows, buT The sTaff is ready To cope
wiTh any siTuaTion, iusf as They have done in The pasT.
Ordnance men have To know every derail aboui
each Jrype oi gun Jrhar Jrhe Army uses. He rnusi
know how if is consfrucfeci, he musi know fhe
srresses and srrains +o which if is subiecrq he musf
know how +o repair if in Jrhe shop, how ro im-
. nfl' 2
,p,13Q,'LJ "" ' ' , ..
' 3:9-2 2 E i??a21a
5 'V W.,-
-W Je ez?" 1
Top: Repairs in +he field. Above: Anfiaircraff gun firing.
Antieircrafi gun check. Work on gun barrel.
provise repairs in The Tield, and he musT be
able To cornpleTe These repairs in record
Tirne. ln The ArTillery secTion oT The Proving
Ground The various Types used by our
Torces are TirsT TesTed and Tried under all
sorTs oT condiTions. IT is here ThaT our new
weapons are TirsT Tired, iT is here ThaT They
receive The exacTing and rigorous TesTs ThaT
will deTern'iine Their TiTness Tor accepTance
in acTion. ln addiTion To Tinding and
correcTing Tlaws in new Types oT guns The
Ordnance man musT learn Thoroughly The
operaTional principles oT each Type oT
piece. l-le musT be able To overhaul and
puT baclc inTo operaTion pieces ThaT have
been damaged, or which have worn ouT.
On These pages we see various phases oT
acTiviTy in This secTion, Trom Tiring The
rnighTy railway guns To repairing quiclcly
small deTecTs in anTiaircraTT guns.
To W "WW" W k
'Ad M -,,, A.,s MM., ,N
, , V' so Yeo gs,
. L., ' w:.::f4Ll' L . ,
. W. .w..,-""
Top Bg g re air. Above: Ready To mounf anfi-
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if Q' .,:
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s f fl g X
F6 z xx
ii N ,
ifii xg: 'TT ff
'-" 4 V, i i' if T V' T
E 'A i ' 3
: i un barrel in for p
Top. Anfiaircraff gun placemenf. Cenfer: Tesfing lighTer 'Field
pieces. Above: A big gun roars.
1 :T Q ff'
ok- rf' B ji
S' fa lh Q 4,
-, ..- -,
ffl N, .wr S
I 4 1
N. ,. ,R
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3' ' ..
555m K ' wif
9" ' VR' Wfxaff '51 "fVf 'L 'lffg gi i' T ?':i?:l?- 395 Vi?"
-141, ' gs? 'Q ff? f
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k l "' N
33 r fm
Q? Q 'U as' J-f. , n
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,141 E ' . 4 ik, 3
V, X 4 H A,
-, Lf' , uf frfwv 11 A -4' Y N- -' -
ggz- 2 ev fg,',y'gaF Q- .2 'Z 5
www A f Eff? ' ,
M- I S5?i2f? 'Q-,fi 'Egg' V N '
K 51' . V
N, ,, .
, u- V ,f
' gf :f 1 'i 8.5"
' ng ' f W
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A kf?"xS,?f'.'5 X
'V ' i
Y. - Ly. '
' f i
J S If s
1M.,,.f-W -M W sv! 55 X
e A . '
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Tracks ready for Tanks. General view aufomofive repair.
WiTh Uncle Sam's TighTing Torces consTanTly adding To Their
mechanized equipmenT in This war oT movemenT, The need has become
proporTionaTely greaTer Tor a Trained Torce oT men To keep These
indispensible weapons in perpeTual good order. The auTomoTive secTion
oT The Ordnance DeparTmenT has supplied These Technicians in adequaTe
numbers Trom iTs specially equipped Training shops picTured on This
Men Training Tor This work are Turnished The mosT up-ToAdaTe equip-
menT Tor The sTudy oT Tanks, auTomobiles, Trucks, and any rolling sTock
ThaT The armed Torces are puTTing in The Tield,
In addiTion To repair and mainTenance, Ordnance is responsible Tor
consTanT experimenTaTion in This Tield, including The TesTing oT newly-
g's 4 Ti
Work on Tank mofors.
f f av mo re
,I , z,f,,,
Wmf gi i '
iii . v
LECTURE ON BOMBS
.30 CAL. MACHINE GUN IN AIRCRAFT
.. M j
is as is
WiTh The increasing emphasis on aviaTion There has been an
increasing amounT oT aTTenTion devoTed by Ordnance men To
The problem oT aviaTion ordnance. This ranges Trom experis
menTs and TesTs conducTed on bombs oT all Types. To The
mounTing oT guns in combaT planes and The TesTing and devis-
ing oT newer guns Tor our TighTing aircraTT. Men in This secTion
learn how To repair guns in planes. how To mounT Them, and
how To load The "eggs" which are placed inside The gianT
bombers. They are also busy aT work devising new and un-
pleasanT surprises Tor The enemy in The way oT new and beTTer
aviaTion equipmenT. wheTher in The Torm of newer and more
deadly bombs or heavier and more devasTaTing aerial cannons
and machine guns.
Mounfing gun in wing. Arming a plane.
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FIRE CONTROL INSTRUMENT CLASS
The consTrucTion, repair and devising OT new and beTTer insTrumenTs To enable The
Army To have more eTTec:Tive conTrol over The Tire power oT iTs guns is The preoccupaTion OT This
secTion OT Qrdnance. I-lere men learn To operaTe, make, and repair precision Tire conTrol
insTrumenTs. They become Tamiliar wiTh all sorTs oT These insTrumenTs Trom simple binocu-
lars To The elaboraTe and highly inTricaTe anTicraTT insTrumenTs. IT is Their duTy To keep
These insTrumenTs in A-I condiTion and To consTanTly experimenT wiTh ways OT improving
ones we have. As in oTher secTions oT Grdnance Training, They musT know The insTrumenTs
Trom A To Z, and insTrucTion and demonsTraTions are supplemenTecl by laboraTory work in
order ThaT The men will know by doing.
Fire confrol insfrumenr check. Working on lenses For fire coni-rol. Insirumenf repair
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Precision . . . precision . . . precision . . . ThaT is The Bible of Ordnance.
l-lere in The large machine shops aT Aberdeen, ordnance men are TaughT
The uses oT many precision insTrumenTs. They learn how To Tigure Tolerances
down To The ThousandTh oT an inch, how To operaTe machines in such a
manner ThaT when The worlc is done The obiecT will TiT exacTly inTo iTs place.
Upon The accuracy and abiliTy oT ordnance machinisTs depends The
proper TuncTioninq oT The complicaTed implemenTs oT war ThaT make up a
modern Army. Never before in The hisTory of warfare has The Technician
in his shop been so essenTial To vicTory.
-----J" GENERAL VIEW MACHINE SHOP
ln Jrhe welding shops al Aberdeen, Ord-
nance men are laughl how lo make acely-
lene and eleclric welds in order lhal lhey
will be prepared lo make quick repairs on
damaged ranks, lraclors, Trucks, and any
olher equipmenl which may require lhis
lype ol work. Welding is a highly skilled
Trade even in civilian life, and The Ordnance
welding classes are so conducled as lo Turn
our masler welders lor our rapidly growing
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WheTher iT loe The Tried and True Army .45 or The
newesT in auTomaTic rifles The Ordnance small arms
secTion is Tamiliar wiTh Them all. On The range and in
The shops, day in and day ouT, men are Trained in The
many uses of all our small arm equipment They are
TaughT how To dismanTle, repair and reassemble pis-
Tols and machine guns. They TesT new Types oT guns,
and new Types of ammuniTion. ln The baTTle To sTay
one iump ahead of The enemy no device is overlooked
and no experimenT is Too small To receive a Thorough
invesTigaTion and TesT.
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pound bombs are TesTed and handled by The Ordnance DeparTmenT.
ConsTanTly working To perTecT beTTer ammuniTion as well as beTTer
ways in which To handle and sTore iT, ordnance men musT be Tamiliar
wiTh The consTrucTion and use oT diTTerenT Types oT shells, bombs and
grenades. BoTh beTore and during combaT, The mosT essenTial iTem To
be supplied To The combaT Troops is ammuniTion. Making This com-
modiTy available To The using Troops in The lcinds and quanTiTies needed,
and aT The Times required, is one oT The major responsibililries oT
Below: Aircraff bombs. Boffomz DemoliTion exercise wiTh a
dummy l05-mm. projecfile.
EU Sllllllll H l HUTME T
The Three piciures illus'rra're conslrucfion of a cor-
rugaled sleel hufmenl' wi'rh nealness and dispalch. Huf-
menls like 'rhese are used by U. S. lroops in many far-
flung ou'rpos'rs and bases of fhe global war in which we
are now engaged. Shipped in seclrions rhe hu+men+s are
assembled in Jrhe field. Ordnance is called upon 'ro experi-
menr, lesl' and pass upon all new innovalions of 'rhis fype
before rhey are used by The Jrroops in aclual field condi-
'rions. Whelher if is a new secrel aniiaircrafi' gun or a
newfangled po+a+o peeler, if is all grisl +o +he Proving
'Ir 'A' ir
Ages before The dawn of hisTory, when primifive man firsT began
To leave imprinfs of his exisTence upon The earTh's crusT for fuTure
generaTions To uncover and record, some forebear of modern man
reached To The earTh and, adapTing The Thumb and fingers of his
hand To a new purpose, picked up a rock for use as a weapon To
supplemenT his claws, TeeTh, and fisTs. Such was The probable
beginning of man's developmenT of maTerial for which lexicographers
have selecTed The word "Ordnance" -
Q 5553 3 ooo
One may surmise ThaT when This primiTive creaTure discovered
The added advanTage supplied by a sTone or club wielded by
hand he evenTually learned To increase The effecTiveness of his
range of power by hurling his weapon aT his prey or enemy. He
found ThaT sharp missiles would wound more effecTively. He
fashioned a poinfed sTone for his club and Transformed iT inTo
an axe, which evenTually was converTed inTo a spear or lance. To
increase The range of This weapon, he fashioned a bow which
would give greaTer speed To his arrow. He improved The accuracy
of This weapon by giving beTTer balance To his arrow in flighT. As
The ceniuries passed and man acquired greaTer skill and broader
knowledge, These weapons losT Their crude shape and approached
perTecTicin in design. Mechanical conTrivances were devised To
give greaT disTance To The arrows, and similar weapons were
developed for hurling sTones and missiles.
While These weapons for aTTack or offense were being developed,
did man remain conTenT wiTh The proTecTion provided by naTure
alone? A search Through museums Today will disclose many ex-
amples of his ingenuiTy in devising shields and armor for personal
proTecTion. The habiTaTs of The cave men show The inaccessibiliTy
of The "forTress" wiThin which he esTablished his home. When
The horse became domesTicaTed for his use, did he use him only
as a beasT of burden? Again our museums provide numerous
examples cf The "armor" provided for The proTecTion of his mounT
in combaT. Even The design of his charioT emphasizes iTs value as
a combaT vehicle raTher Than as a cargo carrier.
WhaT Tlen has primiTive man, in his crude implemenTs of war-
fare, handed down To his descendenTs ThaT may sTill be of value
THE Hllllilll lllllllllll
in The design of modern ordnance? He recognized The value of
increasing The range and accuracy of his weapons, The advanTages
of fire power, mobiliTy, camouflage, and arTificial proTecTion, Has
modern man added To These basic principles?
The firsT imporTanT sTep made in The design of implemenTs of
war was The resulT of man's discovery of The use of meTals. These,
however, were used To enhance The effecTiveness of The weapons
raTher Than To change Their basic principles of design. LeT us
review briefly some of The weapons ThaT were used during The
cenTuries preceding The discovery of powder as a propellanf.
Among The early hand proiecTile Throwers, in The probable
sequence of Their developmenT, we can lisT The bow, sling, and
blowpipe. The bow, originaTing in The STone Age, derived The
power To drive iTs arrow from The sTrengTh of The archer's arms,
Nof unTil abouT l,OOO A.D. was This principle maTerially changed
wiTh The developmenT of The crossbow, This weapon, wiTh iTs
sTock, sear, and Trigger, uTilized The sTrengTh of The muscles in The
archer's back or of mechanical winches and Thus greafly increased
The power of iTs blow. lTs cumbersomeness, however, reduced The
raTe of Tire maTerially, and iT never replaced The quick-firing long-
bow even when, five cenTuries laTer, iT was made from heavy
spring. sTeel. YeT iT did lead To The developmenT of chain mail and
plaTe armor for personal proTecTion. The race beTween sTriking
force and armor, even in Those early days, was confinued unTil The
knighT could scarcely move when dismounTed. lT is inTeresTing To
noTe ThaT, in spiTe of The facT ThaT gunpowder was discovered
someTime during The early parT of The ThirTeenTh cenTury and
records indicaTe iTs use during The Moorish Wars in Spain in
l247, The bow-operaTing hand weapon remained as The principal
weapon of The individual soldier for many cenTuries, AT The
greaT baTTle of l.epanTo in l57l The 25,000 soldiers in The Turkish
fleeT were nearly all archers. Even in our own Revolufion some
able leaders believed ThaT archers wiTh rapid-firing bows could
compeTe efTecTively againsT The English flinTlocks, As laTe as i8l3,
liTTle more Than a cenTury ago, French cavalry aT The baTTle of
Leipzig were charged by Thousands of Russian bowmen who had
no oTher arms. A modern auThoriTy on archery considers The
BriTish longbow of The sixTeenTh cenTury a more effecTive weapon
aT ranges under T50 yards Than The sfandard BriTish muskeT prior
Paralleling The developmenT of These hand weapons were me-
chanical devices requiring The services of more Than one man for
Their operaTion and which hurled heavy missiles. The idea of a more
powerful weapon To ouTrange The handbow and keep besieging
forces aT a disTance probably arose in The EasT during The eighTh
cr ninTh cenTury B.C. There are numerous references in The Bible
To leaders who employed engines of war in combaT. The Two
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DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING RANGES OF BRITI
principal Types were The ballisTa and caTapulT. These machines
were True arTillery oT Their Time and The Torerunners of modern
weapons. BoTh uTilized The elasTiciTy OT TwisTed ropes, hair, hide.
and animal sinews Tor The energy of propulsion.
The ballisTa was shaped somewhaT in The manner of The crossbow
and hurled iTs bolTs, TeaThered iavelins, balls, and sTones wiTh a
relaTively TlaT TraiecTory, making iT eTTecTive againsT walls and
TorTiTicaTions. IT may be considered as The ancienT equivalenT of
our modern Tield gun. IT is repuTed To have hurled sTones weighing
more Than 50 pounds a disTance of 400 yards, while The range of
TeaThered iavelins someTimes reached 500 yards.
The caTapulT, on The oTher hand, was a weapon Tor high-angle
Tire and was employed in a manner similar To our modern howiTzers.
This weapon employed an arm which, swinging in a verTical plane
and suspending a sling Tor iTs proiecTile, hurled The missile high
overhead somewhaT in The manner oT The scorpion's sTing, aTTer
which iT was someTimes named. This machine proiecTed missiles
someTimes weighing more Than 500 pounds, ITs range, varying
wiTh The weighT' of iTs proiecTile. is repuTed To have been abouT
400 yards Tor a 58-pound sTone. These proved Their eTTecTiveness
in sieges againsT ciTies and TorTresses and were someTimes used
To hurl many obnoxious iTems inside The TorT besides proiecTiles
inTended To desTroy Their TargeTs.
These weapons were heavy and cumbersome and were noT
pracTical Tor accompanying TasT-moving Troops. They were some-
Times developed by improvisaiion on The baTTleTield or TransporTed
by waTer on boaTs, where They were oTTen employed as naval
weapons. They were oTTen used in a manner c1uiTe similar To
modern combaT pracTice Tor arTillery weapons, even To The exTenT
of being employed Tor barrage work in proTecTing advancing
By COLONEL GEORGE W. OUTLAND
CommandanT, The Ordnance School,
January I, I94I-November I, I942.
ThaT increased The range Tor a 58-pound sTone To more Than 800
These developmenTs added immeasurably To The weighT of
maTeriel To be TransporTed by an army. IT enabled wealThy ciTies
To TorTiTy Themselves sTrongly againsT The invader, who was ham-
pered by The immobiliTy of his eTTecTive arTillery.
In Alexandria during The Third cenTury B.C. and in Rome during
The TirsT cenTury A.D., mechanizaTion was in Tull swing. DeTensive
TacTics and social decay appear To be The cause of The decadence
in miliTary eTTiciency oT The laTer Roman Empire. While in The
EasT The proiecTile-Throwing machines were kepT aT a high qualiTy
Tor cenTuries. in The WesT The caTapulT and ballisTa were replaced
largely by a new machine known as The "TrebucheT." This machine
usod The Torce of graviTaTion on a heavy weighT Tor hurling iTs
proiecTile insTead oT employing Tension or Torsion members. IT
released a proiecTile weighing up To 300 pounds Trom a verTical
beam which hurled iT ouT To abouT 300 yards.
We Thus Tind ThaT liTTle oT imporTance was added To The design
of ordnance equipmenT Tor cenTuries preceding The discovery of
gunpowder. The exacT daTe oT iTs TirsT use as a propellenT Tor
proic:cTiles in warfare is unknown. Some hisTorians asserT ThaT iT
camo ouT oT Asia, oThers ThaT iT was invenTed by a German monk
abouT l320. Records, however, indicaTe iTs use in The Moorish
Wars in Spain in l247, aT The siege of Seville. The TirsT deTiniTe
descripTion oT a gun daTes Trom I3l3, and The earliesT picTure oT
one is found in a manuscripT oT abouT I327, by which Time iT
appears ThaT The weapon was well esTablished for combaT use.
In exTerior appearance The weapon resembled a vase. Iron darTs,
wrapped in leaTher To prevenT leakage of powder gases, were
used as proiecTiles. In some insTances sTones were used, while in
y Troops and Tor hurling incendiary missiles wiThin walled TorTresses.
l IT is inTeresTing To noTe ThaT companies of craTTsmen and
T arTisans, similar To modern ordnance Troops, accompenied The
1 armed Torces Tor The purpose oT repairing and mainTai..ing ord-
l nance equipmenT in The hands oT combaT uniTs. Tley even
supplied crude insTrumenTs Tor laying The weapons in elev. lion and
direcTion, Thus giving birTh To modern Tire-conTrol equipment
T GvreaT sTrides were made in The developmenT oT war machines
in The hundred years following The deaTh oT Alexander. STimulaTed
' by The success of such men
as DemeTrius PoliorceTes, son of
oThers sacks or cans of scrap iron, called "langridge," The Tore-
runner oT grapeshoT and caseshoT were Tired, The maximum range
of These weapons could noT have been more Than 700 or 800
The size and power of guns rapidly increased, buT iT was cen-
Turies beTore a serviceable hand gun was developed. They were
TirsT used primarily Tor siege work. Following I339, cannon came
inTo general use by all armies in Europe. AT The baTTle of Crecy
in T346 The English used cannon Tor The TirsT Time in an open
Tield. SomeTimes These guns were laid on The ground and wedged
l Alexander's eneral AnTigonus, engineers insTead oi soldiers Took u To ive The proper elevaTion. In oTher insTances a crude car-
Q P 9
up The sTudy of war machines. One Alexandrian named Dionysius riage was provided by aTTaching The gun To wooden Timbers. Some
invenTed a "polybolos," which mighT be considered as The TirsT of The cannon developed were enormous in size. GuglielmoTTi
machine gun, as iT enabled a succession oT arrows To be Tired quoTes Bishop Leonardo 6iusTiniani in his "HisTory of The Papal
Trom a magazine. AnoTher engineer Trom The same ciTy, named Navy" as having seen a huge gun, repuTedly used by The Turks
CTesibius, uTilized compressed air in "careTully wroughT cylinders" aT The siege oT ConsTanTinople in I453, which needed sevenTy
To o eraTe The bow arms ol: caTa ulTs. Wea ons were conTrived s an of oxen To draw iT and whose sTone shoT weighed I350 ounds.
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TECES OF ORDNANCE USED IN WORLD WAR I
Qi!l!l!! !!l0 o
l? is reporfed ?o have weighed abou? 25 ?ons and fo have fired a
proiec?ile abou? 3l inches in diamefer. As la?e as l807 some of
?he ancien? ordnance of ?his era was used as par? of ?he defense
of Cons?an?inople agains? an invading Brifish naval squadron. One
s?one proiecfile is said ?o have cu? away ?he mainmas? of ?he
Brifish flagship, while anofher, landing on deck, killed or wounded
abou? 60 men. Anofher ?ypical bombard was ?he famous Mons
Meg, now exhibi?ed a? Edinburg Casfle. i?s powder charge of
IO5 pounds could hurl a I9 l-2 inch iron ball ?o a maximum range
of l,4O0 yards or a s?one ball 2,870 yards. The larges? weapon
of ?his era was ?he grea? mor?ar of Moscow, buil? abou? l525,
wi?h a caliber of 36 inches. l? fired a s?one sho? weighing 2,000
pounds. There is ?oday in ?he Tower of London a bronze gun of
25-inch caliber, of ?he same period, which weighs abou? I8 ?ons
and fired a proiecfile abou? 24 inches in diame?er, weighing
roughly 650 pounds.
Because of ?he grea? weigh? of ?hese guns, ?hey were valuable
only in siege or defense work. Their immobili?y made ?hem im-
pracfical for field use. ln some ins?ances ?hese guns were made
from cas?ings, while in o?hers ?hey were made of bars or rods of
wrough? iron welded ?oge?her and bound wi?h hoops. ln some of
?hese guns one may defec? principles of design ?ha? closely
resemble reasonably modern pracfice in ?he rnanufac?ure of wire-
wrapped guns. During ?he six?een?h cen?ury ?he developmen? of
muskefry forced ?he cons?ruc?ion of ligh?er and more mobile
cannon, bringing ?o an end ?he producfion of such unwieldly
While ?he early guns were all of ?he muzzle-loading ?ype, wi?h
a small aperfure a? ?he breech for igni?ing ?he charge wi?h coals
or red-ho? irons, ?he advan?ages fo be gained by breech-loading
weapons were early recognized, and many ?ypes cf breech-loaders
appeared in ?he smaller weapons. The greafes? difficul?ies de-
veloped in ?hese designs were ?he escaping of gases around ?he
breech and ?he failure of ?he crude blocks ?o wi?hs?and ?he shock
of firing. Some repeafing guns, known as "ribaulds," were used.
These weapons consisfed of a number of small barrels or gun
?ubes clamped ?oge?her and fired in quick succession.
The mobile gun carriage made i?s appearance during ?his era,
using wheels for ?ranspor?. Cannon were cas? wi?h ?runnions ?o
facili?a?e elevafion and ?ranspor?a?ion. During ?he fif?een?h cen-
?ury, mounfain ar?illery, divided in?o loads for pack ?ranspor?a?ion,
was manufac?ured in France. En?husias?ic gunners frequen?ly
increased powder charges in an effor? ?o obfain longer ranges
and blew up ?heir weapons. A dis?inguished vic?im of one such
acciden? was King James Il of Sco?land, who was killed while
observing ?he ?es? of a field gun in I460.
The Vene?ians are credi?ed wi?h ?he firs? use of explosive shell,
in I376. The shell was made of ?wo hollow hemispheres of s?one
or bronze. filled wi?h an explosive, ?he ?wo halves ioined wi?h
hoops and fi??ed wi?h a fuse. Many years passed, however, before
explosives in shells became a general pracfice. During ?his same
period ?he Vene?ians are credifed wi?h in?roducing ?he me?hod
of ignifing ?he propellen? by priming ?he cannon ven? near ?he
breech wi?h loose powder, and ?hey were probably ?he firs? ?o
moun? guns on wheeled carriages.
While cas? iron sho? was developed for use in cannon abou?
I4-00, s?one proiecfiles con?inued in ?heir populari?y for many
years, because ?hey were cheaper ?o manufacfure, could be made
from ma?erials near a? hand, and, being ligh?er ?han iron, required
less powdery as a propellen?. By l450 "corned" or granular gun-
powder has been in?roduced, and caseshof, consisfing of balls
fired in arconfainer, were employed as ar?illery ammuni?ion.
ln view of ?he belief of some hisforians ?ha? real field ar?illery
began wi?h John Zizka in ?he l-lussi?e Wars of Bohemia from l4l9
?o I4-24, i? may be of in?eres? fo give, in somewha? grea?er de?ail,
an accoun? of one engagemen? wi?h reference ?o ?he use of ar?illery.
Car?s had been in?roduced for ?he rapid maneuvering of bronze
guns-a me?hod devised a? an earlier da?e for ?he Roman ballisfas.
A? ?he siege of Karlsfein, ?he Hussi?es emplaced 46 cannon, five
large cannon and five ca+apuI?s for ?he a??ack. Marble pillars
from nearby Prague churches were used fo supply cannon balls.
The ra?e of fire for ?he heavy pieces was one or ?wo sho?s per
day and for ?he ligh?er pieces six fo ?welve. l? is of in?eres? ?o
no?e ?ha? ca?apul?s were s?ill in use a? ?his la?e da?e and were
again used ?o hurl ro??ing carcasses and o?her fil?h in?o ?he con-
fines of ?he for?, in ?he hope of spreading disease and breaking
down ?he morale of ?he enemy. l? is reporfed ?ha? ?he defenders
neufralized ?hese missiles wi?h lime and arsenic and defended
?heir posifions wi?h such valor ?ha? ?he l-lussi?es abandoned ?he
siege af?er firing l0,930 cannonballs, 932 s?one fragmen?s, I3 fire
barrels, and l,822 ?ons of fil?h.
During ?he six?een?h cen?ury ?he developmen? of ar?illery reached
i?s peak under ?he leadership of Maximilian, Emperor of Germany.
His ar?illery developed a range of I,500 yards for solid sho? and
400 yards for case. and his gunners were considered ?he bes? in
Europe. By I600, ?he caliber and range of cannon had been
developed almos? ?o ?he maximum possibili?ies for a muzzle-loading,
smoo?h-bore weapon using black powder as a propellenf.
Befween ?his period and abou? l860 ?here was no radical im-
provemen? in ?he fire-power of ar?illery. Many innova?ions were
?ried and abandoned, only ?o ?urn up la?er in more perfec? form.
Spiral rifling was ?ried unsuccessfully. The use of explosive shell
increased, bu? ?he breech-loaders proved unsa?isfac?ory. The
gunner's quadran? and angle of si?e were developed. ln l573,
Sebasfial l-lallwe sugges?ed ?he idea of ?he modern ?ime and
percussion fuze, bu? ?he chemisfry of his day was inadequa?e ?o
cope wi?h such advanced ?heories. ln l672, a proiecfile called ?he
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"carcass" was inven?ed, comprising a hollow me?al sphere pierced
wi?h ven?s and filled wi?h incendiary ma??er. Smoke shell appeared
in I68l. ln I74O Swifzerland in?roduced a new mefhod of boring
?ubes from solid mefal ins?ead of hollow casfings. ln l78O ?he
Bri?ish Army firs? came in confac? wi?h rocke?s, which had been
used by orien?al na?ions for many years.
During ?his period ?he mos? impor?an? fac?or in ?he use of
ar?illery in warfare was ?he developmenf of i?s ?ac?ical use. When
gunpowder was firs? in?roduced as a propellen?, ?here was violen?
opposi?ion ?o gunpowder ar?illery. The Pope excommunica?ed all
gunners, Capfured ar?illerymen were frequen?ly ?or?ured and
mu?ila?ed. Cannon were somefimes privafely owned and ren?ed
ou? by ?heir owners. Under ?he pa?ronage of kings, however,
special privileges were granfed fo gunners, and medieval ar?illery
became a guild wi?h i?s own governmen? and ius?ice. The making
of guns and gunpowder, ?he loading of shells, and even ?he service
of ?he piece were considered ?rade secre?s, ?o be guarded
iealously. Gunners were civilian arTisans raTher Than soldiers.
ArTilIery was considered by The general public as a mysTerious
science, and The gunner was ThoughT of as "a sorcerer in league
wiTh The devil." WiTh iTs uITimaTe accepTance as a parT oT The
miIiTary, arTiIIery became more closely allied To The oTher arms oT
The service, and TacTics were developed To a high degree.
Nofable conTribuTors To This developmenT were such leaders as
GusTavaus Adolphus oT Sweden: Louis XIV oT France, who developed
The use oT morTars and Tounded arfillery schools: Frederick The
GreaT oT Prussia, who inTroduced horse arTiIIery: lnspecTor Gen-
eral Gribeauval oT France, who developed The science oT ballisfics
To such a high degree ThaT iT aTTecTed The developmenf oT arTiI-
Iery in many oTher counTriesg and Napoleon BonaparTe, who gained
his repuTaTion as The greaTesT miliTary leader oT modern Times
largely Through his use oT Tield arTiIIery.
During This Tive hundred years oT arfillery developmenT Tollowing
The discovery oT gunpowder, comparable sTrides were made in
The improvemenT oT hand weapons. While, as sTaTed previously.
The bow persisTed as a baTTle weapon inTo The nineTeenTh cenTury.
The hand gun wiTh a sTock TirsT came inTo exisTence someTime
beTween I35O and I400. IT was a crude aTTair, called a harquebus.
The bore was smooTh, and iT used as a propellant a poor grade
oT black powder, which was igniTed by a hand Tuze applied To a
Touch-hole. ATTer abouT IOO years This weapon had developed
inTo The mafchlack, which employed a mechanical device To apply
The Tuze To The Touch-hole. In abouT I6O0 The TlinTlock was de-
veloped. This Tirearm provided igniTion To The powder by means
oT a revolving meral wheel which sTruck a piece oT TlinT aT The
momenT The piece was desired To Tire. This was a marked improve-
menT over previous arms, which required The soldier To carry a
lighTed Tuze when Tiring was imminenT. The TIinTlock Type oT
muskeT was universally used un+il I835.
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There- were many reasons why The developmenT oT small arms
was slow. In The TirsT place, The raTe oT Tire was slow, much below
ThaT oT The crossbow. In The second place, iTs Tire was inaccuraTe.
NoT only did The grade of powder inTroduce variables, buT also The
Touling caused by The propellenf necessiTaTed barrel clearance,
leading To The escape of much gas around The spherical buIIeT. The
escaping gas on one side oT a loose ball inTroduced inaccuracies
ThaT could noT be predeTermined. Early Tirearms were so inaccuraTe
ThaT an experT Iongbowman could ouTshooT The muskeT boTh in
disTance and in accuracy. Many TacTicians considered iTs greaTesT
value in baTTle To lie in iTs noise-making qualiTies, which creaTed
confusion and disorder wiThin The ranks of The enemy.
The value oT spin applied To cerTain proiecTiles as a sTabilizer
was recognized very early. Many devices were used To imparT
spin To arrows, iavelins, and spears. IT is diTTiculT To undersTand
why proiecTiles were hurled Trom guns Tor hundreds oT years
before The idea oT spinning These proiecTiles was evolved. The
daTe oT The invenTion oT riTling is unknown. IT has been asserTed
ThaT iT occurred someTime beTween I470 and I500. IT is apparenT
ThaT riTling had been developed eTTecTiveIy by IS63, as The Swiss
governmenT in ThaT year legislaTed againsT riTled arms in com-
peTiTion wiTh unriTled arms Tor TargeT-shooTing purposes,
This is diTTiculT To undersTand wiThouT a clearer knowledge oT
The disadvanfages inTroduced by riTling. ThaT These disadvanTages
were imporTanT is obvious Trom The TacT ThaT smooTh-bore muskeTs
were considered superior To The riTled hand weapon Tor miIiTary
purposes in England as IaTe as l800. The cause lay in The propel-
lenT, black powder. The qualiTy oT This explosive was so poor
ThaT aTTer a Tew shoTs The bore became so fouled ThaT ramming
was diTTiculT. In The smooTh-bore weapon The Tolerance beTween
The ball and The bore was suTTicienT To admiT The ball easily even
aTTer Touling became considerable. WiTh The riTled barrel, how-
ever, iT required some Torce To ram The ball down The barrel
againsT The TricTion oT The riTling even wiTh a clean bore, since
The riTling had To be TighT enough To imparT a TwisT To The bulIeT.
STarTing wiTh much less Tolerance, The accumulaTion oT Touling
wiThin The riTled barrel soon made iT mosT diTTiculT To load. IT has
been recorded ThaT one shoT every Two and one-halT minuTes
was considered a Tair raTe oT Tire Tor The riTled barrel, while a
raTe oT Tive shoTs per minuTe was noT unusual Tor The smooTh-bore
muskeT. Thus iT is easy To undersTand why The smooTh bore re-
mained a TavoriTe miIiTary weapon even Though many Tine muzzle-
loading riTles were made during The sevenTeenTh and eighTeenTh
cenTuries Tor hunTing purposes, where speed in loading was noT
oT paramounT imporTance. The invenTion oT The percussion
primer early in The nineTeenTh cenTury, The evoluTion oT The
cylinder-shaped buIleT, and The developmenT oT The meTaI carT-
ridge case, which provided eTTecTive obTuraTion, resuITed in The
breech-loading weapon. The use oT riTling in all weapons Then
One early deficiency, resulTing Trom The slow reloading process
required by a muskeT, was The TacT ThaT The gunner was IeTT vul-
nerable To aTTack wiThouT means oT deTense. This led To The
addiTion of The bayoneT To The weapon, so ThaT iT mighT be used
as a pike in emergencies.
ln order To speed up The reloading process, many Types oT
rapid-Tire weapons were Tried. The provision oT several barrels
was one oT The TirsT eTTorTs in This direcTion. In some collecTions
oT old arms one can Tind Today mulTibarreled hand guns wiTh The
mosT primiTive maTch igniTion sysTems. The repeaTing sysTem mosT
successfully developed beTore breech-loading made iTs appearance
is Tound in The old hand revolver wiTh eiTher a revolving chamber
or revolving barrels.
ATTer The developmenT oT breech-loading weapons and Tixed
ammuniTion, The magazine riTle became a pracTical weapon and
provided a rapid-Tire hand weapon Tor combaT use. AlThough
maTeriaIs and workmanship have been improved, inTerchangeabiliTy oT
parTs has become a universal pracTice, auTornaTic loading TeaTures
have been added and The propellenf and The ballisfics oT The
buIIeT have been maTeriaIly improved, The basic design principles
involved in The riTIe have noT changed radically since The end oT
The nineTeenTh cenTury.
In reTurning To a discussion oT arfillery, iT appears prudenT To
begin wiTh The Civil War period oT our own hisTory and cover
The development oT all ordnance Trom ThaT period To The presenT.
Regardless oT The TacT ThaT riTled cannon had been developed and
were on The verge oT superseding The smooTh bore, The laTTer Type
were used almosT exclusively on boTh sides during The Civil War.
Likewise, although saTisTacTory breech-loading small arms had been
developed, noT only abroad buT in This counTry, where The Hall
riTIe had been manuTacTured in large numbers, The war was ToughT
largely wiTh muzzle-loading guns.
IT has been sTaTed ThaT The arTilIery used aT GeTTysburg diTTered
IiTTle Trom ThaT used by Napoleon more Than half a cenTury beTore,
and, allhough General Rodman had developed a Tougher gun
meTal in I855 by infernal cooling in a casT iron gun, The principle
was noT applied To gun manufacTure in This counfry unTil abouT
1885. AfTer ThaT Time our guns were of The sTeel breech-loading
Type, and Today many of our seacoasf weapons are Those ThaT
were developed during The nexT I0-year period. Smokeless powder
and high explosives came inTo our service during This same Time,
as well as The disappearing Type oT seacoasT carriage.
While small guanTiTies of Three diTTerenT Types of breech-
loading rifle were manufacfured during The Civil War, The firsT
breech-loading Springfield rifle was The model of 1866. This
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weapon was laTer improved and The caliber reduced from .50
To .4-5. IT was officially adopfed as sTandard Tor The Army in
l873. IT is inTeresTing To noTe ThaT black powder remained as
The sTandard propellenT for our small-arms bulleTs unTil I892,
when The caliber .30 Krag-Jorgesen was adopfed as sfandard.
This was a bolT-acTion rifle, using smokeless-powder carTridges Ted
from a magazine holding five rounds. The nexT developmenT in
our own small-arms weapon was The I903 Springfield, an adapfafion
of The German Mauser, which is generally conceded To be The
TinesT TargeT rifle ever developed To This day.
As laTe as IS96 our sfandard field or mobile arTillery was a
3.2-inch weapon employing separafe-loading arnmunifion and
mounTed on a carriage ThaT recoiled some l5 To 20 feef afTer
each round was fired. ln l897 The French broughT ouT Their Tamous
75-mm. gun, buT guarded The consTrucTion of iTs recoil mechanism
so well ThaT iT remained a secreT unfil The World War. We
developed and sTandardized The Three-inch field gun, model of
l902, wiTh a spring recoil mechanism, and builT 600 of These
prior To The World War. During This period we also developed
guns and howiTzers of 3, 3.8, 4.7, and 6-inch caliber, and a series
of These weapons was sTandardized. Very few weapons oTher
Than The 3 and 4.7-inch were manufacTured, as World War condi-
Tions required The procuremenT of weapons in France.
Now ThaT we have reviewed The develapmenf of arfillery and
small shoulder weapons, we will discuss The developmenT of a more
recenT weapon which fiTs in somewhere befween The Two-The
While many aTTempTs were made To develop a rapid-fire gun,
The firsT pracTicable machine gun was broughT ouT by Dr, GaTling
of Chicago in l862. This weapon employed a number of
barrels, usually Ten, which revolved around a cenfral axis in The
form of a cylinder. Various devices were used To feed The
carTridges inTo The barrels as They roTaTed inTo posiTion. While
The TirsT guns had a raTe oT fire oT from 200 To 300 shoTs per
minuTe, laTer models were improved To aTTain a speed of abouT
600 shoTs per minuTe. This gun was used To a limiTed exTenT during
The Civil War.
ln T884 Sir Hiram Maxim, an American engineer, produced
The firsT Truly auTomaTic machine gun. lT employed a single
barrel and uTilized The force of recoil To obTain confinuous and
auTomaTic funcTioning as long as The Trigger was held down. A
fabric belf holding The ammuniTion was Ted Through The breech
by an auTomaTic mechanism. The soundness of The principles of
operaTion of This weapon sTimulaTed The developmenT of ofhef
Types. IT also revoluTionized combaT Tacfics for machine guns.
ln i889 Mr. John M. Browning, anoTher American, broughf ouT
The Calf machine gun, which uTilized a small porTion of The ex-
pending powder gas To acTuaTe The bolT mechanism. This was
followed by The l-loTchkiss, employing The same sysTem of gas
operaTion, During The firsT World War The mosT successful
machine guns were The BriTish and German Maxims, The BriTish
Vickers, The French l-lofchkiss, The AusTrian Schwarzlose, The
Brifish-American Lewis, and The Browning machine gun. These
guns and Those belonging To posfwar developmenT are sufficienfly
well known To The reader To make descripTion of Their mefhods of
operaTion unnecessary. lT is of inTeresT To noTe ThaT The principle
of machine-gun operaTion has, in recenT years been applied To
larger-caliber weapons, and Today small cannon employing auTo-
maTic loading mechanisms have been developed for defense againsT
aircrafT and armored vehicles.
Since The readers of This book should be familiar wiTh The posT-
war developmenT of small arms, machine guns, and arTillery
weapons, we shall now Turn To a discussion of The mechanizaTion
which has Taken place as a resulT of The developmenT of The in-
Ternal combusTion engine and iTs adapTaTion To implemenTs of
When we speak of mechanizaTion Today, The average person,
Thinking only of The modern Tank, presumes This To be a recenTIy
developed feafure of warfare. As a maTTer of facT, The idea of
having a vehicle from which one may sTrike in combaT and yeT
be proTecTed from The blows of The enemy daTes back many
Minus, King of Assyria in 2059 B.C., is crediTed by some au-
ThoriTies wiTh The invenfion of The charioT. Many Types were
developed by The ancienfs. The crew was someTimes comprised of
Three men who wore helmefs and body armor. One was a driver, one
a bowman or spearman, and The Third a shield-bearer. The hulls were
usually proTecTed by several layers of rawhide or bronze plaTes
and someTimes equipped wiTh scyThe-like blades. These led To a
developmenT of war cars which furnished proTecTion Tor The horses.
IT is recorded ThaT The Chinese emperor Sun-Tse in The TwelfTh
cenfury B.C. used four-wheeled carTs armored wiTh Ieafher.
ln Europe The baffle cars were developed and improved To
The exTenT ThaT in i472 an aTTempT was made To use wind-wheels
as mofive power. Armed sailing vessels on wheels were builT for
The Prince of Orange. In i482 Leonardo da Vinci, ThaT greaT
masTer of all Trades, builT armored vehicles abouT which he wrofe,
"I am building secure and covered charioTs which are invulnerable,
and when They advance wiTh Their guns inTo The midsT of The Toe,
even The largesT enemy masses musT reTreaT, and behind These
charioTs The inTanTry can follow in safeTy and wiThouT opposiTion."
Many differenT Types were experimenTed wiTh, and, abouT The
Time WaTT produced a sTeam engine in I769, a Frenchman named
CugnoT produced an arTillery TracTor ufilizing The sTeam engine
for iTs moTive power. Volfaire Tried for more Than a decade To
inTeresT The French or Russians in an armored war carT powered by
The Boydle sTeam engine used in The Crimean War ll854-l856l
employed The firsT TooTed wheel, which had been invenTed in
England in I770. The caTerpillar Track was invenTed in l8Ol by
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Thomas German. Since ThaT Time, a wide varieTy of designs have
been experimenTed wiTh, and many diTferenT Types of maTerial
have been used. During The Civil War a sTeam-driven gun car-
riage was builT in Balfimore for The ConfederaTe Army by Ross
Winans. lT was TesTed by The Federal Army aTTer iTs capfure and
BeTween The American Civil War and The firsT World War many
naTions experimenfed wiTh Tracfion engines for miliTary use, buT
largely in The field oT TransporT. While The caTerpilIar Tracks
were used for farm and indusfrial work in boTh England and The
UniTed STaTes, no serious Thoughf appears To have been given To
iTs pracfical appIicaTion in warfare. Several aTTempTs were made
by German, French, Russian, and American engineers To adapT
The sfeam engine for use in a combaT vehicle and IaTer, afTer The
developmenT of The gasoline engine, To uTilize iTs passibilifies in
armored vehicle design. IT appears, however. ThaT The inerTia of
conservaTism wifhin The armed forces plus The opposiTion of public
opinion To innovaTions refarded The inTelIigenT developmenf of
many new ideas which held forTh possibilities of success. The mosT
inTeresTing developmenfs in This counTry were due To The aggressive-
ness and foresighf of Colonel R, P. Davidson. Beginning in I898,
he designed and experimenTed wiTh many Types of moTor-driven
mounTs for machine guns, buT IiTTle supporT was provided for his
efforTs. The same was True in oTher naTions, such as Germany,
France and England, where many invenfors were meT wiTh cold
rebuffs and, in some insTances. ridicule.
When Trench warfare became stabilized on The WesTern FronT
in I9I4, Mr. WinsTon Churchill, Then FirsT Lord of The AdmiraITy,
auThorized The procuremenT of a hundred armored aufomobiles
mounTing machine guns for use in proTecTing English air bases in
France. The mild-sTeeI plafes firsT used as armor were easily
peneTraTed by German bulleTs and armor plafe was Then used.
Even aT This IaTe daTe The English War Office again Turned down
The suggesfion of a "ca+erpiIIar forT" of a design previously
submiTTed by Mr. L. A. de Mole, of AusTraIia, in I9I2.
In The fall of I9I4 boTh CapTain T. J. Tulloch, manager of The
Chilworfh Powder Company, and Colonel E. O. SwinTon of The
BriTish Army became inTeresTed in The idea of a land cruiser
capable of peneTraTing The enemy lines Through barbed wire and
over Trenches. Their ideas were submiTTed and Turned down
repeafedly unTiI The middle of The nexT year. when a ioinT com-
miTTee. represenTing The War Office and The AdmiralTy was
formed To sTudy The proiecT, IT was noT unTiI January I2. I9I6,
ThaT The Tank, laTer known as Big Willie, MoTher, and H. M. L. S.
CenTipede, moved under iTs own power. The name "Tank," sTiIl
used To describe This Type of combaT vehicle. is repuTed To have
sprung from The name "WaTer Carrier for Me-sopoTamia" which
was applied To The hull during manufacTure.
The firsT appearance of Tanks in combaT occurred on The Somme
on SepTember I5, I9I6. This acTion was premaTure, and, because
of The Terrain, The success was nominal. No imporTanT TacTicaI
lessons were learned, and The acTion seT back and delayed Tank
deveIopmenT and producfion. During I9I7 Tank acTion in combaT
was disappoinTing. The Troops had been led To expecT so much
from Them, and The leaders were so unfamiliar wiTh Their proper
TacTical employmenf, ThaT Their success in baTTle can only be
Termed IimiTed. AT The baTTle of Cambrai on November 20 The
usual arTilIery bombardmenT was dispensed wiTh before opening
The baTTle, and The Tanks for The firsT Time had an opporTuniTy To
operaTe overland noT cuT To pieces by artillery fire.
Many models were developed boTh in England and France
and a IimiTed number in Germany. AfTer The enfrance of The
UniTed STaTes inTo The war, The Mark VIII, 37-Ton Tank was
sTandardized for producfiong parTs were To come from England and
The UniTed STaTes for assembly in France. The Renaulf seven-
Ton Tank was The besT of The IighT Tanks developed during This
period, The war ended before The Mark VIII Tanks were available
for use, and one hundred of These, finished afTer The war aT Rock
Island Arsenal, TogeTher wiTh abouT I,O00 RenaulT IighT Tanks,
represenTed The ToTal Tank resources of our army up unTiI a very
few years ago.
Following The armisfice, There remained Iitfle inTeresT in The
conTinued developmenT of armored combaf vehicles. The Ordnance
DeparTmenT, resTricTed by very small yearly appropriafions, con-
Tinued iTs research and developmenT wiTh a small group of en-
gineers. They improved Their models from year To year as limited
funds permiTTed. The Tanks used in Training personnel aT The
Ordnance School Today are The producT of Their efforfs.
In This brief hisToricaI resume of The deveIopmenT of ordnance
we have aTTempTed To cover only The imporTanT changes which
have come abouT in pasT cenfuries wiThouT much emphasis on
modern developmenfs. IT is expecTed ThaT The reader is familiar
wiTh These and has a full appreciaTion of The changes in TacTics
developed by The inTroducTion of aircrafT and moTor vehicles inTo
warfare. Ammunifion, including bombs and Torpedoes, has kepT
pace wiTh The developmenf of The weapons.
Ordnance maferiel Today covers a Tremendous field. When one
considers The wide varieTy of iTems ThaT are issued, The sTores of
spare parTs ThaT musT be provided and The Tools required in Their
mainfenance iT is undersTandable why our supply problems cover
hundreds of Thousands of differenT iTems.
If one were asked To seIecT The mosT imporTanT lessons To be
learned from a sTudy of The evoluTion of weapons of warfare, one
mighT sTaTe ThaT "The search for perfecTion is Too ofTen The enemy
of The good" and ThaT "The sTaTus quo aTTains such inerTia among
The miliTary and civilians alike Thai They sTrongIy resisT innovaTions
leading Toward change."
ll 'T'. 'Cal R'
', fh ,r T
ARMY AND NAVY PUBLISHING CO., INC.
All Righls Reserved
-A' MAIN omce
234 Main S+., Box 950. . . . Bafon Rouge, La
WEST CCAST OFFICE
Room 2ll, 700 S. La Brea Ave. .... Los Angeles, Calif
-A' BRANCH ormcss
l36 Fourlh Ave., Norlh . . . . Nashville, Tenn
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CAPTAIN CHARLES D. BAYLIS, USMC lRETl
Edilor-in-Chief and Direclor of Field Operalions
Sale of this review is resl'ric+ecl fo officers
enlislecl personnel and fheir families.
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